Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
Page  253, vol.4

Incipit Liber Quartus.

Capitulum primum.

OCTOVIANUS*. [Octavianus, Cx. ut semper.] Augustus gan*. [bigan, β.; bygan, Cx.] to regne in Marche in þe bygynnynge of his two and fourty ȝere, [in the ȝere]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] of Herodes oon and þritty, [in the thrydde]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] ȝere of [þe]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Olympias nyne score and ten, after þe buldynge of the citee of Rome sevene hondred ȝere and fyve, after þe concepcioun of Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] Baptiste þe sixte*. [sixþe] om. γ.] monþe,*. [moneth, Cx.] þe fyve*. [fyfte, γ.] and twenty day of Marche, in a Friday, þe tenþe*. [teoþe, γ.] day of the mone, þe twelfþe*. [twelthe, γ.; twelve, Cx.] Inductioun, at Nazareth in Galilee, Crist is*. [was, Cx.] i-conceyved of þe virgine Marie, Ioseph his spouse. Trevisa. The Grees*. [Grekis, β.; Grekes, Cx.] usede somtyme tornementes*. [turnamentes, β. and Cx.] and dedes of myȝt and of strengþe at þe*. [þe] om. β.] foot of þe hil [mons]*. [From β. and Cx.] Olympus, ones in fyve ȝere, and clepede*. [named, Cx., et infra.] suche dedes and pleyes Olympias; and also þe firste fyve ȝere of suche pleies*. [playes, β. and Cx., et infra.] þey cleped þe firste Olympias, and þe secounde fyve*. [vyf, γ.] ȝere of suche dedes and pleyes þe secounde Olympias, and þe þridde [five ȝere þe þridde]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Olympias, and so forþ of alle þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] oþere. And for Crist was conceyved in the twelfþe*. [twelthe, γ.] Inductioun [þat is to menyng in þe xii. ȝere of the Indiction].*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Þerfore take hede þat the Inductioun*. [Indichon, Cx.] is þe tyme of fyftene ȝere. For whan þe Romayns hadde i-wonne meny Page  255, vol.4 provinces and londes þey hadde of every*. [everyche, Cx.] lond þat þey hadde i-wonne þre manere tribute in fiftene ȝere, and cleped þe fiftene ȝere Indictioun; and þe firste fyve ȝere of þe Indictioun þe Romayns hadde brasse to tribute forto make armure*. [armour, Cx.]; in*. [and, Cx.] þe secounde fyve ȝere þey hadde silver for to paye knyȝtes and soudeours;*. [and soudeours] om. Cx.; sou|dyours, γ.] and þe þridde and [the]*. [From Cx.] laste fyve ȝere of In|dictioun þey hadde golde to the tresorie*. [tresery, γ.] of Rome. Petrus. Crist was conceyved ful man in soule and in flesche,*. [flesshe, Cx.] so þat þe schap of his lemes*. [lymes, γ.; lymmes, Cx.] and [of]*. [From γ. and Cx.] his body myȝte nouȝt be seie*. [seen, β. and Cx.; seye, γ.] in*. [wiþ, β., γ., and Cx.] manis eyȝe.*. [ye, γ.; age, Cx.] And so [endeþ]*. [From β. and Cx., not γ.] þe fifte age of þe worlde, as it were þe elde,*. [age, Cx.] ofte i-greved wiþ care*. [kare, γ.] and wiþ woo, from þe transmigracioun of Iewes anon*. [unto, Cx.] to Criste, þat is from Marche tofore*. [bifore, β. and Cx.] þe brennynge of þe temple, þat was i-doo*. [i-doo] doon, β.; don, Cx.] in hervest*. [harvost, γ.] anon to*. [harvest unto, Cx.] Marche in þe two and fourty ȝere of Augustus, under fourtene generaciouns, and conteyneþ fife hondred ȝere and oon and fourty [so seiþ Bede; Isidre seiþ fyve hundrid ȝere and fyve and fourty;]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Elporicius seiþ fyve hondred ȝere*. [ȝere] om. β. and Cx.] foure score and nyne*. [nyȝne, γ.]: but þe faireste*. [verreyest, β.; verreyste, γ.; veryest, Cx.] acountes of all seiþ fyve hondred ȝere foure score and Page  257, vol.4 enlevene. For Isodorus*. [Isidre, Cx.] in þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] cronike of his fifte*. [vyfte, γ.] book Ethymologiarum*. [Ethymologiarum] om. Cx.] overlepeþ*. [hath overe leped, Cx.] Ptholomeus Philometor,*. [filometor, Cx.] by|twene Ptholomeus*. [Tholomeus, Cx., bis.] Epiphanes and Ptholomeus*. [Tholomeus, Cx., bis.] Euer|getes þe secounde, and eft*. [ofte, Cx.] he overlepeþ Ptholomeus Sother in þe secounde ordre of his regnynge, þat regnede, after þat his moder was i-slawe*. [i-slawe] slayn, β.; slayne, Cx.] eyȝte ȝere, and bygynneþ þe sixte age of þe worlde from Crist.*. [Slightly transposed in β. and Cx.] Þe [whuch]*. [From γ.] age is nouȝt certeyne of generaciouns noþer*. [nowther, Cx.] of ȝeres, but it schal be ended as it were by deth, þe laste elde*. [age, Cx.] of al þe worlde. Som wil*. [wole, β.; wol, Cx.] mene þat þis*. [þe, Cx.] sixte age of the worlde bygan at þe Incarnacioun of Crist, by þe whiche Incarnacioun Crist visited us and come*. [cam, β. and Cx.] doun from hevene. Somme acounteþ*. [acounten, Cx.] þe sixte*. [sixth, Cx.] age of þe worlde from þe burþe*. [byrthe, Cx.] of Criste, and for þat auctorite of þe apostel, "Whan plente of tyme come*. [comeþ, γ.] God sent*. [sende, β. and Cx.; send, γ.] his sone i-bore*. [i-bore] born, β. and Cx.] of a womman." Som acounteþ*. [acounte, Cx.] from þe fullynge*. [fram the follyng, γ.; cristnyng, Cx.] of Crist, for þe vertue þat was i-ȝeve*. [i-ȝeve] ȝeven, β.; yeven Cx.] to*. [unto, Cx.] the water to brynge forþ children gostliche*. [goostly, Cx.] whanne þe circumsicioun gan*. [bigan, β. and Cx.] to cese.*. [cease, Cx.] Som acounteþ*. [acounte, Cx.] from Cristes passioun, for Page  259, vol.4 þo*. [þanne, β. and Cx.] was i-opened þe ȝate of Paradys. Þan þe ȝeres from þe bygynnynge of þe world, þat was þe fourtenþe day to fore*. [bi fore, β.; of, Cx.] Averel, in þe whiche day þe world bygan, anon to*. [began unto, Cx.] þe in|carnacioun of Crist, were fyve þowsand ȝere and two hondred [yere],*. [From Cx.] so seiþ Orosius. But þe more*. [more] om. Cx.] comoun*. [comyn, Cx.] calculynge seiþ fyve þowsand an*. [and, Cx.] hondred [ȝere]*. [From β. and Cx.] foure score and six|tene. Marcius seiþ a*. [v., β.; fyve, Cx.] þowsand ȝere and*. [and] om. Cx.] an hondred ȝere foure score*. [foure score] om. Cx.] and nyne. Þe firste Adam synned in a Friday, and deyde in þe same Friday after nyne hondred ȝere and fifty.*. [þritty, β. and γ.; xxx., Cx.] And in suche a Friday þe secounde Adam, þat is Crist, toke flesche and blood and endede his fastynge, and suffrede deþ for mankynde*. [mankuynde, γ.]; and [in]*. [From Cx.] þe same houre of þe Friday þat Adam was i-putte out of Paradys riȝt in suche an houre þe þeef*. [þeof, γ.] was brouȝt into*. [in, Cx.] Paradys. Marianus, libro 2o. [It]*. [From β. and Cx.] is nouȝt aȝenst þis þat Holy Cherche*. [chirche, Cx.] holdeþ þat þe firste Adam was i|made of eorþe*. [erthe, Cx.] [in]*. [From Cx.] þe nynþe*. [nyþe, γ.] day tofore Averil,*. [byfore Apryl, Cx.] and Crist Page  261, vol.4 i-conceyved þe sevenþe day tofore Averil;*. [Apryl, Cx., et infra.] ffor þe nyȝt of þe nynþe*. [nyþe, γ., et infra.] day to fore*. [byfore, Cx., et infra.] þe firste day of Averil, þat come after þe day þat Adam was i-made ynne, is now i-made by Cristes passioun þe nyȝte of þe eyȝtþe*. [eyȝteþe, γ., et infra.] day of Averel, and gooþ to fore þe day. For þe eyȝtþe day to fore Averel of his firste partye is i-made þe nynþe day to fore Averel, and of his laste partye, þat is þe nyȝt in [the]*. [From γ. and Cx.] whiche Crist was i-holde,*. [i-holde] holden, β. and Cx.] i-*. [and, β. and Cx.] buffeted,*. [yboffeted, γ.] and i-scorned, is i-made þe sevenþe day tofore*. [afore Apryll, Cx., et infra.] Averel; [þanne it folewiþ þat Crist suffride þe ix. day, þe viii. day, and þe vii. day tofore Averil].*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Þat may be schewed by anoþer resoun; for everiche ȝere þe lettre of þe day chaun|geþ in to*. [to] om. β., γ., and Cx.] þe kalender, ffor þere is oo*. [one, Cx.] lettre mo*. [more, Cx.] þan two and fifty wokes,*. [wekys, Cx.] hit is no wonder þey*. [though, Cx.] the Friday, þat was in þe bygynnynge of þe worlde þe nynþe*. [nynethe, Cx.] day to fore Averil,*. [afore Apryll, Cx., et infra.] whan Adam was i-made, falle*. [fylle, Cx.] after so meny ȝeres þe sevenþe day to fore Averel,*. [afore Apryll, Cx., et infra.] whan Crist suffrede deth: þat holdeþ and Page  263, vol.4 apreveþ*. [apreoueþ, γ.] lore of greet men, auctorite of holy chirche, and certeyn assay of calculers.*. [certayne essaye of calcalers, Cx.] But as Seynt Austyn seiþ above, aȝenst resoun no sober man demeþ; no Cristen man demeþ aȝenst holy writte; no pesible*. [peysyble, γ.; possible, Cx.] man demeþ aȝenst holy chirche. Also here take hede þat Seint Austyn seiþ þat Crist lay in þe herte of þe erþe þre dayes and þre nyȝt*. [nyghtes, Cx., et infra.] [but nouȝt al ful and hool þre dayes and þre nyȝt;]*. [From β. and γ.] for Crist lay in his grave but fourty hours: so þat he lay in his grave in the laste ende of þe firste day, forto acounte þe firste day of foure and twenty houres wiþ þe nyght þat was to þe Friday þat Crist deyde ynne; and Crist lay in his grave holiche*. [holych, γ.; hooly, Cx.] al þe secounde day, and in þe firste partie of þe þridde day; and so [Seynt]*. [From Cx.] Austyn seiþ þat everiche*. [sayth that yche, Cx.] of þese þre dayes hadde his nyȝt so*. [soe, Cx.] þat þe nyȝt passede tofore*. [afore, Cx.] þe day: þerby it semeþ þat þe maister in*. [of, β.; of the, Cx.] stories schulde nouȝt be folowed*. [folewyde, Cx.] þere he seiþ þat þe nyȝt þat was bytwene þe Saturday*. [Saterday, Cx.] and þe Sonday of the resurrectioun*. [resurrexion, γ.] was comyn*. [come, Cx.] boþe to þe Saturday and eke*. [also, Cx.] to Page  265, vol.4 þe Sonday. Trevisa. Hit nedeþ*. [neodeþ, γ.] nouȝt to wiþ seie*. [wyþsegge, γ.] þe maister of stories in þis place wiþ oute oþer evydens, while nyȝtes and dayes mowe be acounted in meny manere wise.*. [Trevisa . . . wise] om. β. and Cx.]Beda and Lucas.*. [Transposed in β., γ., and Cx.] Þanne Marie aroos after þat sche*. [sche] heo, β.; she, Cx.] hadde i-conceyved, and com to*. [into, β. and Cx.] Zakarie his citee, foure myle out of Ierusalem, and was þere þre monþes, and servede hir cosyn Elizabeth forto*. [tyl, Cx.] þat sche*. [heo, β.] hadde [a]*. [From Cx.] childe, and þoo*. [þanne, β.; than, Cx.] Marie went aȝen in to hir owne hous into Nazareth. Lucas. Þanne wolde nouȝt here spouse Ioseph take here sikerliche*. [sekerly, Cx.] to his wif, for sche*. [heo, β.] was i-founde wiþ childe, or*. [er, β.; ar, γ.; til, Cx.] þe aungel charged hym in his slepe þat he schulde fonge*. [fange, β.; take, Cx.] hir wiþoute drede. Lucas. Þat tyme come oute a maundement from þe emperour*. [þe emperour] om. β., γ., and Cx.] Cesar Augustus forto descryve al þe worlde. Petrus. Cesar wolde wete*. [wyte, γ.] þe noumbre of londes of þe worlde þat were sugette*. [subget, Cx.] to Rome, and also þe nombre of*. [þe nombre of] om. Cx.] þe citees of everiche londe, and þe nombre of polles*. [pollys, Cx.] of everiche citee, and heet*. [bade, β.; bad, Cx.] þat oute of suburbes, of stretes*. [subarbes of citees, Cx.] of smal townes and grete, and Page  267, vol.4 oute of everiche contray and kiþþe,*. [kyþthe, γ.; kyth, Cx.] everiche man schulde wende*. [departe, Cx.] home to his owne citee þat he com of and hadde of his burþe.*. [byrth, Cx.] And every man schulde take a peny*. [penny, Cx.] of silver of the value*. [valuwe, γ.] of ten pans,*. [panes, γ.; valewe of the ten pens, Cx.] þat were þo i-used, to þe steward*. [styward, γ. and Cx.] of þe province, and knowleche hym self suget*. [subget, Cx.] to þe empere*. [emperour, β. and Cx.; Emper, γ.] of Rome. Lucas. Þerfore Ioseph wente out of Nazareth into Bethlem,*. [Bethleem, γ.; Bethlehem, Cx.] þat was his citee, wiþ his wif Marie þat was wiþ childe forto knowleche þere, and þere Marye hadde [a]*. [From Cx.] childe. Petrus. Þan in þe ende of þe sevene and fourty*. [xlii., β. and Cx.; secunde and fourty, γ.] ȝere of Augustus, þe Saturday [at]*. [From Cx.] nyȝt þat [þanne]*. [From β. and Cx.; þo, γ.] folwede þe day, þe fourtenþe ȝere of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] age of Marye, þe sevenþe day to fore Ianyver,*. [Januarie, β.; Janivere, Cx.] Criste was i-bore at Bethleem,*. [Bethlem, Cx.] and þanne the eyteþe day afterward he was circumcided in a Sonday. Þe twelfþe day after þe burþe*. [byrth, Cx.] was the Epiphanye, and fel in a Friday, þe sixte day of Ianyver; þo*. [þan, β. and Cx.] come þe kynges in worschippynge of*. [and worschiped, β., γ., and Cx.] Crist. And after [þat]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] fourty dayes of*. [after, β., γ., and Cx.] þe nativite, in a Þorsday, þe secounde day of Feverer,*. [Februarie, β.; Feverere, Cx.] Criste Page  269, vol.4 was presented*. [presentet, γ.] in þe temple; in mynde þerof is þe feste of*. [þe feste of] om. Cx.] Candelmasse day. After þat by warnynge of þe aungel, þat warned Ioseph [in]*. [From Cx.] his sleep, he fliȝe*. [fledde, Cx.] in to Egipt wiþ his moder and Ioseph, and*. [and] om. γ. and Cx.] was þere sixe ȝere anone to Herodes his*. [his] om. Cx.] deth. Herodes caste forto slee al þe children by cause of Crist, for he wolde be siker [of hym]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] among oþere. Whan Crist entrede into Egipt, þe mawmettes overþrewe and fil*. [ful, γ.; fille, Cx.] doun. ℞. Þanne from*. [to, Cx.] the sevenþe day to fore Averil,*. [afore Apryll, Cx.] þat was the Friday in þe whiche Crist was conceyved, in*. [to, β. and Cx.] þe nyȝt of þe Sonday in whiche Crist was i-bore, were two*. [to, Cx.] hondred dayes þre score and sixtene, þe whiche nombre of dayes makeþ nyne monþes*. [monethes, Cx., et infra.] of þe mone and sixe dayes, so þat everiche monþe*. [every moneth, Cx.] be of þritty dayes, as men accounted in olde tyme. Þese*. [þeos, γ.] nyne monþes and sixe dayes beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] assigned to wommen*. [wymmen, γ., et infra.] þat gooþ with childe, as it were ten monþes, þeyȝ*. [þouȝ, β.; though, Cx.] nouȝt alle wommen gooþ*. [go, β.; goo, Cx.] wiþ childe to þis sixte day, as it*. [yet, Cx.] was sooþ of Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] Baptiste and of Seynte Marie, þat hadde Page  271, vol.4 oon day lasse þat*. [þan, β., γ., and Cx.] Crist in þe moder womb. [℞.]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] And for the comynge to gideres*. [togyders, Cx.] of ȝeres of Criste and of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] kynges, of þe whiche ȝeres of kynges*. [of þe whiche ȝeres of kynges] om. Cx.] þe bygynnynges*. [begynnyngys, Cx.] and the endes beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] uncertayn, and ful ofte falleþ*. [fallen, β.; falle, Cx.] grete doutes in a countynge*. [acountyng, β. and Cx.] of ȝeres, and also of þe ȝeres of oure Lord, what ȝere he was i-fulled,*. [i-fulled] folled, β.; yfolled, γ.; baptysed, Cx.] what ȝere Crist suffrede deþ, auctoures spekeþ dyversliche.*. [auctors speken dyversly, Cx.] Þerfore forto putte away al manere doute, take hede by Beda his lore,*. [loore, Cx.] libro de temporibus, þat the Romayns to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] Numa Pompilius his tyme bygonne*. [bygan, Cx.] þe ȝere in Marche, as þe Hebrewes dooþ*. [don, Cx.]; but from Numa his tyme,*. [Numaes tyme, Cx.] þat putte tweie monþes*. [two monethes, Cx.] to þe ȝere, Ianyver and Feverer,*. [Ianuarie and Februarie, β.; Ianyvere and Feveryere, Cx.] þe Romayns bygynneþ*. [bygynne, Cx.] þe ȝere in þe bygynnynge of Ianyver; holy chirche in þe weste londes folweþ*. [folowith, Cx.] hem in þe comoun*. [comyn, Cx.] kalender, and in þe ȝere þat is most i-used. But þe Grees,*. [Grekis, β.; Gres, γ.; Grekes, Cx.] þat brouȝt up Olympias, bygynneþ*. [begynnen, Cx., et infra.] þe ȝere Page  273, vol.4 from þe schortest day of [the]*. [From γ. and Cx.] wynter; but þe Hebrewes bygynneþ þe ȝere in Marche, whan þe day and þe nyȝte beeþ*. [ben lyke, Cx.] i-liche longe, for þat tyme þe worlde was firste i-made. But the Egipcians bygynneþ*. [bygynnen, Cx.] þe ȝere from herveste.*. [harvost, γ. et infra.] Men of þe Est*. [eeste, Cx.] londes, as Arabes and Caldeys, bygynneþ þe ȝere after þe gaderynge of wyn, of corn, and of fruyt, whanne þe teþynges beeþ i-brouȝt*. [tethenges ben brought, Cx.] in to þe temple, in þe bygynnynge of Octobre, whan þe day and þe nyȝt beeþ nyh*. [nyh] om β. and Cx.; nyȝ, γ.] i-liche*. [ben ylyke, Cx.] longe, in hervest tyme, as it*. [yet, Cx.] semeþ by*. [by] om. Cx.] Ezechiel his visioun, þere he spekeþ of þe fourþe*. [ferþe, γ.] moneþe and of*. [of] om. Cx.] þe firste*. [fijþe, β. and Cx.] day of þe monþe;*. [moneth, Cx., et infra.] among hem Octobre was þe firste monþe, and Ianyver*. [Ianuarie, β.; Ianyvere, Cx.] þe ferþe.*. [fourth, Cx.] ℞. Hit is i-seide þat dyvers men haveþ*. [have, Cx.] dyvers bygynnynge of ȝeres, and ȝit over þat comeþ dyverse ȝeres by som happe þat þere falle*. [falliþ, β.; falleth, γ. and Cx.] and bygynneþ in dyverse tymes of þe ȝere þat we most useþ,*. [moost use, Cx.] as it*. [yet, Cx.] is of ȝeres of kynges þat bygynneþ*. [begynnen, Cx.] to regne in dyverse tyme of þe ȝere þat we most useþ*. [use, Cx., et infra.]; ȝet we acounteþ*. [acounte, Cx.] þe ȝeres of oure Lorde in tweie manere wyse, oþer by his burþe, oþer*. [byrthe or, Cx.] by his age. And so*. [also, Cx.] while Crist was i-bore in þe ende of þe ȝere Page  275, vol.4 þat we useþ by þe cours of*. [þe cours of] om. Cx.] þe sonne, he hadde of þe firste ȝere of his burþe but sevene dayes*. [seve dawes, γ.] from þe nativite to ȝeres|day. But þe firste ȝere of his age of twelve monþes by þe*. [his, Cx.] cours of þe sonne,*. [of the sonne] om. Cx.] from þe fyve and twenty day of Decembre to þe same day at*. [at] om. Cx.] twelfmonþe,*. [twelvemonethes, Cx.] is fulfilled in*. [in] om. Cx.] þe secounde ȝere of his burþe. And so in þe firste ȝere of his age [he fulfilled almost*. [almest, γ.] two ȝere of his burþe. And þe secunde ȝere of his burþe is þe first ȝere of his age].*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Þerfore*. [yet, Cx.] it is þat þe ȝeres of þe burþe of oure Lorde by þe course of þe sonne beeþ*. [buþ nyȝ, γ.; be nygh, Cx.] nyh foure and þritty ȝere and an half, and the ȝeres of his age nyȝ*. [nyghe, Cx.] þre and þritty ȝere and an half; and he was i-fulled*. [yfolled, γ.; baptysed, Cx.] in his þritty ȝere of [age, in þe xxi.*. [hys on and thrytty yer, γ.; xxxi., Cx.] ȝere of his]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] burþe, for to acounte þat ȝere wiþ þe laste partie þat was al|most*. [almoost an, Cx.] half ȝere. Hit is sooþ*. [sothe, Cx.] þat Crist prechede*. [prechid, Cx.] foure ȝere, and specialliche þre ȝere and an half, and*. [and] om. Cx.] by þe gospel of Seint Iohn;*. [Iohan, Cx.] and so Crist suffrede deeþ in þe þre and þritty ȝere of his age, [and in þe xxxiiii. ȝere of his burþe].*. [From β., γ., and Cx.]Page  277, vol.4 [℞.]*. [From Cx.] Þan in*. [in] om. γ.] þe secounde ȝere of fourty*. [xlii. ȝere, β.; secunde ȝer and fourty, γ.; two and fourty yere, Cx.] of Octovianus, in þe whiche ȝere Crist was i-bore, bygan in Marche [and endede*. [endeth, Cx.] in March].*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] And*. [And] om. β. and Cx.] þerefor þat ȝere bygan in þe þridde [ȝere]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] of þe*. [þe] om. β. and Cx.] Olympias nyne score and fourtene, [and ended in þe ferþe]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] ȝere of þe same Olympias in þe monþe of Marche; and for þe wisdom of oure Lorde ordeyned his burþe [þere]*. [From β. and Cx.; þar, γ.] þe Grees bygynneþ þe ȝere wiþ [þe]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Olympias, þerfore þe ȝeres of oure Lorde bygynneþ and endeþ*. [bygynne and ende, Cx.] wiþ þe Olympias. But þe ȝeres of kynges and of emperours by|gynneþ and endeþ*. [begynne and ende, Cx.] certenliche*. [certaynly, Cx.] but riȝt seelde,*. [selde, Cx.] þerfore it is harde to acounte hem wiþ þe Olimpias oþer*. [owther, Cx.] wiþ þe ȝeres of oure Lorde, ffor þey bygynneþ*. [begynne, Cx.] ofte in oon*. [one, Cx.] ȝere of þe Olympias and endeþ*. [ende, Cx.] in anoþer. Þanne þe kyngdom of Augustus is acounted in Marche, and Crist bygynneþ his firste ȝere of his burþe*. [byrthe, Cx.] in þe ende of Augustus his two and fourty ȝere. Þanne þe þre and fourty*. [xlii., Cx.] ȝere of Augustus bygynneþ in þe firste ȝere of þe age of Criste, and þe foure Page  279, vol.4 and fourty*. [xliii., Cx.] ȝere of Augustus bygynneþ*. [bygynneþ] om. β., γ., and Cx.] in þe secounde ȝere of þe age of Crist, and his*. [is, Cx.] fyve*. [vyf, γ.] and fourty*. [xliiii., Cx.] ȝere in þe þridde, and so forþ.

Capitulum secundum.

WHAN oure Lorde was i-bore a welle of oyle sprang by|ȝonde Tybre oute of þe tavarn*. [taverne, Cx.] Emeritoria, and ran*. [ranne, Cx.] al day; and a cercle was i-seie*. [seen, Cx.] aboute þe sonne. Trevisa. Knyȝtes of Rome after sixty ȝere lefte dedes of armes, and were i-cleped*. [callyd, Cx., et infra.] knyȝtes of þe chyvalrie*. [chevalrye, Cx.] emeritoria, and spende what þey hadde in a taverne*. [tavarn, γ.] byȝonde Tybre, and þerfore þat tavarn*. [taverne, Cx.] was i-cleped Taberna emeritoria. Martius.*. [Marcus, Cx.] Þe ymage of golde fil*. [felle, Cx.] doun þat Romulus hadde i-sette in his paleys, and seide hit schal nouȝt faille*. [falle, Cx.] or*. [er, β.; ar, γ.; til, Cx.] a mayde bere a chylde. Also þe temple of pees fil*. [fylle, Cx.] doun in Rome; and Ierom uppon þat worde, "Liȝt is arise to þe riȝtful," seith þat alle the sodomytes in alle þe worlde were destroyed.*. [distried, β.; destruyed, γ.]Petrus. Page  281, vol.4 While Herodes arayeþ*. [arayede, β.; arayde, Cx.] for þe children*. [childern, γ. et infra.] deeþ, he was i-somp|ned*. [sompned, Cx.] by a maundement of Cesar for to come to Rome for to answere*. [answhere, γ.] to þe poyntes þat his owne sones putte uppon hym, Alisaundre and Aristobolus. For þere were þre Herodes of greet name for here evel*. [her evyl, Cx.] dedes. Take hede þat þe firste [heet]*. [From γ. Cx. inserts was.] Herodes Ascalonia,*. [Ascalonita, β., γ., and Cx.] and hadde þat name of the citee Ascolon,*. [Ascalon, Cx.] ffor he ful bulde*. [bylte, Cx.] þat citee; and in þis Herodes his tyme Crist was i-bore, and þe children*. [childern, γ. et infra.] were i-slawe.*. [slayn, β.; slayne, Cx.] Þe se|counde heet Herodes Antipas, and was þe firste Herodes his sone; in his tyme Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] Baptiste was i-heded*. [biheded, β.; byheded, γ. and Cx.] and Criste suffrede deþ. Þe þridde heet Herodes Agrippa, [Aristobolus sone;]*. [From β. and Cx.] Aristobolus was the firste Herodes his sone. Þis Herodes Agrippa slowȝ*. [slowe, Cx.] Iames and prisoned Peter, þerfore beeþ vers i-made:*. [ben versus made, Cx.] Ascolonita sleeþ*. [sleth, Cx.] children, Antipa þe Bap. Iohn;*. [þe Bap. Iohn] Ion Bap., β.; Antipas Johan Baptist, Cx.] Agrippa slouȝ*. [slow, Cx.] Iames and prisoned Peter. Þe firste Herodes, whan he sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] þat his sones Alisaundre and Aristobolus stryve þe boldloker*. [boldlyker, γ.; stroof the bolder, Cx.] wiþ here fader of þe heritage*. [Erytage, γ.] of þe kyngdom by cause of hire lettrure, he hadde indignacioun Page  283, vol.4 þerof, and fondede*. [entendede, γ.] to putte his eldest sone Antipater to fore*. [afore, Cx.] hem boþe; while þey tretede of hire fader*. [faderis, Cx.] deth þey were i-putte away, and wente to Cesar forto pleyne*. [plaine, Cx.] of þe wrong þat hir fader hadde i-doo to*. [to] om. Cx.] hem. Þe mene*. [meane, Cx.] tyme þe þre kynges come to Ierusalem, and come nouȝt aȝen*. [ageine, Cx.] to Herodes by þe same wey; Herodes trowede þat they were begiled,*. [had begiled hym, Cx.] and torned*. [ytornd, γ.] aȝen aschamed.*. [ashamed, Cx.] Þerfore he wiþdrowe his wille, and souȝt*. [slowe, Cx.] noȝt þe childe forto doo hym*. [children for to doo hem, Cx.] to deth. But for þe citacioun of Cesar wente he*. [he went, β., γ., and Cx.] to Rome, and come by Tharsis,*. [Tharses, Cx.] and brende hir schippes ffor þe kynges come over see þerynne. Þanne after a ȝere and somwhat more*. [more] om. γ.] of dayes after þe burþe*. [birthe, Cx.] of Crist*. [after þe burþe of Crist] om. γ.] he come from Rome, and was acordede wiþ his sones, and þerfore he was þe boldere, and hilde*. [huld, γ.; helde, Cx.] hym*. [hym] om. Cx.] þe more siker of*. [of] om. Cx.] þe kyngdom, and slowȝ*. [slowe, Cx.] alle þe children*. [childern, γ. et infra.] of Bethlem above*. [aboute, Cx.] þe age of Crist, þat he woste*. [wiste, β.; a weste, γ.; wyste, Cx.] was þo twelve monþe olde, anon to*. [unto, Cx.] two ȝere olde and wiþ ynne; þat is to menynge Page  285, vol.4 from þe children of two ȝere olde to þe children of oon nyȝt olde, among þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] oon of his owne children was i-slawe*. [slayn, β., and Cx.] þat was happeliche*. [peraventure, β. and Cx.] i-take to norisshynge. But Methodius seiþ þat þat was i-doo*. [doon, β. and Cx.] by Goddes owne dome and his ordinaunce,*. [ordenaunce, Cx.] for he þat hadde byrefte*. [berefte, Cx.] so meny men here children schulde be byrefte of his owne children also. For his sones Aristobolus and Alisaundre were eft suspecte, ffor þey hadde byhote mede to hir fader barbour forto kutte*. [kytte, Cx.] here fader þrote whan he were a scherynge,*. [schavynge, β.] and seide þat me schulde not truste in an olde man þat dyede*. [died, Cx.] his hoor lokkes*. [hoore lockes, Cx.] for he wolde seme þe more ȝongeliche.*. [yongly, Cx.] Þerfore þe*. [his, Cx.] fader was wrooþ, and slowȝ boþe his owne sones. Also for he was aboute for to putte his sone Antipater*. [Herodes Antipa, β., γ., and Cx.] in þe kyngdom, and favorede*. [favered, Cx.] and lovede Herodes Agrippa and his suster Herodias as a fader schulde, his eldeste sone Antipater, þat he hadde to forehonde*. [biforhond, β.; byforehand, Cx.] i-ordeyned to þe kyng|dom, was wrooþ, and fondede wiþ venym forto sle his fader; but Herodes was war*. [ware, Cx.] þerof, and put hym in prisoun.*. [prysonne, Cx.] Me seiþ þat Cesar herde þerof, and seide, "Me were levere*. [leover, γ.] be Page  287, vol.4 Herodes swyn þan his sone;" ffor whan he was proselitus he spared swyn and slowȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] his owne sones. [Trevisa.]*. [From β. and Cx. There is a blank space left in the MS.] Take hede þat proselitus is he þat torneþ from oon lawe to anoþer, and specialliche*. [specially, Cx.] he þat torneþ to þe lawe of Iewes from anoþer, and so*. [and so] as, Cx.] dede*. [dude, γ.] Herodes, and so he was proselitus somtyme. Þan it foloweþ in the storie: whan Herodes was þre score ȝere olde and ten he fil*. [ful yn sykenes, γ.; felle, Cx.] into [a]*. [From Cx.] siknesse of a strong fevere, and was i-tormented wiþ ycchynge*. [ychchyng, γ.] þat cesed nouȝt,*. [ydchyng that sesed not, Cx.] wiþ swellynge of feet, wiþ wormes þat welled*. [wellyd, Cx.] þat*. [and, β., γ., and Cx.] sprang out of his prive harneys,*. [pryvey stones, γ.; pryvey har|noys, Cx.] wiþ stenche*. [stynch, γ.] þat myȝt nouȝt be suffred, wiþ stynkynge*. [puffing, β. and Cx.; stynkyng, γ.] and blowynge*. [bloweyng, Cx.] and greet hastynge of breeþ, wiþ a grevous and a*. [α] om. γ. and Cx.] strong kouȝhe,*. [couȝ, β.; kouȝwhe, γ.; cogh, Cx.] wiþ ofte brekynge of sore sichinges.*. [sikinges, β.; sychyngs, γ.; sykyngys; Cx.] Þanne phisicians baþede hym in oyle, and he*. [he] om. γ.] was i-bore*. [i-bore] boren, β.; born, Cx.] forþ as þeyȝ*. [though, Cx.] he were deed. [But]*. [From β. and Cx.; bote, γ.] for he used to pare an appel and ete it after alle oþer mete, he toke þe knyf and wolde have [y-]*. [From β. and γ.] stiked hym self, but oon of his cosyns lette*. [let, Cx.] hym, and arered*. [rered, γ. and Cx.] a greet*. [greet] om. Cx.] cry, by þe whiche cry sprang out tiþynges*. [tydynges, Cx.] and noyse of þe kynges Page  289, vol.4 deþ. Þan Atipater*. [Antipater, Cx.] in prisoun herde þerof, and made grete ioye, and bycause þerof he was anon i-slawe. Petrus, 45o.*. [46o, Cx.] Þat ȝere Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Evaungelist was i-bore. Herodes, after þe sleynge of his sones, hadde the dropesie,*. [dropesy, γ.; droposye, Cx.] wiþ wormes wellynge out of þe rotynge of his prive*. [pryvy, Cx.] stones, and deyde wrecchedliche*. [wrechidly, Cx.] þe ȝere of his kyngdom sevene and þritty. He was most ungracious in homeliche*. [homlych, γ.; homly, Cx.] þinges, and happy in oþer þinges; and forto make þe Iewes make sorwe for his deth, wheþer*. [whaþer, γ.] þey wolde oþer noo, he heet*. [bade, β.; bad, Cx.] in his deyenge slee alle þe noble men*. [mennes, β. and Cx.] children of þe Iewerie.*. [of Iewry, Cx.]Euse|bius, libro 1o, capitulo 7o. Þe genelegies*. [genelogyes, γ. and Cx.] of þe Hebrewes and rekenynge*. [rykenyng, γ.] of kynrede*. [kynrad, β. and γ.] of oþer naciouns were i-write in bookes in þe privyest libraryes of þe temple; and Herodes heet*. [bade, β.; bad, Cx.] brenne al suche bookes, and hoped þerby to be i-holde*. [holden, β. and Cx.] a noble man and gentil, ȝif he þat was an alion*. [alyen, γ.; alyon, Cx.] and nouȝt gentil man were conteyned in non suche bookes. Noþeles þere were meny men þat hadde at home*. [hoome, Cx.] suche bookes, Page  291, vol.4 oþer suche genologies in mynde, and by hem come to us redy rekenynge of kynrede. Petrus 51o.*. [61o, Cx.] Þe firste Herodes his sones,*. [sonne, Cx.] Archelaus*. [Archelaus] om. γ.] and Herodes, stryve tofore*. [bifore, β.; afore, Cx.] Cesar for þe heritage*. [Erytage, γ.] of þe kyngdom. Þanne Cesar by counsaile*. [counseyl, Cx.] of þe senatoures took to Archelaus, under þe name of thetrarcha,*. [tetrarcha, Cx.] half þe Iewerye*. [Iewry, Cx., et infra.] and Idumea; þe oþere halvendel*. [halvendeel, γ.; halfdele, Cx.] of þe Iewerye he deled atweyne, and took Galylee to Herodes Antipater,*. [Antipa, β. and Cx.] Ituria and Traconitidis*. [Dyaconitidis, Cx.] to his broþer Phelip; and so Archelaus was i-made dyarchus, but nevere monarchus, but by þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] comyn speche and by his owne boost. Trevisa. Dyarchus is he þat haþ þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] tweie deles oþer þe halvendel*. [owther the halfdele, Cx.] of a kyngdom, and monarchus is he þat [hath]*. [From γ. and Cx.] þe kyngdom is*. [is] om. γ. and Cx.] al hool, and tretarcha is he þat haþ þe fourþe dele of a kyngdom. Þanne it foloweþ in the storie: þat [ȝere Crist come aȝen out of Egipt]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] þe childe Iesus was i-founde*. [founden, β.; founde, Cx.] in þe temple sittynge and apposynge þe*. [þe] om. β. and Cx.] doctours. Archelaus was [ofte]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] accused Page  293, vol.4 of þe Iewes, and [y-]*. [From β. and γ.] put out in to*. [to] om. Cx.] Vyan, þat is [in þe reume*. [rem, γ.] of]*. [From β. and γ.] Fraunce; and in his stede, forto alegge þe out|rage of þe kyngdom of Iewes, were i-made foure kynges, and were i-clepe*. [cleped, β.; callyd, Cx.] Thetrarcha.*. [tetrachæ, β. and Cx.; The|trarche, γ.] Þat ȝere Cesar Augustus deide in Campanea,*. [Champania, γ.] in þe monþe*. [moneth of, Cx.] Septembre, whanne he hadde i-regned sixe and fifty ȝere and an half, þe ȝere of his age þre score and sixtene, and was i-slawe*. [slayn, β.; slayne, Cx.] by tresoun*. [treason, Cx.] of his wif Limia, oþer by venym, as som men wol*. [wolde, Cx.] men: noþeles al þe ȝere sevene and fifty is acounted to þe kyngdom of Octovianus Augustus. Eutropius, libro 7o.

Capitulum tertium.

THIS Augustus was so i-loved ȝe*. [ȝe] ȝhe, β.; ȝe, γ.; om. Cx.] among straunge naciouns, þat þe Schites*. [Scites, Cx.] and þe Indes,*. [Iuwes, Cx.] þat knewe not to*. [α, Cx.] forehonde þe name of þe Romayns, sente hym messangers*. [messagers, Cx.] and ȝiftes. And Page  295, vol.4 meny kynges bulde*. [bylde, Cx.] citees in worschippe*. [worship, Cx., et infra.] of hym, and cleped þe citees Cesares.*. [Cesereas, γ. and Cx.] Also kynges wente oute of here owne londes, i-cloþed as lordes of Rome, and wolde renne by his chaar. And at þe laste he hated so werre and strif þat he wolde nevere werre aȝenst man wiþ oute a riȝtful cause; and he seide*. [sayth, Cx.] þat it was þe doynge of a proude*. [prout, γ.] bostere*. [booster, Cx.] and of a liȝt witted man for to breke suerte,*. [surte, γ. and Cx.] in strif and disese*. [disease, Cx.] of þe peple, for cove|tise of worschippe and of laurial*. [laural, γ.; laureal, Cx.] leves wiþ oute eny fruyt. Also he seide þat none werre schulde be meoved*. [meved, Cx.] wiþ oute cause and greet profiȝt,*. [profyt, Cx. bis.] leste grete boost i-wonne*. [y-wonnen, β. and Cx.] by litel profiȝt*. [profyt, Cx. bis.] fareþ*. [fare, β.; faire, Cx.] as [a]*. [From β. and Cx.] goldene fischhook,*. [fisshoke, Cx.] þe loosynge*. [leosyng, γ.] þerof may be i-quytte*. [quyt, Cx.] by non wynnynge of taking of fische. He was also mylde to þe citeseyns*. [cyteȝeyns, Cx.] and trewe to his frendes; seelde*. [selde, Cx.] he wolde fonge*. [receyve, Cx.] frendschippe, and to holde frend|schippe he was trewe and stedfast;*. [stydfast, Cx.] he was konnynge in arte and in*. [in] om. Cx.] science, and specialliche in faire spekynge; he was so besy*. [bisye, β.; besye, Cx.] þat no day schulde hym scape*. [ascape, β.; escape, Cx.] þat he nolde*. [wolde, Cx.] rede, Page  297, vol.4 write, oþer declare riȝtwisnesse. Ysidorus, libro primo. He brouȝt up first þis lettre x.; me wroot þerfore*. [þerfor, γ.] to forehonde*. [to forehonde] om. Cx.] c.r.s.;*. [Sic in MS.] and he fonde it up skilfulliche,*. [skylfolych, γ.; skylfully, Cx.] for þe figure þerof is i-liche þe croys*. [crosse, Cx.] of Crist, þat was i-bore in his tyme. Eutro|pius. He echede*. [echid, Cx.] þe citee of Rome wiþ fayre buldes,*. [boldes, β.; boldyng, γ.; howses, Cx.] and hadde ioye to seie,*. [saye, β. and Cx.; sey, γ.] "I fonde a citee of brend*. [barned tyyl, γ.; brande, Cx.] tyle, and now I leve*. [leeve, Cx.] a citee of marbil." He was fayre in al his body, but his eyȝen*. [eyen, Cx.] were fairest of al; but so gret and so faire a man was nouȝt al wiþ oute vices and synne, ffor he was angry and myȝte nouȝt suffre, wreþful,*. [wretheful, Cx.] and priveliche envious and opounliche*. [openly, β. and Cx.] disceyvable,*. [disseyvable, Cx.] coveytous of lordschippe, and pleyere*. [player, Cx.] at þe dees;*. [dyces, β. and Cx.] and þeyȝ he were a grete etere and drynkere of wyn, ȝet he abstyned*. [absteyned, Cx.] from hym*. [hym] om β., γ., and Cx.] slepe and usede leecherie, so þat name and fame was couþ*. [counted, Cx.] þerof among þe comoun*. [comyn, Cx.] peple. For he was i-woned*. [wont, β.; wonte, Cx.] to lye*. [lygge, γ.; was i-woned to lye is written twice over in MS.] bytwene twelve suche þat wolde lyȝtliche*. [lyghtly, Cx.] assente to synne, and bytwene twelve maydens also; and he dede*. [dide, Cx.] awey his wif Scribonia, and wedded oon Limia,*. [Livia, β., γ., and Cx.] as it were by graunt and Page  299, vol.4 assent of here*. [heore, γ.] housebonde.*. [husband, Cx.] His sones were Tyberius and Drusus; and þey*. [þouȝ, β.; though, Cx.] he were a grete lecchoure,*. [lechour, γ.; lecherour, Cx.] ȝet he took greet*. [greet] om. γ.] wrecche of leccherie.*. [wrech of lechery, Cx.]Seneca. Þe Romayns siȝ*. [sawe, Cx.] þat he*. [this, Cx.] was so faire, and wolde have made hym a god, [but]*. [From Cx.] he forsook hit, and wolde nouȝt assente, and axede first þerof counsaille of Sibilla Tiburtina; and after þe fastynge of þre dayes sche*. [heo, β.; she, Cx.] answerde hym in þis manere: "Token of doom erþe*. [eorþ, γ.] schal wexe weet by swoot;*. [wete by swote, Cx.] out of hevene schal come þe kyng þat lest*. [leest, γ.] evermore;"*. [lest evermore] lest schal ever, β.; last shall ever, Cx.] and so forþ of meny oþer*. [oþer] om. Cx.] vers*. [versus, β.; versis, Cx.] þat beeþ not here i-write.*. [that be not here wreton, Cx.]Augustinus, libro 18o, capitulo 24o. Þe heed lettres of þe vers*. [versis, Cx.] speleþ*. [speketh, Cx.] þis menynge: "Iesus Crist, Goddes sone, Savyoure."*. [Saueour, γ.; Savyour, Cx.]Mar. Anon hevene openede, and Cesar sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] a faire mayden*. [mayde, β.; made, Cx.] stonde uppon an auȝter*. [aulter, Cx., et infra.] and holde a childe in here armes, and he herde*. [hurde, γ.] þis voys: "Þis is þe auȝter of Goddes sone:" and anon Cesar fil*. [fylle, Cx.] doun Page  301, vol.4 to þe eorþe uppon þe flore*. [floore, Cx.] of his chambre; þere was afterward i-bulde*. [bylte, Cx.] a chirche of oure lady þat is i-cleped*. [and is called, Cx.] in Ara cœli, þat is in þe auȝter of hevene. Gal. 3o Tyberius tolde to Augustus þat me spak mochel*. [myche, β.; moch, Cx.] evel of*. [evyl by, Cx.] hym al day; and he answerede and seide, "We takeþ*. [take, Cx.] noon indignacioun þey*. [though, Cx.] men speke evel by*. [evyl of, Cx.] us, hit is i-now to us þat þey mowe*. [may, Cx.] doo us non harme." Policratica, libro 3o, capitulo 13o. Antonius despisede Augustus his kyn in þe moder side, and cleped hym bakere*. [callyd hym bakar, Cx.] by kynde; and Augustus louȝ,*. [louwgh, Cx.] and lete þe same Antonius be i-wedded to his owne*. [owne] om. Cx.] suster. Also ones for þe schortnesse of his body oon cleped hym dwelf:*. [dworf, β. and γ.; dwarf, Cx.] "I moot,"*. [y mot, γ.; must, Cx.] quoþ he, "use wyde hosen and schon."*. [shoon, Cx.]Macrobius in Satur|nalibus. Augustus passede by þe weie,*. [wye, Cx.] and oon cleped hym [a]*. [From Cx.] tyraunt: "And I were a tyraunt," quoþ he, "þou woldest not clepe*. [calle, Cx.] me soo." It was i-seide in Rome þat no man schulde be doo to deþe noþer to pyne*. [payne, Cx.] as ofte as Augustus entrede in to þe citee. Also somtyme oon come in to*. [in to] yn, β.; in, Cx.] Rome þat Page  303, vol.4 was most liche*. [ylych, γ.; moost lyke, Cx.] to Augustus in al manere poyntes, and was i|brouȝt to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] Augustus; and Augustus areyned*. [aresoned, Cx.] hym, and seide, "Sey me, ȝonge man, was þy moder ever in Rome?" "Nay," quod he, "but my fader was ful*. [ful] wel, γ.] ofte." Þe emperour was nouȝt wrooþ*. [not wroth, Cx.] þerfore, but made hym riche and sente hym aȝe.*. [agayn, Cx.]Seneca de Clementia. Whanne Cinna his tresoun was i-knowe Cesar wook*. [wakid, β.; wakede, γ.; wakyd, Cx.] al [that]*. [From γ. and Cx.] nyȝt. Þan his wif Livia spak to hym in þis manere: "Take counsaile of a womman, and do by a*. [α] om. Cx.] womman counsaile, and do as phisicians useþ*. [use, Cx., et infra.] to doo; þere comyn medicyns*. [medycynes, Cx., et infra.] þat me useþ mowe*. [maye, β.; may, Cx.] not helpe, þey assayeþ*. [essay, Cx.] medicyns þat beeþ contrarie.*. [be contrary, Cx.] Cinna his tresoun is i-knowe now; he may not greve þe; fforȝeve hym þan þe trespas; he may profiȝte to [þi]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] loos and to þy fame." Cesar was glad of hir*. [þis, β.; the, Cx.] counsaile and of þis reed, and heet*. [bade, β.; bad, Cx.] bringe Cinna tofore hym amorwe; he spak*. [afore him at morow, and spake, Cx.] to hym in þis manere: "Cinna, I fonde þe myn*. [the, I the fonde myne, Cx.] enemy in pavylons*. [pauelons, γ.] and Page  305, vol.4 tentes, and saved þe to lyve;*. [thy lyf, Cx.] I graunted to þe rentes and riches,*. [richessis, β.; rychesses, Cx.] and made þe homeliche*. [homly, Cx.] wiþ me. Now eft I ȝeve þe*. [thy, Cx.] lyf, raþer*. [first, Cx.] to myn enemy, [and]*. [From β. and γ.] now to my*. [my] the, Cx.] treytour and mansleere. From þis day forþward bytwene us*. [bytwene us] om. γ.] schal frendschippe bygynne. Now stryve we wheþer I have i-geve þe þy lyf by a bettre fey*. [feyth, Cx.] þan þou owest me, oþer þou owest me better fey*. [fayth, Cx.] þan þy lyf is i-saved by." Afterward he made hym consul, and helde hym his trusty frende; and at þe laste Cesar was made his heire.*. [heyr, γ. and Cx.]Macrobius in Saturnalibus. An olde man that was in peril of doom*. [dome, γ. and Cx.] come to Augustus and prayede hym of help forto stonde by hym,*. [hem, Cx.] and Augustus ordeyned hym anon a noble advokett.*. [avocate, β.; avoket, γ.; ad|vocate, Cx.] Þan þe olde man cride*. [cryed, Cx.] and seide, "O Cesar, whenne þu were in peril in þe batayle of Actia, I souȝte no man to putte in my stede, but my self*. [me sylfy, γ.; I myself, Cx.] I fauȝt for þe;" and schewed hym þe woundes þat were sene*. [seen, Cx.] in his bodye. Þanne Cesar was aschamed,*. [ashamed, Cx.] and Page  307, vol.4 coom anone and pletede for hym, nouȝt onliche*. [only, Cx.] for he wolde nouȝt be holde*. [holden, β. and Cx.] [proude,*. [prout, γ.] but also for he wolde nouȝt be holden]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] unkynde. Also Cesar com fro þe victorie of Actia, and oon mette hym wiþ a papengay*. [popejay, γ.; popenjay, Cx.] on his hond, þat he hadde*. [hadde] om. Cx.] i-tauȝt*. [hadde ytauȝt for to speke and segge Hayl, γ.; forto, β.; to, Cx.] seie, "Heil [Cesar,]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] victor and emperour." Þe emperour wondrede, and bouȝte þat mery bridde*. [myry byrde, Cx.] for twenty þowsand [of]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] paas.*. [pans, β.; panes, γ.; pens, Cx.] Also a pye grette hym in þe same manere, and he wondrede and bouȝt hym also, and so he*. [he] om. β., γ., and Cx.] dede a stare,*. [staare, γ.] [and he wondrede and bouȝte þe stare].*. [From β. and γ.] Þanne a poore sowtere*. [pore soutare siȝ þis doyng and fondede, γ.] fondede*. [souter fonde, Cx.] to teche a chouȝhe*. [chouȝwhe, γ., et infra; chough, Cx., et infra.] to speke and seie þe same salutacioun; and whan he hadde spende what he hadde, and þe chouȝhe answerde nouȝt, he used forto seie, "Allas, al is lost, boþe*. [boþe] om. γ. and Cx.] travaile and cost." But at þe laste þe chouȝhe bygan to speke, and seide þe same salutacioun, and Cesar passed by and seide*. [herde, Cx.] hit*. [have, Cx.] and seide, "We haveþ,*. [Whe habbeþ, γ.] [at home]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] suche salutaciouns i-nowe." "Alas," quod þe chouȝhe, Page  309, vol.4 as it fel*. [ful, γ.] in her*. [his, β.; the, Cx.] mynde,*. [muynde, γ.] "al is lost, boþe*. [boþe] om. β., γ., and Cx.] travayle and cost." Þan Cesar lowh,*. [lough, Cx.] and bouȝte þe chouȝhe derere*. [derrer, Cx.] þan eny*. [ony, Cx.] of al þe oþere. Also a Greek*. [Greke, Cx.] þat was a grete makere usede to make noble ditees in preysinge of Cesar, and wroot and ȝaf hem to Cesar; and whanne he hadde ofte i-do soo wiþ oute eny mede, Cesar made suche enditynge of preysynge, and ȝaf to þe Greek þat hadde i-preysed hym. Þe Greek radde þe ditee*. [and louȝ] added in γ.] wiþ semblant and wiþ voys, and profrede*. [profered, Cx.] to ȝeve Cesar money. Þanne alle men lowgh and hadde good game, and Cesar heet*. [bade, β.; badde, Cx.] his spenser ȝeve þe Greke his money aȝen and a greet deel of more money.*. [his . . . money] a greet deel of money, β., γ., and Cx.]Eutropius, libro 7o. At þe*. [þe] om. β.] laste Cesar deyde at Nola in Champania;*. [Campania, Cx.] and alle men cride*. [cryede, Cx.] and seide: "Wolde God that he hadde nevere be i-bore,*. [born, β. and Cx.] oþer þat he schulde nevere*. [never schuld, β. and Cx.] deye. Þe man was liche God;*. [good in batail, β.; goodlyche in batayl, γ.; god in bataylle, Cx.] was no man more gracious, noþer*. [nowther, Cx.] more skilful in pees." Policratica, libro 6o. Augustus wolde seie,*. [saye, β. and Cx.; sygge, γ.] "Þe same counsaille is aȝenst þe enemye þat is aȝenst siknesse,*. [sekenesse, Cx.] for þey beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] more over|come wiþ honger þan wiþ þurst."*. [yren, β. yre, γ.; iren, Cx.] Also he made his sones Page  311, vol.4 use hem to renne,*. [eorne, γ.] to leepe,*. [lepe, Cx.] and to use of castynge; and he made his douȝtres use hem to wolle craft, to spynne at the*. [at the] om. α. and Cx.] distaf, and to make breed, ffor þey schulde ȝif hem nedede*. [neodede, γ.] lyve by þe*. [þe] om. γ.] craft.

Capitulum quartum.

TYBERIUS was Augustus stepsone, and*. [and] bis in MS.] wedded his douȝter, and bygan to regne in þe monþe*. [moneth, Cx., et infra.] of Septembre, in þe whiche*. [whuch, γ.] monþe Augustus was deed; and Tyberius regnede þre and twenty ȝere and somwhat of dayes. Policratica, libro 3o.*. [Eutropius, β., γ., and Cx.] Þese*. [þis, β. and Cx.] firste governed þe empere*. [empyre, Cx.] wiþ greet sobernesse, so þat whanne som men counsaillede hym to take grettere*. [grete, Cx.] tribute of provinces and londes, he answerede and seide: "It falleþ for a good schipherde*. [schephurde, γ.; shepherde, Cx.] to schere his schepe, and nouȝt for to swolowe hem." Þis was first wise and redy i-now,*. [ynowȝ, β.; ynow, Cx.]Page  313, vol.4 and gracious in armes; a man of greet konnynge of lettrure,*. [connynge of letture, Cx. γ. adds here, bote more konnyng of fayr spekyng a wykked man of wytte.] and of castynge, evere awaytenge and aspyenge; and what he nolde he made it as þeyȝ*. [though, Cx.] he wolde, to hem þat he lovede he made hit as þeyȝ he were wrooþ, and to hem þat he hated he semed goodliche. He wolde ȝeve better answere and coun|saille sodenliche*. [counseyl sodenly, Cx.] and wiþ oute avisement [þan wiþ grete avisement].*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] He sente for som kynges, and made hem come to hym by flaterynge, and sente hem nevere aȝen. Þis was i-cleped Tyberius Nero, but menstralles cleped hym a faire name*. [a faire name] om. γ.; mynstrals allyd hym a faier name, Cx.] Tiberius Nero,*. [Mero, β., γ., and Cx. rightly.] for he was ofte wyn dronken.*. [drunke, β; dronke, Cx.] Also þis by cause of som lettres þat Pilate sente hym wolde have be wor|schipped as God Almyȝti; but þe senatoures seide nay, and þerfore he exilede [many of þe]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] aldermen,*. [elder men, β. and Cx.] and chees hym counsaillours, and lefte unneþe tweyne of hem in good heele. Or*. [Er, β.; Ar, γ.; Eer, Cx.] he were emperour he was wise and redy in armes, but afterwarde he werrede*. [werryd, Cx.] by messangers.*. [messageris, β.; messagers, Cx.]Policratica, libro 3o, capitulo 4o. He was greetly to blame [in]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] meny of his deedes, but aȝenst chidynge stedefastnesse,*. [he was stidefast, β. and Cx.; a was studefast, γ.] and seide þat Page  315, vol.4 men*. [mennes, β. and Cx.; men, γ.] tonges and hertes schulde be free*. [freo, γ.] in þe citee. Iosephus. Þis was stedfast*. [stydfast, Cx.] in al his nedes,*. [dedes, β., γ., and Cx.] þat so*. [so þat, β., γ., and Cx.] unneþe he wolde chaunge procuratours þat he [had]*. [From β. and Cx.] made ones in provinces and in londes; me axede*. [of hym] added in γ.] why [that]*. [From Cx.] he dede soo; he an|swerde and seide þat in þat doing he sparede þe peple; "for evere þe lasse tyme," quod he, "procuratoures haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] lordschippe*. [have lordship, Cx.] over þe peple þey beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] þe more grevous." And he*. [he] om. Cx.] proved*. [preouede, γ.] þat by ensaumple of oon þat was i-wounded, and i-sette in þe sonne, and wolde nouȝt doo awey þe flyȝes þat seten*. [sate, β. and Cx.; sete, γ.] on his woundes; þanne come oon of his frendes and droof*. [drof, γ.; drove, Cx.] away þe flyȝes þat sete on his woundes,*. [þat . . . woundes] om. β. and Cx.] for he wende þat þe seek*. [seke, Cx.] man myȝte nouȝt [suffre]*. [From Cx. (not γ.)] for feble. "Þow hast yvel i-doo"*. [done evel, β.; doone evil, Cx.] quod þe sike man, "for þe flyȝes þat þou hast i-dreve*. [dryve, Cx.] away were ful, and þerfore þey ete wel þe lasse; but now comeþ*. [comen, Cx.] hongry fliȝes, and wil*. [wole, Cx.] bite ful sore;" so newe officers greveþ*. [greven, Cx.] wors þe peple þat is under hem. Ysidorus, Page  317, vol.4libro 6o, capitulo 15o.*. [16o, Cx.] Me seiþ þat in Tyberius his tyme a craftes man hadde i-founde*. [i-founde] founde up, β.; fonde up, Cx.] a craft of temperynge*. [tempryng, γ. and Cx.] of glas to make þe glas tough i-now*. [touȝ ynow, γ.; tow ynow, Cx.] to bende*. [beende, γ.] and wende,*. [wynde, β., γ., and Cx.] and [to]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] recche*. [rechche, γ.] out wiþ strokes of hameres. Þe emperour brak som of his glas, and he amended it aȝe, and bende it, and bowd*. [bowyd, Cx.] it as it were tyn. Þanne þe emperour*. [emperour] om. γ.] lernede of þese*. [þis, β. and Cx.] craftes man þat þere was*. [nas, γ.] non oþer man on lyve þat so couþe*. [alyve that so coude, Cx.] dryve and*. [dryve and] om. β., γ., and Cx.] tempre glas; and heet*. [bade, β.; bad, Cx.] smyte of þe craftes manis heed; for ȝif þat craft were i-knowe,*. [knowen, β. and Cx.] golde and oþere precious stones*. [metal, γ. and Cx.] schulde be of no pris. Ovidius Naso þe þoete deyde in þe ilond Pontus, bysides þe Sarmates [and þe Gethes,*. [Gothes, Cx.] þe ferþe ȝere of his exiling. Þis made first a boke of þe crafte of love],*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] and made þe Romayns wrooþ wiþ hym, for he made ȝongelynges [to]*. [From Cx.] love wifes to moche; þerfore he seiþ*. [sayd, Cx.] in his book de Ponto, "Naso nouȝt wise i-now techeþ sliþe*. [sleiȝþe, β.; slyȝ, γ.; sleighte, Cx.] of love craft; wik pris*. [ylle pryse, Cx.] of loore þerfore þan hadde þe mayster." Me seiþ þat at þe laste Ovidius lay by þe emperesse,*. [emperice, β.; emperys, γ.; em|pryes, Cx.] and þerfore he was exiled. Þat ȝere Pilatus was i-made [iuge]*. [From β. and γ.; jugge, Cx.] of þe Page  319, vol.4 Iewerie.*. [in the Iewry, Cx.] Of his burþe and of his lyvinge me redeþ meny wondres. For a kynȝ þat hiȝte Tyrus he*. [he] om. Cx.] gat a sone on oon Pila, a milwardes douȝter þat heet*. [hat, β.; hete, Cx.] Atus; and þe sone hadde a name i-made of þe name of his moder Pyla and of þe name of his grauntsire Atus, and so he was i-cleped Pylatus. Þis Pylatus*. [Pylat, Cx.] was i-sent to his fader in his fourþe ȝere of elde.*. [age, Cx.] His fader hadde a sone by here þat was his riȝtful wif, þe whiche sone and Pilatus*. [Pilat, Cx.] were of oon age. But þis lawful sonne hadde maistrie of Pilatus in every play*. [place, Cx.] and stryf. Þerfore*. [þer, γ.] Pilatus was wrooþ,*. [wroth, Cx.] and slouȝ his owne broþer; þerefore þe kyng þat was his fader sente Pilatus to Rome, to lye*. [lygge, γ.] þere in*. [to, Cx.] plegge ffor tribute þat he schulde every ȝere paye to þe Romayns. Also the same tyme þe kynges sone of Fraunce leye*. [Fraunse lay, Cx.] in plegge at Rome, and Pilatus slowȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] hym, for he hadde ofte þe*. [þe] om. β. and Cx.] maistrie in pleies*. [playes, Cx.] and in strif. Þere|fore þe Romayns demede þat Pilatus was*. [was] om. γ.] profitable of*. [for, β. and γ.; to, Cx.] þe empere*. [empyre, Cx.] to chaste*. [chastye, β.; hastyse, Cx.] froward men and sturne*. [steorne, γ.] men,*. [men] om. β., γ., and Cx.] and Page  321, vol.4 sente hym in to þe ylond [of]*. [From Cx.] Pontus to be iuge, to chaste*. [chastye, β.; chastyse, Cx.] þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] men þat were þere þat wolde wiþ good wille over hem no iuge fonge*. [no jugge receyve, Cx.] noþer suffre*. [suffry, γ.] among hem. But þat schrewe Pila|tus chastede*. [chastised, β.; chastysed, Cx.] hem wiþ punschynge,*. [punsyng, γ.] with manas,*. [punysshyng with manaces, Cx.] and wiþ faire*. [fayer, Cx.] byhestes. Þerfore he hadde a name of þat ilond, and was i-cleped Pontius Pilatus. Herodes Antipas hadde ioye of his wickednes,*. [wykkednesse, Cx.] and sente hym*. [hym] om. Cx.] messangers and ȝiftes, and drouȝ hym [to hym],*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] and made hym princes*. [prince, β. and Cx.] under hym in þe Iewerie.*. [Iuwery, γ.] But Pilatus at þe*. [þe] om. β.] laste gadrede moche*. [mych, β.] money, and wente to Rome, unwitynge*. [unwetynge, Cx.] Herodes, and forto fonge*. [fange, β.; receyve, Cx.] þe office of Tyberius þat [he]*. [From β. and Cx.] helde of Herodes; and by cause þerof þey were enemyes, Herodes and Pilatus, anon to þe tyme of Cristes passioun, whan Pilatus sente Iesus i-cloþed*. [clothyd, Cx.] in white*. [whyyt, γ.] to Herodes. Þat tyme*. [tyme] om. γ.] Tyberius Cesar, þat is*. [was, Cx.] the emperoure, hadde an hard siknesse,*. [sekenesse, Cx.] and herde telle þat at Ierusalem was a leche þat heled sike*. [seke, Cx.] men onliche*. [only, Cx.] wiþ a word. Þerfor Tyberius sente oon Volusianus to Herodes, Page  323, vol.4 and bycause þerof*. [and . . . þerof] om. β., γ., and Cx.] for*. [that, Cx.] he schulde sende hym þat leche. Pilatus hadde þrittene dayes of*. [of] om. Cx.] avisement to ȝeve his answere, for Iesus was to forehonde*. [aforehonde, Cx.] i-nayled on*. [to, β. and Cx.] þe crosse. The forsaide Volusianus*. [Volucianus, Cx.] took aqueyntaunce and knowleche of a noble*. [nobel, Cx.] womman þat heet Veronica, so þat he brouȝte hir to Rome to the emperour wiþ here lynnen*. [lynen, Cx.] cloþ, in þe whiche cloþ sche*. [heo, β.] hadde þe prynte*. [preent, β. and γ.] of*. [and, β., γ., and Cx.] þe liknesse of oure lordes face. Þe emperour byheld*. [beheelde, Cx.] þis cloþ, and was hool anon. Whan the emperour woste*. [wiste, β.; weost, γ.; wyst, Cx.] þat Pilatus hadde i-dampned Crist, Pilatus was i-take by a maundement of þe emperour, and i-brouȝt to Rome, and i-brouȝt to fore*. [and . . . to fore] bifore, β.; by|fore, Cx.] þe emperour, and hadde on hym Cristes owne kirtel*. [oune curtel, γ.] þat was wiþ oute semes, and was i-cleped*. [callid, Cx.] tunica inconsitulis,*. [inconsutilis, γ.] and Pilatus was i|brouȝt in þis array to fore*. [aray afore, Cx.] þe emperour ones, eft, and þe þridde tyme. But no worde myȝt be seide þat hym schulde greve while he hadde on þat cloþ; but at þe*. [þe] om. β.] laste, by Goddes wille and by counsaille of som Cristen man, þe*. [þat, β., γ., and Cx.] kyrtel was i-take Page  325, vol.4 of hym, and þan he was i-put in prisoun, and þere he slow hym self wiþ his owne honde. Of Pilatus his deeth loke we*. [we] om. β., γ., and Cx.] wiþ ynne, in Gayus his laste ȝere. Petrus. Þat tyme were þre sectes of Iewes in þe Iewerie,*. [Iewry, Cx.] severed and departed from þe comyn lyvynge of oþere men. Þe sectes were Phariseys, Saduceies, and Asseies*. [Essayes, Cx.] þat heet Assideies also. Þe Phariseies werede*. [wered, Cx.] and usede hard cloþinge, and scarste*. [scarsite, Cx.] of mete and of drinke*. [drynkke, γ.]; þey determyned Moyses lawes*. [lawe by, β. and Cx.] here ordenaunce and statutes. Þey bere scrowes in her forhedes and in hir lift armes*. [forheede and in her lyfte, Cx.] and cleped þe scrowes philateria;*. [philaterna, Cx.] in þe scrowes were þe ten hestes*. [teen commaundements, Cx.] i-write in mynde*. [muynde, γ.] of þe lawe. Also þey hadde large hemmes i-wounde*. [bounde, β. and Cx.] wiþ þornes þat prikked*. [prycked, Cx.] hem as þey wente on hir*. [in theyr, Cx.] wey; þey wiþ seide nevere here soveraynes. Also þey hopede þe arisynges*. [in a rysynge, Cx.] of*. [ded] added in γ.] bodies from deth to lyve. [Þe Saduceyes denyede þe arisinge of bodyes from deþ to lif],*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] and seide þat [they]*. [From Cx.] none aungels were; they trowede þat þe soules were*. [dyeþ, β.; deyeþ, γ.; dyed, Cx.] wiþ þe bodies; þey helde onliche*. [heelde only, Cx.] Moyses his Page  327, vol.4 fyve bookes; and for þey were to cruel and nouȝt compynable*. [compenable, γ.; not compeynable, Cx.] among hem self þey cleped hem self Saduceies, þat is riȝtful. Þe Esseies lyvede wel nygh in alle poyntes as men of religioun, and forsook wedlok but it were ful selde, for þey trowed*. [trowyd, Cx.] þat no womman is trewe to hir housbonde. Here cloþes were clene alwey; þey hadde non certayn siȝt;*. [cite, β.; no cite of certayn, γ.; cyte, Cx.] to fore*. [afore, Cx.] þe sonne arisynge*. [risyng, β. and Cx.] þey speke*. [spake, β.; spak, Cx.] no þing þat was unlawful; þey wor|schipped þe sonne whanne he dede arise; þey speke nouȝt*. [spak not, Cx.] at here mete; þey hated oþes as it were forswerynge; þey fonge*. [toke, Cx.] no man to here secte but by þe assaie of on*. [essay of one, Cx.] ȝere; ȝif þey took eny of here secte wiþ synnes,*. [synne, β. and Cx.] þey putte hym away forto ete gras as bestes doþ*. [doen, Cx.] in penaunce to his lyves ende. Þey*. [þouȝ, β.; though, Cx.] ten of hem sete*. [sate, β. and Cx.] to gidre*. [togeders, Cx.] noon of hem wolde speke a worde wiþ oute leve of þe nyne; þey wolde nouȝt spete in þe myddel of the companye, noþer in þe riȝt side. Þey helde*. [hulde, γ.] þe Saturday so holy þat þey wolde þat day greyþe*. [dresse, Cx.] no mete, Page  329, vol.4 noþer tende fuyre,*. [fyre, Cx.] noþer sette a vessel out of oo*. [one, Cx.] place in*. [in] om. Cx.] to anoþer, and also þey wolde nouȝt schite*. [cacke, Cx.] [in]*. [From γ. and Cx.] þe Saturday. Iosephus, libro 2o. Oþer dayes þey wolde digge þe erþe wiþ*. [withoute, Cx.] a chytelle*. [þwitel, β.; thwytel, γ. and Cx.] and make hem a pitte, and lete falle her cloþes aboute hem, and hele [al]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] aboute whan þey wolde schite,*. [cacke, Cx.] for me schulde [nouȝt]*. [From β. and γ.] wene þat þey dede no*. [no] om. β., γ., and Cx.] wrong to þe sonne beeme; and whanne þey hadde i-schete*. [schyte, β.; cacked, Cx.] þey wolde fille*. [fulle, γ.] þe pitte aȝen wiþ þe same erþe þat þey hadde*. [hadden, β.] i-digge*. [diggide, β.; digged, Cx.] up of þe same pitte.*. [pyt, Cx.] Þese lyved lengest of alle men, for þey lyvede scarsliche,*. [scarsly, Cx.] and dede noon surfeet of mete and of drynke; þey trowede þat alle þe soules were i-made at þe*. [þe] om. β.] bygynnynge, and i-putt in to*. [to] om. Cx.] bodyes whan it were*. [Here begins again MS. α.] tyme; and som of hem wolde telle what [was]*. [From α. and β.] to comynge;*. [come, Cx.] for þey forsook flescheliche likynge*. [flesshely lykynge, Cx.] as it were an evel*. [evyl, Cx.] doynge, and despised richesse.*. [ryches, Cx.] Here lond and what þey hadde was comoun*. [comyn, β. and Cx.] among hem alle; þey chaffared*. [cheffarede, γ.; barganyed, Cx.] nouȝt among hem Page  331, vol.4 alle,*. [alle] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] but everiche hadde freliche of [oþere]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] what þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] hym nedede.*. [neodede, γ.] Þey rouȝte [not]*. [From Cx.] of noon oynementis; þey chaungede nevere hosen and schoon, noþer cloþinge, but whan þey were i-tore or i-spend;*. [spente, Cx.] þey helde hospitalite; þey hadde oon manere mete; þey prayede to fore*. [afore, Cx.] mete and after. In here hous was nevere i-herde crye noþer noyse; noon of hem schulde nouȝt*. [ouȝt, α.; not, Cx.] ȝeve wiþ oute ordenaunce of þe comoun spenser.*. [spencer, β.; comyn spencis, Cx.] Þey helde alle her sawes*. [lawes, Cx.] strengere þen eny oþ;*. [oþer, Cx.] þey hated oþes as it were forswerynge.*. [þey . . . for swerynge] om. β. and Cx.] He þat schulde be fonge*. [receyved, Cx.] to abyde among hem after his a ȝere*. [ȝere, α.; yere, Cx.] of assay,*. [essay, Cx.] he schulde swere to kepe fey*. [faith, Cx.] to God, riȝt wisnesse to men, and obedience to preostes.*. [prynces, γ.; princes, β. and Cx.] And ȝif it happede hym somtyme to be above [and over]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] oþere he schulde nouȝt mysuse his power and his myȝt in damage and wrong of his*. [his] om. β.] sugettes,*. [subgettes, Cx.] but he*. [þey, α.] schulde chastise liers wiþ al his myȝte. To here dome schulde Page  333, vol.4 come no lesse*. [lees, β. and γ.; lasse, Cx.] þan an hondred persones; þe dome of hem schulde stonde stedefast*. [stedfast, β.; stycfast, Cx.] and nouȝt be i-chaunged.

Capitulum quintum.

FROM þe*. [þat, γ.] fiftene ȝere of Tyberius to þe firste ȝere of Adam, for to acounte bakward, were þre*. [fyve, Cx.] þowsand ȝere, so seiþ Euse|bius;*. [Eusebeus, Cx.] and so meny ȝeres maketh*. [make, Cx.] sixty [yere]*. [From β. and Cx.] of grace; and so by his tale þe sixteþe*. [xvj., β.; sixtene yere, Cx.] of Tyberius was þe bygyn|ninge of þe ȝere of grace sixty and oon. But þe seventy seiþ*. [seyn, β.; seggeþ, γ.; say, Cx.] þat from Adam to þe fiftiþe*. [xv., Cx.] ȝere of Tyberius were fyve þowsand ȝere*. [ȝere] om. Cx.] two hondred and fyve and twenty. But þe Hebrewes telleþ*. [tellen, Cx.] foure þowsand, þerfore som men wole*. [wil, α.; wol, Cx.] mene þat þat ȝere bygan þe sixte þowsand, for þe circum|cisioun cesede*. [ceeside. β.; seesid, Cx.] and fulout*. [fullouȝt, β.; folloȝt, γ.; Cris|tendom, Cx.] bygan. Oþer bygynneþ*. [begynne, Cx.] from þe incarnacioun of Crist. Also þat ȝere Iohn*. [Ioon, β.; Iohan, Cx.] bygan*. [gan, α.; began, Cx.] to Page  335, vol.4 preche and cristene, and cristened*. [folle and follede, γ.; baptise and baptised, Cx.] Crist þe sixte day of Ianyver,*. [Ianevere, Cx.] þe day of þe schewynge of oure Lorde. And þat day a*. [at, γ.] twelfmonþe*. [twelvemoneth, Cx.] he tornede water in to wyn. Petrus. Þerfore in olde bookes þat day is i-cleped*. [callyd, Cx.] þe day of schew|ynges [in the plural nombre, for that day fyll*. [ful, γ.] many diverse schewynges],*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] and hadde dyvers names; for in þe same day, but*. [but] om. Cx.] in dyvers ȝeres, were i-doo þre grete schewynges; þe firste hatte*. [hete, Cx.] Epiphania, and is a name i-made of epi,*. [epy, Cx.] þat is above,*. [aboove, Cx.] and phanos, þat is schewynge, as it were þe*. [α, α. and Cx.] schew|ynge i-made from above as it were by a sterre. Þe secounde hatte*. [hete, Cx.] Theophonia, and þat name is made of theos, þat is God, and phanos, þat is schewynge, as it were þe schewynge i-made of God in baptisynge*. [follynge, β.; follyng, γ.] of Crist by a coluer.*. [douve, Cx.] Þe þridde hatte*. [hete, Cx.] Bethania,*. [Bethphania, α., β., and Cx.] and þat name is i-made*. [name] om. Cx.] of beth, þat is an*. [an] om. Cx.] hous, and of phanos, þat is schewynge, as it were a schewynge i-made in an hous, by tornynge of water into wyn. [℞.]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] And som men meneþ*. [meene, Cx.] [that]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] þat day a*. [α] om. Cx.] two ȝere Page  337, vol.4 was þe myrakel*. [myracle, Cx.] i-doo of [the]*. [From Cx.] fyve loves and tweie fisches, and hat Phagophania,*. [heete fagephania, β. and Cx.] þat name is i-made of phagyn,*. [fagin, α., β., and γ.; fagyn, Cx.] þat is ete, and phanos, þat is schewynge, ffor þat myracle was i-doo in fedynge of men. Also þat secounde ȝere, as Luke*. [Luc, α. and γ.] and Ierom telleþ,*. [sayth, Cx.] Crist bygan his*. [his] the, Cx.] þritty ȝere of age. So seiþ þe gospel: "Iesus was bygynnynge as it were þritty ȝere." But*. [But] om. Cx.] Crisostemus,*. [Crisostimus, Cx.] Marianus, and þe comyn menynge of holy chirche, and Eusebius in Historia Ecclesiastica, meneþ þat þo*. [þan, β.; than, Cx.] Crist bygan his oon and þritty ȝere; and so*. [and so . . . al] om. Cx.] Crisostimus wil mene þat Crist after his bapteme*. [fulloȝt, β.; folloȝt, γ.] prechede*. [preche, α.] þre ȝere al*. [and so . . . al] om. Cx.] hool, and as moche more*. [more] om. Cx.] as was from þe nativite to þe passioun tyme. Þan Crist þe Monday next after his bapteme*. [fulloȝt, β.; folloȝt, γ.; baptym, Cx.] was i-lad into wildernesse by þe spirit, and bygan his fastynge, and fasted*. [faste, α. and β.] fourty dayes, and endede his fastynge þe fowr|teþe day,*. [þe fourteþe day] om. Cx.] in a Friday, þe fifteþe*. [xv., Cx.] day of Feverer.*. [Feveryre, Cx.] Þat day he overcome þe devel*. [devil, Cx.] þat tempted hym, in þe whiche day þe devel hadde overcome and supplaunted Adam þe firste man. Page  339, vol.4 Þan þe nexte Esterne*. [Ester, α., γ., and Cx.] after, as trewe loore telleþ, he droof*. [drof, β.] and chasede*. [drofe & chacid, Cx.] selleres [and byers]*. [From Cx.; sillers and biers, β.] out of þe temple. In þe same ȝere after he cleped*. [callyd, Cx.] and chees*. [ches, β.] his disciples Andrew,*. [Andreu, γ. and Cx.] Peter, Phelip,*. [Petyr, Philip, Cx.] Nathaniel. Þe next ȝere after he tornede water in to wyn in a twelfþe day, and after þat, as*. [as] om. Cx.] Beda telleþ, Crist and his disciples cristened*. [baptysed, Cx.] in þe Iewerye, and þe nexte Esterne*. [Ester, γ. and Cx.] after Iohn was i-prisoned.*. [Iohan was emprysouned, Cx.] Also in an holy feste Crist helede in a Saturday oon þat hadde i-hadde*. [i-hadde] om. β. and Cx.] þe palsy eyȝte and þritty ȝere, and after þat in þe same ȝere he wente up in to*. [to] om. Cx.] þe hille; þere he chees þe twelve apostles, and sente hem forto preche, and so it semeþ þat þre gospel|lours*. [gospelers, Cx.] that telleþ*. [telle, Cx.] þe doynge of Crist after þe prisonynge of Iohn*. [Ioon, β., passim; Iohan, Cx.] Baptiste leveþ untolde almest*. [almoost, Cx.] þe doynge of oon ȝere to fore þe prisonynge of Iohn Baptiste.*. [of Iohn Baptiste] om. Cx.] But Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] þe Evaungeliste spekeþ lesse*. [lasse, Cx.] of oþer þinges, and telleþ þat*. [þilke, β.; the, Cx.] doynges and dedes how Iesus tornede water in to wyn, how*. [how] om. Cx.]Page  341, vol.4 Nichodemus come to Iesus by nyȝte, and how*. [houȝ, α.] Iesus droof*. [drof, β.; drofe, Cx.] oute þe sellers out*. [out] om. β. and Cx.] of the temple. After þat, at þe þridde Esterne*. [Ester, γ. and Cx.] Iohn was byheded whan he hadde be i-prisoned al a ȝere. At þe fourþe Esterne*. [Eester, Cx.] Criste suffrede deþ; þat ȝere Iohn Baptiste was byheded, whanne he hadde be twelve monþes in prisoun.*. [þat ȝere . . . prisoun] om. β. and Cx.]Petrus, capitulo 11o. Þe enlevenþe*. [elleuenþe, β.] book Ecclesiasticæ historiæ telleþ that Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] was byheded at Macheronta, a castel of Arabia; his body was i-buried at Sebasten, þat is Samaria; his heed was i-buried at Ierusalem, bysides Herodes his hous,*. [howse, Cx.] for drede leste*. [leest, Cx.] he wolde arise from deeþ to lyve ȝif þe hede were i-buried wiþ þe body. Mysbileved men to-schedde*. [to-sched, β.; devyded, Cx.] his boones,*. [bones, Cx.] and þrewe hem abrode, in Iulianus Apostata his tyme, ffor þei hadde envie to þe myracles*. [myraclis, Cx.] þat he wrouȝte; and þey gadrede*. [gadryd, Cx., et infra.] efte þe bones to gyders and brend hem, and wynewede*. [wynewide, β.; wynnewyd, Cx.] þe askes awey with þe wynde. Þat doynge som men now acounteþ as it Page  343, vol.4 were the secounde martirdom of þe good*. [ded, β. and γ.; dede, Cx.] man; þey woste*. [weost, γ.; wyst, Cx.] nouȝt what þey dede.*. [dyde, Cx.] In þe feste of his nativite while þey gadrede his boones to gidres and brende hem as forþ*. [forþ] ferforth, Cx.; a ferforth, β.] as þey myȝte, [and]*. [From β. and Cx.] while mysbileved men gadrede Iohn his*. [Iohans, Cx.] bones, men of Ierusalem were i-melled*. [medled, β. and Cx.] among hem, and took wiþ hem a greet deel of the bones, among þe whiche bones of þat deel*. [deel of the bones, α., β., γ., and Cx.] was þe fynger þat Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] schewed Crist with: afterward Seynt Tecla brouȝt þat fynger anon to*. [unto, Cx.] Alpes. Alpes beeþ hiȝe*. [heiȝ, β.; ben hye, Cx.] hilles in Lumbardie side. Þat fynger is now in Morys his mynstre,*. [Morys minister, β.; Morys my|nyster, γ.; Mons mynyster, Cx.] as it is i-saide. But þe bone*. [bones, β., γ., and Cx.] was*. [were, α., β., γ., and Cx.] i-sent to Athanacius,*. [Athanasius, β. and Cx.] bisshop of Alisaundre. In Marcianus þe prince his tyme Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] warnede tweie monkes*. [munkus, β.; two monkys, Cx.] of his heed, and tolde where it lay. Þe monkes were of þe Estlondes,*. [Est] om. Cx.] and were i-come to Ierusalem forto bidde and praye. Noþeles*. [Nevertheles, Cx.] þe heed was longe i-lost by unkonnynge, and was i-leide in a denne in Fenicia, forto þat Iohn*. [till that Iohan, β. and Cx.] efte tolde*. [tolde] om. γ.] were*. [whare, γ.] his heed lay to Marcellus þe abbot þat wonede*. [dwellyd, Cx.] in þe Page  345, vol.4 same dyn.*. [den, α. and Cx.] And þan afterward þe feste of þe byhedynge gan to byholde*. [be y-holde, α.; be holden, Cx.] in the same citee þe same day þat þe heed was i-founde and i-take up of þe erþe. Oþer men*. [men] om. Cx.] telleþ þat it is nouȝt þe feste of þe decollacioun, of þe*. [þe] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] byhedynge, but of þe collectioun, of þe gaderynge of þe bones*. [boones, Cx.] þat was raþer i-doo, and of þe brennynge. Þanne Theodocius*. [Theodosius, Cx.] þe emperour brouȝte þe heed in*. [in] om. Cx.] to Constantynnoble;*. [Constantinople, Cx.] and þennes it was i-brouȝt into Fraunce, and is ofte i-schewed to pilgrymes at Amyas.*. [Ambians, γ.; Amyens, Cx.]

Capitulum sextum.

CRIST suffrede*. [suffride, β.] deth sevene dayes to fore Averel*. [afore Apryl, Cx.]: Cassiodo|rus seiþ þat þat day was a greet aclips*. [eclips, β. and Cx.] of þe sonne, so grete þat noon suche*. [sich, β.] was*. [yseye, added in γ.] to forehonde noþer*. [aforehond nowther, Cx.] after, so þat þe sterres were i-seie in hevene, and erþe*. [eorþe, γ.] schakynge in Bithinia þrewe*. [were throwe, Cx.]Page  347, vol.4 doun meny citees. ℞. Also þe*. [þo, γ.] stones were i-clove, þerfore hit semeþ þat veynes and clustres*. [cluftes, α.; cliftes, β. and γ.; clyftes, Cx.] þat now beeþ i-sene in quareres*. [quarers, β. and γ.; ben seen in quareis, Cx.] and in roches and in rokkes*. [rockes, β.] come of þat erþe schakynge in Bithinia,*. [in Bithinia] om. α., β., and Cx.] for tofore*. [byfore, Cx.] þat tyme stones*. [onests, Cx., by a misprinting.] were hole wiþ oute cliftes. Iosephus. Þat ȝere in þe Witsonday*. [Whytesoneday, Cx.] preostes in þe temple herde steringes*. [stirynges, α.; stiryngis, β.; sturynges, γ. styrynges, Cx.] and noyse of places; þanne þey herde a voys breke out sodenliche*. [sodenly, Cx.] faste by þe temple, þat seide, "Passe we out of þese*. [þeos, γ.] seges." Also þat ȝere about Pentecoste, þat is Witsontide,*. [Whitesonetyde, Cx.] þe apostles ordeyned þe lasse Iames, Alpheus his sone, bisshop of Ierusalem; he song*. [songe, Cx.] first masse among hem, and rulede*. [reuled, Cx.] þe bisshopriche at Ieru|salem þritty ȝere. Þere were i-ordeyned sevene dekenes,*. [dekons, γ.; dekens, Cx.] Stevene, Phelip, Procorus, Nichanor, Timon, Parmenas,*. [Permenas, Cx.] and Nichol. Nichol*. [Nycholas, Cx. (bis) et infra.] stood nouȝt as he schulde, but he made*. [noȝt as a scholde bote a made, γ.] his wif comoun*. [comyn, β., γ., and Cx.] to alle þat wolde have hir. Eusebius, in Historia Ecclesiastica, libro 3o. Þis Nichol hadde a faire wyf, and was Page  349, vol.4 blamed of þe apostles as þey he were ielous, and he broute forþ his wif, and ȝif eny man wolde ligge*. [lye, β. and Cx.] by here he wolde suffre it. In symple*. [simpel, Cx.] and innocent doynge þeyȝ som folwede*. [folowide, β.; though somme fo|lowyd, Cx.] dyvers leccherie, ȝit Nichol*. [Nicholas, Cx.] dede it*. [yet, Cx.] in despisynge of þe vice*. [vyse, Cx.] of ielousye*. [jelusy, β.] and nouȝt by wil to teche men to desire flesche|liche*. [flesshely, Cx.] likynge, and nameliche*. [namely, Cx.] for his sones and his*. [his] om. Cx.] douȝtres lyvede chaste*. [chaast, γ.] to her lyves ende, and also he hym self took noon oþer wif after his firste wif. [℞]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Of þis Iames take hede þat he hadde foure surnames; and so he is i-cleped*. [named, Cx.] Iacobus Alphey,*. [Alphei, β. and γ.; Alphay, Cx.] for he was Alpheus his sone; oure Lorde his broþer, ffor he was most liche*. [moost lyke, Cx.] to oure Lorde in holynesse and in face, so þat meny men were begiled*. [bygyled, Cx.] in þe*. [þe] om. γ.] liknesse of hem tweyne.*. [two, Cx.] And þerfore Iudas ȝaf þe Iewes a signe*. [assigne, γ.] of a cosse*. [cos, α., β., and γ.; cusse, Cx.] leste þey were desceyved*. [deceyved, Cx.] in þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] takynge of Crist. Also he is i-cleped þe lasse Iames, ffor þe oþer was Zebedeus his sone, Page  351, vol.4 þeyȝ*. [though, Cx.] he were ȝonger þan he, for he was raþer i-cleped*. [called, Cx.] of Crist, he*. [he] and, Cx.] is i-cleped þe more Iames, and þat manere is ȝit i-used in the chirche of Rome and in meny religions, so þat he þat comeþ first is i-cleped þe more. And he is i-cleped riȝtful for þe worþynesse of passynge holynesse. Þis was alway holy and clene mayde; from þe tyme þat he was first i-bore he drank nevere wyn, noþer siþer,*. [he] and, Cx.] noþer tastede flesche*. [fleysch, γ.]; eyren*. [yren, α. and Cx.; yre, γ.] come nevere on his heede, he used nevere oyle noþer*. [nether, Cx.] baþes; ffor greet knelynge*. [kneolyng, γ.] his knees*. [knen, γ.] were as*. [hard as, added in γ.] þe sooles*. [soles, Cx.] of his feet. He allone hadde leve to entre in to þe holyest place of the temple; first of alle he song a masse. In þe Good Friday whan Crist deyde, he made his avow*. [avowe, Cx.] þat he wolde nevere ete or*. [er, β. and Cx.; ar, γ.] Crist*. [or Crist] bis in MS.] was*. [were, Cx.] arise. Þe peple fondede wel faste to touche þe hem*. [hemme, Cx.] of his cloþes. Þat yere, bytwene þe ascencioun,*. [assencion, Cx.] þat is holy Þorsday, and Witsonday,*. [Whytesonedaye, Cx.] Mathias was i-chose*. [choosen, Cx.] and i-made apostel in stede of Iudas þe traytour. Of hym*. [hem, Cx.] it is i-wrete*. [wreton, Cx.]Page  353, vol.4 in a storie, þeyȝ*. [though, Cx.] þe auctor þerof be unknowe: A man was in Ierusalem that hiȝte*. [heete, Cx.] Ruben, [as Ierom sayth,]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] of þe lynage of Isakar; his wif hiȝte*. [hete, Cx.] Ciborea. In a nyȝt whan þei hadde*. [hadden, α. and γ.] i-payde dette of wedlok eyþer to oþer, the womman mette*. [dremed, Cx.] þat sche*. [heo, β.; shee, γ.] hadde i-bore a swiþe*. [fulle, γ.] wicked sone,*. [ybore an ylle sonne, Cx.] þat schulde be traytour of his owne peple. Þe childe was i-bore and [y*. [From α.]]-cleped Iudas, and þe fader and þe moder were agrised*. [agryse, α. and γ.; agrise, β.; agrysed, Cx.] for to slee þe childe, oþer for to norische*. [norsche, γ.] hym up þat schulde destroye*. [distruye, β.] his owne peple. Þerfore þey putte hym in a litel*. [lytul, γ.] cribbe*. [cryb, α., γ., and Cx.] i-schape as a litel*. [litel] om. β. and Cx.] bote,*. [boot, γ.] and de*. [dede α.; dude, γ.; dide, Cx.] hym in to þe see, and so he come to an ilond þat hatte Scarioth.*. [hete Scariot, Cx.] Þere þe quene of þe lond*. [ilond, Cx.] hadde none*. [no, α. and Cx.] children, and fonde þe cribbe and þe childe, and feyned hir self with childe, and lyȝ*. [lay, β.; laye, Cx.] and feynede þat sche hadde childe. But nouȝt*. [nouȝt] om. Cx.] longe after þe quene conceyved and ȝede*. [ȝude, γ.] wiþ childe by þe kyng. Whan þe*. [þat, α.] childe was i-bore and come to age, Iudas greved hym alwey,*. [ful ofte, Cx.]Page  355, vol.4 and made hym wepe*. [weope, γ.] ful ofte. The*. [The . . . ofte] om. β. and Cx.] queene was war*. [waar, γ.] þerof, and beet Iudas ful ofte, but al for nouȝt, ffor it was not worþ þe while. At þe laste it come out þat Iudas was not þe kynges sone, and þan he slowȝ*. [slowe, Cx.] priveliche þe kynges sone, and dradde þe payne and fliȝ*. [drad the peyne and fledde, Cx.] to Ierusalem wiþ men þat were tributarie, and putte hym*. [them, Cx.] to Pilatus*. [Pylates, α.] courte, þat was þo*. [þan, β.] iustice;*. [than justyser, Cx.] and for þinges þat beeth i-liche*. [buþ ylyche, γ.] acordeþ to gidres,*. [be lyke acorde togeders, Cx.] Iudas hadde sone grace and*. [grace and] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] grete favour of Pilate. In a day Pilatus loked out of his paleys in to Ruben his orcherde*. [orchard, β. and Cx.] þat soþeliche*. [sothely, Cx.] was Iudas*. [Iudas] om. γ.] his fader, and Pilatus hadde likynge to þe apples, þerfore he sente Iudas to gadere [hym]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] of þe apples; þan Ruben com and mette hym, and after [the]*. [From Cx.] stryf and strookes he*. [Judas, α., β., γ., and Cx.] up wiþ a stoon and smoot Ruben on þe hede, and slouȝ his owne fader. But Iudas flyȝ priveliche*. [fled pryvely, Cx.] awey after þat evel dede, and þerfore me trowede þat Ruben was sodenliche*. [sodeynly, β., et infra.] deed. Þanne Pylatus ȝaf to Iudas al Ruben his castel,*. [catel, β., γ., and Cx.] and he ȝaf Page  357, vol.4 Ciboreas*. [Cyborca, β. and Cx.] to be Iudas his wife. Þan in a day Ciborea made greet moone*. [mone, β.] tofore*. [mone bifore, Cx.] Iudas of here wredched*. [wrecchid, β.; wrechchede, γ.; wreched, Cx.] hede*. [hede] om. α., β., and Cx.] and soruful*. [sorouful, γ.] lif, how sche*. [heo, β. (bis).] hadde i-putte her ȝonge sone in to þe see stremes, how sche*. [heo, β. (bis).] loste her housbonde sodenliche,*. [sodenly, Cx.] and how sche*. [shee, γ.] was i-maried aȝenst her wille, and so it was i-knowe*. [knowen, Cx.] þat Iudas hadde i-slawe his owne fader and i-wedded his owne moder. Þerfore by counsaile of Ciborea, Iudas folwede*. [folowed, Cx.] Crist, and*. [þat, β.] his trespas were forȝeve, and so Iudas was Crist his procuratour*. [proroure, Cx.] and his disciple. Also þat ȝere, after þe ellectioun of Mathias, and after þe sendynge of þe Holy Gost, or*. [er, β. and Cx.] þe postles*. [apostles, β., γ., and Cx.] wolde goo aboute þeyȝ come*. [þeyȝ come] om. β. and Cx. rightly.] in to dyvers londes, þey come to gyders at Ierusalem,*. [to J. togeders, β. and Cx.] and made þe crede; and Stevene was stoned to dethe sixe dayes to fore*. [bifore, β.; afore, Cx.] Ianyver. Þat ȝere Peter þe apostel, Iohn his*. [Joones, β.; Jones, Cx.] sone, of þe province of Galilee, of þe street Bethsayda, Andrewe*. [Andreu, β. and γ.] his broþer, bygan to Page  359, vol.4 holde þe bisshoppes see in þe est*. [eeste, Cx.] londes, and was bisshop þere foure ȝere, and song masses and seide [þe]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Pater noster. Ieromus*. [Jeronimus, Cx.]de Viris [illustribus].*. [From β. and Cx.] Þan*. [Whan, Cx.] Peter com to Antiochia, and was bisshop þere seven ȝere; þanne he come to Rome, and was þere fyve*. [vyf, γ.] and twenty ȝere and seven monþes.*. [monethes, Cx.] Paule was converted, and was wiþ [þe]*. [From α. and Cx.] disciples at Damascus anon after*. [Damaske unto after, Cx.] þat he hadde i-fonge bapteme*. [fong fullouȝt, β.; was mad a Cristyn man, γ.; receyved Crysten|dom, Cx.] of Ananias, and þennes he wente into Arabia, and tornede þennes aȝe*. [agayne, Cx.] in to Damascus,*. [Damaske, Cx.] and made þre yeres, þat holy writte clepeþ*. [callyd, Cx.] meny dayes, þere he was i-lete a doun in a cupe*. [kype, γ.] over þe wal*. [doune over the wall in a cupe, Cx.] and com in to Ierusalem for to see Peter, and lefte*. [was, Cx.] wiþ hym fiftene dayes, and talkede*. [callyd, Cx.] wiþ hym of þe gospel. Afterward he come in to þe contrayes of Siria and Silicia,*. [Suria & of Cicilia, Cx.] and of Asia, and was þere fourtene yere, and whanne þe fourtene ȝere were i-doo*. [was doon, Cx.] he com to þe apostles into Ierusalem forto see Peter, and lefte wiþ hym fiftene dayes, and talkede wiþ hym fiftene dayes*. [fiftene dayes] om. α.] þe gospel;*. [forto . . . gospel] om. Cx.] þanne whan he hadde appeled, he come to þe Page  361, vol.4 emperour into Rome. Þere wiþ oute þe citee he hired*. [huyred, β.; huyrede, γ.] a comoun berne,*. [hured a comyn bern, Cx.] and tauȝte þerynne þe wordes of lyf. Among þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] Seneca, þat was Nero his mayster, visited Poule, nouȝt onliche*. [not only, Cx.] mouþ wiþ mouþ, but also wiþ lettres and pistles. Parsius*. [Persius, Cx.] þe poete is i-bore.*. [was born, Cx.] Tyberius Cesar deyde,*. [deyeþ, γ.] i|poysoned wiþ venym, þe ȝere of his age þre score and eyȝtene, as it were þe firste day of Octobre. Petrus, capitulo 5o.*. [sexto, Cx.] Tyberius knewe þat he schulde deie, and cleped to hym his nevewes to fore*. [afore, Cx.] oþere noble mene, Gayus his owne broþer [sone],*. [From α., β., and Cx.] and Tiberius þat he loved moste,*. [mooste, Cx.] þe sone of his owne sone Drusus, and ordeyned þat he wolde a morwe ordeyne hym a successour, and prayde*. [hy prayede, γ.; prayd, Cx.] first to his*. [here, α. and γ.; her, β. and Cx.] goddes. And he ordeyned by hym self*. [sulf, γ.] to putte to fore*. [afore, Cx.] his owne nevewes hym*. [he, Cx.] þat come first to hym amorwe, and warnede Tyberius priveliche*. [pryvely, Cx.] þat he schulde come first in al manere wise. But he was recheles a morwe, and wolde nouȝt come or he hadde i-ete,*. [til he had ete, Cx.] and so*. [so] om. Cx.] Gayus Page  363, vol.4 come first, and hadde the empere.*. [empyre, Cx.] Kynbelynus*. [Kymbelinus, β. and Cx.] kyng of Britouns deyde, and lefte after hym tweye sones, Guyderius and Arveragus;*. [Arviragus, Cx.] but Guyderius ffeng*. [had, Cx.] þe kyngdom, and wernede*. [warned, Cx.] tribute, and so he made þe Romayns arise aȝenst*. [aȝenes, γ.] hym.

Capitulum septimum.

GAYUS, Tiberius his nevew of his [Gaius.]*. [From α.] broþer ger|mayn, was i-cleped Caligula,*. [Galygula, Cx.] for he was i-bore in þe oost.*. [hooste, Cx.] He hadde þe name of a knyȝt his leg harneys,*. [legge harneysed, Cx.] þat hatte caligula.*. [hat caligla, β.; heete Galygula, Cx.] Þis was emperour after Tyberius, and regnede as it were foure ȝere and nyne monþes,*. [monethes, Cx.] and was [a]*. [From α.] swiþe wicked*. [wykked, γ.] man,*. [an ydle disposed man, Cx.] and clensede alle þe schame of Tyberius. He*. [He] and, Cx.] made men clepe*. [calle, Cx.] hym god of hevene and of erþe; þerfore he made his ymage i-sette in þe temple of Ierusalem; he lay by Page  365, vol.4 his owne sustres, and gat a douȝter on þat oon, and lay by þat oþer*. [douȝter, α., β., γ., and Cx.] afterward, and at þe laste he exciled*. [exyled, Cx., et infra.] his sustres þat he hadde i-lay by. Þis is*. [is] om. β., γ., and Cx.] þe firste ȝere of his empere de|lyverede Herodes Agrippa [out of prisoun, and made hym kyng of þe Iewerye. Tiberius hadde i-prisoned Herodes Agrippa].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Þe secounde ȝere of his kyngdom he exciled Herodes Antipa, and Herodias þat hadde i-lyved in spouse|breche*. [bruch, β.; bruche, γ.] wiþ Herodes Antipa, and Herodes Agrippa accusede hem; þe eorþe swelowede*. [swolewede, γ.; swolowyd, Cx.] þe wenche þat tomblede.*. [tombede, α. and γ.; tombled, Cx.] But Gayus þe þridde ȝere of his empere*. [empyre, Cx.] exiled Pylatus iustice of þe Iewerie,*. [Jewry, Cx.] and sente hym in to Vien, þat is in þe reume*. [reme, γ.; royalme, Cx.] of France, in despite of his kyng, for he was i-bore þere.*. [In the margin is written, "Pi|lat ys a Frenchman."] Þe Iewes accusede Pilatus þat he slouȝ*. [slowe, Cx.] men gilteles,*. [gultles, γ.] þat he hadde i-sette ymages of men of straunge naciouns in þe temple aȝenst þe wille of Iewes; also þat he hadde i-take money*. [mony, Cx.] of [the]*. [From β. and Cx.] holy tresorie, and i-made a water condite*. [conduyt, γ.] in to his owne hous; also þat he hadde i-take þe stole*. [stoole, β.] of preostehood*. [prysthode, Cx.] in to his owne hous, and wolde not delyvere hit Page  367, vol.4 but for hire*. [huyre, β., γ., and Cx.] to þe prince of preostes*. [preestes, Cx.] in þe holy dayes. Þanne he was putte in prisoun, and borwede*. [borewyd, Cx.] a knyf for to pare an appel, and slouȝ hym self þerwiþ [and]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] wiþ his owne hond. And he*. [he] om. Cx.] was i-bounde to a greet stoon, and i-þrowe*. [throwen, Cx.] into Tyber. Þanne wicked*. [wykkede, γ.; ylle, Cx.] spirites made ioye wiþ hym þat wikked*. [wykked, γ.; ylle, Cx.] was also, and made pestilence and greet risynge of water and greet þondrynge aboute þat place. Þer|fore þe Romayns drouȝ*. [drowe, Cx.] hym up*. [up] out, Cx.] of Tyber, and þrewe hym in to Rone Avien;*. [at Vien, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat place was þo i-graunted the place*. [plase, Cx.] of corsynge, and also it hatte*. [hete, Cx.] Vigenia, as hit were via, þat is a weye, and of Iehenne, þat is þe valey of children of deep|nesse.*. [chyldern of deopness, γ.; dep|nesse, Cx.] But þere fil*. [ful, γ.] [a]*. [From Cx.] pestilence also, and þe men of þe place buriede hym at Losane; and þere also men of þe con|tray were afrayed,*. [effrayed, Cx.] and dede*. [dude, γ.] þat body in to*. [to] om. γ. and Cx.] a putte þat is byclipped al aboute wiþ hilles.*. [hulles, γ.] Þere is ȝit i-herde griseliche*. [harde grysely, Cx.] bere and noyse. In Historia Scolastica*. [ecclesiastica, Cx.] hit is i-rad*. [it is redde, Cx.] þat Page  369, vol.4 þe Iewes*. [Iuwes, Cx.] accusede Pilatus to Tiberius, and þat Pilatus was i-bore to Lugduns in Fraunce [℞],*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] and [that]*. [From Cx.] eiþer storie may be saved wiþ oute wiþ seienge,*. [wiþsyggyng, γ.; sayenge, Cx.] forto understonde þat he was i-bore to*. [to] into, Cx.] Lugduns after the accusatioun of the Iewes; and after þat Volusianus was i-come aȝen from Ierusalem he cleped*. [callyd, Cx.] hym oute of þe excilynge forto fonge*. [have, Cx.] harder damp|nacioun. Eusebius and Beda witnessith*. [witnessen, β.] þat Pilatus slowȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] hym self wiþ his owne hond. Claudius.*. [Claudius] om. Cx.]

Capitulum octavum.

CLAUDIUS, þe eme*. [eame, Cx.] of Gayus and of Drusus,*. [Drusis, γ.] whanne Gayus was i-slawe, was made emperour by sleiþe*. [sleyhte, Cx.] and help of Herodes Agrippa, and bygan to regne in Lammesse monþe,*. [moneth, Cx.] and regnede as it were fiftene ȝere. Þis his dedes beeþ*. [The dedes of this be selde, Cx.] selde*. [sylde, α.] in mynde, but þat he made the Britouns sogette;*. [suget, β.; subget, Cx.]Page  371, vol.4 for he ȝaf*. [made, γ.] hym alwey to mete and drynke,*. [drynghe, γ.] and to*. [to] om. Cx.] leccherie oute of mesure, and caste hym to make a lawe to excuse alle þat byhynde leet goo any blaast,*. [blaste, Cx.] ffor somtyme he sparede it to moche,*. [myche, β.; meche, γ.] and fil of*. [in, α., β., and Cx.; ful in, γ.] greet peril. Ioseus, libro 2o.*. [20, α., β., and Cx.] Þis Claudius hadde þre wifes;*. [wyves, α.] the firste heet Petyva, and he gat on hir a douȝter þat heet Antonia.*. [Antompde, Cx.] Petyva deide, and he wedded Messalina, and gat on hire a sone þat heet Brytanny|cus, and a douȝter þat heet Octavia. His þridde wif hiȝte*. [hitte, α.; hete, Cx.] Agrippina, Germanicus his douȝter, and sche hadde a sone þat heet Nero. Claudius wedded his douȝter Octavia to þis Nero, and for love þat Claudius hadde do*. [to, β. and Cx.] þis Agrippina he slouȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] his wif Messalina, and whanne sche was i-slawe*. [slayn, Cx.] Claudius in triclinio, sittynge at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] mete, usede forto speke as þey he were out of his*. [his] om. β. and Cx.] mynde, and axe*. [axede, Cx.] why his lady Messalina wolde not come. Agrippina dradde*. [drad, Cx.] lest Britanni|cus the sone of Messalina schulde regne after his fader, and Page  373, vol.4 þerfore sche poysoned*. [poysened, Cx.] Claudius, for hir sone Nero schulde be emperour. And Nero quytte*. [quyt, Cx.] his moder þat triacle whan he was emperour, for he poysonede Britannicus, and slowȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] his owne*. [owne] om. Cx.] moder and his owne wif Octavia. ℞. Of þe for|saide Messalina spekiþ Iuvenalis Satiricus, and seith þat sche was so leccherous þat first sche dede hir priveliche*. [dyde hir pryvely, Cx.] to þe prive*. [pryvey, α.; pryve, Cx.] hore place,*. [harlattes place, Cx.] and afterward he*. [she, α., γ., and Cx.; heo, β.] putte hir forth openliche, and wente þennes not fulfilled*. [noȝt folfuld, γ.] of þe manere doynge, but wery of travaille; and sche also excited*. [she exyted, Cx.] noble wifes to þe same manere of doynge. Beda, libro primo, capitulo 4o. Þat ȝere was so*. [þe, α., γ., and Cx.] greet honger in Siria, þat Agabus þe pro|phete hadde i-prophecied in Actibus Apostolorum. Pe|trus, 81. While þis honger*. [hongre, Cx.] was strong in every*. [everych, γ.] place of Siria, and in the Iewerie moste,*. [Iewry moost, Cx.] Helene*. [Helyne, γ.] þe quene of Adia|benes com to Ierusalem, and bouȝt corn [al aboute]*. [From Cx.] forto susteyne nedy*. [neody, γ.] Cristen men at Ierusalem, and at þe laste sche Page  375, vol.4 made tweyne*. [two, Cx.] buriels, and heet burie þerynne here body and hir sones body. Þe buriels beeþ*. [beene, Cx.] ȝit i-sene. Þerfore meny beeþ disceyved,*. [ben disseyved, Cx.] and troweþ þat þere is þe buriels of Helene*. [Elyne, γ.] Constantyn his moder, for me redeþ*. [rede, Cx.] of here þat sche*. [heo, β.] come to Ierusalem and hiȝte the citee in meny þinges. Also þat ȝere Paul*. [and . . . Ierusalem] om. in γ.] come to Ierusalem,*. [Poul, β.] and talkede*. [to talke, α., β., γ., and Cx.] wiþ Petir of þe gospel. Also þat ȝere, þe fifteþe*. [fiftenþe, β.; fyftene, Cx.] day of Iuyl, þe apostles were departed in to al þe world aboute. Þan Peter come to Rome, and sente Marcial to Limonica*. [Lymonica, Cx] and Appolinaris to Raven, and [Marchus*. [Marcus, β.] into Egipt. Þis]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Marcus, of Levy his kynde,*. [kuynde, γ.] was Peter his sone by bapteme,*. [follought, β.; folloȝt, γ.; bap|tym, Cx.] and his disciple, and come wiþ Peter to Rome. Þere at þe prayere of Cristene men he wroot*. [wrote, Cx.] þe gospel, þat Petir allowede and aprevede,*. [appreoved, γ.; alowed and ap|proved, Cx.] and took it to be i-rad*. [radde, Cx.] in chirches. Þan Marcus was sent into Aquileya, þere he converted moche*. [mych, β.] folk; at þe laste he was Page  377, vol.4 i-sent to Alexandria in Egipt, and þere he was i-doo to the*. [the] om. β. and Cx.] deth. Þan aboute þe ȝere of oure Lord foure hondred þre score and sevene, he was translated and i-brouȝt out*. [out] om. α., β., and Cx.] of*. [from, Cx.] Alexan|dria into Venys. This kut*. [kit, β.; kyt, Cx.] of his þombe somtyme, leste he schulde be made preost othir bisshop; but God his ordynaunce hadde the maistrie, and auctorite of Petir, þat made hym bisshop of Alexandria. Beda, libro primo, capitulo 5o. Kyng Guyderius regnede among þe Britouns,*. [Brytons, Cx.] and wernede*. [weornede, γ.; warned, Cx.] þe Romayns tribute; þerfore Claudius Cesar come and conquered Britayne, as it were wiþ oute bataille; and greet noyse of grucching*. [grutchyng, Cx.] was arered in Britayne as it semed;*. [semeth, Cx.] ffor here men þat flyȝ*. [fled, Cx.] were nouȝt restored aȝen. He come into an ilonde, þere Iulius Cesar to fore hym*. [to fore hym] om. Cx.] durste*. [þurste, γ.] nevere come, noþer othir men*. [man, Cx.] after hym. Also þe ilondes Orcades,*. [Orchades, γ. and Cx.] þat beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] byȝonde Britayne in þe see of occean, he made sugette to þe empere*. [subget to the empyre, Cx.] of Rome, and tornede aȝen to Rome þe sixte monþe after þat he wente out, and ȝaf his sone þat name Britannicus. Lelius Hamo, a ledere*. [ledare, γ.] of Claudius, slouȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] kyng Page  379, vol.4 Guyderius at Porchestre, and þis Hamo deyde to fore*. [afore, Cx.] Hamo his haven, þat was so i-cleped*. [called, Cx.] by his name, þat hatte*. [hatte] now hatt, β.; now hatte, γ.; is now, Cx.] Hamptoun. Þanne Claudius after dyverse happes of bataille fenge*. [toke, Cx.] Arviragus, Guiderius his brothir, to his grace, and brouȝt his douȝter Genuissa*. [Genuyssa, Cx.] from Rome, and maried hire to kyng Arviaragus.*. [Arviragus, α. and Cx.] And for he wolde make þe place of þe mariage solempne, he cleped*. [callyd, Cx., et infra.] hit Claudiocestria [by]*. [From α. and Cx.] his owne name. [℞.]*. [From α. and Cx.] Claudeocestria hatte Caerclou*. [hete Caertleon, Cx.] yn Brittisshe speche, þat is Claudius his citee; but aftir þat it was i-cleped Gloucestre, and Glovernia also, and hadde þat name of a*. [a] the, Cx.] duke of Demecia þat heet Glora. Me seiþ þat Claudius Cesar gat hym þere at Gloucetre. Þanne Claudius sente legiouns of knyȝtes into Irlond, but he tornede aȝen to Rome; and Arviragus wiþ drowe hym, and wolde nouȝt be under þe Romayns. Þerfore Vaspasianus, a duke*. [duc, Cx.] of Rome, was i-sent, and made þe kyng and þe kyngdom and þe ile of Wight,*. [Wyghte, Cx.] þat is next to Britayne in þe south side, sogette*. [subget, Cx.] to þe empere*. [thempyre, Cx.] of Rome. Herodes Agrippa whanne he hadde Page  381, vol.4 i-greved som of [the]*. [From Cx.] holy chirche, he com to Cesaria*. [Cesarea, Cx.] forto make pleyes in worschippe*. [worship, Cx.] of Cesar, and þere [to]*. [From Cx.] lete hym self be i-cleped God. Þerfore an angel smoot*. [smote, Cx.] hym, and his body swal, and he seide to his frendes, "Lo iche*. [Ich, β., et infra; Y, γ.; 1, Cx.] þat was i-cleped [god]*. [From Cx.] now I am skilfulliche*. [skylfych, γ.] i-bounde*. [rightfully bounden, Cx.] wiþ boundes*. [bondes, Cx.] of deth;" and so he deide. Petrus, capitulo 56o.*. [66o, Cx.] Þis Herodes Agrippa was Aristobolus [his sone; Aristobolus]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] was þe sone of þe grete Herodes Ascalonita,*. [Ascolonita, Cx.] and his suster was Herodias, here hilde*. [hylde, α.; heore huld, γ.] his eme*. [hir helde his eme, β.; her oldest eame, Cx.] Herodes Antipas, þe for|saide Aristobolus his broþer. Þis Herodes Agrippa was a man of greet herte, a good*. [greet, α. and Cx.] werriour, and fre*. [freo, γ.] of ȝiftes, but he was poore.*. [pour, Cx.] He come to Rome while Tyberius Cesar lyvede forto gete*. [geete, Cx.] anoþer tetrarchia, þat is anoþir forþe*. [ferthe, β.; feurþe, γ.] deel*. [fourth deele, Cx.] of þe kyngdom of Iewes, and hadde greet frendschipe*. [frenschip, β.] of Drusus, Tiberius Cesar his sone, and oblegede*. [obleged, Cx.] hym self for moche dette forto wynne þe wille of the Romayns. But Page  383, vol.4 Drusus was hastiliche deed,*. [hastly dede, Cx.] and þerfore Tyberius Cesar was sory, þat he dede alle*. [dide al, Cx.] Drusus his servauntes out of his pre|sens,*. [presence, Cx.] lest Drusus his deth come to his mynde by sight of his servauntes; þerfore it happed*. [happide, β.; happyd, Cx.] þat Herodes Agrippa wente aȝen to þe Iewerye,*. [Iewry, Cx.] as it were a man wiþ oute comfort, and for schame and for nede*. [neode, γ.] and mescheef he closed hym self*. [sylf, γ.] in a tour þat he myȝte die for honger. But at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] prayer of his suster Herodias he was releved by Herodes Antipa. But Herodes Antipa repreved hym in a tyme for þe good þat he hadde i-doo hym, and Herodes [Agrippa]*. [From β. and Cx.] hadde indig|nacioun þerof, and wente to Tiberius Cesar, and gat*. [gate, Cx.] grace of hym at þe laste, and lefte*. [leefte, Cx.] wiþ Gayus Germanicus his sone. In a tyme he sat*. [saat, γ.] wiþ Gayus in his chare,*. [chaar, γ.] and wesched*. [wisschede, β.; chaar and wyss|ched, Cx.] þat Tyberius, þe olde man and unesy,*. [unnesy, γ. and Cx.] were dede, þat Gayus myȝte be emperour. The chariatour*. [charyoter, β. and Cx.] herde*. [hurde, γ.] þat, and warnede the emperour, and þerfore Agrippa was i-prisoned sixe monþes anon to*. [monethes unto, Cx.] þe deth of Tyberius Cesar. While þis Page  385, vol.4 Agrippa was in prisoun oon of his prisoneres þat was kon|nynge in devyne*. [dyvynynge, α., γ., and Cx.] warned hym þat he schulde sone be de|lyvered out of prisoun, and be a kyng, so þat his owne*. [owne] om. γ. and Cx.] frendes schulde have*. [habbe, γ.] envie to his welthe. Þis devynour de|vynede so while he seygh*. [siȝ, β.; syȝ, γ.; sawe, Cx.] an owle*. [oule, β.] sitte uppon þe tree þat Agrippa lenede too,*. [lened to, Cx.] and seide þat as sone as he sigh*. [siȝ, β.; syȝ, γ.; sawe, Cx.] evere*. [eft, α. and Cx.] suche a manere bridde*. [byrde, Cx.] sitte above hym he schulde dye þe fifte day after. Whan Tyberius was deed Gayus de|lyverede Agrippa, and ȝaf hym tweie tretrarches,*. [tetrarchies, α.] of Phelip and of Lisania, and crownede and clepede hym kyng. Þer|fore his suster Herodias was wrooþ, and hadde grete indig|nacioun, for here housebonde Herodes Antipas, þat was tetrarcha, hadde nouȝt i-gete hym the name of kyng; and sche excited hir housbonde Herodes Antipa þat he schulde goo to Gayus and begge*. [bugge, γ.; beye, Cx.] þe name of [a]*. [From Cx.] kyng. But Gayus was i-warned to forehonde*. [aforehonde, Cx.] by lettres of Agrippa, and put Herodes to Lugdinius*. [Lugdunus, β. and γ.; Lugduns, Cx.] in Fraunce; and for Herodias was Agrippa his suster, sche hadde chois wheþer*. [choes where, Cx.] sche wolde goo aȝen or Page  387, vol.4 folwe*. [other folow, Cx.] hir housbonde Herodes Antipas.*. [Herodes Antipas] om. α. β., and Cx.] And sche chees*. [heo ches, β.] to be exciled*. [exiled, γ.; exyled, Cx.] wiþ here housbonde, and seide þat sche*. [heo, β., et infra.] wolde nouȝt leve hir housbonde in his meschif, þat sche*. [sche] om. α.; γ. has a.] hadde i-folwed in his welþe and*. [in . . . and] om. Cx.] in his bonchif;*. [bonchef, α. and β.; bonchief, γ.; bonechefe, Cx.] and so þe þridde tetrarcha*. [tetrarchia, β. and Cx.] was i-take from Herodes Antipa and i-ȝeve to Herodes Agrippa. At the laste Gayus Cesar*. [Cesar] om. Cx.] was i-slawe, whan þere was strif bytwene þe senatoures and knyȝtes and þe peple of Rome. For þe senatoures dradde þe cruelnesse*. [cruwelnesse, β.; drad the cruelte, Cx.] of þe emperours and [þe]*. [From α. and Cx.] disavauntage of þe comounte,*. [comynte, Cx.] and þe peple dradde the covetise of þe consuls. Þanne by sliþe*. [sleiȝþe, β.; sleyght, Cx.] of Herodes*. [Herodes] om. Cx.] Agrippa, Claudius was i-made emperour, and anon he ȝaf Herodes Agrippa þe fourþe tetrarcha,*. [tetrarchia, α., β., and Cx.] þat is Iudea, and so Herodes Agrippa*. [Agrippas, α.] was i-made grete, and wente aȝen in to þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Iewerie,*. [Jewry, Cx., et infra.] and aftirward þere he slough Iames and prisoned Petir. Þanne he made pleyes*. [playes, Cx.] at Cesarea, as Page  389, vol.4 it is i-seide to forehonde,*. [aforehonde, Cx.] and swal and was i-ete wiþ wormes and deide, and lefte aftir hym, to be his successour over*. [to be . . . over] om. Cx.] tweie [other]*. [From Cx.] lynages and an half byȝonde flom*. [flum, β.; flume, Cx.] Iordan, his sone [Herodes]*. [From Cx.] Agrippa, þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] was nouȝt i-clepede Herodes, but onliche Agrippa. To hym Cristene men flye*. [fled, Cx.] aftirward out of þe Iewerie, whanne þe citee schulde be i-take and de|stroyed. Seinte Marie, oure Lordes moder, deide þe ȝere of hir age þre score and þre, ffor in þe burþe*. [byrth, Cx.] of hir sone sche was fourtene ȝere olde, and lyvede*. [leved, Cx.] wiþ hir sone þre and þritty ȝere, and*. [and] om. Cx.] aftirward sixtene ȝere, as som men wil*. [wol, Cx.] mene, and so sche was i-take hens*. [hennes, β. and Cx.] whan sche was sixty wynter olde and more; ffor me seith*. [men say, Cx.] þat þe apostles prechede aftir Crist in þe Iewerie, and in þe countrees aboute, ful twelve ȝere. Phelip the apostil was i-nailled*. [nayled, β. and Cx.] to þe cros in þe citee Ierapolis,*. [Iherapolis, β.] þe ȝere of his age þre score and eyȝtene.*. [eyghten, Cx.] Lazarus þe firste bisshop of Ciprus*. [Cipres, γ. (bis); Cipris, Cx.] deide in his secounde deþ, and hadde foure and twenty ȝere bytwene his tweie dethes. Trevisa. Lazarus deide ones and was arered from Page  391, vol.4 deth to lyve, and lyvede aftirward foure and twenty ȝere, [and was bisshop of Ciprys, and deide eft; and so Lazarus hadde foure and twenty ȝere]*. [From α.] by twene his tweyne dethes. Þanne it folweþ in storie:*. [Trevisa . . . storie] om. β. and Cx.] Felix procuratour of þe Iewerie*. [Jewry, Cx., ut semper.] was i-sent by Claudius; to fore*. [afore, Cx.] [this]*. [From γ. and Cx.] Felix Paule*. [Powle, Cx.] was accused, and appeled for his diffence*. [defens, α. and γ.; offence, Cx.] to þe emperour. Þat tyme were meny false prophetes. Egesippus, libro 2o. Also þat tyme wexe*. [were, β.] meny schrewed*. [shrewyd, Cx.; scherewed swe|ordmen, γ.] swerd men in Ierusalem, and were i-melled*. [medled, β. and Cx.] among þe peple, and slouȝ meny men so sotelliche,*. [subtily, Cx.] and so priveliche,*. [pryvely, Cx.] þat no man kouþe*. [coude, Cx.] hem aspie, so þat the drede of hem þat lyvede was more grevous þan þe meschief of hem þat were dede. Þerfore meny men wente into wildernesse for to have refute*. [refuyt, γ.] and socoure. Clau|dius deide at Rome in his owne paleys,*. [palis, Cx.] þe ȝere of his age þre score and foure, as it were in þe monþe of Marche; for his wif Agrippina slouȝ hym wiþ venym, forto putte of his sone Britannicus, and to make here owne sone Nero emperour. Nero.*. [Nero] om. β., γ., and Cx.]

Page  393, vol.4

Capitulum nonum.

NERO þe sone of Domicius and of Agrippina, Gaius his suster, hadde i-wedded Claudius his douȝter,*. [doȝter, γ.] and bygan to regne*. [and regnede, added in β. and γ.] alle mest*. [almoost, Cx.] fourtene ȝere. Þis was most curious and crafty to worche*. [wyrche, γ.; werke, Cx.] wiþ instrumentȝ of musik, so þat he hadde ioye and likynge to be openliche*. [oponlych, γ.; openly, Cx.] i-cleped prince of har|poures*. [harpers, β. and Cx.; harpours, γ.]; also he hadde greet likynge in þe swetnesse of his voys, þat abstynede hym and sparede al manere mete and drynke*. [dryngke, γ.] þat was nouȝt good for þe voys, and nouȝt onlyche þat didde*. [dude, γ.] he,*. [not only he dyde that, β. and Cx.] but also he usede ofte clistories*. [clysteryes, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and spuynge.*. [vomytes, β. and Cx.; spuwyng, γ.]Trevisa. A clisterie is an instrument þat phicicians useþ forto putte in a manis neþer ende forto clense his wombe. Þanne it folweþ in þe storie:*. [Trevisa . . . storie] om. β. and Cx.] whan Nero gan*. [bigan, β. and Cx.] to synge,*. [syngge, γ.] no man was so hardy to go out of þe theatre or*. [er, β. and Cx.; ar, γ.] he hadde i-made ende of his song. And he was [al]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] i-ruled and i-ladde by ledynge and counsaille of mynstralles*. [ministrals, γ.] al þat he hadde:*. [al . . . hadde] om. Cx.] and for he was moost coveitous of alle emperours, he usede Page  395, vol.4 forto seie,*. [segge, γ.; saye, Cx.] "He þat is above al haþ nede*. [neode, γ.] to al;" bot*. [but, Cx.] ȝit it greved hym nouȝt to ȝeve mynstralles*. [mynstrals, β. and Cx.] al þat he hadde; and he*. [he] om. γ.] ȝaf hem all þe worschippes of þe citee of Rome. Sueto|nius. He werede no clooþ twyes; he usede scho soles of silver and schodde his mules*. [muyles, γ.] wiþ silver.*. [and . . . silver] om. β. and Cx.] He fisched*. [fysshed, Cx.] wiþ nettes of gold, þe nettes were i-drawe wiþ [ropis of]*. [From β. and Cx.] reed silk. Also þis,*. [for this, Cx.] for he wolde see þe liknesse of Troye whan it was i-sette a fuyre,*. [fyre, Cx.] [he sette a greet deel of Rome a fuyre,*. [fier, β.]]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat brende sevene nyght*. [nyghtes, Cx.] and sevene dayes; and he gan to ȝelle*. [ȝolle, γ.] and songe*. [synge, α., β., and γ.; crye and singe, Cx.] þe gestes*. [geestes, γ.] of Troye. Orosius. Also he was so leccherous þat he wolde be i-wasche*. [wesshe, Cx.] wiþ hote oynementes and colde. Also he wedded a man for to be his wif, and [he]*. [From γ. and Cx.] bycam*. [bycaam, γ.] anoþir manis wif. Also he lete kerue his owne moder wombe, for he wolde see þe place þat he was conceyved ynne. Martinus. Phisicians*. [Phisiciens, Cx.] blamed hym for he hadde defouled*. [defowled, Cx.] his owne modir, and he*. [he] om. γ.] answerde and seide, "But ȝe make me goo Page  397, vol.4 wiþ childe,*. [þat y may assaye what sorowe hyt is for to trauayle and bere chyld, added here in γ.] ȝe schulle*. [shal, Cx.] be deed everichon." Þanne þey made hym swelle with drinkes,*. [drenches, β.; drynches, γ.] and made hym unwitynge drinke a frogge; and at þe laste aftir moche*. [mych, β.] woo and wiþ moche sorwe he delyvered hym and caste up þe*. [þe] a, Cx.] frogge. But þe phisiciens seide þat þe childe was i-bore to fore*. [afore, Cx.] his tyme, and þerfore it was so unþryvyngeliche*. [unþryvynglich, β.; unthryvynly, Cx.] and so evel*. [and so evel] om. γ.] i-schape. But Nero made this frogge be kept in a toure to his owne lyves ende. Þerfore som men weneþ þa*. [wenen that, Cx.] Lateran haþ þat name of a frogge þa*. [þat, β.] lotede þer; fore*. [loted there for, Cx.] latere a Latyn is lotye and be i-hidde oþer unknowe in*. [an, α., β., and γ.] Englische, and rana in*. [α, α., β., and γ.] Latyn a frogge in*. [an, α., β., and γ.] Englisshe. Also Nero made hym an hevene of an hondred foot hyȝe, i-bored and i-þrulled*. [þurled, α.; yþirled, β.; yþurled, γ.; and bored and thyrled, Cx.] wiþ meny smale holes, and it was i-bore up wiþ foure score pilers and ten of marbil stoon. He leet hilde*. [helde, β. and γ.; fall, Cx.] water þer uppon, þat dropped doun*. [droppide adoun, β.] as it were reyn þat falleþ from hevene. He made also a lampe brenninge be i-drawe in*. [in] into, Cx.] þat hevene be day, þat ȝede*. [ȝeode, γ.] adoun westward as it were þe sonne; and he made a myrour*. [merour yhyȝt, γ.] i-liȝt*. [hiȝt, α.; yhiȝte, β.; sette, Cx.] with pre|cious Page  399, vol.4 stones, þat schyned*. [schyne, α., β., and γ; shone, Cx.] by nyȝte as it were þe mone. But al þis was*. [þeus were, γ.; these were, Cx.] by Goddis ordinaunce so sodeynliche*. [sodenly, Cx.] de|stroyed*. [distruyed, β.; so sodeynliche destroyed, om. γ.] so to russhed*. [rusched, β. and Cx.; ruyschet, γ.] and to*. [y, α.] broke þat þerof was nevere i-founde gobet*. [gobet founde, Cx.] noþer cromme.*. [crome, γ.] Also he made a carte*. [carre, Cx.] wiþ foure wheeles*. [whelis, Cx.] be i-drawe up on þe*. [þat, α., β., and Cx.] hevene, so þat þat noyse was i-herde*. [yhurd, γ.] as it were þe noyse of a greet þondir, but God almyty sente a greet wynde þat þrewe the carte into the ryver. Eutropius. Nero slouȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] meny noblemen and Livia Octavi|anus his wif,*. [Octavians wyf, Cx.] his owne moder Agrippina, and his fadir suster and his wif; and Seneca þe philosofre of Corduben, Lucanus his eme,*. [Lucanus eame, Cx.] was Nero his maister, and axed covenable reward for þat he hadde i-be Nero his maister, and hadde choys in whiche*. [whuch, γ.] bowȝ*. [bowe, Cx.] of a tree*. [treo, γ.] he wolde be an honged.*. [hanged, Cx.] Seneca axede why he hadde disserved*. [deserved, β. and Cx.] þat manere deth; þan Nero made oon skirmysshe above*. [one to scarmuch about, Cx.] Seneca his heed with a bryght swerd, and sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] þat he was wondir soore afeerd,*. [sore aferd, Cx., et infra.] and seide, "As sore as Page  401, vol.4 þou art afeerd of þis swerd, as sore I*. [ych, β. (bis).] am aferde of the, and ȝit I*. [ych, β. (bis).] am as sore aferd of the as I was somtyme while I*. [ich, β.] was a childe. And þerfore while þou art on lyve*. [alyve, Cx.] I*. [y, β.] may nouȝt be wiþ oute drede, but evere in greet drede." Þerfore Seneca chees*. [ches, β. (bis).] what manere deth he wolde take, and chees*. [ches, β. (bis).] to be i-late blood in a bathe, and to dye in þat manere. As so*. [so] om. Cx.] as it was*. [were, Cx.] by a forbledynge*. [for bedynge, α., β., and Cx.; forbodyng, γ.] he hadde þat name Seneca. For Seneca in*. [α, β., γ., and Cx.] Latyn is he þat sleeþ hym self in*. [an, α., β., and γ.] Englisshe. Þis Seneca hadde tweyne*. [two, Cx.] breþeren; oon of hem heet Iulius Gallo, and was [the]*. [From β. and Cx.] best declamator of alle. He slow hym self wiþ his owne hond. Þe oþer broþer heet Mela, Lucanus [þe poete his fader. Also þis Lucanus,]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] whanne he hadde i-made his book of þe harm and damage of stryf and discord bytwene citeȝeynes,*. [citesens, γ.; cyteseins, Cx.] and þerby he brouȝte*. [he brouȝte] ybroȝt, γ.] Nero*. [Nero] om. γ.] to acorde and myldenesse, ȝit by heste of Nero he was i-slawe in blood leest*. [bloodlest, α.; slayn and blodelese, β.; yn blodles, γ.; slayn in bleding, Cx.] by kuttynge*. [kittyng, Cx.] of his veynes as it is seide. Policratica, libro 8o. Som ben*. [beþ, β.; buþ, γ.] bolde and hardy*. [and hardy] om. γ.] to despise þis Seneca, and fondith*. [fondith] om. Cx.; foundeþ to grounde ham, γ.] forto grounde hem*. [him, Cx.] uppon þe Page  403, vol.4 auctorite of Quintilianus, but me semeth þat þey doteþ,*. [doute, Cx.] for he was worthy to be homeliche*. [homely, Cx.] [with]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Paul, and Ierom rekeneth hym*. [hym] om. γ.] among holy seyntes. Þis Seneca hadde noble witte to lerne*. [leurne, γ.] and to teche, and hadde greet studieng*. [studiyng, β. and Cx.] and greet knowleche of þynges, and wel nyh*. [nye, Cx.] al matir of study of witte*. [In MS. the words from to lerne . . . of witte are repeated by an error of the scribe.] and of sciens, he hadde and wroot resouns of poetrie and nyh al manere philosofie, and in every doynge [he]*. [From β. and Cx.] was good and trewe kepere of vertues, and enemy of vices and of synnes, so þat it semede þat he made worldes*. [worlles, α. and γ.] of golde and godes*. [goddes, β.] acorde wiþ mankynde. Also he made bookes de Beneficiis, de Clemencia, declamaciones, tregideas,*. [tragedias, β., γ., and Cx.] de naturalibus questionibus, et de Tusculanis, de casibus fortuitis. Iero de viris illustribus. Paul appelede to the emperour, and was i-sent y-bounde*. [bounden, β. and Cx.] to Rome, and þere he was two ȝere in fre warde, and desputed*. [despuytede, γ.] aȝenst þe Iewes, and was aftirwarde i-lete goo free.*. [freo, γ.] Þat ȝere Peter ordeyned at Rome tweyne bisshoppes, þat were helperes to teche þe fey*. [feith, Cx.]Page  405, vol.4 of holy chirche; Lynus was oon and Cletus þat oþer; forto fulfille*. [fulfulle, γ.] þe offys*. [thoffice, Cx., bis.] of preosthood to þe peple þat com, and nouȝt the office of bisshoppes. Peter hym self was occupied in bedes and in prechynge. Martinus. Of þis Cletus hit is i-write þat he wroot first in his lettris "Salutem et apostolicam bene|dictionem," þat is, greetynge*. [greting, Cx.] and þe apostles blissynge. Þis preysed*. [praised, β. and Cx.] moche pilgrimage i-doo to holy seintes, and special|liche to þe apostles Peter and Paul;*. [Poul, β.] and seide þat oon visitynge of þe apostles was more helpliche*. [more helpyng, γ.; most helpli, Cx.] to a man his soule þan two ȝeres fastynge. Also þat ȝere Lukeas*. [Lucas, α., β., γ., and Cx.] was wiþ Poule*. [Paul, Cx.] in þe citee of Rome, and wroot þe book þat hatte*. [hete, Cx.] Actus Aposto|lorum; but he hadde i-wrete*. [write, β. and Cx.] þe gospel to forehonde.*. [afore, Cx.] Aboute þat ȝere deyde Longius,*. [Longinus, α., β., and γ.] [the]*. [From β. and Cx.] knyȝt and cen|turio*. [and centurio] om. Cx.] þat opened*. [opnede, γ.] Crist his side*. [his side] om. Cx.] wiþ a spere at Pilatus his heste,*. [at Pilatus his heste] om. Cx.] and feng his sight*. [toke his syhte, Cx.] by þe blood þat ran uppon þe spere out of Cristes side; and so he trowide*. [trouwede, γ.] in Crist, and was i-tauȝht of þe apostles, and wente to Cesaria*. [Cesarea, β. and Cx.] in Capadocia, Page  407, vol.4 and lyvede holy lyf eyȝte and twenty ȝere, and convertede and*. [convertede and] om. Cx.] tornede meny men to þe fey*. [fayth, Cx.] of holy chirche, and deide martir at þe laste. Persius Satiricus a*. [and, α., γ., and Cx.] poet is deed.*. [is deed] dyed, Cx.] [℞]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Þere were more*. [mo, β. and γ.] poetes þan satirices. Poeta haþ þat name of feynynge, and suche on*. [oon, β.; one, Cx.] was Virgil, specialliche in his Eneyd,*. [Eneidis, Cx.] and Ovidius. Satiricus is [y-]*. [From α. and γ.] seide of saturitas, þat is fulnesse of þe matir, oþer of the reprovynges*. [reprevingis, Cx.] þat þey speke aȝenst wikked*. [yl, Cx.] men and evel levynge, for þey speke þerof at þe fulle.*. [atte folle, γ.] And þere were þre [such],*. [From γ. and Cx.; siche, β.] Persius, Oracius, and Iuvenalis. Ysidorus, libro 8, capitulo 7o. Þe office of a poet is forto telle þinges þat beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] sooþ in dede by oþir liknesse and chaungynge, with florischynge of*. [and, α., β., and Cx.] faire manere of spekynge. Þerfore it is þat*. [it is þat] hyt ys noȝt þat, γ.] as poetes sigh*. [syȝ, β.; sye, Cx.] þat temples were fairer þan oþer hous,*. [howses, Cx.] and mawmettes*. [mametes, γ.] huger*. [houger, γ.; heyer, Cx.] þan oþir*. [oþir] om. γ.] bodies, so þey trowed þat goddes schulde be wor|schipped wiþ the more*. [more] om. Cx.] faire and noble spekynge; þerfore som poetes beeþ i-cleped*. [ben called, Cx.] dyvynes, ffor þey made here Page  409, vol.4 deytee*. [dyte, α.; dites, Cx.] of goddes. [℞]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Here*. [Hereby, α. and β.; Herby, γ.; Thereby, Cx.] it semeth þat Lucanus was no poet whan he made þre stories of þe stryf of citeseynes, but ȝif it were by þe manere of mellynge of poyesyes.*. [poysyes, β.; medlyng of poises, Cx.] Þe lasse Iames, bisshop of Ierusalem, was i-slawe sevene dayes to fore Averel,*. [afore April, Cx.] in the Ester*. [Estern, Cx.] tyme, þritty [yere]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] aftir þe passioun of oure Lord. Firste þe Iewes [they]*. [From Cx.] stened þis*. [þis] om. Cx.] Iames for wreche*. [wreche] anger, Cx.] þat þey myȝte nouȝt slee Poule,*. [Paul, Cx.] and aftirward þey smyte out his brayn wiþ a walkere his perche.*. [a walkers staf, Cx.] [℞.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx., but a space is left in MS.] Eusebius, in Historia Ecclesiastica, libro 2o, capitulo 2o, seiþ þat þis Iames was þe sone of Ioseph oure lady spouse, y-gete on his oþer wif,*. [The leaves of γ. are here wrongly arranged. The following numbers (according to the present numbering) should follow each other, 140, 143, 142, 141, 144.] and þerfore he was cleped our Lordes broþer. But Ierom meeneþ more soþeliche*. [sothly, Cx.] þat he was þe sone of the oþer Marye, oure lady suster, and his fadir heet*. [hete, Cx.] Alpheus. Mark þe gospellour,*. [gospeler, β. and Cx.] Paule his disciple and his mener,*. [mever, γ. and Cx.] deide at Alexandria in Egipt. His gospel was i-write*. [wreten, Cx.] at Rome, and Peter appreved it, and allowed*. [alowyd, Cx.] it, and took hit forto be Page  411, vol.4 rad in chirchis. Linus þe bisshop suffrede deþ at Rome sevene dayes to fore*. [afore, Cx.] Decembre. Aftir [hym]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Cletus was his successour xij. ȝere. Þat ȝere*. [ȝere] om. Cx.] Peter wente to Rome, to withstonde and to*. [to] om. Cx.] put of Symon Magus, þat come of þe Samaritanes. Peter hadde over come hym to forehonde*. [afore, Cx.] at Cesarea, and i-chased*. [chaced, Cx.] hym out of þe Iewerye. Symon Magus gadrede þe peple to gidres*. [togider, Cx.] at Rome, and seide þat Petir and Poule,*. [Paul, Cx.] men of Galile, had i-greved hym sore, and þerfore he wolde forsake Rome, þat he [had]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] diffended longe tyme; and þan he sette aday whan he wolde stye*. [styȝe, β.] up into hevene. And whan þat day was i-come he turned to and kydde*. [kudde, γ.] al the myght of his wicche*. [wych, γ.] craft. Þan þey þat were in his side seide þat Crist dede nevere suche a dede. But at þe prayere of Peter he fil down of his fliȝt, and was al to broke and to brosyd.*. [brused, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Nero was sory þat he hadde y-lost suche*. [sich, β.] an helpere, and putte Petir in warde, and Peter knewe þat his ende day was nygh,*. [neyȝ, β.; nye, Cx.] and made Clement bisshop in his Page  413, vol.4 stede.*. [stude, γ.] Also at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] instaunce*. [instauns, α. and γ.] of breþeren*. [breþeron, γ.] he wolde fonde to ascape*. [finde to escape, Cx.] Nero his tyrandise,*. [tirauntre, β.; tyraundys, γ; Neroes tirannie, Cx.] and mette Crist in þe ȝate of þe citee, and seide, "Lord, whedir goost þow?"*. [whether gost thou, Cx.] "I goo," quoþ Crist, "to Rome, for*. [for] om. Cx.] to be*. [be i-] om. γ.] i-nayled to þe cros aȝen."*. [crosse agein, Cx.] Þanne Petir undirstood þat it was i-seide of his owne pas|sioun, and torned aȝen into þe citee, and was i-take of þe wardeynes, and i-honged in*. [on, β.] þe cros,*. [on the crosse, Cx.] and his heed dounward. His disciples*. [disciple, α., β., and Cx.; dy|scyple, γ.] Marcellus abood no man his*. [abode no mannes, β. and Cx.] sentence noþer leve, but took Peter doun of þe croys*. [crosse, Cx.] wiþ his owne hondes, and buried hym in a place þat hatte*. [hete, Cx.] Vaticanus, aftir the fyve and twenty ȝere of þe bisshopriche of Rome. In Nero his laste ȝere, Nere*. [Nero, β., γ., and Cx.] dede Peter on*. [in, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe cros, and made Paul i-slawe wiþ a swerd, al in oon day, and sent þe duke Vaspacianus*. [duc Vaspasianus, Cx.] in to þe Iewerie,*. [Jewry, Cx.] to make the Iewes suget,*. [subgette, Cx.] þat wolde nouȝt suffre þe covetise of Floures*. [Florus, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat was iustice. Eutropius.Page  415, vol.4 Whanne he herde*. [hurde, γ.] þat Galba in Speyne*. [Spayn, α., β., and γ.; Spain, Cx.] was i-made em|perour, þan he lost al confort;*. [comforte, Cx.] and for harmes þat he hadde i-doo and byþouȝt to*. [to] om. Cx.] þe comounte,*. [comynte, β., γ., and Cx.] þe senatoures demed hym for an enemy,*. [enmye, Cx.] and he fliȝ*. [fled, Cx.] foure myle fro þe citee, and slowȝ hym self in a subarbe of his bondeman, þat he hadde i-made free,*. [freo, γ.] þe ȝere of his owne age two and þritty. Þat ȝere al þe meyne of Augustus Cesar was consumpte. Whan Peter hadde i-suffred deth, þanne Clement come aftir hym;*. [and, added in γ.] Clement hadde governed holy chirche nyne ȝere under Peter while he was on lyve,*. [alyve, Cx.] and aftir Peter*. [and aftir Peter] om. Cx.] he was bisshop two and twenty ȝere, twelve ȝere with Linus and Cletus, and after hem nyne ȝere by hymself allone for to*. [al oon for to, β.; aloon for tho, Cx.] he was exciled.*. [for to þat a was exiled, γ.; exyled, Cx.] Þis Clement as a wise man and a*. [α] om. Cx.] war, for to be war*. [ware, Cx.] of meschief þat myȝt falle aftirward ȝif everiche*. [every, Cx.] oþer wolde make hym a successour by þat ensample of Peter, and so holy dignyte myȝte falle into*. [yn, α.; in, γ. and Cx.] possessioun as it were by heritage;*. [eritage, γ.] þerfore he resignede his dignite to Linus, and aftirward to Cletus. Also þis Clement [wroot meny bookes of Cristen*. [Crystene, γ.] lawe, and made Linus and Cletus bysshops to fore hym. And so þis Clement]*. [From α., β., and γ.] was þe firste aftir Peter by elleccioun,*. [election, Cx.]Page  417, vol.4 and þe þridde in degree of ordre, ffor Lynus and Cletus were bytwene Peter and hym. His body*. [bodi, Cx.] was i-þrowe into the see Cerson; and after meny ȝeres oon Cirillus, apostel of þe Sclaves, fond hit, and brouȝt it to Rome in þe firste Nichol*. [Nicolas, β.; Nycholas, Cx.] his tyme. Gaufridus. Aboute þat tyme Marius, þe sone of Arviragus, regnede in Britayne. In his tyme oon Rodoricus,*. [Rodricus, β. and γ.; Rodicus, Cx., et infra.] kyng of Pictes, come out of Schicia,*. [Sicia, Cx.] and occupiede the norþ*. [norþ] om.] partie of Britayne, þat partie hiȝt*. [hete, Cx. (bis).] Albania, and nowe it hatte*. [hete, Cx. (bis).] Scot|lande. But at þe laste Marius slowȝ Rodoricus,*. [Rodricus, β. and γ.; Rodicus, Cx., et infra.] and in mynde*. [muynde, γ.] of þat victorie [kyng]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Marius rerede a stoon in þat place, þe whiche contray is i-cleped by his name West Maria, þat is Westmerlond; ȝit it is i-write*. [wreton, Cx.] in þat*. [þat] a, Cx.] stoon "Marii victorie."*. [℞, added here in β. and γ.] Here Willelmus*. [Wyllelmus, Cx.] of Malmesbury was desceyved,*. [disseyved, Cx.] þat trowed*. [troweth, Cx.] þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] this stoon was rerede*. [reerde, Cx.] in mynde*. [muynde, γ.] of Marius þe consul of Rome. But it is no wonder, for*. [for] om. Cx.] he hadde nouȝt i-rad*. [radde, Cx.] þe Brittisshe book, þere it is i-write*. [wreten, Cx.] of Marius þe kyng. Aftirward Marius þe kyng grauntede to Rodoricus*. [Rodycus, Cx.]Page  419, vol.4 his men, þat were overcome, þe lond of Catenesey*. [Catenesi, γ.] þat is in þe laste endes of Scotlond for to wonye ynne,*. [dwelle there ynne, Cx.] as it is [y-]*. [From α. and γ.] seide in þe laste chapitre of þe firste book. Galba.*. [Galba] om. Cx.]

Capitulo decimo.

GALBA SERVIUS regnede aftir Nero sevene monþes,*. [monethes, Cx.] i-chose of Spaynyellus*. [Spaynols, β.; Spaynyels, γ.; Spaynerdys, Cx.] and of*. [of] om. Cx.] Galles, þe ȝere of his age þre score and þrittene,*. [thryten, Cx.] and hadde be a senatour of olde nobelle.*. [nobley, β. and Cx.; noblete, γ.] His prive*. [pryvy, Cx.] lyf was ful noble, and hadde ofte i-be consul, and ofte proconsul, and ofte duke*. [duk, Cx.] and ledere of grete batailles and harde. He made oon Poysone,*. [pison, β. and γ.; pysonne, Cx.] a noble ȝonglyng,*. [yong man, Cx.] his sone adoptiuus and his eyr,*. [heer, Cx.] but by awaite*. [awayt, γ.] of oon Otho þey were boþe deede in þe myddel of þe chepynge place. Otho Lucius regnede thre monþes:*. [monethes, Cx., passim.] whanne Page  421, vol.4 he herde þat ȝere*. [ȝere] om. Cx.] þere was an emperour i-made in Gallia by legiouns*. [relygyons, Cx.] of Germania he rayed*. [arayed, α. and Cx.; arayede, γ.] batailles þat beeþ i-cleped*. [ben callyd, Cx.] bella civilia, and hadde the victorie in thre þe firste*. [furste, γ.] batailles; and in*. [in] om. Cx.] þe fourþe*. [feorþe, γ.] batayle, whanne he seie*. [sawe, Cx.] his men overset and falle to grounde, he seide þat he was nouȝt so worþy that civile bataile schulde for hym arise, and so he slowȝ*. [slew, Cx.] hymself. Vitellius*. [Vytellus, Cx.] regnede after Otho as it were seven monþes, and was strong and noble, but he was so greet*. [strong, γ.] a glotoun*. [gloton, γ. and Cx.] þat he eet somday þries, somday foure siþes, [and somday fyve siþes].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] But at oon sopere were i-sette tofore hym two þowsand fisches*. [fisshes, Cx.] and seven þowsand foules, so it is i-write. Þis dradde*. [drad, Cx.] þat Vaspacianus schulde regne, and slowȝ his brother Sabynus, and þanne for drede he hydde*. [hudde, γ.; hid, Cx] hym, and closed hym in a welle;*. [celle, β. and Cx.] and dukes þat were wiþ Vaspasianus drowȝ hym oute, and so he was openliche*. [openly, Cx.] and naked i|drawe*. [i-drawe] om. γ.] þoruȝ*. [þurȝ, β.; thurgh, Cx.] the citee, and hilde*. [helde, β.; huld, γ.; heelde, Cx.] up his heed an high,*. [on heiȝ, β.; on hye, Cx.] and a scharp swerd was sette undir his chyn, and alle men þrewe Page  423, vol.4 on hym drit and thost,*. [þost, α., β., and γ.; dirte and duste, Cx.] and so he was i-þrowe into Tybre.*. [Tiber, Cx.] Vaspacianus regnede as it were eyȝte ȝere, and was coveitous of money, but he took it nouȝt wrongfulliche. He wolde forȝete*. [forȝute, γ.] wronges, and liȝtliche take chidynges of men of lawe and of philosofres. Þis was somtyme i-sent by Nero into þe Iewerie for to chaste þe Iewes, and herde of Nero his deth, and lefte þere his sone Titus and wente aȝen to Rome; he fauȝt two and þritty siþes stalworthliche*. [stalwordlich, β.; tymes manly, Cx.] aȝenst his enemyes in Germanya and elleswhere.*. [elleswhare, γ.; ellys where, Cx.]Policratica, libro 3o, capitulo 14o. Oon Buculus an olde man cride in despite of Vaspacianus, and seide, "Þe fox may chaunge his skyn, but nouȝt his wille; ffor Vaspacianus his covetise was nevere þe lasse for the passinge of his age." Me seith þat he answerde in þis manere, "To suche men me oweþ*. [we o weþ, β. and γ.; we owe, Cx.] lawȝhynge,*. [lauȝinge, β.] to us*. [us sylf, γ.; our, Cx.] self correccioun, and peyne to evel doers." Also þis for the more*. [playne, Cx.] chastynge of the peple*. [chastisynge peple, β.] and naciouns of londes þat he hadde i-wonne, he made provinces of þese kyngdoms: Archaia, Licia, Rhodus, Sanius,*. [Samus, β., γ., and Cx.] Tracia and Scilicia,*. [Silicia, γ. and Cx.] and Page  425, vol.4 ordeynede stywardes to governe þese*. [þeos, γ.] londes, þat were rathir under kynges þat were sugettes and freendes*. [frendes and subgettis, Cx.] to þe Romayns. ℞. Here lakketh ten ȝere by þe comoun*. [comyn, Cx.] cronicles*. [cronykes, α. and γ.; cronykis, β.; cronykkes, Cx.] bytwene the passioun of oure Lord and Vaspacianus his tyme, as it is i-seide to forehonde*. [afore, Cx.] in þe*. [þe] om. γ.] prologe. Ierusalem is*. [was, Cx. (bis).] i-take by Tytus, þe temple is*. [was, Cx. (bis).] i-brente*. [i-brent] brend, α.] and i-throwe adoun evene to*. [to] wiþ þe, α., β., γ., and Cx.] grounde. Iosephus, libro septimo. Þe same monþe and day þat it was arst*. [fyrst, Cx.] i-brend*. [ybarnd, γ.] and i-þrowe adoun*. [and i-þrowe adoun] om. α., γ., and Cx.] by þe Caldeys,*. [Calendres, Cx.] þat is þe eyȝteþe*. [eiȝtenþe, β.; eyghtene, Cx.] day of Septembre; þe ȝere after þat Sa|lamon bulde it first enlevene hondred and þritty. After þe se|counde buldynge,*. [buyldyng, γ.; byldyng, Cx.] þat was in Ageus*. [Aggeus, Cx.] his tyme, seven hondred ȝere and nyne and þritty. But Martinus*. [Martyn, γ.] and oþer telleþ*. [tellen, Cx.] þat it was i-take in þe Ester*. [Estern, Cx.] tyme. Egesippus. In þis bren|nynge and destruccioun enleven siþes*. [tymes, Cx.] an hondred þowsand Iewes were i-slawe wiþ swerd*. [sweord, γ.] and wiþ honger. An hon|dred þowsand were i-take prisoners and i-solde awey, þritty for a peny, and nyne hondred þowsand flyȝ,*. [fledde, Cx.] and were to Page  427, vol.4 schift [and departed].*. [From Cx.]Ieromus.*. [Ieronimus, Cx.] Þat tyme was so moche*. [myche, β.] folk at Ierusalem, for in þe Ester*. [Estre, β.; Estern, Cx.] tyme þey come to þe temple out of al þe Iewerie.*. [Jeury, Cx.]Iosephus, libro 7o. Hit is no wonder þat so grete peple of Iewes were*. [was, β., γ., and Cx.] dede and i-take. For Nero somtyme wolde wite*. [wete, β. and Cx.; wyte, γ.] þe tale*. [taal, γ.] and þe nombre of Iewes þat were at Ierusalem, ffor he despised þe*. [þat, α., β., γ., and Cx.] peple wiþ al þat he*. [þat he] his, Cx.] myȝte. And Cestius þe steward,*. [styward, γ. and Cx.] as he hadde i-lerned*. [one, Cx.] of bisshoppes, wroot to Nero þat þere were i-founde at Ierusalem in an*. [one, Cx.] holy day twenty hondred þowsand [and seven hondred þowsand]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] wiþoute hem þat were polut,*. [pollute, Cx.] and persones wiþ wemmes þat hadde no leve for to offre.*. [offir, Cx.] Þe bisshop*. [bisshops, α.; byschops, γ.; bis|shopes, Cx.] acountede þis nombre by þe nombre of oystes*. [ostes, γ.; hoostes, Cx.] þat were [y-]*. [From α. and γ.] offred, þe whiche nombre was two hondred þowsand and sixe and fifty þow|sand and fyve*. [fyf, γ.] hondred, and evere*. [ever, β.; every, Cx.] ten persones offrede oon oyst.*. [offryd one hooste, Cx.] In þis fiȝtynge þe Romayns hadde konnynge*. [kunnynge, Cx.] and*. [yleorned, γ.]Page  429, vol.4 strengþe, þe Iewes hadde woodnesse and folye; ffor þe tyme was drye, and Vaspacianus wente to þe citee Iotapaten, and stoppede al þe water condites.*. [cundites, β.; conduytes, γ. and Cx.] Bot Iosephus was wiþ ynne, and fonde up a queynte*. [coynt, β.; connynge, Cx.] craft, and heng wete cloþes uppon þe toun walles, and for the cloþes droppede, þey þat were wiþoute wende and trowede þat þey þat were wiþ ynne hadde no lak*. [lacke, Cx.] of water forto drynke*. [dryngke, γ.] while þey hadde [plente of]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] water to wasche*. [waysche, γ.] wiþ*. [wiþ] om. Cx.] hir cloþes. Þanne Vas|pacianus destourbed þe wal wiþ þe*. [þe] a, Cx.] stroke of an engyne; but Iosephus heng sakkes*. [sakkis, Cx.] ful*. [fol, γ.] of straw aȝenst the strookes of þe engynes,*. [engyne, Cx.] and so þe strokes were i-lette, and þe walles i-saved; for harde þinges beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] bettre wiþstonde wiþ nesche*. [naysche, γ.] þinges þan wiþ hard. But þe Romayns bounde hookes*. [hokes, γ. and Cx.] to longe pooles, and kutte*. [kytte, Cx.] þe roopes*. [ropis, Cx.] of þe sakkes.*. [sackis, Cx.] But Iosephus þrewe out brennynge oyle uppon alle her gynnes, and smoot of al her gynnes.*. [engynes, Cx.] Vaspacianus wolde amende þe gynne,*. [þe gynne] gynnes, β.; hem, Cx.] and was soore i-wounded in the heele. Whan þat was i-seie,*. [whan . . . seie] after that, Cx.] þere fil so gret strengþe of castynge and of Page  431, vol.4 schot*. [shote, Cx.] of Titus his side, þat þe noble knyȝht*. [noble knyght] nolle, α., β., and Cx.; nol, γ.] of oon of*. [of] om. Cx.] Iosephus his felowes was i-smyte of þat place*. [þat place] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] wiþ a stoon, and flyȝ*. [flewe, Cx.] over þe þridde forlong.*. [forlond, α.; furlong, β. and Cx., et infra.] Also a womman þat was wiþ childe was i-smyte soo þat þe childe was i-smyte out of his*. [her, γ. and Cx.] wombe, and fligh*. [flewe, Cx.] over [half]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] a forlong. Whanne Titus hadde i-broke þe secounde wal, Iosephus was i-founde y-hid*. [founden hid, Cx.] among useles,*. [ysels, β; osers, Cx.] and hadde i-hidde hym þre dayes, þanne þey þat founde hym despised hym in þis manere: "Wherto wilt*. [wolt, β. and Cx.] þou lyve while it is not covenable, noþer leoful,*. [leefful, β.; leffol, γ.; leeful, Cx.] noþer*. [nether, Cx.] semeliche; þy lyf schal be mede*. [meede, β.] of perschynge*. [persynge, α.; persyng, γ.; per|schyng, Cx.] and of lost oþer it schal be payne of servage and of bondage. Have mynde*. [muynde, γ.] of Moyses, hym was levere be scraped out of þe book of lyf þan lyve*. [lybbe, γ.] lenger þan þe peple. Also David was levere fonge wreche*. [in se ipso written above the line in β.; take in se ipso, Cx.] þan leve*. [lyve, β. and Cx.; lybbe, γ.] and see þe peple perisshe."*. [ylost, γ.] "Who desireþ*. [desired, Cx.] nouȝt," quod Iosephus, "ȝif Page  433, vol.4 it were laweful, to be delyvered and unbounde of so greet woo and sorwe; but he þat bonde hath leve to unbynde, and none oþer; ȝif eny*. [ony, Cx.] oþer unbyndeþ he dooth the Lord wrong. Þanne as oure Lordes trewe*. [truwe, γ.] servauntes, kepe we what he haþ bytake us while it is his wille; þanne he is unkynde þat wil rather be a goo oþer lenger abyde þanne he wole*. [wole] om. γ.] to whom*. [whoome, Cx.] he is i-bounde. So it was sooþ of Abraham, of Iacob, of Moyses, of David, þat prayed*. [prayde, β. and Cx.] to be delyvered of prison*. [prysonne oft, Cx.] of þis lyf; but noon slow hym|self of alle holy seyntes. Þanne ȝif it is good to lyve, it is sacrelegy*. [sacrelege, β.; sacrylege, Cx.] to forsake it unskilfulliche;*. [unskylfolych, γ.; unrightfully, Cx.] ȝif it is glorious to dy*. [dye, Cx.] in batyale I wiþ seie*. [wiþsegge, β.; withsey hit, Cx.] it nouȝt; and ȝif it is*. [be, Cx.] good to fiȝte for þe contray, for þe peple, and for þe citeȝeynes, and deie*. [dye, Cx.] in bataille, y*. [y potte, γ.; I, Cx.] putte forþ myn heed to be i-smyte of, ȝif þe enemy axith by lawe of bataile. Noþer I flatere*. [flaterye, α.; y flatrye γ.; flater, Cx.] wiþ my self ȝif it is to sparynge, be he my borwe*. [borowe, β.; borouȝ, γ.] me is*. [me is] i-hadde, Cx.] levere deye by here heste*. [þefte, α. and Cx.; þeofthe, γ.] þan by myn owne; ȝif ȝe seieþ*. [scyn, β.; seggeþ, γ.; saye, Cx.] þat it is swete to dye for fredom, Page  435, vol.4 I with seie*. [wiþsigge, β.; withsegge, γ.; withsay, Cx.] it nouȝt but it is swete to deye for fredom; he is feerful*. [ferfol, γ.] þat wil nouȝt deye whanne it nedeth; hit is a womman stalworthnesse for eny*. [ony, Cx.] to sle hym self. Bestes konneþ nouȝt*. [conne not, Cx.] doo so, for þeye*. [he, α.] diffendeþ*. [defende, Cx.] hemself aȝenst oþer bestes wiþ teeth*. [teþ, γ.] and wiþ clawes, but among hem self þey useþ*. [use, Cx.] cusses*. [cosses, α., β., and γ.] and likkynge and strokynge. God haþ i-take us oure lyf to kepe, but wheþer we doo we beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] to blame ȝif we þroweþ*. [throwe, Cx.] hit away wiþ oute [his]*. [From γ. and Cx.] axynge þat ȝaf it us, oþer ȝif we werneþ*. [warne, Cx.] for to take it as*. [as] at, Cx.] his axynge." Whanne þese wordes were i-seide,*. [sayd, Cx., et infra.] Iosephus sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] oon of hem þat stood by and*. [and] om. γ.] stryve*. [strof, β.; strove, Cx.] fastere þan oþere; þanne Iosephus seide, "Caste we lot*. [lotte, Cx.] who schal dye first and next,*. [laste, Cx.] and so forth of us alle, so þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] he þat schal dye first schal be slawe*. [slayne, Cx.] of hym þat schal dye next, and so everich*. [everyone, Cx.] aftir oþer." Þe condicioun plesede*. [plesyd, Cx.] hem alle, and so it happede þat þey were dede everichon*. [everichon] al, Cx.] save Iosephus and oon othir. Þan Iosephus counsailled*. [counceyled, Cx.] his felawe to Page  437, vol.4 forsake his lot, and þerby he scaped*. [ascaped, β.; escaped, Cx.] peril at home, and so he was i-brouȝt to Vaspacianus. Iosephus, libro 5o.*. [6o, Cx.] At þe laste Vaspacianus was i-cleped*. [callyd, Cx.] to be emperour, and his sone Titus was i-left at þe sege*. [siege, Cx.] of Ierusalem, and wente in a day wiþ sixe hondred horsmen wiþ oute habergeouns*. [haberions, β., γ., and Cx.] aboute for to see þe citee, and Iewes come oute and closede hym*. [them, Cx.] yn byhynde; and he whette his herte and wil wiþ hardynesse,*. [hardines, Cx.] and rood manliche þoruȝ oute þe*. [rode manly thorough the, Cx.] company of Iewes, and come to his owne men; and for grete drede he*. [he] om. Cx.] leieþ*. [leyþ, α. and β.; aledged, Cx.; γ. is very indistinct, but seems to be alete.] ofte grete wrethe, þey þat were in whanhope*. [wanhope, β., γ., and Cx.] in þe citee confe|therede*. [conforted, Cx.] to gidres in þe mene tyme; and meny of þe Iewes preide*. [prayed, Cx.] pees*. [pes, γ.] of Titus, ad*. [and, Cx.] Titus dradde gile and tresoun, and seide to hys men, "As þey þat beeþ byneþe useþ*. [ben bineth useth, Cx.] waitynge and aspyenge,*. [aspiyng, β. (bis) and Cx.; spy|yng, γ. (bis).] so it nedeþ*. [neodeþ, γ.] hem þat beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] strengere to be war of suche waytynge and spienge,*. [espieng, Cx.] leste strengþe be bytrayed by fraud and by gile." Þanne þe firste wil*. [wal, β., γ., and Cx.] was i-broke wiþ an engyne, and Titus counsailleþ*. [counseyled, Cx.] his men for|to*. [forto] to, α., γ., and Cx.]Page  439, vol.4 fiȝte warliche,*. [warly, Cx.] ffor ȝif*. [ȝef, γ. (bis).] þere*. [they, Cx.] lacked counsaile strengþe shulde seme but folie; also in þe victorie is most drede, ffor ȝif*. [ȝef, γ. (bis).] þe strengere deyeþ*. [dyeth, Cx.] with the febelere,*. [febler, Cx.] þat is a victorie to hym þat is overcome. Þanne þe secounde wal was i|quasched,*. [yquaysched, γ.] and Titus profreþ*. [proferid, Cx.] pees, but in þe Iewen*. [Iewene, γ.; Iewes, Cx.] side Symon and Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] wiþ seide; þan fil*. [ful, γ.] so greet cruelnesse*. [cruwelnesse, β.] and honger in þe citee þat biggynge*. [buggyng and syllyng, γ.; byeng, Cx.] and sellynge*. [sillinge, β.] cesede,*. [ceesede, β.; seesid, Cx.] and so dede rostynge and seþinge*. [seoþyng, γ.] and greyþinge*. [dressyng, Cx.] of mete. Men ete skynnes of scheldes and of cast*. [outcast, β.; of castyng, γ.; sheldes and out caste, Cx.] of herbes þat clevede on þe walles, and filþe*. [fulthe, γ.] þat men hadde y-spewed*. [yspuwed, γ.] and i-cast up; and men soute olde dritte*. [drit, β.; dryt, γ.; dyrte, Cx.] of reþeren,*. [of reþeren] om. Cx.; ruþeren, β.; roþeron, γ.] skynnes of addres, and careyn of hors*. [horses, β. and Cx.] forto have to mete. Hit was liȝter for to gete mercy among here enemyes þan among here owne men. Galewes*. [Galwes, β.; Galowes, Cx.; Galwes and gebetes, γ.] and gibbettes were i-sette on*. [upon, Cx.] þe walles, for no man schulde flee*. [fleo, γ.] takyng deth and prisonninge wiþ oute and honger wiþ ynne, and drede in every*. [evereche, β.] side. Titus made a new Page  441, vol.4 wal þat byclipped*. [closed, Cx.] fourty forlonges aboute þe citee, and þe tentes and pavilouns byclipped*. [pavilons closed, Cx.] ten forlonges; and wardes and wacches*. [watches, Cx.] were i-sette þat no man schulde askape.*. [escape, Cx.] At þe laste the honger encresed*. [encressede, γ.; encreced, Cx.] soo þat ofte he þat bare þe deed man to his buryenge was i-buried raþer than he. There was so greet stenche of dede men, for þe grounde of þe citee sufficede nouȝt to buriels*. [suffysed not to beryels, Cx.] þat [the]*. [From Cx.; ne, β.] careyns were y-þrowe by þe sondes*. [þousondes, γ.] over þe walles. Whan Titus syȝ*. [sye, Cx.] þat,*. [and inserted in β.] he seide ofte he hadde [y-]*. [hadde y-] om. Cx.] profred mercy; but meny fliȝ*. [fled, Cx.] to þe Romayns, and whan me ȝaf hem mete þer was no strengþe forto ete oþer for to deffie*. [defye, α., β., and Cx.] þe*. [þe] theyr, Cx.] mete þat þey ete. Som of hem þat flye,*. [fled, Cx.] whanne þey clensid hir wombe, delyvered hem of ieweles*. [juels, β. and Cx.; jywels, γ.] of gold þat þey hadde i-swolwed to fore*. [swolewide tofore, β.; swolowed afore, Cx.] þat þey flyȝ,*. [fled, Cx.] for þe enemyes schulde not suche iewels openliche*. [openly suche juels, Cx.] fynde. Oon of þe Assiries*. [Assyres, β.; Assires, γ.] aspied þat doynge by oon þat hadde y-schete*. [schite, β.; cacked, Cx.] golde, and trowede þat alle þe Iewes hadde Page  443, vol.4 gold wiþ ynne hem. Þan þe Iewes þat fligh*. [fled, Cx.] to þe Romayns were y-oponed, aȝenst Titus his heste, and þe wombe*. [wombes, Cx.] and þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] bowels were i-slitte and y-turned*. [torne, α.; ycorve, β. and γ.; corven, Cx.] to seche gold wiþ ynne. Titus made Iosephus to fonde*. [foonde, β.; wete, Cx.] ȝif he myte make þe Iewes ȝelde*. [ȝulde, γ.] hem wiþ oute more harme, ȝif he myghte wiþ writynge, wiþ ensamples,*. [ensaumplis, β.] wiþ faire byhestes, [oþer]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] wiþ teres; but al [was]*. [From Cx.] for noȝt. Ioseus, libro 6o. But Symon and Iohn,*. [Iohan, Cx.] with here fautoures,*. [fautors, Cx.] stopped þe wayes al aboute, so þat the Iewes hadde no wey outward, noþer þe Romayns inward. Houses*. [Hous, α. and γ.] were besiliche*. [bisilich, β.; bysily, Cx.] y-serched*. [ysarched, γ.] ȝif out*. [ought, Cx., bis.] myȝt be y-founde, þat*. [þat] and yf, β. and Cx.] eny man wened*. [werned, α. and β.; weorned, γ.; warned, Cx.] out*. [oȝt, γ.] he was anon i-slawe. At þe laste wyfes cauȝte mete of hir housbondes mouþ, and fadir and modir of hir owne children*. [chyldern, γ.] mouth. ȝif eny*. [ony, Cx.] dore were i-tend,*. [tynde, β.; ytund, γ.; hytste, Cx.] anon me trowede*. [trouwede, γ.] þat som men*. [man, β. and Cx.] ete þerynne, þerfore anon the hous was i-broke; þe pore men were i-spoylled and*. [i-spoylled and] om. Cx.] i-robbed, [and]*. [From Cx.] þe riche were Page  445, vol.4 accused for hir money, as þouȝ they wolde flee oþer be|traye*. [bytray, Cx.] þe citee, and were i-slawe. Egesippus, libro 5o,*. [sexto, Cx.]et Ioseus, libro 7o. So*. [þo, α.; than, Cx.] byfel þat griseliche*. [gryslych, γ. (tris).] dede,*. [grisely dethe, Cx.] a straunge womman, þat heet Marye, was overcome wiþ honger, and spak to hir owne litel*. [lytell, Cx.] sone in þis manere: "Myn owne sone,*. [my sone, Cx.] þu art bysette aboute wiþ al þing þat is griseliche*. [gryslych, γ. (tris).] and dreed|ful,*. [grisely and dredeful, Cx.] wiþ bataille, wiþ hongir, wiþ fuyre brennynge, and with þeves.*. [þeoves, γ.] Quyte ones þy modir, and paye hir þat þou hast of hir i-fonge*. [i-fonge] om. Cx.] [and]*. [From Cx.] torne aȝen into þat*. [þat] thy, Cx.] prive*. [pryvey, Cx.] place þat þou come of. Somtyme I dede*. [y dude, γ.] as myldenesse wolde, doo we now as hunger counsailleþ."*. [constreyneth, Cx.] Þus sche*. [heo, β.] seide,*. [sethed, Cx.] and rostid hir owne sone, and eet som,*. [somme, Cx., bis.] and kept som. Bot*. [But, Cx.] men þat made stryf com þider*. [þuder, γ.] by þe smel of þe brende*. [brent, β.; brente, Cx.] flesche; but þe womman stilled hem, and spak to hem in þis manere: "Beþ*. [Be, Cx.] stille, I was nouȝt*. [nouȝt] om. Cx.] coveitous and unkynde, I*. [Ich, β.] have y-kept Page  447, vol.4 ȝow ȝoure parte;" and sche*. [heo, β.] spak to þe part þat was i-left in þis manere: "Myn owne sone, þou art kynde*. [kuynde, γ.] to me, þou lengþest*. [lengest, Cx.] my lyf; þou seesist*. [cesest, β. and Cx.; cessed, γ.] hem þat wolde me smyte, þey þat come to slee me, beeþ*. [kuynde, γ.] i-made now my frendes and gestes; þanne takeþ*. [tasteþ, α., β., and Cx.] what ȝe knoweþ*. [knowe, Cx.] þat þe childes modir haþ i-tasted, oþer elles I*. [ellys ye, Cx.] schal ete al in feere.*. [yfere, β., γ., and Cx.] Schame ȝow nouȝt to folwe a womman þat ȝe haveþ*. [have, Cx.] y-made ete*. [ete] om. Cx.] in þis manere." Anon þe citee was ful of þe clamour of þis griseliche*. [grisely, Cx.] dede. And Titus was so i|meoved*. [meved, β. and Cx.] þerwiþ, þat he ȝaf*. [haf, α., β., and γ.] up his hondes to heveneward and seide, "We come to a bataille of men, but now I see þat we fiȝteþ*. [fyghte, Cx.] aȝenst bestes; ȝit bestes*. [bestes ȝut, γ.] rampaunt spareþ*. [spare, Cx.] her owne kynde,*. [kuynde, γ.] be þey nevere so nedy,*. [neody, γ.] and helpeþ*. [helpith, Cx.] her owne children; but þese men devoureþ*. [devoreþ and freteþ, γ.; devoure, Cx.] here owne children: þanne destroye*. [destruye, β. and γ.] we hem, for alle hir dedes stinkeþ."*. [stinken, Cx.]Iosephus, libro 7o. Among þe Romayns was oon of Siria*. [Ciria, Cx.]Page  449, vol.4 þat heet Sabinus, an orped man and a*. [α] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] stalworþe of honde and of herte, and worþy [for]*. [From Cx.] to be i-preysed wiþ oute ende; þis was blak of hewe and litel*. [litul, γ.] of stature, but a noble soule schoon*. [schone, β.; shone, Cx.] by virtues in þat litel*. [lytul, γ.] body. Þis wiþ enlevene*. [enleven, γ.] felawes wente uppon þe wal*. [walle, Cx.] first, and droof*. [drof, β.; drofe, Cx.] awey þe Iewes; but at þe laste he was aleyde*. [aleyd, γ.; afelled, Cx.] wiþ a stoon, and he despisede and rouȝt*. [rowhte, Cx.] nouȝt of arwes and [of]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] stones, but he diffendid hym wiþ his schilde,*. [shelde, Cx.] and fauȝte uppon his knees,*. [knen, β. and γ.] and woundede meny men alwey, for to*. [to] om. Cx.; for to þat, γ.] he was ful of arewes and of schot,*. [shot, Cx.] and þoruȝ schot*. [thorough shote, Cx.] in every side, and deyde*. [dede, β.; ded, γ.] in þe place. Egesippus. At þe laste þe engynes were remeved*. [remeoved, γ.] toward þe temple, but it halpe but lite,*. [litel, β.; lytil, Cx.] but at þe laste þey brende þe valves*. [walles, Cx.] of þe temple þat were i-heled wit gold. ℞. Here Iosephus telleþ þat þis mescheef and destroyenge*. [distruyynge, β.; destruyyng. γ.] of þe citee and of þe peple bifel*. [befil, Cx.] for þe deeth and sleynge of Iames þe riȝtful, but more verreyliche*. [veryly, Cx.] it bifel*. [fil, Cx.] for þe Page  451, vol.4 sleynge of Crist, as þe gospelle seiþ: "þey schulleþ*. [a scholleþ, γ.] nouȝt*. [shulle not, Cx.] leve*. [leeve, β.] in þe*. [In þe] om. Cx.] [one]*. [From Cx.] stoon uppon [a]*. [From Cx.] stoon, for þou knowest nouȝt þe tyme of þyne*. [þyne] om. Cx.] visitacioun." But for*. [for] om. Cx.] oure Lord wil*. [wole, β.; wol, Cx.] nouȝt þe deeth of a synful man, but he wole*. [wil, α.; wol, Cx.] þat þe synful man amende hym, and torne to good lyf; and for þe Iewes schulde have noon excusacioun noþer chalange*. [chalenge, Cx.] noþer cause for to seie*. [segge, γ.; saye, Cx.] þat God Almyȝty toke wreche of hem unwarned; þerfore God Almyȝty abood*. [abode, Cx.] fourty ȝere ȝif þey wolde amende hem,*. [hem] om. Cx.] and warnede ofte by prechynge of þe apostles, by dredful signes and tokenes.*. [tokyns, Cx.]Egesippus et Iosephus, libro 7o. For aboute a ȝere to for*. [byfore, Cx.] þe destruccion of þe citee, þe liknes of a [fyre]*. [From Cx.; α. has fourty; fuyry, β. and γ.] swerd was y-seie honge in þe ayer*. [air, Cx.] above in*. [in] om. Cx.] þe temple. [In þat Ester*. [Estern, Cx.] tyde an hoyffer*. [heffre, β. and Cx.; heyfre, γ.] þat schulde be y-offred in þe temple]*. [From α. and γ.] enyed*. [enede, α. and γ.; ened, β.; ewed, Cx.] a lomb. Also þe Est ȝate of þe temple, þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] was so hevy of Page  453, vol.4 sound bras þat twenty men were besy i-now for to tende*. [tynde, α.; tyne, β.; tuynde, γ.; lyfte, Cx.] it, and ȝit many nyȝtes þe iren barres were i-broke,*. [to-broke, γ.] and þe ȝate opened by hymself*. [hit self, β. and Cx.; hytsylf, γ.] as it were wilfulliche,*. [wylfully, Cx.] so þat unneþe it myȝte be i-closed aftirward. Also oostes*. [hostes, α., γ., and Cx.] of armed men were i-seie in þe clouds, and chariotes flee by þe*. [þe] om. α.] ayer.*. [eyr, β.] And*. [At, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Witsontyde preosts wente into þe temple by nyght, and herde a voys þat seide, "Goo we hennes*. [hens, Cx.]; passe we out of þese seges." Also Iesus Ananias his sone, an uplondische man, foure ȝere tofore*. [afore, Cx.] þe destruction of þe citee, come to þe sacrefice of þe dedicacioun of the temple, and bygan to crie in þe lon|gage of þe contre,*. [countray, Cx.] and seide, "A voys out of þe Est, a vois out of the West, a vois out of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] foure wyndes; wo, wo, wo is [to]*. [From Cx.] Ierusalem and þe temple. He cried so day and nyȝt, and cesede*. [cessed, Cx., et infra.] nevere for betynge, noþer for fair*. [fayer, Cx.] prayenge; and ȝit he was y-bore*. [brouȝt, β.; broughte afore, Cx.] tofore Albynus, þe iustice of Rome, and harde and cruelliche*. [cruwelych, γ.] bylad. But he rouȝt nouȝt of his owne*. [owne] om. Cx.] [wrong, noþer of his owne]*. [From α., β., and γ.] meschif, but cried þat þe contray schulde be destroyede,*. [distried, β.] and cesede nouȝt or*. [er, β. and Cx.; ar, γ.] þe laste day of þe Page  455, vol.4 destruccioun; and þat day he wente uppon þe wal and rehersed*. [reherced, Cx.] the same cry, and putte more þerto,*. [potte more to, γ.] and seide, "Wo is me also," and was anon i-smyte wiþ a stoon of a slynge, and deyde. [℞.]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Marianus, libro primo, seiþ þat whan þe temple was i-brend þe flore*. [flour, α.; floor, γ.; floore, Cx.] þerof was i-ered*. [anon, added in γ.] wiþ plowes for wrethe*. [wreche, Cx.] and despite of þe Iewes. Ieromus*. [Ieronimus, Cx.]in prologo super Ioseph. Whanne þe citee was destroyed, Titus wente to Rome, and ladde with hym Iosephus þe Iewe, þat wroot anoon in Grewe*. [Grue, β. and Cx.; Gru, γ.] sevene bookes of þe takyng of Iewes, and Titus dede þese bookes into þe comoun*. [comyn, Cx.] librarie; and Iosephus after his deth hadde an ymage at Rome y-made of his noble wit.*. [wytte, Cx.] Also þis Iosephus wroot of doynge and dedes from þe bygynnynge of þe world to Domicianus his tyme,*. [his tyme] om. Cx.] twenty bookes, þat beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] i-cleped libri antiquitatum, þe bookes of eelde*. [olde, Cx.]; in þe eyȝteþe book þerof he graunteþ and knowlecheþ*. [knowledgeth, Cx.] þat Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] Baptist was a verray prophete,*. [very profyte, Cx.] and þat Ierusalem was destroyed by Page  457, vol.4 cause of þe slauȝter*. [sklaunder, Cx.] of Iames þe riȝtful. Also þere he seiþ þat Crist was a wise man, and dede meny wonderful werkes and dedes, and þat he was doctour and techer of þe Iewes and of oþer men, and i-slawe*. [slayne, Cx.] at þe laste for envie, and schewed hym to his disciples þe þridde day after; and þat Cristendom and þe name of Cristen men fayled nouȝt*. [nouȝt] om. β.] anon to*. [failed never to, Cx.] þat tyme. Vaspacianus diede in þe flux in*. [aboute, Cx.] his owne toun, aboute þe Sabyns, þe ȝere of his age þrescore and ten; me seith þat he stood up whanne he schulde dye, and seide, "It falleþ for an emperour to*. [to] om. γ.] passe stondinge out of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] erþe.*. [eorþe, γ.]" Giraldus in Topographia. Appolinaris, Peter his disciple, þat was some tyme i-send to Ravenna, suffreþ*. [suffred, Cx.] deth. Everiche ȝere in his feste day ravons,*. [ravenes, β. and Cx.; revons, γ.] crowes, and chouȝhes*. [chouȝes, β.; chouȝwes, γ.; chowes comen, Cx.] comeþ þider to gidres*. [þuder to gedres, γ.; theder to gyders, Cx.] out of everiche side, as it were by covenant y-made; and þat day as it were by custome*. [customme, Cx.] is i-ȝeve*. [ȝeven, β.] hem a careyn of a deed*. [deede, β.] hors; þerfore Page  459, vol.4 som men wil*. [wol, Cx.] mene þat bybance*. [bybause, α.; bycause, β. and Cx.] þerof þat citee is i-cleped in duchisshe*. [duchysse, β.; duychysch, γ.; duche, Cx.] speche*. [spe, α.] Ravennesburgh.*. [Revenesburgh, β. and γ.]Titus.*. [Eutropius, γ. and Cx.]

Capitulum undecimum.

TITUS regnede aftir his fader as it were þre ȝere. Þis was moost noble*. [nobel, γ.] spekere of Grew*. [Gru, γ.; Grue, Cx.] and of Latyn, and wroot causes in Latyn, and poysies*. [poysyes, β.; poesyes, γ. and Cx.] and gestes in Grewe.*. [Gru, α. and γ.; Grue, Cx.] Þey þat were convicte in conspiracie*. [of conspyracion, Cx.] aȝenst hym were as homeliche*. [homely, Cx.] aftir|ward wiþ hym as to forehonde.*. [afore, Cx.]Policratica, libro 3o, capitulo 14o. Þis was so fre of herte þat he purchede*. [purgede, α. and γ.; purgide, β.; purgyd, Cx.] and clensede þe covetise of his fadir, so þat he was i-cleped þe love and þe likynge of mankynde. Also he hadde alway þat manere þat no man þat come to hym ȝede*. [ȝeode, γ.] from hym wiþ oute mede;*. [mede] speed oþer hope of speed, α., γ., and Cx.; spede oþer hope of spede, β.] þerfore men of his hous axede hym why he wolde byhote more þan he myȝte laste.*. [performe, β. and Cx.; leste, γ.] "Þere schulde no man," quod he Page  461, vol.4 "go alenge*. [elyng, β. and γ.; elynge, Cx.] and sory from þe answere of a prince." Oones at þe*. [α, Cx.] soper he by þouȝte hym [of þat sawe, and by þouȝt hym]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] also þat he hadde þat day y-ȝeve no ȝifte in helpe of eny*. [ony, Cx.] man, and was sory, and seide, "Allas! my freendes, þis day I*. [ich, β.] have y-lost." In þe tyme of his deeth he was i-bore in a litere,*. [lyter, β., γ., and Cx.] and loked up into hevene, and seide þat hym nedede*. [nede, α.; neodede, γ.; neded, Cx.] [not]*. [From Cx.] to aþynke*. [forþinche, β.; athenche, γ.; thynke, Cx.] of none of alle his deedes, but oonliche*. [only, Cx.] oon; but what dede þat was no man wiste.*. [woste, α.; wuste, γ.; wyste, Cx.] Aboute þat tyme deyde Iulianus, bisshop of Cenomannens; [me seiþ þat he was Symon leprous,*. [leprosus, Cx.] þe mesel þat Crist helede, and he feng Crist in his hous and harborwede*. [herbered, β.; harburwede, γ.; he receyved Crist in his hows and lodged him, Cx.] hym. After þe ascencion of our Lord he was bisshop of Cenomannens,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] i-or|deyned by þe apostles oþer by here disciples, and he was a noble man of virtues, and rered þre men fro deth to lyve.*. [lif, β.] Som men wil*. [wold, Cx.] mene þat þis is [he]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat men þat travailleþ by þe weie prayen*. [prayeþ, α., γ., and Cx.] to for good herborwe,*. [lodgynge, Cx.] for Crist was i-herborwed*. [harborugh, γ.; herberuhd, Cx.]Page  463, vol.4 in his hous. But it seemeþ more sooþliche þat it is þe oþer Iulianus, þat unwitynge slowȝ boþe his [owne]*. [From α. and Cx.; his owne, om. γ.] fader and his*. [his] om. α., γ., and Cx.] moder. Of hym it is i-write*. [certayne wreten, Cx.] in þis manner: Iulianus was a ȝonge man, wente an hontynge and chasede*. [chassed, γ.; chaced, Cx.] an hert, and þe herde*. [hert, β. and γ.; herte tourned, Cx.] tornede his face to hym and seide, "Þou chasest*. [chacest, Cx.] me, and þou schalt slee boþe þyn owne fadir and modir." Þan Iulian dradde*. [drad, Cx.] sore; and for to be war*. [ware, Cx.] þat þe*. [þat, β.; that, Cx.] mes cheef schulde nouȝt bifalle, Iulian forsook and lefte al þat he hadde and put hym self to a grete prince in fer londe, and baar*. [bare, Cx.] hym wel and nobeliche under þat prince, boþe in batayle and at home in his paleys*. [palais, Cx.]; and bare hym so þat he was i-made [a]*. [From Cx.] knyȝt, and wedded oon Castellana, a wedewe,*. [wydwe, γ.; wydowe, Cx.] þat his lord ȝaf hym to wyve.*. [wyf, Cx.] Þanne his fader and his moder souȝte Iulian in everiche lond, and it happede at þe laste [þat]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] þey come to Iulyan his owne castel; and whanne Iulyan his wif hadde i-talked wiþ hem, sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] knewe [wel]*. [From Cx.] þat þey were here housbondes*. [husbandes, Cx., et infra.] fadir and his modir, Page  465, vol.4 and fenge hem goodliche,*. [feng hem godelich, β.; receyved hem goodly, Cx.] and leide hem for to reste in her housbondes bed, and wente hir self amorwe erliche to chirche,*. [to chirche at morowe erly, Cx.] and lefte hem boþe a bedde. Iulian com erliche hoom, and fond hem slepe [bothe]*. [From Cx.] to gidres in his owne bed,*. [bed] om. β.] and trowed þat anoþer man hadde i-leie*. [ylay, β.; laye, Cx.] þere by his wif, and stiked*. [stikked, Cx.] hem boþe þoruȝout, and went out and mette wiþ his wif; and þo he knewe þat he hadde i-slawe boþe his [owne]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] fadir and his*. [his] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] modir, as þe hert hadde i-seide þat he schulde. "Fare wel, my leve*. [leeve, β.; leove, γ.] suster," quod*. [quoth, Cx.] he, "for I schal nevere reste or I wite ȝif*. [er I wete yf, Cx.] God wil fonge*. [take, β. and Cx.] my penaunce and forȝeve my synne." "God forbede,"*. [forbeode, γ.] quod sche,*. [heo, β.] "þat y*. [I, Cx.] scholde forsake þe in þis manere in woo and in sorwe, and have i-be partener*. [be pertiner, Cx.] wiþ the in ioye and in welþe." Þan þey wente forth to giders,*. [togodres forth yfere, γ.] and made an hospital by a ryver, where men passede [ofte and were in greet peryl; þere þey halp men þat passede],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and socourede*. [sokered, β.] poore*. [pour, Cx.] men. Longe aftirward,*. [ward] om. Cx.]Page  467, vol.4 in frosty*. [forst, β.; forst, γ.; frost tyme, Cx.] time, Iulian was wery,*. [werye, β.] and reste hym aboute myd|nyȝt, and herde a voys cryenge*. [criyng, β.] and prayenge of help aftir*. [over, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe passage. Iulian aroos and fette over a pore*. [the pour, Cx.] man þat was nygh*. [ney, Cx.] deed for colde,*. [kolde, β.] and brouȝte hym into his owne*. [owne] om. Cx.] hous, and made fyre,*. [fuyr, γ., bis.] and sette hym þerby; but for al þe fire*. [fyer, Cx.] þe man was nevere þe hotter.*. [hatter, β.] Þan Iulian dede*. [dyde, Cx.] hym in his owne bed, and heled*. [hilled, Cx.] hym wiþ cloþes, and wiþ ynne a litel while,*. [stounde, α., β., and γ.; whyle, Cx.] þis man, þat semede so colde and semed*. [fyle, γ.] a vile*. [fyle, γ.] mesel, to his sight he*. [to his sight he] om. α., β., γ, and Cx.] worþe*. [werþe, β.; werþ, γ.; was, Cx.] whyte and faire anon,*. [anon] om. α. and β] and stigh*. [steiȝ, β.; styed, Cx.] up in to þe aer,*. [eyr, β.; ayer, Cx.] and spak to his oost*. [hoost, Cx.] Iulian, and seide: "Iulian, Iulian, oure Lorde Iesu Crist sente the word by me þat he haþ underfonge*. [receyved, Cx.] þy penaunce." And sone aftirward boþe Iulian and his wif passede to oure*. [all do to our, β.; wente al to our, Cx.] Lord into*. [and to, α. and γ.; to, Cx.] endeles reste. Domicianus.*. [Domicianus] om. γ. and Cx.]

Page  469, vol.4

Capitulum duodecimum.

DOMICIANUS, Vaspacianus his sone, regnede fiftene ȝere and fyve monþes;*. [monethes, Cx.] his wif heet first Augusta, and first he het clepe*. [hyte to call, Cx.] hym self God and lord. Þis forbeed gildynge*. [forbeode geldyng, γ.; forbade geldynge, Cx.] of men, and plantynge of vynes in þe citee of Rome. He*. [þat, β.; that exyled, Cx.] ex|ciled meny of the senatoures, and putte mathematicos and philosofres out of þe citee of Rome; and bulde*. [bylde, Cx.] a temple in*. [in] of, β.] Rome wiþ oute eny tymber,*. [tymbur, γ.] þat templee heet Panteon,*. [Pantheon, β., γ., and Cx.] and was y-bulde in worshippe of al goddes. Þere is now þe*. [þe] twice over in MS.] chirche of oure Lady þat hatte*. [hete, Cx.] Sancta Maria Rotunda,*. [þat is, added in β.] seynt Marie the round. Somtyme þis hadde þe victorie of Germans and of Danes, and was so proude*. [prout, γ.] þerfore þat he wolde suffre non ymage i-sette in worshippe of hym but it were of clene golde. Trevisa. Mathematicus is he þat haþ þe sciens*. [science, Cx.] þat treteþ as it were of lengþe and of*. [of] om. γ.] brede, and telleth þey*. [þouȝ, β.; telle thurugh, Cx.] suche*. [sich, β.] lengþe and*. [and] om. α.] brede be in oon*. [in oon] noon, β.; none, Cx.] body*. [of lengthe and brede and tale þeyȝ such lengthe and brede and tale be in non body, γ.] þat man may grope Page  471, vol.4 and fele, and so it fariþ ofte of ars metrik*. [arthmetrik, α., β., and γ.; ars|metrike, Cx.] and of gemetrie.*. [geometre, β.; geometry, γ.]Policratica, libro 7o.*. [7o] om. α., β., and Cx.] Þis man was unprofitable in everiche dede, [and dede]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] no þing manliche as [a]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] man schulde, but þat he bare*. [a baar, γ.] onliche þe name of þe empere,*. [emperour, γ.; empyre, Cx.] but for he wolde byde*. [hyde, β. and Cx.; huyde, γ.] þe lewednesse of his wit and of his body undir þe name of a prince; he ordeyned him every day a privey idelnesse,*. [pryvy ydelnesse, Cx.] and used [hym]*. [From Cx.] for to cacche*. [cachche, γ.] flyes, and styke*. [stykked, Cx.] hem wiþ a scharp poyntel. So þat in a tyme oon axede ȝif eny man were þerynne wiþ þe emperour; "Nay," quod his chamber|leyn*. [sayd his chamberlyn, Cx.] Metellus, "Þere is nouȝt a flie i-left wiþþe emperour." Þis ȝaf tweye monþes*. [monethes, Cx.] of the ȝere newe names, and clepede Septembre Germanicus, and Octobre Domicianus. Anacletus, of þe nacioun of Athene, was pope nyne*. [nyȝ, γ. (a mistake).] ȝere, in Clement his stede, whan Clement was exciled*. [exyled, Cx.]; Eusebius clepeþ*. [called, Cx.] hym Cletus, but he overlepe*. [overleop, γ.] hym in his cronike. Damasus, þe pope, writeþ to Ierom þe cronyk of bisshoppes of Rome, and wiþ seiþ*. [with sayd, Cx.] þat lawe,*. [sawe, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and seiþ*. [sayd, Cx.] þat Cletus was a Romayn, and Page  473, vol.4 Anacletus a Greek. Also in meny oþir þinges Eusebius his cronike varieþ from cronikes*. [cronycles, Cx.] of oþer men. Þis Anacletus ordeyned þat preostes*. [preestes, Cx.] schulde be worshipped to fore*. [afore, Cx.] oþer men, and nouȝt i-travalled*. [travayled ne, Cx.] and i-greeved. Eutropius. Cornelia, þe cheef mayde of þe temþle of þe goddesse*. [godas, γ.] Vesta, was convycte in leccherie, and i-buried*. [biried, β.] quyk on lyve.*. [alyve, α., γ., and Cx.] Evares|tus,*. [Enariscus, α.; Anaristus, Cx.] after Cletus, was pope ten ȝere; þis ordeynede sevene dekenes,*. [decons, γ.; dekens, Cx.] þat schulde kepe þe bisshop while he preched, lest enemyes of trewþe wolde bare*. [trowth wolde bere, Cx.] hym wrong [on hande],*. [From β. and Cx. (not γ.)] and seide*. [segge, γ.; saye, Cx.] þat he errede, and also for he*. [þei, β.] scholde nouȝt be liȝtliche i-herd*. [lyghtly be herd, Cx.] noþer*. [be, added in β.] despised. Whan Domicianus was i-slawe of his owne men, and*. [and] a was, γ.] dispitousliche i-bore forth among þeoves,*. [born forth amonge theves, Cx.] Nerva, þe mylde prince, regnede, after him oo ȝere, and undede*. [undide, β.] þe dedes of Domicianus; and so meny þat were exciled*. [exyled, Cx.] were reconsiled, and come home aȝen; [and so Iohn*. [Joon, β.; Iohan, Cx.] þe Evangelyst come aȝen]*. [From α. β., and Cx.] to Ephesym, out of þe lond of*. [lond of] ylond, α.; ilond, γ.; yle of, Cx.] Pathmos. Page  475, vol.4 Coillus,*. [Coiyllus, Cx.] Marius his sone, was i-norsched*. [norysshed, Cx.] at Rome from his childhode, and regnede in Bretayne,*. [Brytayn, Cx.] and payde tribute to þe Romayns, and lad his lif in pees. [℞.]*. [From α. β., γ., and Cx.] Some men wil mene*. [wil mene] suppose, Cx.] þat he bulde*. [buylde, Cx.] þe citee Coelchestre,*. [Coilchestre, β.] þat*. [þat] whiche, Cx.] is þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] chief*. [chef, β.] citee of Est Saxon.

Page  [3], vol.5

Capitulum tertiumdecimum.

ULPIUS*. [Vulpius, α., β., γ., and Cx.] CRINICUS*. [Crinitus, β. and Cx.] TRAIANUS was i-bore in Spayne, and was emperour nyntene ȝere. Among [his]*. [From Cx. (not γ.)] frendes þis*. [þis] þes, γ.; he, Cx.] was free of herte, and besy in dedes of armes, and asy*. [esy, α., β., γ., and Cx.] in govern|aunce of þe citeseyns,*. [governynge of cyteseyns, Cx.] and myȝty in relevynge*. [revelyng, Cx.] of citees and of*. [of] om. Cx.] towns. He chastede*. [chastisede, β.; chastysed, Cx.] þe Danes, Schites,*. [Scytes, Cx.] Sarmates, Hiberes, Colches, and Arabes; he ordeyned a navey in þe Reed see for to synde*. [werre, α., β., γ., and Cx. In the MS. this word seems to have been synne at first, and then a d written over the second n.] in Ynde. He made hym self everich manis felowe, and visited ofte his freendes, for he wolde be y|gete*. [gret, α.; y-gret, β. and γ.; sa|lewed, Cx.] of hem, and wete how þey ferde; he greved no man, Page  5, vol.5 dede no þing wrongfulliche for to have*. [habbe the more and, γ.] [the more]*. [From γ.] and*. [and] om. Cx.] þe gretter enchetes.*. [echetes, α.; eþchetes, β.; echee|tes, γ.; eschetes, Cx.] But he made his servauntes riche, þat hem nedede*. [neodede, γ.] to greve no man. His frendes blamede hym, for he was so comyn to alle manere men; he answerde and seide: "I*. [Ich, β.] wil be suche an emperour to oþer men as y*. [I, Cx.] wolde þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] þey were to me and*. [and] if, Cx.] þey were emperours." [℞.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Helmandus*. [Helimandus, β.; Helymandus, γ. and Cx.] seiþ [that]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] in a tyme Traianus was i-lope*. [lepte, Cx.] to hors for to wende*. [wende] go, Cx.] to a*. [α] om. Cx.] bataile for þe comounte,*. [comynte, Cx.] and þere come a wydewe*. [widue, β.; wydue weopyng, γ.] wepynge, and took hym by þe foot, and praide hym þat he wolde do hir som riȝt.*. [som riȝt] reȝt of hem þat hadde y-slawe here sone, α., β., and γ.; right and justice of hem, &c., Cx.] "I schal do þe right," quod þe emperour, "whan I*. [Ich, β.] come aȝen." "What," quod sche,*. [heo, β. and γ.] "ȝif þou comest nevere aȝen?" "Þan," quod he,*. [themperour, Cx.] "myn successour schal doo þe right." "What profit," quod sche, "shal þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] be to þee, ȝif anoþer man dooþ*. [doo, Cx.] me good? þou Page  7, vol.5 art dettour to me, and þou schalt fonge*. [resseyve, Cx.] as þou disservest be*. [be] by, Cx.] þyne owne dedes, and [so]*. [From Cx.] it is a fraude for to ȝelde*. [ȝulde, γ.] nouȝt what is detty*. [that is due, Cx.] whanne it may be ȝolde.*. [yolden, β. and Cx.; yȝulde, γ.] Þy suc|cessor schal fare wel, ȝif he bereþ*. [bere, Cx.] hym wel, and dooþ*. [doo, Cx.] as he schulde." Traianus was meoved*. [meved, Cx.] by these wordes, and liȝt doun [of his hors],*. [From α., β., and Cx.] and dede þe womman*. [wydue, α., β., and γ.; wydowe, Cx.] riȝt, and þerfore he was worþy to have an ymage at Rome. Also in*. [on, Cx.] a tyme Traianus his sone rood*. [rode, Cx.] on a wilde hors, and slowh*. [slouȝ, α., β., and Cx.] a widewe*. [widue, β.; wydue, γ.; wydowes, Cx.] sone; and þerfore Traianus ȝaf þe widewe his sone*. [his owne sonne to the wydowe, Cx.] for hir sone. For so*. [For so] And bycause of this, Cx.] greet riȝtwisnesse it semeþ þat Seint Gregorie wan his soule out of helle. Trevisa. So it myȝte seme to a man*. [So myght a man wene, Cx.] þat were worse þan wood, and out of riȝt bileve. Whanne Evaristus*. [Enariscus, α. and Cx.] was i-martired,*. [martred, β.] Alexander come after hym, and was pope ten ȝere; he ordeyned*. [ordeygned, Cx.] holy water to be i-blessed wiþ salt, and to be spronge*. [sprenged in, β.; spryngt, Cx.] in*. [in] among, γ.] Cristen Page  9, vol.5 mennis hous;*. [houses. Cx.] he put to, in þe masse, "qui pridie quam pate|retur," and so forþ anon to*. [unto, Cx.] þese wordes, "hoc est corpus meum." Also he ordeynede [þat]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] water shulde be i-melled*. [medled, β. and Cx.] wiþ wyn in þe chalys,*. [chalyce, Cx.] for to by tokene þe onynge*. [onyng, β. and Cx.] and þe unite*. [and þe unite] om. Cx.] of Crist and of holy chirche; and he ordeyned þat þe oyst*. [oost, β. and Cx., et infra; hoyst, γ.] schulde be of þerf brede and*. [and] in, γ.] a*. [a] of, β.] litel quantite, and seide þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] þe scarser þe*. [þe] þys, γ.; this, Cx.] oyst be þe better it is. Symon, þat heet Symeon also, Cleophas his sone, þe lasse Iames his successor, was y-nailled to þe crosse in þe chirche of Ierusalem, and al men wondrede*. [wondride, β.] þat so oolde a*. [a] om. α.] man of sixe score ȝere myȝte suffre þe*. [þat] α., β., γ., and Cx.] passioun. Ignacius bisshop of Antiochia, Iohn*. [Joones, β.; Iohans, Cx.] his disciple, was i-brouȝt to Rome, and i-þrowe*. [throwen, Cx.] to wylde bestes, and while he was i-tormented*. [turmented, β.] he cride [besiliche]*. [From α., β., and Cx.; bysylych, γ.] alwey*. [bisilich, β.; cryed alwey besyly Cx.] Iesus. Þanne after his deth his herte was i-hakked*. [y-hakket, γ.] to*. [hewen into, Cx.] smal gobettes, and in everiche gobette*. [every gobbet, Cx.] was i-founde Cristes Page  11, vol.5 name i-write*. [Iesus wreton, Cx.] wiþ lettres of gold. Þe secounde Plinius, Novo|comensis,*. [Novocomensis, from γ.; Nono|comensis, MS.] a pledere*. [pleter, Cx.] and a writere of stories, was in his floures. Þis*. [He was mayster to T. . . . . , Cx.] was Traianus þe emperour his maister, and refreyned hym in meny þinges, [and in especial]*. [From Cx.; not β. or γ.] for*. [for] that, Cx.] he schulde nouȝt [persecute ne]*. [From Cx.; not β. or γ.] greve Cristen men. Also þis, nouȝt wiþstond|ynge þe knyȝthode and chivalrie þat he usede alwey, ȝit he wroot seven and þritty bookes of the stories of kynde,*. [kuynde, γ.] in þe whiche he descryveþ cleerliche*. [clerly, Cx.] þe world, and al þat is þer|ynne. At þe laste he wente for to serche and enquere þe cause of þe gravel þat is in þe see strond of the see Adriance,*. [Adriaticus, β. and γ.] bytwene Grees and Italy;*. [of the see . . . Italy] om. Cx.] he*. [he] it, β.] was*. [he was] whiche is, Cx.] aleide wiþ hepes*. [huples, γ.] of gravel, so*. [so] as, Cx.] it is i-seide. After þe passioun of Alisaundre þe pope, Sixtus was pope almost elevene ȝere; he ordeyned þat trisa|gium,*. [trisagium, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat is, "Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus," schulde be songe at masse, and þat þe corperas*. [corporas, α., β., and Cx.; cor|peros, γ.] schulde nouȝt be of sik*. [sylk, α.; sylke, Cx.] noþer sendel, [but]*. [From Cx.; bote, γ.] clene lynnen cloþ nouȝt i-dyed, and þat no womman schulde handle þe*. [þe] no, Cx.] towayles*. [toweils, β.] of þe auȝter;*. [towelles of the auter, Cx.] and þey Page  13, vol.5 mened*. [me rede, α. and γ.; þouȝ me rede, β.; though men rede, Cx.] þat Alisaundre suffred deth in Adrianus*. [Adrians, Cx.] his tyme, ȝit þo was nouȝt Adrianus emperour, but on caas*. [in caas, β.; peraventur, Cx.] consul oþer*. [oþer] or, Cx.] prefect. In this Traianus*. [Trayanus, Cx.] his tyme Placidas, maister of knyȝtes wente an*. [on, Cx.] hontynge, and sigh þe schap of the roode bytwene an hertes hornes, þat seide hym*. [and mette with an herte hauynge betwene his hornes the crucifix, which sayd to hym, Cx.] þat he and his wif and his children schulde suffre moche*. [myche, β.] woo and sorwe; and at the laste*. [after this, Cx.] he was i-cristened,*. [folled, β.; y-folled, γ.] [he and his wyf and his children,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and hadde a newe name, and was i-cleped Eustas.*. [Eustace, Cx.]Cassio|dorus. Þis Traianus deide in þe flux in Seleucia, þe ȝere of his age sixty and þree: his bones were i-gadred*. [i-gadred] om. Cx.] in a goldene stene, and i-doo in the chepynge place*. [goldene urne or potte and buryed in the market place, Cx.] þat he hadde i-made,*. [y-mad, γ.; that he had made, in Cx. after piler.] under a piler of an hondred foot hygh and foure and fourty. Loos and mynde of hym is so i-spronge,*. [y-sprongge, γ.] þat ȝit in oure tyme me prayeþ*. [men praye, Cx.] in plesynge of princes, "More gracious mote þou be þan evere was Augustus, and bettre þan Traianus."

Page  15, vol.5

Capitulum quartumdecimum.

ADRIANUS Helius, Traianus his cosyn, was emperour oon and twenty ȝere and ten monþes; þis was connynge*. [kunnying, β.] in þe longages of Grew*. [Gru, α.; langage of Grue, Cx.] and of Latyn, and made in Athene a librarie of a wondre manere werk; he was konnynge of musik*. [musique, Cx.] and of phisik, of peynting, of gravinge, of ȝetynge,*. [ȝeotyng, γ.; meltyng, Cx.] and of castynge of bras and oþer metal. Whanne bookes of oure by|leve were y-wrete*. [wreton, Cx.] by oon Quadratus, þe desciple of þe apostles,*. [thappostlis, Cx.] and by oon Aristides of Etenyeus,*. [Atheniens, β.; Etenyens, γ.; Athenes, Cx.] Adrianus heet*. [bad, Cx.] and com|maunded by his lettres þat Cristene men schulde nouȝt be dampned wiþ oute trespas i-put aȝenst hem, and i-preved.*. [ypreoved, γ.] Þis*. [He, Cx.] made meny lawes; but he hadde greet envie to þe noble loos*. [and renomme, added in Cx.] of Traianus, [so þat he forsook þe provynce*. [prouynces, Cx.] þat Traianus]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] hadde i-wonne,*. [as, added in Cx.] Siria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia, and caste also to forsake and leve Dacia,*. [and purposed to have left Dacia, Cx.] bote his frendes forbed,*. [fered, α.; ferede, β.; ferede hym, γ.; caused him to chaunge his thought, Cx.] and made Page  17, vol.5 hym chaunge his þouȝt. Also þis*. [Adrianus, added in Cx.] overcome þe Iewes, þat were rebel eftsones*. [eftsones yet rebell, Cx.] and chasede hem*. [ham, γ.] out of Ierusalem, and dede*. [dude, γ.] þere*. [put therinne, Cx.] men of oþer naciouns, and siþþe*. [seþþe, α.; seþthe, γ.] hiderward it is doo þat þe place of Cristes passioun*. [and sith that time the place where Crist suffred his passioun, Cx.] is wiþ ynne þe north walles of the citee of Ierusalem, þat was raþer*. [of the citee . . . walles] om. γ.] wiþ oute þe walles.*. [to fore that tyme, Cx.] In þis Adrianus his tyme, þe philosofer Secundus was in his floures; he helde*. [huld, γ.] scilence*. [was flouryng whiche put hym self to silence, Cx.] and wolde nouȝt speke to his lyves ende, and writeþ þat*. [writeþ þat] om. Cx.] þe cause of his scilence was þis. He hadde i-be*. [ben and studyed, Cx.] in scole in Athene, and i-herde*. [y-hurd, γ.] ofte*. [ofte] om. Cx.] of þe unstedfastnesse of wommen, and þerfore in a tyme whanne he*. [α, γ.] com home, and was unknowe of his frendes, he wolde assaie þe stedfastnesse*. [he thought tassaye and prove the unstydfastnes, Cx.] of his owne moder, and ȝaf a wenche*. [to a wenche her seruaunt, Cx.] ȝiftes, and sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] brouȝte hym by nyȝte priveliche*. [preveylych, γ.] to his modir bed. Þanne his moder bygan to excite*. [exyte, Cx.] and conforte hym forto ligge by here. "Nay, moder," quod he, "it is nouȝt semeliche*. [fitting to me to defowle, Cx.] þat I Page  19, vol.5 defoule þe place þat I*. [ich, β. (bis); y, γ. (bis).] com of." ["Why," said she, "who art thou?" "I am," sayd he, "Secundus thy sonne."]*. [From Cx.] Whan his moder herde þat sche deide anon*. [forthwith, Cx.] for schame and sorwe; þan he sigh*. [and understode, added in Cx.] þat his modir was deed by his sotel speche, and maad greet deel*. [deol, β. and γ.] and sorwe, and forheet to speke, and spak nevere aftir, but*. [by his defaulte in spekynge and tellynge what he was unto her, and made grete doole and sorowe and avowed never to speke after, and soo he never spak after, but, Cx.] lyvede as a dombe man to his lyves ende, and hilde*. [heuld, γ.] his avow*. [unto his lyues ende, added in Cx.] so þat he wolde not speke for manas, noþer*. [ne, Cx.] for faire byhestes; and ȝit he was i-brouȝt to fore Adrianus þe emperour, but speke wolde he nevere, as it is i-write*. [wreton, Cx.] in þe questiouns þat he wroot in his scilence tyme. Thelefforus*. [Thelesforus, β. and γ.] þe pope was a Greek, after Sixtus his passioun he was pope elevene*. [enleve, γ.] ȝere; he ordeyned þe Lente*. [Leynte, γ.] fastinge*. [to be fastede to fore Eester, Cx.] to forne Esterne, and þat no man schulde synge a masse tofore þe hour of underne,*. [undarn, γ.] and þat me*. [enleve, γ.] schulde synge þre masses wiþ Gloria in excelsis a myd|wynter day.*. [on Crystemas day, Cx.] Þat ȝere Eustas,*. [Eustace, Cx.] þat heet Placidas also,*. [tofore, Cx.] was y-martired, and his wif and his*. [his] om. Cx.] children; þat tyme*. [the, added in Cx.] þre may|dens, Page  21, vol.5 Fides, Spes, and Caritas, and here moder Sapiencia, were y-martired*. [martred, Cx., et supra.] at Rome. Adrianus þe emperour deyde in Cam|panya*. [Champania, γ.] in þe dropesye. Þat tyme Aquila of þe ilond Pontus was in his floures*. [flourysshynge, Cx.]; he was þe secounde after þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] seventy þat tornede holy writte out of Hebrewe*. [Hebrue, β.] into Grewe. After þe passioun of Thelefforus, Igynus, a Greek philosofre of Athene, was pope foure ȝere; he ordeynede þe clergie to be ruled*. [rewled, Cx.] in ordre and in degree. Also he ordeyned þat non erchebisshop*. [archebischop, γ.; archibisshop, Cx.] schulde condempne his suffragan*. [suffrigan, β.; suffrygan, Cx.] but in sight and hyringe*. [heringe, β.; heeryng, Cx.] of oþere suffragans and bisshoppis of þe [same]*. [From β.] provinces.*. [province, α. and Cx.]Antonius.

Capitulum quintumdecimum.

ANTONIUS Pius, wiþ his sones Aurelius and Lucius, was em|perour two and twenty ȝere; þis*. [he, Cx.] hadde suche a name ffor*. [that, Cx.] in al his kyngdom he wiþ heelde*. [wiþheld, γ.] þe cauciouns of his dettour, and Page  23, vol.5 forȝaf his dettoures of þeyre*. [his dettoures of þeyre] om. β.; þe, α. and Cx.] dettes, and þerfore he was i-cleped þe fadir of the contray; and me seith*. [sayd, Cx.] þat ofte he wolde seie*. [ofte, added in β.; segge, γ.] in þis manere: "Me is levere*. [leover, γ.] by þe ensample of Scipioun save oon citeseyn þan overcome a þowsand enemyes." His douȝter Fastina*. [Faustina, α. and Cx.] seygh*. [sawe, Cx.] swerd*. [sweord, γ.] men fiȝte, and caste so grete love to oon of hem þat sche*. [heo, β. and γ. (bis).] was for love sike,*. [syyk, γ.; seke for love, Cx.] and sche*. [heo, β. and γ. (bis).] tolde hit to hir owne housbonde Marcus Antonius; þanne by coun|saille of phisicians of Caldea þat swerdman was i-slawe, and Fautina*. [Faustina, α.; Faustynas, Cx.] his*. [hys, γ.] body was annoynt*. [enoynted, Cx.] wiþ his blood, and so þe sorwe cesede. Also meny men of straunge naciouns dede*. [dide, β.; dude, γ.] of hir armour, and putte þe causes of hir stryf uppon Antonius,*. [and were, added in Cx.] redy to stande to his ordynaunce and his*. [his] om. Cx.] dome. Ieromus de viris. In his tyme Policarpus, bisshop of Ephesym, þat was Iohn*. [Iohn] om. γ.; Ioon, β.] þe Evangelist his disciple,*. [was disciple to Johan thevange|lyst, Cx.] come to Rome and tornede meny men out of þat*. [þe, α.; theyr, Cx.] schrewednesse of*. [schrewednesse of] om. Cx.] heresie, and was aftirward Page  25, vol.5 i-brand*. [brente, Cx.] in his owne chirche. After Iginus, Pius was pope fiftene ȝere, at his prayenge*. [prayer, Cx.] Hermes wroot þat book þat is i|cleped Pastor; þerynne it is i-write þat Ester day schulde nouȝt be i-holde but on a Sonday, by heste*. [heest, β.] of an aungel*. [byddynge of the aungele, Cx.] þat schewede hym in cloþinge of [a]*. [α, added from Cx.] fischere.*. [fyschare, γ.] Aboute þis his tyme Trogus*. [Trogus] om. γ.] Pompeus, of þe nacioun of Spayne, was in his floures. [He wrote]*. [From β.; he wrot, γ.] as it were*. [as it were] he wrote, Cx.] þe stories of al þe worlde, ffrom Nynus his tyme, kyng of Assiria,*. [Assaria, γ.] to þe tyme of þe he*. [hole, α. and γ.; hool, β.; hoole, Cx.] lordschip of emperours, in foure and fourty bookes. His disciple Iustinus abreggede*. [abregged, β.; Iustinus abred|ged, Cx.] þese*. [abregede þeos, γ.] bookes; þis Iustinus [was a pledere and writere of storyes. Also þis Iustinus]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] wroot þe book De Cristiana religione to Antonius Pius, and þerby he made hym þe more goodliche.*. [goodly, Cx.] After Pius, Anicletus*. [Anitetus, α. and Cx.] was pope as it were ten ȝere: he heet þat clerkes schulde be schore*. [shaven, Cx.] rounde aboute, and have none*. [no, γ.] longe lokkes. Galienus*. [Galyen, Cx.] þe phician,*. [phicicien, α.; phisician, β.; phisicien, Cx.] þat was i-bore at Per|gamus, Page  27, vol.5 is*. [was, Cx.] in his floures at Rome; he expownede Ypocras his bookes as it were,*. [as it were] om. Cx.] and nouȝt onliche þat,*. [them, Cx.] but also he made meny veleyns*. [volyms, β.; volums, γ.; volumes, Cx.] of his owne: me seiþ þat for skilful*. [skylfol, γ.; resonable, Cx.] abstynence þat he usede he lyvede seven score*. [honderd and fourty, Cx.] ȝere; he ete nevere noþer drank his fulle, noþer ete rawe fruyte, he hadde alwey swete smellynge breeþ; he deyde for elde,*. [age, Cx.] and for noon oþer evel. Þat tyme Hirmeus episcopus Lugdunensis*. [Lugdium, Cx.] was in his floures*. [was flourynge, Cx.]; he expownede meny bookes of holy writt: and Tholomeus, a con|nynge man of sciens of methametik, was in his floures; he made more of astronomy þan was al þat he fonde y-made*. [al þat he fonde y-made] made, Cx.] tofore his tyme; þis was a*. [of, α., γ., and Cx.] strong wrethe,*. [wacche, Cx.] and of litel mete, and hadde a swete breth; he made many bookes,*. [beokes, Cx.] þat beeþ Almagestus per|spectiva et*. [and, α. and β.] in iudiciis quadripartitum,*. [and, added in Cx.] centilogium; among his proverbis tweyne beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] famous and noble: He is hiȝeste among men þat reccheþ*. [retcheth, Cx.] nevere*. [ner, α.] who haþ þe world on honde; Page  29, vol.5 and: Oþer men beeþ nouȝt amended by hym þat is nouȝt amendid by oþer men. Marcus.

Capitulum sextumdecimum.

MARCUS Antonius Verus, and Lucius Comodus, þe sones of Antonius Pius, regnede after here fader eyȝte*. [eyȝtetene, α. and γ.; eyghten, Cx.] ȝere. Þese*. [þeos, γ.] tweyne were y-ioyned*. [y-juyned, γ.] to gidres boþe by kynrede and affinite, þouȝ þey were nouȝt boþe i-bore of oon wombe, ffor Marcus Antonius [hadde i-wedded Antonius Pius his douȝter, and Lucius Comodus hadde i-wedded Marcus Antonius]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] his douȝter; and so by þese tweyne þe Romayns bygonne*. [begonne, Cx.] to have tweyne emperours. Þis Marcus was nevere proude,*. [prout, γ.] for noon happe þat hym myȝte byfalle*. [befalle to him, Cx.]; he was so stedefast,*. [studefast, α. and γ.] and so sad from his childhode, he chaunged nevere he*. [his, β. and Cx.] semblant for sorwe noþer*. [ne, Cx.] for ioye. Also after þe bataile þat he dede*. [a dude, γ.] aȝenst Page  31, vol.5 the Germayns, Sclaves, and Sarmates, he had i-spend al þat was in þe tresorie, and had not for to ȝeve*. [unto, added in Cx.] his knyȝtes, ȝit hym was levere*. [leovere, γ.] legge*. [lay, β.; leye, Cx.] to wedde his vessel*. [vessels, Cx.] of silver and of gold, and þe aray of his wif, þan greve provinces and londes and þe senatoures. Þerfore whanne the victorie was i-wonne he recovered*. [rekevered, α.; recuverede, γ.] al þat, and moche more, and paide þe prys*. [pryys, γ.] and*. [and] of, Cx.] þe value*. [valwe, γ.; valewe, Cx.] to hem þat wolde ȝilde aȝen þat þey hadde i-brouȝt*. [y-boȝt, γ.; bought, Cx.] oþer i-fonge*. [y-fongge, γ.] to wedde, [and was nouȝt wrooþ to hem þat wolde nouȝt ȝylde aȝen what þey had i-brouȝt*. [y-bought, β.] oþer i-fonge to wedde].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] He relesed*. [relesched, β.] meny tributes to provinces and to londes; þe tables of þe dettes þat me*. [men, Cx.] owed*. [owide, β.] hym he brende in þe myddel of þe citee; cruel lawes he tempered*. [attemperid, Cx.] wiþ newe ordynaunce and constituciouns. At þis tyme Egesip|pus was in his floures,*. [was in his floures] flouryd, Cx.] þe writer of stories, and [of]*. [From γ.] þe de|stroyenge of Ierusalem. His book was i-write in Grewe, and Ambros tornede it into Latyn.*. [Latoun, α.] Þo was þe maide Praxedis in her floures*. [flouryng, Cx.]; after þat sche*. [heo, β. (bis).] hadde i-buried meny bodies of holy martires, and*. [and] she, Cx.] prayede oure Lord þat sche*. [heo, β. (bis).] most*. [myght, Cx.] passe Page  33, vol.5 after hem, and here bone*. [boone, β. and Cx.] was i-herde. In þis emperour his tyme was so greet pestilence and deth þat þe oost of Rome was nygh*. [ny, γ.] destroyed*. [distruyed, β.]; so þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] in a tyme þe emperour fauȝt aȝenst þe Quades, and his men faillede*. [faileden, β.; fayleden, Cx.] wel nygh for defaute of*. [defaute of] om. Cx.] drynke, and God Almyȝti sent hem reyn from hevene. But þe contrarye byfel*. [byful, γ.] whan liȝtnynge ferede þe Germaynes and Sarmates. Gaufridus. Aboute þe firste ȝere of þis Marcus, Lucius, Coillus his sone, bygan to reigne in Bre|tayne. Gaufridus et Alfridus. He sente lettres to Eleu|therius þe pope, for to fonge*. [resseyve, Cx.] cristendom, and his bone was i-graunted, and Britouns hilde*. [huld, γ.] and kepte holyche*. [hollich, β.] þat fey*. [hooly that fayth, Cx.] and byleve anon to Dioclicianus þe emperour his tyme. After Anitetus, Sother was pope as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] nyne ȝere; he or|deynede þat a nonne*. [a nonne] om. α. and β.] a mychoun*. [monchon, β.; monchyn, γ.; a menchon or nonne, Cx.] schulde nouȝt handle þe towayles of þe awter, noþer doo ensens [yn þe encenser*. [sencer, Cx.]],*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] but sche*. [heo, β.] schal bere a veile*. [feyl, γ.] on hire heed. Also he ordeyned þat no wyf schulde be holde laweful but þey*. [heo, β.; α, γ.; she, Cx.] were*. [i-] om. α.] i-blessid of Page  35, vol.5 a preost. After Sother, Eleutherius*. [Euletherius, γ.] was pope as it were fif|tene ȝere; he ordeyned þat Cristen men schulde nouȝt forsake and forbere no mete þat is skilful and resonable for mankynde,*. [mankuynde, γ.] and þat no man schulde be degraded, noþer i-putte*. [ne put, Cx.] out of his staat and of his degree, but it*. [Sic in MS.] were lawefulliche accused to|forehonde; and he seide þat oure Savyour woste*. [weoste, γ.; Saveour wist, β.; Saveour wyste, Cx.] wel þat Iudas was a þeef*. [þeof, γ.] and his traitour, but for Iudas nouȝt was*. [was nouȝt, α.] accused he was nouȝt y-put doun. But al þat he dede in þe mene tyme among þe apostles for þe state of his dignyte, it was allowed and stood*. [stode, Cx.] ferme and stable. Also þis,*. [Pope, added in Cx.] at þe prayenge of Lucius kyng of Britouns, sente Foganus*. [Forganus, Cx.] and Damianus, þat cristened*. [follede, β. and γ.] þe kyng and þe .peple, and made bisshoppes and archebisshops in stede of flamines and archeflamines, þat mys|byleved men hadde in stede of bisshoppes and archebisshoppis; and þus*. [þis, α.] Cristendom durede in Bretayne two hondred ȝere and sixtene, anoon to Dyoclisianus his tyme, whanne Seint Albon was*. [i-] om. Cx.] i-martred.

Page  37, vol.5

Capitulum septimumdecimum.

AFTER Marcus, Lucius Comodus was emperour as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] þrittene*. [thyrten, Cx.] ȝeere. Þis Comodus was unprofitable to al þinges, and ȝaf hym al to leccherie and harlottrie. He made*. [to, added in Cx.] slee many senatoures and Cristene men, and clepede þe monþe of Sep|tembre by*. [by] after, Cx.] his owne name. Also he was diffamed by þe schrewednesse*. [shrewdnes, Cx.] of his wyf,*. [of his wyf] om. γ.] and fauȝt in amphitheatre*. [amphiteater, γ.] wiþ schort swerd men. In the hous of þe goddesse*. [godas, γ.] Vesta he was i-strangled at þe laste, and deyde wiþ soo greet bismere*. [busmere, α.; busmer, γ.; wrath, Cx.] and despite, þat he was i-demed þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] enemy of mankynde. Trevisa. Amphitheatrum is a hiȝ round place y-made*. [y-made] om. Cx.] for to see aboute. Þanne it folweþ in þe storie. Also þis*. [Also þis] that he, Cx.] sent Phelip þe noble burgeys of Rome into Egipt. Þis Phelip his douȝter Eugenia, wiþ tweie sones, Prothus and Iacinctus, wente awey in a mannes wede, unwitynge*. [unwetyng, Cx.] hir fader þat was mysbileved,*. [not in the byleve, Cx.] and was i-cristened,*. [and was i-cristened] om. Cx. folled, β.; y-folled, γ.] and sche was y-cristened*. [heo was y-folled, β.] and i-cleped Eugenius, and i-made monk; and whanne þe abbot was dede Page  39, vol.5 Eugenius was i-made abbott in his stede*. [stude, γ.]; at þe laste a wom|man þat heet*. [heet] om. Cx.] Melencia caste a lecherous eyȝe*. [ye, γ.] uppon Eugenius, and wolde have*. [had, added in Cx.] Eugenius to ligge*. [lye, Cx.] by here, and for*. [bycause, Cx.] Eugenius wolde nouȝt assente, Melencia defamede*. [deffamade, γ.] Eugenius, and seide þat Eugenius wolde have y-leie*. [y-lay, γ.; leyn, Cx.] by here by strengþe aȝenst hir wille. Þerfore Eugenius was i-take and i-brouȝt to hir [owne]*. [From α. and Cx.] fadir Phelip; þan sche kutte*. [heo kitte, β.] and slitte here cloþes, and schewed þat sche was his owne douȝter Eugenia, and schewed þat þere were Prothus and Jacinctus i-gelded. Whanne hire fader sygh þat, he was i-cristened*. [y-fulled, β.; y-folled, γ.] wiþ al his meyne; and Melencia þat hadde diffamed here*. [her deffamed, Cx.] was sodeyn|liche i-brend*. [y-barnd, γ.] wiþ a strook of lyȝtnynge. After Eleutherius,*. [Euleutherius, γ.] Victor was pope as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] ten ȝere: anon he sente lettres to Theophilus of Alexandria, and to alle þe breþeren þat were þere, þat þey schulde gadre a counsaile [forto ordeyne þe verray counsail*. [holdinge, β.; holdyng, γ.; hold|ing, Cx.]]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] of Esterday. Marianus, libro primo, capi|tulo 3o.*. [2o, Cx.] For after þat þe apostles were dede, anon to þat Page  41, vol.5 tyme, as mydwynter day*. [Cristemas day, Cx.] is i-holde þe sevenþe day to fore Ianyver, uppon what*. [that, Cx.] day it evere falle, so alle [þe]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] men of Gallia hylde þe Ester day in þe sevenþe day to fore Averil, appon what day it evere byfel,*. [byful, γ.] as it was firste bygonne and y-take for to be i-holde. Eusebius in his storie telliþ þat men in þe Est londes hilde Ester day þe fourtenþe*. [fourten, Cx.] day of þe mone of the firste monþe,*. [of the firste monþe] om. Cx.] uppon what day it evere byfel*. [fyl, α.] in þe monþe of Marche. In þis counsail and synod*. [sinode, Cx.] was þe pope Victor, and Narsisus patriark of Ierusalem, and Hereneus*. [Hireneus, Cx.] bisshop of Lugdunum*. [Lugdium, Cx.]; þere it was i-ordeyned þat Esterday schulde be i-holde þe firste*. [firste] om. γ.] Sonday from*. [after, Cx.] þe fourtenþe day of þe mone of þe firste monthe, þat is Marche, and þe Ester woke*. [weke, β. and Cx., et infra.] schulde dure*. [duyre, γ.] anon to þe oon and twenty day of þe same mone, so þat þat day be acounted in þe Ester woke. Theophilus of Cesarea halp moche*. [myche, β.] to*. [in, Cx.] þis ordinaunce. Theodocion*. [Theodocius, Cx.] of Ephesym was þat tyme y-holde a noble man, he was the þridde þat tornede holy writt out of Hebrew into Grew. After Comodus, Hilius Pertinax was emperour sixe monþes; hym slouȝ Iulian, a connynge man of*. [the, added in Cx.] lawe, and so he took þe Page  43, vol.5 empere by strengþe; but he was i-slawe of oon Severus anon after þe sevenþe*. [seveþe, γ.; seven, Cx.] monþe.

Capitulum octavumdecimum.

AFFTER Iulianus, Severus of Affrica, of þe contray þat hatte*. [heyghte, Cx.] Tripolis, was emperour sixtene ȝere. Þis was y-made em|perour and no mo of Affrica ffirst*. [furst, γ.]; þis was enchetour,*. [eþcheitour, β.; encheytour, γ.; eschetour, Cx.] and stigh up by dyvers office and dignitees for to*. [for to] unto, Cx.] he was emperour. He was wel*. [right, Cx.] scars and sturne*. [sterne, Cx.] of kynde*. [steurn of kuynde, γ.]; he overcome þe Parthes and the Arabies,*. [Arabes, α. and Cx.] and þerfore he was i-cleped Parthicus*. [Perthicus, Cx.] and Arabicus. He made a wal in Bretayne þat streccheþ*. [strechcheþ, γ.] sixe score myle and tweyne anoon to*. [anoon to] unto, Cx.] þe see, and he deide at ȝork. Beda, libro primo, capitulo 3o.*. [3o] om. α. and Cx.] Þis*. [Severus, added in Cx.] governede þe comounte stalworþeliche,*. [stalwordlich, β.; myghtly, Cx.] but*. [but] and, Cx.] wiþ grete travail, and at þe laste he wente into Bretayne, and made wal of torfes,*. [torves, α. and γ.; turves, Cx.] and nouȝt of stones, as som men weneþ, and departede Britayne by Page  45, vol.5 þat wal; he dalf up torves of þe grounde, and made up an hiȝ wal, so þat tofore þe wal is þe diche þat torves were i-dolve of*. [dolven out, Cx.]; þere uppon beeþ i-pyȝt strong poles and stakes of tree. He strengþede ofte þat wal wiþ many toures, and deide aftirward at ȝork, and lefte aftir hym tweyne sones, Basyanus and Geta. But Geta was i-iuged*. [y-juget, γ.] for a comoun enemy, and y-do*. [put, Cx.] to dethe; Basianus was i-cleped Antonius, and hadde þe kyngdom. Gaufridus. Lucius kyng of Britouns deide wiþ oute children, and was i-buried at Gloucestre. Þanne fil*. [fyl, Cx.] stryf among þe Britouns, and þe power of Romayns was oversett.*. [was oversett] om. Cx.] Þerfore Severus þe senatour, wiþ tweie legiouns, was i-sent into Bretayne: he made a wal at the cost of þe comynte, bytwene Deire*. [Deira, α. and Cx.] and Albania, þat beeþ þe norþ side of Engelond and Scotlond; he made þe wal aȝenst Fulgencius kyng of Pictes, and fauȝt afterward at ȝork, and was i-slawe and y-buried þere, and lefte aftir hym tweie sones, oon heet*. [heet] hit, α.] Geta, his moder was of Rome; þat oþir heet Bassianus, and his modir was of Bretayne; þerfore was greet fiȝting bytwene þe tweyne*. [two, Cx.] breþeren, and Geta was i-slawe and i-buried þere,*. [and i-buried þere] om. α. and Cx.] and Bassianus hadde þe kyngdom. Gaufridus. Þe Bretouns chees*. [chose, Cx.] Basianus, for his moder was a Britoun; but þe Ro|mayns chees Geta, for his modir was a Romayn; but þey fouȝte, and Geta was i-slawe of oon Carancius.*. [of oon Carancius] om. α., γ., and Cx.] [℞.] But Page  47, vol.5 Eutropius wil mene*. [wil mene] sayth, Cx.] in storie of Rome þat Geta was i-slawe at þe citee Edessa, whanne he fouȝt aȝenst þe Parthes; but Gau|fridus, in þe storie of Britouns, seiþ þat Geta was i-slawe of oon Carancius, a tiraunt þat resede on*. [resede on] frayed with, Cx.] hym. Symachus*. [Synachus, γ.] is*. [is] was tho, Cx.] in his floures; he was þe fourþe þat translated holy writte out of Hebrewe into Grewe;*. [Hebru into Gru, α.] he was of þe Samarites, and tornede to þe Iewene*. [Iewes, Cx.] lawe. Eusebius, libro 4o.*. [4o] om. α.; sexto, Cx.] Þat tyme was Narsisus in his floures,*. [flowring, Cx.] bisshop of Ierusalem: hit is i-wrete þat he was a wel*. [right, Cx.] trewe*. [truwe, γ. (bis).] iuge, and stedefast, and wolde nouȝt bend,*. [beende, γ.] but alway holde the truþe and ȝeve trewe*. [truwe, γ. (bis).] doomes*. [sentences, Cx.]; þerfore þre men þat hadde*. [hadden, β.] evel trowynge of*. [þat were culpable in, Cx.] hem self, feynede a blame aȝenst*. [þat were culpable in, Cx.] þe bisshop, and brouȝt forþ witnesse of hem self. Þe firste prayede þe*. [þat, γ.] fuyre of hevene moste brenne hym, but it were sooth þat he seide. The secounde prayede þat þe kynges evel moste destroye*. [destruye, β. and γ.] hym, bote it were sooth þat he seide. Þe þridde prayde þat he moste leese*. [leose, γ.; bothe, added in Cx.] his eyȝen, but it were sooþ þat he seide. But þe grete ȝye*. [eyȝe, β.; ye, γ.] of Goddis ordynaunce Page  49, vol.5 brend*. [brande, γ.] þe firste witnesse, as he hadde i-prayed, and al his hous þerto, and destroyed*. [distruyde, γ.] the secounde witnesse by the kyngel*. [kynges, α. and Cx.] evel. Þe þridde sigh how*. [houȝ, α. and γ.] his felawys*. [felous, α.] spedde, and dradde ful*. [fol, γ.] sore, and knowlechede his trespas tofore al the peple, and weep*. [wept, Cx.] so meny teeres and so ofte for þat synne and trespas, þat he loste boþe his eyȝen. Aftir þe passioun of Victor, Zephirinus was pope as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] nyne ȝere; he ordeyned þat everiche Cristen man of twelve ȝere olde and above schulde everiche ȝere ones fonge Goddis body an*. [receyve the sacrament and be hoseled on, Cx.] Ester day; þis*. [þis] he, Cx.] made menye omelyes and pistlis,*. [pistils, α.; pistels, β.; epistles, Cx.] and so of his makynge is þe legende þat is i-rad a*. [From α. and γ.] children masse*. [þat is i-rad a children masse] om. Cx.] day, and bygynneþ "Zelus quo tendat," and so forþ, and also of the decollacioun of Seint Iohn. Eusebius, libro 6o. Seynt Leonides, Origenes his fadir was i-martired*. [martrid, Cx.] at Alexandria, þe firste day of Marche. His sone Origenes, a childe of eyȝtene ȝere, þat hiȝte Adaman|cius also, caste for to folwe*. [folewe, β.] þe ensample of his fader. But by þe ordenaunce of God, and besynesse*. [besynes, Cx.] of his moder, þe childe Page  51, vol.5 was i-kept to ful greet profit*. [prouffit, Cx.] of meny men, ffor sche*. [heo, β.] hidde*. [hudde, γ.] þe childes cloþes þat nyȝt, for he schulde not goo out amorwe.*. [on the morrow, Cx.] Þerfore þe childe wroot a lettre to his fader how he was i-holde at home by sleythe of his modir, and prayde his fadir þat he wolde be stedefast, and holde forþ þat he hadde bygonne. While þis was a litel childe he axed ofte questiouns of his fadir, and axede how*. [houȝ, γ.] holy writte was i-ȝeve to us by þe inspiracioun of þe Holy Goost, and what of Goddes counsail is i-hyd*. [y-hud, γ.] in holy writt in symplenesse of speekynge and of wordes. Þere me seith*. [þere me seith] Hit is sayd, Cx.] þat ofte whan þe chylde were onslepe*. [aslepe, α., β., and γ.; was aslepe, Cx.] þe fadir wolde unhele þe childe his breest, and worshippe it, as it were God his temple, and kusse it ful sweteliche, and seie*. [segge, γ.] þat wel was hym þat evere he gat*. [a gaat, γ.; that gate ever, Cx.] suche*. [sich, β.] a childe. Þanne whan þe fader was i-martired, þe childe of eyȝtene ȝere, as it is forseide, whan his fadir*. [fadris, β.] catel was i-take by enchetes,*. [eþchetes, β.; encheetes, γ.; taken be thescheters, Cx.] he and his modir, þat was wydewe,*. [widue, β.] and his eyȝte breþeren, were i-left in greet povert and meschief.*. [meschyef, Cx., et infra.] Þanne at Alexandria he heeld*. [huld, γ.] a gramer scole for to Page  53, vol.5 have liflode for hym and for*. [for] om. Cx.] his; but evere*. [evere] om. γ.] among he tornede men to Cristen fey, and halp and socoured hem þat were pursued*. [poursiewed, Cx.] and brouȝt in mescheef, and conforted hem þat were i-lad to dethe for þe fey of holy chirche. He usede moche wakynge and fastynge; he foundede*. [fonded, β.; vondede, γ.] biseliche by ensample of siker povert to fulfille*. [fulfulle, γ.] þe counsail of*. [foundede . . . counsail of] fol|lowed the saying of, Cx.] the gospel þat counsailleþ þat me schulde nouȝt have tweie curtels*. [kirtles, β.] noþer care for the day þat comeþ amorwe.*. [tomorowe, Cx.] So þat ȝif he knewe eny þat kepte of here owne catel for to lyve by, he refused hem þat*. [þat] and, Cx.] wolde nouȝt have hem in his loore. He ȝede*. [ȝeode, γ.; wente, Cx.] meny ȝere wiþ oute hosen and schoon; alwey he spared wyn, but it*. [but if it, Cx.] were for help of his stomak. In his ȝouþe he dede oon dede þat semede of unperfiȝt witte,*. [wyt, α.; wytte, Cx.] but it was a token of ful byleve and of perfiȝt chastitee, as the gospel seiþ, "Som beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] i-gilded þat gildeþ*. [ghelded that ghelde, Cx.] hem self for þe kyng|dom of God:" þerfore nouȝt onliche by cause of chastitee, but also for he schulde preche to men and to wommen priveliche,*. [and oponlych, added in γ.] for to putte of al*. [manere evel, added in Cx.] suspecioun he gilded hym self pryveliche.*. [for to putte . . . pryveliche] om. Cx.]Page  55, vol.5 Mamea, Alisaundre þe emperour his modir, desirede to heere*. [hyre, α.] Origenes speke, and sente after hym for he schulde come to here [out of Alexandria into Antiochia. Þis wiþ]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] out oþer writers he*. [he] om. Cx.] hadde sevene ȝongelinges and sevene ȝonge maydens þat write*. [writen, β.] as he ȝaf hem of*. [of] by, Cx.] his owne mouth dyvers matires and bookes. He wroot so moche þat Ierom knowlecheþ þat he hadde i-rad of Orygenes his bookes foure þowsand volumes al*. [al] om. Cx.] wiþ oute pistles þat he hadde i-write. Hit was a proverbe of hym, "Suche as was his lore, suche was his lyf:" he sleep*. [sleop, γ.] uppon no bed, he tastede noþer flesche ne*. [noþer, γ.] wyn. Giraldus. Origenes were*. [was, Cx.] nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] þe gretteste of holy writers ȝif he hadde*. [hadde] om. Cx.] nouȝt i-erred in so moche speche. And [as]*. [From Cx.] alle þe Latyn poetes folweþ Ennyus, [so]*. [From Cx.] al þe*. [þe] om. α.] expositours folweþ*. [folowen, Cx.] Origines. Also þis in his manere translated þe bible out of Hebrew into Grew. Also he foundede to amende þe translacioun*. [translaciouns, α. and Cx.] of oþer doctours, of Aquila, of Symachus, and Theodocion; and þere þey hadde more þan was in Ebrew,*. [Hebrew, α.] he made a signe þat hatte obe|lus, and i-shape evelong*. [endlong, Cx.] as a swerd;*. [ȝerde, α. and β.; ȝerd, γ.] and þere they hadde lasse þan was in Hebrewe, oþer speke*. [spak, Cx.] derkliche, he made a signe þat hatte asteriscus and is i-shape liche a sterre. Ieromus, epistola 41. Page  57, vol.5 Þere Origenes seide wel, no man seide bettre; and þere he seide evel, no man seide wors. And whanne he passede wel nygh alle oþere doctoures in his oþere bookes, he passede hym self super Cantica Canticorum; he spak a þowsand tretys in chirche, and made exposiciouns wiþ oute nombre, and cleped hem themos.*. [thamos, γ.] ȝif eny þat folweþ hym putteþ*. [potteþ, γ.] errour aȝenst us, he may take hede þat þe grete Homerus slepeþ*. [slepte, β. and Cx.] somtyme, for in a long work it is laweful to slepe som tyme; we schal nouȝt folwe his vices ȝif we mowe not folwe his virtues; þeigh ȝif*. [Therefor yf, Cx.] oon of his bookes is*. [is] be, Cx.] defouled, þere in his book þat hatte*. [þese in his book þat hatte] whiche book heyghte, Cx.] Periarchon*. [Periarchion, γ.] þey*. [þey] wherenne he, Cx.; α, γ.] understondeþ evel of þe Fader, wors of þe Sone, and worst of þe Holy Goost; and þere he seiþ þat Crist wil somtyme, þoruȝ*. [þoroȝ, γ.] his grete mercye, save þe angels þat fil doun fro hevene; and he leieþ*. [leiþ, β.] for hym þe*. [þe] that, Cx.] vers of þe sawter,*. [sauȝter, α.] "God schal nouȝt be wrooþ for everemore, noþer manasse*. [menace, Cx.] withouten ende," schal al his bookes for þis be destroyed? He hym self Origenes, in a pistle þat he writeþ*. [wrote, Cx.] to Fabian pope of Rome, makeþ moche sorwe for he hadde suche þinges i-write, [and putte þe cause Page  59, vol.5 of þat folye uppon oon Ambrose, þat putte forþ his bookes, and hadde i-write]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] priveliche, and made hem comoun, or þey were amended.*. [corrected and amended, β. and γ.; er he hadde corrected and amended them, Cx.] "Myn freendes," quod he, "have*. [habbeþ, γ.] i-doo me þis, ȝif I*. [Ich, β.] holde my pees I schal be holde gelty,*. [gilty, α.; gylty, Cx.] and ȝif I answere I schal be holde an enemy; eiþer condicioun is hard,*. [but, added in Cx.] of þe tweyne I schal chese*. [cheose, γ.] þe liȝtere." Aboute this tyme þe fifte translacioun was i-founde in a ton*. [tonne, γ.; toun, Cx.] at Iericho; þat translacioun is i-cleped Vulgata, the auctor þerof is unknowe. Hit seemeth þat þe comyn sawter*. [sauȝter, α.] þat we useth is i-take of þat translacioun, þey we folwe Ierom his translacioun in oþir bookes of holy writt. But Damasus þe pope made þe chirche of Rome folwe Ierom also in the sawter.*. [sauȝter, α.]Bassianus.

Capitulum nonumdecimum.

BASSIANUS, Antonius Severus his soone, regnede aftir his fadir as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] seven ȝere; þis was i-cleped Marcus Aurelius, Page  61, vol.5 and Caracalla also for a manere cloþinge þat he ȝaf at Rome; and þerfore bathes þat he made at Rome beeþ i-cleped Cara|callane. Þis was a swiþe*. [right, Cx.] evel man, and scharper of maneres þan*. [þan] from Cx.; þat, MS.] his fader, and he was unsuffrable of leccherie, [℞.] so þat he took his owne stepdame Iulia and wedded hir to wif. Of þe place and manere of his deyenge auctours discordeth, as it is i|seide toforehonde. Gaufridus et Alfridus. While þis*. [Bassianus, added in Cx.] regnede, oon Carencius,*. [Caransius, α.; Carausius, γ. and Cx.] þat com*. [cometh, Cx.] of þe lowest blood of Britouns, but he*. [but he] om. Cx.] was a noblee*. [nobel, α.; noble, β.] man of counsaile and of hond, he gat of þe senatoures þe kepynge of þe see*. [see] om. Cx.] costes of Britayne, ffor þo*. [þo] that tyme, Cx.] Frensche men and Saxons werrede*. [werride, β.] þere uppon; but whan he hadde y-gete his axynge he dede*. [a dude, γ.] more harme and damage þan profit to þe comynte, ffor he beheet*. [byhett, α.; bihete, β.; byheet, γ.; byhete, Cx.] to þe Britouns þat he wolde destroye and chase þe Romayns out of þe ilond ȝif þey wolde make hym kyng. Þanne he slowȝ [Bassianus, and hadde þe kyngdom seven ȝere; ffor þe Pictes, þat Fulgencius þe duke,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Bassianus moder broþer,*. [þat is wrongly inserted here in MS.] hadde i-brouȝt out of Schicia Page  63, vol.5 and out of oþer londes forsook Basianus in þe bataile, ffor Caraucius hadde i-meded*. [hyred, Cx.] hem; and so Caraucius hadde þe victorie, and ȝaf þe Pictes a wonynge*. [dwellyng, Cx.] place in Albania, þat is Scotland; þere þey were i-melled*. [medled, Cx.] wiþ Britouns, and wonede*. [dwellid, Cx.] þere [afterward]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] long tyme. Þe senatoures of Rome herde þerof, and sente oon Alectus*. [Allectus, Cx.] wiþ þre legiouns into Britayne ffor to slee þat tiraunt Caraucius, and whan*. [whan] om. Cx.] he was i-slawe Alectus regnede þre ȝere, and so*. [so] om. Cx.] he restorede Britayne aȝen to þe power of Rome. Giraldus. And for þis Alectus grevede and pursewede*. [poursiewed, Cx.] þe Britouns þat hadde y-holde wiþ Caraucius, oon Asclepiodotus, duke of Cornwayle, was i-made kyng, and aftir þre ȝere he slouȝ Alectus at Londoun, and meny þowsandes of Romayns. Gau|fridus. After þat Londoun was longe byseged, Venedotus*. [Venedotes, β., γ., and Cx.] men of Norþ Wales, fel*. [fille, β.] uppon Gallus, Allectus his felowe, and slouȝ hym wiþ yn Londoun, at a brook*. [broke, β. and Cx.; broc, γ.] þat haþ þe name of hym, þat hatte Galle-brook,*. [Gallebroc, γ.; or Walbrooke, added in Cx.] and Asclepiodotus regnede somwhat of Page  65, vol.5 þe ȝeres in þe ilond anon to Dioclisianus his tyme. Þanne Coelus, duke of Colchestre, slouȝ Asclepiodotus [℞. Girald and Gaufred clepeþ þis Asclepiodotus]*. [From α. and Cx.] duke of Cornewayle; but Beda, libro primo, capitulo 6o, folweþ Eutropius in þe storie of Rome, and clepeþ*. [called, Cx.] þis Asclepiodotus, duk of Corn|waile,*. [duk of Cornwaile] om. α.] prefectus*. [prefect, α. and Cx.] of þe pretorie. Eutropius. Opilius Mar|cius,*. [Macrinus, Cx.] prefectus*. [Morcinus prefect, α.] of þe pretorie, was emperour after Basianus as it were oon ȝere, and þanne at Archelaydes he was i-slawe, boþe he and his sone.*. [also, added in Cx.] After Zephirinus, Calixtus was pope as hit were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] fyve ȝere: he ordeyned þe*. [þat, γ.] fastynge on of*. [on of] of þe, α., γ., and Cx.] foure*. [fastyng of the foure, β.] tymes of þe ȝere for plente of þe*. [þe] om. α.; ol, Cx.] corne and of fruit; and made a chirchehawe*. [chircheȝerde, β.; churcheheyȝ, γ.; chircheyerde, Cx.] at Rome, in a place þat hatte Via Appia, for to burie*. [in, added in Cx.] þe bodies of holy martires; now þat place hatte [cimi|torium]*. [From Cx.] Calixty.*. [Calixli, Cx.] Marcus Aurelius Antonius, þat was i-holde þe sone of Caracalla,*. [Carcalla, γ.] was emperour as it were*. [as hit were] om. Cx.] two ȝere; he forbare*. [forbaar, γ.] no manere of leccherie; at þe laste he was i-slawe in a stryvynge of knyȝtes.

Page  67, vol.5

Capitulum vicesimum.

AURELIUS Alexander was emperour as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] þrittene ȝere; þis was so cruel*. [cruwel, β. and γ.] in correctiouns of þe lawe of chivalrie, þat he un|dede*. [undide, β.] hole legiouns þat made grucchynge*. [grutchyng, Cx.] and strif; his assessour was oon [Vulpianus]*. [From Cx.] a connynge man of lawe; he was i-slawe at August*. [Magust, α.; Magunst, β.; Ma|gonst, γ.; Magounce, Cx., et infra.] in Almayne in stryvynge of knyȝtes: in his tyme þe sixte translacioun was i-founde of holy writt at Nicapolus*. [Nicapolis, β. and γ.; Nyca|polis, Cx.] in Palestina. Marcianus.*. [Marcus, Cx.] Calixtus þe pope was i-martired in Alisaundre his tyme, and þe first Urban was pope after hym as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] eyȝte ȝere; he ordeynede þat þe offrynges of Cristene men schulde*. [be, added in α., γ., and Cx.] non oþir wyse be y-spend*. [spent, Cx.] but in use of holy chirche, þat he knowlechede verrailiche his synne,*. [þat . . . synne] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] and in help of nedy*. [neody, γ.] [Cristen]*. [From γ.] men, ffor þey beeþ þe avowes*. [afowes, γ.; vowes, Cx.] of Cristen men and þe prys of synne. In his tyme þe chirche of Rome bygan first to have londes and rentes, and wiþ þe profit*. [prouffyt, Cx.] þerof he fonde notaries and clerkes to write þe lyvynge Page  69, vol.5 and dedes of holy seyntes; to forehonde*. [to fore this tyme, Cx.] holy chirche lyvede as þe apostles, and feng*. [fond, γ.; receyved, Cx.] onliche money to þe use of needy*. [neody, γ.] Cristen men. Þis is þat Urban þat cristned*. [folled, β.; follede, γ.] Valerianus þe spouse of Seint Cecily,*. [Cecil, β.] and was at þe laste i-martred wiþ hem*. [hym, Cx.] in Aurelius his tyme. After hym Poncianus was pope as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] fyve ȝere, and at þe laste he was i-brouȝt and i|martired at Sardinia,*. [Sardina, α.] and aftirward pope*. [pope] om. Cx.] Fabyan brouȝte his body to Rome, and buriede it þere. Me seiþ þat oon Siriacus*. [Sciriacus, γ.] was pope after þis Poncianus oon ȝere, but for*. [for] bycause, Cx.] he resignede þe poperiche*. [poperych, γ.; papacye, Cx.] aȝenst þe wille of þe clergy, and oon Antherus was y-made pope, and also*. [also] om. Cx.] for he wente to Agrippina*. [whiche nowe is called Coleyn, added in Cx.] wiþ en|leven þowsand maydons þat*. [þat] whom, Cx.] he hadde i-cristened*. [y-folled, β.] wel nygh alle, he is nouȝt y-sette in þe book of rekenynge of bisshoppis.*. [bishoppes] popes, Cx.] Þe cardynales trowede*. [trowide, β.] þat he lefte þe poperiche nouȝt for devocioun, but for likynge of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] maydens, [noþeles he was clene mayde*. [and, added in γ.] i-martred wiþ þe same maydenes].*. [From α., γ., and Cx.: γ. adds: "as hyt ys y-write in þe legende of þe same maydons."] After þat Aurelius Page  71, vol.5 was i-slawe at Mangounst,*. [Magust, β.; Magonst, γ.] Maximius*. [Maximinus, α. and Cx.] Iulius was i-made emperour by þe oost wiþoute auctorite of þe senatoures, and was emperour þre ȝere; he pursewed*. [persywed, γ.; poursiewed, Cx.] holy chirche specialliche for Origenes, and he was i-slawe at þe laste in Aquilia. Gor|dianus was emperour sixte*. [sixe, α.; six, Cx.] ȝere, and was y-slawe of oon Phelip, prefecte of þe pretorie, nouȝt fer from Rome, after þat Gordianus hadde overcome þe Parthes. Fabyan was pope after Antherus as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] fiftene ȝere. Whanne þe pope was deed, þis passed by þe way, and talkede wiþ his frendes of þe chesynge*. [cheosyng, γ.] of a newe pope, þanne a colvere*. [dowve, Cx.] com sodeynliche and sat*. [saat, γ.] on his heed, and seide, "Þou schalt be y-crowned bisshop at*. [of, Cx.] Rome;" and so he was i-chose by Goddes or|dynaunce, and ordeyned sevene notaries to write þe dedes of holy martires; and he ordeynede þat every ȝere crisme and oyle schulde be i-halowed*. [halewide, β.] in holy chirche; and he was i-mar|tired at þe laste in Decius his tyme. In þis popes tyme oon Navacius, a preost of Rome, desired to be pope, and bycam an heretyk,*. [erretik, β.] and denyede*. [denyȝede, α.] þat a synful man myȝte be saved; þerfore was y-made a counsail of sixty bisshoppes. Þat tyme was Page  73, vol.5 Affricanus þe writere in his floures.*. [flouring, Cx.] Heraclides þe bisshop wil*. [wol, γ.] mene,*. [will mene] sayth, Cx.] þat [he]*. [From β.] wroot þe lyves of holy fadris in a book þat hatte Paradisus. Affricanus, þe writer of stories,*. [þe writer of stories] om. α., γ., and Cx.] was i-prayed and wente to Alexandria, and occupiede þe maister his*. [his] om. Cx.] chayer after Origenes. Also þat tyme Coelus, duke of Colchestre, slouȝ Asclepiodotus, and regnede in Bretayne as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] þritty ȝere, anon to þe comynge of Constancius.

Capitulum vicesimum primum.

PHILIP*. [Philippus, Cx.] wiþ his sone [Philip]*. [From α. and Cx.] was emperour sevene ȝere; þis was þe firste Cristen man of al þe emperours, and was i-cristened*. [y-folled, β. and γ.] of Seint Pontius þe martir. He was so stedefast*. [studefast, α.] in þe fey of holy chirche þat he knowlechede verreilyche*. [frelich, β.; frely, Cx.] his synne and was i-houseled*. [y-housled, γ.] to fore al þe peple in an*. [in an] om. Cx.] Esterday; his sone was a Cristen man, but he was so sturne of herte þat no man myȝte meove*. [meve, Cx.] hym to lauȝhe.*. [lauȝwhe, γ.] Oones he took heede how*. [houȝ, γ.]Page  75, vol.5 his fader made a mowe, and tornede away þe*. [þe] his, Cx.] face; alwey he wiþstood vices, and fondede to styȝe up to þe perfiȝtnesse of virtues. Eutropius. In þe fourþe ȝere of þese*. [þeose, γ.; this, Cx.] emperours*. [þis emperour, β.] were i-ended a þowsand ȝere after þat Rome was i-buld, and for solempnite þerof [Philip]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] slowȝ bestes wiþ oute nombre in a rounde place þat is i-cleped þe grete circus, and made pleyes of þe theatre in Mars his*. [Marses, Cx.] feeld*. [Marses felde, β.] þre dayes and þre nyȝt to þe peple þat wook*. [woke, Cx.] besiliche.*. [woke busylych, γ.] Fabyan þe pope was i-martired in Decius þe consul his tyme; after hym Cornelius was pope þre ȝere; he ordeyned*. [ordeygned, Cx.] þat noon ooth*. [, α.] schulde be chalenged*. [chalengide, β.] of þe pope but it were for þe right fey of holy chirche, and þat no preost schulde committe his cause to anoþer manis doom but it were apeled to þe court of Rome. Also at þe prayer of Seint Lucina he made þe bodies of the apostles to*. [to] om. α.] be i-take out of þe place þat hatte Catacumbe, as it were a charnel, and broȝt Poule his*. [Powles, Cx.] body in þe place þat hatte Via Ostiensis, and Peter his body in place þat hatte Vaticanus, faste by þe place þere he was i-doo in*. [in] om. Cx.] þe croys. In þis popes tyme þe Grees*. [Grekes, Cx., et infra.] hadde y-stole þe bodies of þe aposteles to brynge hem into Page  77, vol.5 Grees. But feendes þat were i-closed and woned*. [dwellyd, Cx.] in maw|mettes were compelled by þe virtu of God, and cryed, "Helpeþ,*. [Help ye, Cx.] men of Rome, for ȝoure*. [ȝoure] our, Cx.] goddes beþ i-take awey.*. [from you, added in Cx.]" Þanne Cristen men understood þat þat*. [þat] this, Cx.] was i-seide of þe apostles, and mysbileved men understood þat it was i-seide of here goddes; and so boþe*. [boþe] om. Cx.] Cristen men and mysbileved men gadrede hem to gidres alle in oon route, and*. [and] om. Cx.] by on assent, and pursued*. [poursiewed, Cx.] after þe Grees. Þan þe Grees were aferd, and þrewe þe bodyes of þe apostles in a put*. [pitt, β.; pytte, Cx.] at a place þat hatte*. [heyght, Cx.] Catecumbe; and whan þe bodies were i-take up*. [up] om. Cx.] out of þat place, it was doute wheþer bonys were*. [was, β.] Petris*. [Peter his, α.] and wheþer wer Paulis.*. [Paule his, α.] Þanne Cristen men gonne to praye [and to]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] faste, and hadde a revelacioun and a schewynge of God þat þe grettere bones were þe fischeres bones*. [þe fischeres bones] bis in MS.]; þe fischere was Peter. Phelip þe lyþere*. [elder, β.; elþere, γ.; older, Cx.] was i-slawe at Nerona,*. [Verona, Cx.] and Phelip þe ȝonger was i-slawe at Rome by gile and by fraud of Decius. ℞. It is i-rad in þe legenda sanctorum þat Phelip þe Page  79, vol.5 eldere*. [elþere, α. and γ.] hadde i-sente his noble knyȝt Decius for to chaste Gallia. Decius sped wel, and come aȝen, and þe emperour com aȝenst hym out of Rome, and was i-slawe at Nerona*. [Verona, Cx.] [by his fraude and gyle],*. [From α., β., and Cx.] and Phelip þe ȝonger*. [þanne þe ȝonger Philip, α., γ., and Cx.] herde*. [hurde, γ.] þerof, and fligh, and took his fadris*. [fader, α.] tresour to Sixtus þe pope, and to Laurence þe decoun,*. [dekene, Cx.] for to dele it to pore*. [pour, Cx.] men. Þan Decius was i-made emperour, for me schulde wene þat he hadde i-slayn his lord for love of mametrie, and not traytour|liche. Þis Decius pursuede*. [poursiewed, Cx.] Cristen men, and was emperour þre ȝere; þis*. [he, Cx.] wolde have y-crowned his sone Decius em|perour, but his sone wolde nouȝt, and seide, "Y drede þat I schal forȝete*. [forȝeote, γ.] to be a sone ȝif I be made*. [maad, γ.] emperour; me is levere," quod he, "to be nouȝt emperour, and [be a meke sone, þan be emperour, and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] stout and unkynde sone; myn fader schal be emperour, my*. [myn, α.] empere schal be to be suget*. [subgette, Cx.] and buxom to þe emperour." Orosius.*. [Decius, α.]

Page  81, vol.5

Capitulum vicesimum secundum.

OROSIUS seiþ þat Decius*. [Desius, MS.] was emperour þre ȝere and þre monþes; but Eusebius, Beda, and Cassiodorus telleþ þat he bygan to regne þe ȝere after þe buldynge*. [bilding, β.; buyldynge, γ. and Cx.] of Rome a þowsand ȝere and foure, and [by]*. [by] added from α. and Cx.] Eusebius his cronike hit semeth þat þis Decius regnede eyȝte ȝere, and by þe martiloge*. [martirlogi, γ.; martilogye, Cx.] it semeth þat he regnede sixtene ȝere; it semeþ þat elles it myȝte nouȝt stonde þat so meny popes as Fabian, Cornelius, Lucius, Stevene,*. [Stephen, Cx.] and Sextus were i-martired in Decius his tyme, as it is i-write and i-radde; þerfore som men wil mene*. [wold suppose, Cx.] þat þis*. [þeose, γ.] sixtene ȝere and two ȝere of Galerius schal restore þe eyȝteþe*. [eyȝtetene, α. and γ.; eyghten, Cx.] ȝere þat lakkith in cronicles of Eusebius and of Beda from þe fiftenþe ȝere of Tiberius Cesar anon to oure tyme. Here among take hede þat þe eldere*. [eldre, γ.] Decius, þat slowȝ Phelip, and was emperour after hym, he was emperour þre ȝere, as it is here i-seide, but þe oþer Decius þe ȝonger was Cesar, and nouȝt emperour, and so bytwene þese tweyne Page  83, vol.5 Decius were boþe emperours and popes, as Gallus and Volu|sianus; after hem regnede Valerius, wiþ his sone Galienus, as it were fiftene ȝere. In here tyme were i-martired fyve popes, and Laurencius þe dekene, and Ypolitus wiþ al his hous. It semeþ1 þat þis sawe is i-holpe by þe cronyke þat seiþ þat this emperour1*. [1_1 þat . . . emperour] by this that, Cx.] Galienus hadde tweie names, for he heet Decius also. Oþere men wil mene*. [wil mene] suppose, Cx.] þat it was al oon Decius þat was i-made Cesar by Phelip, and þilke*. [þulke, γ.] Decius under whom Laurencius was i-martired, and þerfore it is nowher i-rad in Laurencius his legende*. [Laurence legende, Cx.] Decius imperator, but Decius Cesar: it happeþ ofte somtyme*. [of tyme, Cx.] þat somme were Cesares and nouȝt Augustus, noþer emperours, ffor som were first Cesares, and þanne Augustus,*. [Augustes, α.] and þan þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] emperours.*. [for somme were first Cæsars, added again wrongly in MS.] Þanne in þe firste*. [furste, γ.] ȝere of Decius þe emperour þe seven slepers by|gonne to slepe in þe hille*. [hille] om. Cx.; hul, γ.] Mont Celius, and sleep so two hondred ȝere, and arisen*. [aryse, α. and γ.; they roose, Cx.] aboute þe laste ende*. [tyme, α. and Cx.] of Theo|dorius.*. [Theodocius, Cx.] Aboute þat tyme Antonyus, þe famous monk, was i-bore in Egip.*. [Egipt, α. and Cx.] Cornelius þe pope was i-martred, and after Page  85, vol.5 hym Lucius, þat was pope þre ȝere, and Abdon and Sennen were*. [were] was, Cx.] i-martired also, and Seint Agas*. [Agath, α.; Aggtha, γ.; Agatha, Cx.] at Cathina. Also þat ȝere Decius*. [Desius, MS.] and his sone were i-slawe*. [slayn, β.] of Gothes in Tracia. But it is i-rad*. [red, Cx.] in Ypolit his passioun, þat Decius and Valerius*. [Valerianus, α. and Cx.] were i-travailled*. [traveiled, β.; y-travayled, γ.] wiþ a fend*. [feend, γ.] after Laurence his passioun, and deide in þat meschef. Gallus, wiþ his sone Volusianus, regnede as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] two ȝere; þey*. [hy, γ.] wente out of Rome, and Emilianus slowȝ hem, and took þe emperour*. [empere, α.; thempyre, Cx.] wiþ wrong, and was i-slawe þe monthe after. In his tyme fel*. [ful, γ.; fyl, Cx.] a pestilence as it were*. [were] om. Cx.] in to al þe world, and Origenes deide, and was i-buried in Tyrus, þe ȝere of his age þre score and ten.

Capitulum vicesimum tertium.

VALERIANUS, wiþ his sone Galienus, regnede as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] fiftene ȝere; first he worshipped so holy seintes þat me trowede Page  87, vol.5 þat his hous was*. [was] hadde be, Cx.] Goddis owne chirche. But afterward he was apeyred by oon þat was a wicche,*. [wychche, γ.; wytche, Cx.] and bygan to hate the fey of Cristen men; þan he pursued*. [biganne to poursue, Cx.] Cristen men, and Goddes help was so bynome*. [bymone, Cx.] hym þat he was i-take of Sapor kyng of Pers, and his eyȝen*. [yen, γ.; eyen, Cx.] were y-put out; he was i-holde in a dis|pitous bondage to his lifes*. [lyves, α.] ende, so þat he schulde stoupe to grounde, and þe kyng schulde sette his foot on his bak whanne he schulde lepe to horse. Aboute þat ȝere Decius, þat heet Galienus, were*. [werþ, α.; wax, Cx.] cruel*. [werþ cruwel, β.] and sterne*. [werþ cruwel and sturn, γ.]; and Paule þe firste heremyte wente into wildernesse and lyvede þere unknowe sixty ȝere to giders, as Ierom destroyeþ*. [descryveþ, α.; discreveþ, β.; wryteth, Cx.] in vitis patrum. After Lucius, Stevene*. [Stephen, Cx.] was pope þre ȝere; he ordeyned*. [ordeygned, Cx.] þat mynystres of holy cherche schulde nouȝt were holy vesty|mentis in þe comyn use of every*. [everech, β.] day: þis Stevene was i-slawe while he seide his masse. Þe secounde Ciprianus was first a man of lawe, and a pleder,*. [pletar, Cx.] and aftirward a preost, and at þe laste he was bisshop of Cartage, and was i-martired þe same day þat Cornelius þe pope was i-martired, but nouȝt þe same ȝere. After þat Stevene was i-martired, Sixtus was*. [was] om. α.] pope Page  89, vol.5 two ȝere; he ordeyned þat me schulde synge a masse uppon an auȝter,*. [aulter, Cx.] and was aftirward i-martired wiþ Felicissimus and Agapitis*. [Agapit, α.; Agapitus, Cx.] in Decius his tyme; so seiþ martilogie,*. [þe martirlogi, γ.; the martiloge, Cx.] þat is more to trowynge*. [better to byleve, Cx.] þan cronicles*. [cronykes, α., γ., and Cx.] of auctours þat beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] nouȝt i-knowe; for Galienus þe emperour heet Decius also. Þis Sextus wente into Spayne in a tyme, and fonde þere tweye ȝongelynges, Vincent and Laurence, þat were his owne cosyns, and*. [were, added in Cx.] wel i-þewed,*. [and manerd, Cx.] and*. [and] he, Cx.] took heed of hem, and brouȝte hem wiþ hym to Rome, and Laurence abood wiþ hym at Rome, and Vyncent wente aȝen into Spayne, and was y-martyred aftirward in Dacianus þe juges tyme. Aftir þat Sixtus*. [Sextus, α.] was i-martired, Denys, a monk, was pope sixe ȝere; he to deled parisches*. [parsches, γ.; departed paryshes, Cx.] and chirche hawes,*. [heyes, β.; yerdes, Cx.; church|heyes, γ.] and assigned to everich*. [parysse, added in Cx.] a preost. After Denys, Felix was pope foure ȝere. Eugenia, Prothus, and Iacinctus were i-martired at Rome þat tyme. Gre|gorye Nauȝanȝenus was in his floures in Grees*. [in Grees] om. Cx.]; he was bis|shop at Constantynenoble.*. [in Grece, added in Cx.] Tweie breþeren germayns stryve*. [strofe, Cx.]Page  91, vol.5 for a pond þat hadde plente of fische, and by his prayers he made þe ponde*. [poond, γ.] wexe drye,*. [the pond waxed drye, Cx.] and bere corne and fruyt. Also a chirche schulde be bulde*. [buylded, Cx.] in a place, but þe place was to scars*. [to scarce, Cx.] and to narowe, for in þe est side was a greet rocke,*. [rooche, β. (bis); rooch, γ. (bis).] and a greet ryver in þe west side, and Gregorie prayde in a nyȝt, and amorwe*. [on the morn, Cx.] it was i-founde þat þe roche*. [rooche, β. (bis); rooch, γ. (bis).] was wiþdrawe as fer as it nedede,*. [neodede, γ.] and so þere was a place large inowe*. [ynough, Cx.] for to make and bulde*. [buylde, γ.] a chirche. Also in anoþer tyme in þe wynter he passede by*. [by] the, Cx.] Alpes, and he moste wende by Appolyn his temple. But whan he was a goo fro þe temple þe preost of þe temple, þat was y-woned*. [y-wond, γ.; wont, Cx.] to gete moche good by answeres*. [answhers, γ.] þat þe mamette ȝaf,*. [but he, inserted in β.] myȝte tho non answere gete.*. [myȝte. . .gete] gate no more, for the mawmet gaf none answer, Cx.] Also þe same*. [also þe same] and the, Cx.] preost offrede sacrifice besiliche,*. [bysylych, γ.; bysyly, Cx.] and it was i-seide hym in his sleepe þat Appollo Delphicus was i-put out in*. [in] by, Cx.] þe comynge of Gregorie, and þat he myȝte not come aȝen wiþ oute leve of Gregorie. Whan þe preost hirde*. [hurde, γ.] þat, anon he wente to Page  93, vol.5 Gregorie, and purchasede a lettre of hym in þese wordes: "Gregorie sendeþ gretynge to Appolyn: I suffre þe to torne aȝe in to þy place, and doo as þou were i-woned*. [wont, β.] to doo." Þis lettre was i-sette up [in Appolyn his temple],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and Ap|polyn ȝaf answeris as he was i-woned to doo.*. [to doo] om. γ.] Whanne þe preost sigh þat, he wente to Gregorye, and prayde hym þat he wolde make hym a Cristen man; and at þe laste whan Gregorie was deed, he was bisshop after hym. Claudius þe secounde regnede oon ȝere and somwhat of monthes; ones he overcom þe Gothes, and deyde; aftir hym his broþer Quin|tilius regnede by assent of knyȝtes, and was y-slawe þė fifteþe*. [xv., Cx.] day in Aquila.*. [Aquilia, α. and β.] After þat Phelix*. [Felix, α.; Felyx, Cx.] þe pope was [y]*. [From α.]-martired, Euticianus was pope sixe ȝere; he ordeynede þat þe firste fruytes*. [furste fruyt, γ.] schulde be i-blessed uppon an*. [an] the, Cx.] auter; also he buried*. [biryed, β.] þre hondred martires and sixty wiþ his owne honde.

Capitulum vicesimum quartum.

AURELIUS*. [Aurelianus, α., γ., and Cx.] of Denmarch*. [Denmark, Cx.] i-bore was emperour fyve ȝere and somwhat of monþhes; he was liche to þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] grete Alisaundre Page  95, vol.5 oþer*. [oþer] or, Cx.] to Iulius. For as Alisaundre in twelve ȝere wente into Inde, and Iulius in ten ȝere overcom þe Gallus*. [Galles, Cx.] and þe Ger|mayns, and fauȝte foure ȝere aȝenst þe citeȝeyns, so þis in foure ȝere*. [he] added in Cx.] restored þe lordschipe of Rome. In his firste tyme þe estat*. [staat, γ.] of holy chirche gan to encrese,*. [encreesce, γ.] so þat a comoun*. [solempne, Cx.] counsaile of bisshoppes was i-made at Antiochia. In þat counsail*. [counceyl, Cx.] Paul*. [Paul] om. γ.] þe heretik was condempned; but afterward he was apeyred by counsail of*. [counsail of] om. Cx.] schrewes, and arered dysese and strif in holy chirche. Þis*. [Aurelianus, added in Cx.] overcom þe Gothes fyve siþes; þis was þe firste among þe Romayns þat usede cloþes arayed wiþ*. [arayed wiþ] of, Cx.] gold; he dede on his hede a dyademe arayed wiþ precious stoones; he restorede to þe peple use of swynes*. [swynnes, Cx.] flesch. At þe laste he com into Gallia, and martired meny holy men, and clepede þe citee Genalium by his [owne]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] name Aureliam,*. [Aurelian, α., γ., and Cx.] and was aftir|ward i-slawe faste by Constantynnoble. After hym Tacitus regnede sixe monþes, after the whiche*. [whoche, γ.] he was i-slawe in Pontus; þat*. [þanne, α. and Cx.] aftir þat Florianus regnede þre monþes, and was i-slawe in Tharsis. After þe passioun of Euticianus, Page  97, vol.5 Gayus was pope nyntene ȝere; he ordeynede degrees of ordres in holy chirche, hostiarius, lector, exorcista, and acolitus, and oþere mo, and þat no man schulde accuse þe ministres of holy chirche to fore a seculer iuge. Anatolius, bisshop of Alisaundre in Laodocia, made a book [of þe verray Ester day, and, ten bookes]*. [From β. and γ.] of ars metrik.*. [arithmetik, α. and β.] Þe heresie of the Manichies gan to springe. Manacheus was of Pers, a man of scharp witte and of straunge maneres; first he heet Manas*. [Manes, Cx.]; þe Manachies haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] þat name of hym; þey telleþ þat they*. [þere, β.] beeþ tweie fresche worcheres*. [firste worcheres, α. and β.; furst worchers, γ.; fyrst werchers, Cx.] and makeres of þinges, oon of good [and anoþer of evel],*. [From α. and Cx.] oon of light [and]*. [From α. and Cx.] anoþer of derknesse. Giraldus et Gaufridus.*. [Alfredus, Cx.] Aboute þat tyme þe Romayns sente oon Constancius for to make Coelus kyng of Britayne sogette, and forto fonge tribut þat was i-werned.*. [denyed, Cx.] But Coelus was dede after þe monþe of his comynge, and Constancius hadde þe kyngdom, and wedded þis Coelus his douȝter Helene,*. [Helene] om. Cx.] and gat on hire þe grete Con|stantyn. Probus was emperour sixe ȝere and somwhat of Page  99, vol.5 monþes; he wan Gallia þat was*. [þat was] om. γ.] out of men hondes of straunge naciouns,*. [men . . . naciouns] theyr hondes, Cx.] and restored it aȝen; he lete þe Galles and þe Pan|nonyes have use of vynes*. [fynes, γ.]; and whanne he hadde i-pesed wel ny alle,*. [peesed wel neiȝ alle, β.; had wele nyghe sette al in pees, Cx.] he seide þat in a schort tyme me schulde have no nede*. [neode, γ.] to knyȝtes; and at þe laste he was i-slawe in a stryvynge*. [stryvenge, α.] of knyȝtes. Carus, wiþ his sones Carinus and Numerianus, was emperour two ȝere, and he was adraynt*. [dreynt, β.; adreynt, γ.; drowned, Cx.] in þe ryver Tigris. Also Numerianus was y-lad in a liter*. [lytter, Cx.] for his eme*. [eme] sore eyȝen, α. and β.; sore yȝen, γ.; sore eyen, Cx.] and his owne wife's fader Aprus sat in awayte*. [set aweyt, γ.] uppon*. [uppon] for, Cx.] hym, and slowȝ hym. Þanne aftir meny dayes*. [dawes, γ.] he was unneþe y|founde but*. [but] om. α. and γ.] by stenche*. [stynch, γ.] of þe*. [þe] his, Cx.] careyn. Carinus was over|come and i-slawe at Margus. Diocliciani.

Capitulum vicesimum quintum.

DIOCLICIANUS, þe sone of Dalmata þe writere, was first consul, and þan he was i-made emperour, and he was i-made*. [i-made] om. α. and Cx.] emperour Page  101, vol.5 twenty ȝere. Anon þis smot Aprus in a gaderynge of knyȝtes, and swore þat by*. [wiþoute, α., β., and Cx.] his*. [by his] wiþoute, γ.] traysoun and gyle Numerarius*. [Numerianus, Cx.] was i-slawe.*. [hadde be slawe, α.; had nouȝt be slayn, β.] Þis man was besy*. [ful ofte besy, Cx.] and sotil of witte, so þat he couþe fulfille*. [fulfulle, γ.] his cruelnesse by þe envie of oþere; þis heet and comaunded þat me schulde worshippe hym*. [hym] om. Cx.] as it were God Almyȝty. He used cloþes and*. [and] om. Cx.] hosen,*. [hoson, γ.] and schone*. [schoen, Cx.] realliche*. [realich, β.] arrayede wiþ precious stones, þey*. [þouȝ, β.] emperoures þat were to fore hym were i-salwed*. [y-saluwed, γ.; salewed, Cx.] as iuges, and hadde a reed mantel [more þan oþere men, and non oþer dyverste from þe comoun cloþynge of oþere men but suche a rede mantel].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Also for werre and batailles þat were toward, þis took oon Herculus*. [Herculius, Cx., et infra.] Maximianus, and made hym his felowe in þe kyngdom. Þis Herculius was opounliche*. [oponlych, γ.] grym and sturne, and wolde nouȝt be under lawe; his sturnesse was liȝtliche*. [liȝtliche] sone, Cx.] i-knowe by his grisly semblant.*. [semblant] countenaunce and semblaunt, Cx.] But Dioclisianus hadde raþer i-made hym*. [raþer i-made hym] made him firste, Cx.] Cesar and aftirward Augustus; he Page  103, vol.5 bar doun a greet multitude of cherles, and ȝilde*. [chorles and yelded, Cx.] pees*. [ȝuld pes, γ.] to þe Galles: in þat iornay was þe legioun i-martired*. [i-martired] om. Cx.] at Alpes, þat hatte legio Thebea; Seynt Morys was oon of þat legioun. At þe laste Dioclisianus made Constancius and Galerius Cesarus;*. [Cesars, α. and Cx.] and so þe empere was governed by tweie Augustus, Dio|clisianus and Maximianus, and be tweie Cesares, Constancius and Galerius Cesarus, and so þe empere was governed by tweie Augustus.*. [Cesarus . . . Augustus] He þat is Augustus is gretter þan he þat is Cesar, α. and Cx.] And for he wolde have þe gretter affinite, Diocli|sianus made Constancius forsake his wif Helene,*. [Helene] om. Cx.] and wedded*. [weddede, γ.; wedde, Cx.] Theodora þe step-douȝter of Herculeus Maximianus, and Con|stancius gat on here sixe children; and he made Galerius wedde his douȝter and forsake his wif. And at þe laste Dioclisianus and Maximianus lefte of þe empere by here owne*. [owne] om. Cx.] [fre]*. [From α. and Cx.] wille, and bygonne to be philosofres. Þanne Constancius and Galerius delede þe empere bytwene hem tweyne; and so Illiricum and þe Est londes fil*. [fille, β.; ful, γ. (bis).] to Galerius, and þe West londes fil to Constancius; but he hilde*. [huld, γ., et infra.] hym apaide*. [content, Cx.] wiþ Fraunce and wiþ*. [wiþ] om. Cx.] Spayne, and graunted þe oþer londes to Galerius; þerfore Page  105, vol.5 Galerius ordeyned tweyne Cesars, Maximius*. [Maximinus, α. and Cx.] in þe West, and Severus in Italy, and hilde hym self apaide*. [hym content, Cx.] wiþ Illiricum all one, þat is Grees. In þe mene*. [mene] om. γ.] tyme Dioclicianus fondede to slee Constancius*. [Constantinus, Cx., et infra.] þe sone of Constancius, þat he hadde on*. [þe sone . . . on] that was the sone of, Cx.] Heleyne; but Constancius was war of þat gile, and fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] to his fadir. Þat ȝere Seint George of Capadocia, þat was tri|bunus, was i-martred under Dacianus*. [under Dacianus] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] in Piers,*. [Pers, α. and β.; Perse, γ.; Perce, Cx.] at a citee þat hatte*. [heyte, Cx.] Diospolis, þat is bysides Ioppen, and he was i-martired under Dacianus þe iuge by doom of the counsaile of Nicene.*. [Nicene] of Iewes, γ.] His legende is acounted among writynges þat beeþ*. [acompted for wryting that is called, Cx.] Apocripha. Trevisa. Þe writynge is Apocripha whanne þe auctor þerof is unknowe.*. [Apocrifa is a wrytyng of none auctoryte bycause thauctor therof is unknowen, Cx.] Þanne it foloweþ in þe story: after þat Gayus was i-martired, Marcellinus was pope eiȝte ȝere. Dioclisianus compelled hym somtyme, and he assentede forto*. [for] om. Cx.] do sacrefice to mawmettis; but aftirward, in a counsail þat was i-made in Campania, he knowlechede his trespas to fore nyne*. [nyȝen, γ.] score Page  107, vol.5 bisshoppis, and cloþede hym self in here,*. [heere, α.; heer, β., γ., and Cx.] and þrewe powder*. [pouþer, α. and γ.] and dust*. [doust, β. and γ.] on his owne heed, and submytte*. [submitted, β.; submytted, Cx.] hym, and putte hym*. [and putte hym] om. Cx.] to stonde to þe doom of bisshoppes. Þanne þe bisshoppes seide: "Þou hast forsake, and Peter forsook, and was i-demed of non oþer man, but he wente out and wepte*. [weop, γ.] bitterliche and soore; þanne deeme þou þy self." "And I,*. [yche, α.; ich, β. and γ.]" quoþ he, "deme þat I be disposed*. [deposed, β. and Cx.] and i-sette adoun, and y acurse*. [acorse, α. and β.; acorsse, γ.; accorse, Cx.] alle þat burieþ my body in holy burielles." After|ward he knowleched tofore Dioclicianus þat he was a Cristen man, and so he was byheded, and his body lay in þe streete þritty dayes unburied, and Seint Peter schewed hem*. [hym, α.; him, β.; appered, Cx.] in a nyȝt to Marcellus þe preost, þat was pope aftir Marcellinus, and spak to hym in þis manere: "Marcelle, why buriest þou nouȝt my body?" and made hym þerby undirstonde*. [by whiche he understode, Cx.] Marcel|linus his body: "Hast þou nouȝt i-rad, 'Every man þat loweþ hym*. [loweth and meketh hym, Cx.] self schal be made highe*. [y-mad hyȝ, γ.];' þanne burie þou*. [þou] om. Cx.] hym faste by me, þat buriel*. [buryels, α., γ., and Cx.] departe*. [MS. has depte, but it is evi|dently only an omission of the abbreviation mark.] is*. [is] us, Cx.] nouȝt, ffor oon grace Page  109, vol.5 haþ [y-]*. [From α.] made us riȝtful." Bysides Lingons, Constancius Augustus slouȝ sixty þowsand Almayns, ffor he was i-closed wiþ ynne þe citee, and y-let out by a roop over þe wal un|wetinge þe oost. Galerius was overcome of Narsis,*. [Narsus, Cx.] and fliȝ to Dioclicianus, and me seiþ þat he was underfonge*. [underfonge] receyved, Cx.] of hym in þe wey wiþ so greet brag and boost,*. [brag and boost] booste and triumphe, Cx.] þat Dioclicianus*. [þe emperoure made þis pope kepe bestes and] added here in MS. by an error.] ran by Galerius his chaar meny longe myle, i-cloþed as a emperour. Marcianus. After þe passioun of Marcellinus þe pope, þe see voydede*. [voyde, Cx.; sede foydede, γ.] meny dayes, and þan Marcellus was pope fyve ȝere. He ordeyned in þe citee fiftene cardynals for the service of cristenynge*. [fullyng, β.; follyng, γ.] and of burienge. Maximianus þe emperour made þis pope kepe bestes, for he wolde nouȝt doo sacrifice to mawmettes; þanne in a nyȝt his clerkes ladde hym out of þe stable; and in þe broode wey he halowede*. [halewide, β.; halwede, γ.] an hous and made þerof a chirche; and Maximianus of þe chirche made a stable, and closed hym þerynne*. [hym, þerynne] Marcellus in þe comyn warde, β. and γ.; Marcellus in the comyn warde, Cx.] for he schulde efte kepe bestes, and þere Marcellus deide y-cloþede in heer. After hym Page  111, vol.5 Eusebius the phicician was pope eyȝte monþes. ℞. By þe cronike [of Eusebius and]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] of Beda, þis eiȝteþe*. [eyȝteteþ, α.; eyghten, Cx.] ȝere of Dioclicianus was þe firste ȝere of þe grete persecucioun þat was under Dioclicianus in þe Est and Maximianus in þe West; þat persecucioun was grettest and lengest durynge,*. [duyryng, γ.] for it durede ten ȝere continualliche; ffor þey*. [þhough, Cx.] Dyoclicianus and Maximianus lefte and ȝilde up þe empere in þe þridde ȝere of þis persecu|cioun, as it is i-seide to forehonde, ȝit þe persecucioun þat was bygonne cesed*. [seced, Cx.] nouȝt to fore þe sevenþe ȝere of þe grete Con|stantyn. Me seiþ þat þis persecucioun was so grevous and so greet þat cherches and bookes of Goddes lawe were i-brand,*. [barnd, γ.; brent, Cx.] and wiþ ynne*. [ynne] om. γ.] oon monþe in dyvers places of þe world were seventene þowsand holy men and wommen i-crowned wiþ martirdom: no man schulde bigge, noþer*. [bye ne, Cx.] selle,*. [bugge noþer sylle, γ.] noþer*. [ne, Cx.] take up water of noo*. [noo] ony, Cx.] place, but he dede sacrefice to mamettis.*. [maumetrie, Cx.] Þat tyme were i-martired many noble martres: Pancracius þe firste, and*. [and] om. Cx.] Felicianus, Sebastianus, Felix, and Andactus,*. [Adauctus, α. and γ.; Audactus, Cx.] sevene breþeren and here moder Beton,*. [Bedon, Cx.] Grisogonus, and þe foure þat Page  113, vol.5 beeþ i-cleped quatuor coronatis.*. [coronati, Cx.] Also Vincent, George [and]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Pantaleon, Vitus, Modestus, Ciprianus and Iustina, Cosmas and Damianus, and þat childe Barala, Fidis, Eufemina, Lucia, Ana|stacia, Agnes, and Gorgonius, and alle*. [alle] om. γ.] in oon citee in Frigia. Beda, libro primo,*. [primo] om. Cx.]capitulo 6o. Þat tyme Seint Albon was i|martired in Brytayne: of hym Fortunatus þe preost, in libro quem de laude virginum intitulavit, spekeþ in þis manere: "Þe plen|tevous Britayne bryngeþ forþ þe noble Albon." Whan þis Albon was a paynym he herberwed*. [harborwede, α. and γ.; herbered, β.; lodged, Cx.] a Cristen clerk,*. [clerk] man, Cx.] and was converted by his lore and toke on hym a clerkes cope, and come*. [the habyte of the clerk and cam, Cx.] to fore þe iuge for a clerk,*. [for a clerk] om. Cx.] and was i-dampned to deþe, and con|verted moche folk faste by the brook þat he dreyede*. [druyde, γ.] by prayers; and aftirward in þe cop*. [toppe, Cx.] of þe hille, þere*. [þere] where as, Cx.] he deide, he made by his prayere a welle springe out of þe erþe,*. [eorþe, γ.] and tornede þe tormentoures*. [tormentor, γ.] þat schulde slee hym to þe fey of holy chirche. He was i-martired faste by þe citee Verolamum,*. [Verolanium, Cx.] þat hatte Fer|lamchestre*. [Verlamchestre, Cx.] an Englisch oþer Watlyng strete.*. [Watlyngchestre, α., β., γ., and Cx.]Beda. Þat tyme Page  115, vol.5 come up Arrian his heresie, þat infectede nouȝt onliche þe grete londes of þe world, [but also þe ilondes of þe world,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat beeþ alwey gladliche*. [glad, α.; alwey redy to here, Cx.] for to hire*. [huyre, γ.] new þinges, and holde no þing certayn. Dioclicianus and Maximianus forsakeþ*. [forsoke, Cx.] þe empere, and ledeþ*. [ladde, Cx.] a privat lyf, þe*. [þe] that, Cx. (bis).] oon at Nichomedia and þe*. [þe] that, Cx. (bis).] oþer at Melan. Melchiades was pope foure ȝere; he forbeed*. [forbeod, γ.] fastynge in þe Soneday and in þe Þorsday, for paynyms wor|shippeþ þilke*. [þulke, γ.] dayes. Galerius was emperour oon ȝere, and ordeynede tweie Cesars, Maximus*. [Maximius, α. and Cx.; Maxi|mianus, γ.] and Severus. Beda, libro primo. Þat tyme Constancius deide at ȝork in Britayne, þe ȝere of his principate þrittene, and lefte after hym his eldest*. [elþeste, γ] sone i-gete on Heleyne, þat was Constantyn kyng of Britayne and of Fraunce. Constancius.*. [Constantinus, α.]

Capitulum vicesimum sextum.

WHILE Constantyn dede*. [dide, β.; dude, γ.] nobeliche, and bare*. [bar, γ.] hym stal|worþiliche and myȝtiliche, þe knyȝtes of þe pretorie at Rome Page  117, vol.5 took Maxencius, Herculeus his sone, and cleped hym Augustus. Þanne Galerius Augustus sente Severus, þat he hadde i-made Cesar, wiþ al his oost aȝenst hym to Rome. Severus bysegede þe citee, and was bitrayed by falshede*. [falsed, γ.] of his owne knyȝtes, and fliȝ to Ravenna, and*. [there, added in Cx.] was i-slawe. Herculeus, Maxencius his fader, herde*. [hurde, γ.] þerof, and brak out*. [out] added from α., γ., and Cx.] of his hydels*. [hudels, β. and Cx.; huydels, γ.] and wolde be emperour, and fonded*. [fonded] dyde his best, Cx.] for to prive Maxencius of myȝt and of power. Þerfore he and Galerius comfortede Dioclicianus forto take þe dignitees þat he hadde i-lefte; and he sette*. [setted, Cx.] nouȝt þerby, but answerde*. [answherede, γ.] and seide, "Wolde God þat ȝe myȝte se*. [yseo, γ.] wortes in myn honde in Salon, sikerliche þanne ȝe wolde nouȝt deme þat I schulde take þis aȝe." Þanne Herculeus*. [Herkulius, α.] for stryf of knyȝtes was openliche sory and aferde, and wente into Fraunce for to reve, byneme,*. [bynyme, γ.] and take þe empere wiþ tresoun*. [trayson, γ.] from Constantyn, þat hadde i-wedded his douȝter; but he was i-wreyed*. [y-wryed, β. and γ.; bewreyed, Cx.] by þe same douȝter Fausta, Constantyn his wyf, and fliȝ to Marcil,*. [Marsyl, α. and γ.; Marsil, β.; fled to Marselle, Cx.] and was [dede]*. [From α., β., and γ.; there, Cx.] i-slawe. Þanne Galerius made Lucinius*. [Licinius, α., γ., and Cx.] emperour at Tarent; þe worste of alle men in covetise, scharpest in leccherie, and most enemye to Page  119, vol.5 lettred men; he cleped lettres comyn pestilence, and [the meyne of þe palys he cleped]*. [From β.] spadones [that is]*. [From β.] gilded*. [the meyne of the palays he called spadones, that is to say, ghelded, Cx.] men and meny*. [meny] also he cleped hem, β.] moȝtes*. [and men meyne moȝtes, α.; and men meyne he clepede moȝtes, γ.] he clepede and ratouns of þe paleys.*. [and also he called hem mowhthes and rattes of the palays, Cx.] Whanne Galerius hadde *. [i-] om. α.]i-pursewed and *. [i-] om. α.]i-greved men ten ȝere, þanne his brest roted wiþ ynne, and for*. [by cause, Cx.] phisicians myȝte nouȝt endure þe stenche*. [stynch, γ.] of hym, he slowȝ of hem ful ofte. In a tyme a phisician seide hym in*. [in] þat, β.] þis meschif*. [sayd to hym that this meschyef, Cx.] was Goddis wreþþe and his*. [his] om. Cx.] wreche; þanne he sent out maunde|mentȝ, and reconcilede Cristen men þat were exiled, but þo*. [but þo] and thenne, Cx.] he deide. After Melchiades, Silvester was pope foure and twenty ȝere; he cristened*. [folled, β.; follede, γ.] þe grete Constantyn, and clensed hym of his meselrie in his cristenynge.*. [follyng, β. and γ.] Also he delyverede þe citee of Rome of þe pestilence of þe dragoun; by his prayere he rerede*. [reysed, Cx.] a deed boole to lyve; he overcome þe Iewes in disputacioun;*. [disputicioun, . and Cx.; dis|puteson, γ.] he made þe firste*. [furste, γ.] greet counsaille at Nys,*. [Nicen, β.; Nycen, Cx.] consilium Nice|num,*. [consilium Nicenum] om. Cx.] þere were þre*. [þre] four, Cx.] hondred bisshoppes and eyȝtene.*. [eyȝtetene, γ.] He Page  121, vol.5 hadde þe names of pore men, of wydues,*. [widewes, γ.] of fadirles and modirles children i-write in a book, and fondede*. [fonde hem, α., β., γ., and Cx.] what hem*. [he, α.; them, Cx.] nedede*. [neodede, γ.] to liflode.*. [to liflode] om. Cx.] He ordeynede to faste þe Wednesday,*. [Wondesday, γ.] Friday, and Satirday. Also he ordeynede þat þe Þorsday*. [Thyrsday, Cx.] schulde be wor|schipped as þe Soneday, for þat day Crist ordeynede þe sacrament of his body, and stigh*. [ascended, Cx.] up into hevene in a Þorsday, and holy crisme*. [and oyle, added in Cx.] is i-halwed in a Þorsday. Giraldus, [distinctio]*. [From α.]prima. Þanne Constantyn in his sevenþe ȝere wente toward a bataille aȝenst Maxencius, and sigh in his sleep the signe of the crosse schynynge in hevene, as it were brennynge leye*. [layte, Cx.] on*. [of, α., β., and Cx.] fuyre,*. [lye of fuyr, γ.] and angels stood by*. [by] biside, β.; beside, Cx.] and seide, "Constantyn, Thocanatha;"*. [thoicanata, α., β., and γ.; thoy|canata, Cx.] þis is to menynge,*. [that is to saye, Cx.] "By þis tokene þou schalt have þe victorie." Þan he wook,*. [awoke, β. and Cx.] and made peynte þe signe of þe crosse*. [of the crosse] om. β. and Cx.] and tokene [that he hadde seen in the baners and penons of his knyghtes. Atte laste Maxencius was overcome Page  123, vol.5 atte brydge Pount Milenum,*. [Milvium, β. and γ.] and Constantine went to Rome, and made peynte the signe and tokene]*. [From Cx.] of þe crosse in þe riȝt hondes of þe ymages þat senatoures hadde arered*. [areysed, Cx.] in worschippe of his triumphis and of his victorie, and he made write undirneþe, "Þis is þe signe and tokene of þat God of lyf þat may nouȝt be overcome." Gaufridus et Alfridus. Constantyn wente out of Britayne to þe empere of Rome. Þanne Octavianus,*. [Octavius, β., passim; Octavius, Cx., et infra.] duke of þe Iewes,*. [Gewessees, α. and β.; Gewissees, γ.; Jewesses, Cx.] werrede*. [werride, β.] in Britayne, and took þe kyngdom. Constantyn herde þerof, and sent out oon Traherum,*. [Trahern, α., β., and Cx.] þe eme*. [Trahern þe em, γ.; eame, Cx.] of his moder Heleyne, wiþ þre legiouns of knyȝtes aȝenst Octavianus, but hem fil*. [fille, β.; byfell, Cx.] dyvers happes, so þat in dyvers tyme oon hadde þe maistrie and eft þat oþer, and so Trahern was i-slawe by fraude and by gile, and so Octavianus regnede anon to þe tyme of Gra|cianus and Valentinianus þe emperours. Giraldus, distinctio prima. After þat Maxencius was overcome, Constantyn was i-smyte*. [smeton, Cx., et infra.] wiþ a strong meselrie.*. [lepre or meselrye, Cx.] [℞.]*. [From α. and Cx.] As it is i-wrete*. [wreton, Cx.] in Page  125, vol.5 Legenda sanctorum, in Silvester his lyf, som wil mene*. [wil mene] suppose, Cx.] þat Constantyn was i-smyte*. [smeton, Cx.] wiþ mesellrie for wreche of þe perse|cucioun and tyraundys*. [tyrauntrie, β.; tarauntrye, Cx.] þat he usede, and pursuede*. [poursiewed, Cx.] and grevede Cristen men; durynge*. [duyrynge, γ.] þat persecucioun Silvester among oþer fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] out of þe citee: boþe*. [bot, α.; but, β.] wiþ oute eny dowte, for what cause it evere were þat he was i-smyte wiþ meselrie, hit is sooþ þat Silvester heled hym of his meselrie.*. [his meselrie] it, Cx.]Giraldus, ubi supra. By counsaile of þe senatoures, and of þe bisshoppes of mys|byleved men, were i-brouȝt þre þowsand of smal children þat schulde be*. [have be, Cx. (bis).] slawe, and Constantyn schulde be*. [have be, Cx. (bis).] wasche in þe hoot*. [warme, Cx.] blood of the children for to hele hym of his meselrie.*. [lepre, β. and Cx.] Þan þe kyng sigh þe modres of þe children wepe*. [weope, γ.] ful sore,*. [wepe and make grete sorow, Cx.] and make greet deol and sorwe, þanne he seide: "Þe dignite of þe empere comeþ of þe welle of myldenesse, for it is i-demed þat he schulde deye þat sleeþ a childe in bataille." De legenda Sancti Silvestri. "Þanne it were a cruel dede for to doo to oure owne þat we beeþ forbode for to do to straunge men*. [doo the straungers, Cx.]; what profit*. [prouffyt, Cx.] is it to overcome straunge men*. [and be our self overcome with cruelnes, added in Cx.] [and be us self over|come Page  127, vol.5 wiþ cruwelnesse? Hit is þe vertue of strengþe forto overcome straunge men]*. [From β. and γ.] but it is þe virtu of þewes for to overcome vices and synne; in þat bataille we beeþ strengere [þan þeyȝ, but in þis batayl we beeþ strenger]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þan we us*. [oure, Cx.] self. Þanne leet*. [late, Cx.] myldenesse have þe maistrie [in þis doynge, þat we mowe þe bettre have þe maystrie]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] of oure enemyes; for it is better for us to deie savynge*. [savynge] and save, Cx.] the children lyf, þan to gete a cruel*. [cruwel, γ., et infra.; greete cruel, Cx.] lyf by þe innocent children deþ; and ȝit it is nouȝt certeyn þat [we schuld save oure lif þerby, but it is certayn þat]*. [From β. and γ.; we shal save our lyf, but it is certayne that, Cx.] ȝif it were so i-saved it were a cruel lyf." Þanne þe next nyȝt after Peter and Paul schewed hem*. [schewed hem] appiered, Cx.] to hym, and seide: "For þow were agrise*. [agrised, Cx.] and sparedest to schede þe children*. [chyldern, γ.] blood, take to þe counsaille of hele and of savacioun; sende after Silvester, þat hydeþ*. [huydeþ, β. and γ.] hym in þe hille*. [hille] om. Cx.; hul, γ.] mount Sarapt, and make hym come to þee." And whan he was i-brouȝt he schewed*. [schewide, β.] þe kyng þe ymages of þe apostles Petir and Paule, þat hadde appered to hym in his sleep. Þanne he fasted Page  129, vol.5 seven*. [a fast seve, γ.] nyȝt,*. [eyghte dayes, Cx.] and made [hym]*. [From β. and γ.; him, Cx.] cathecuminus, and was i|cristened*. [y-folled, β. (quater); γ. (tris).] at þe laste, and knowlechid þat he hadde i-seie*. [y-seyȝe, γ.] Crist. Trevisa. Cathecuminus is he þat lerneþ*. [leorneþ, γ.] þe fey of holy chirche, and is in wil to be i-cristned.*. [y-folled, β. (quater); γ. (tris).] [℞.]*. [From α. and Cx.] But Ambrose and Ierom in a cronike telleþ þat Constantyn abood wiþ his cristenynge*. [follouȝt, β.; folloȝt, γ.; bapteme, Cx.] to his laste dayes, þat he myȝte be i-cristened*. [y-folled, β. (quater); γ. (tris).] in Iordan. Þan whan Constantyn was i-cristened*. [y-folled, β. (quater); γ. (tris).] he made prisouns*. [to be, added in Cx.] i-oponed,*. [and lete the prysoners goo oute, added in Cx.] and temples of*. [and, Cx.] mawmettes destroyed,*. [destruyd, γ.] and chirche dores i|sette up*. [i-sette up] opened, Cx.]; olde chirches he mendede,*. [he mendede] amended, Cx.] and new cherches he bulde*. [he bulde] y-buld, γ.; buylded, Cx.]; he grauntede to chirches fredom*. [freodom, γ.] and priveleges, and ordeynede þat þe bisshop of Rome schulde be hiȝest of alle bis|shoppes; and ȝaf þe tenþe*. [teoþe, γ.] del of al his possessioun to cherches; but at þe repayrynge*. [reparailynge, β.; reparaillyng, γ.; reparaylynge, Cx.] of Seynt Petres chirche he wente to*. [to] om. Cx.] wiþ a mattok, and opened*. [opnede, γ.] first þe erþe, and bare cley to þe work on Page  131, vol.5 his schuldres.*. [sholders, Cx.]Giraldus, ubi supra.*. [In γ. the sentence runs thus: "Fram þat tyme forþward þe churche of Rome þe rychchere þat a was y-mad, þe more seculer bysynes a hadde more þan spi|ritual devocion, and more bost wiþoutward þan holynes wiþynne as me troweþ."]From þat tyme forþ|ward [for]*. [From β.] [bycause of the grete]*. [From Cx.] þe richesse*. [ryche, α.] þat þe chirche of Rome hadde he*. [he] it, β. and Cx.] was i-made þe more [seculer, and hadde*. [had, Cx.] more]*. [From β. and Cx.; α. has se|culer besynesse; þey hadde more.] seculer [bysynesse]*. [From β.] þan spirituel devo|cioun, and more boost*. [pompe and boost, Cx.] wiþ*. [wiþ] om. β. and Cx.] outward þan holynesse wiþ ynne, as me troweþ.*. [as me troweth] as it is supposed, Cx.] Þerfor it is i-write þat whann Constantyn hadde i-made þat ȝifte to chirches, þanne þe olde enemy*. [olde enemy] awngel of hevyn, α. Itself a correction in MS. Addit., written over an erasure.] cryde openliche in þe ayer,*. [aer, γ.; yer, Cx.] "Þis day is venym i-hilde*. [heled, Cx.] and i-schad in holy chirche." Þerfore Ierom in vitis patrum seiþ,*. [seiþ] om. α. and γ.] "Seþþe*. [that, added in Cx.] holy chirche encresede*. [cressede, γ.] in possessiouns it haþ decresed as*. [as] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] in virtues." Also þe emperour in þe paleys Lateran bulde*. [bylded, Cx.] a chirche in þe worshippe of Seint Iohn þe apostel,*. [þe apostel] om. Cx.] and made þerynne a fount*. [fonte, Cx.] stoon*. [fantston, γ.] of a maner stoon þat hatte porphiriticus, and hiȝte*. [arrayed, Cx.] it wiþ ynne wiþ silver, and in þe myddel þerof was a pyler þat bare a viol*. [bar a vyel, γ.] of gold with Page  133, vol.5 bawne*. [bawme, α., β., and Cx.; baum, γ.] brennynge alway. In legenda Silvestri. Silvester halwede þis cherche þe nynþe day of Novembre; þat day was þe ymage of oure Savyour y-peynt in þe wal by Goddes owne work, and by no manis dede; þat ymage was i-seie*. [seen, Cx.] of alle men, and is þere ȝitte anon to*. [yet unto, Cx.] þis tyme. Silvester ordeynede to arere in alle cherches auȝtres*. [auȝteres, α.; auters, β. and Cx.] of stoon; but in þat chirche he stabled*. [stablysshed, Cx.] an auȝter of tree*. [treo, γ.] þat was þerynne raþer.*. [afore, Cx.] Me seiþ*. [Men saye, Cx.] þat Peter and his successours songe masses uppon þat auȝter, ffor holy chirche was*. [soo, added in Cx.] strongliche pursuede anon to þat tyme [þat]*. [From β.] þe*. [Cx. has "that" at the commencement of the sentence.] bisshop*. [bischops, γ.] hadde non certayne abidynge in þe citee of Rome; but þey song masses in holouȝ dennes,*. [caves and dennes, Cx.] where*. [were, α.] þey myȝte beste, uppon þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] holow auȝter of tree þat was i-bore aboute. Helene was in Britayne, and herde how*. [hurde houȝ, γ.] her sone spedde, and sente hym lettres, and preysed hym wel for*. [wel for] moche bycause, Cx.] he hadde forsake mawmetrie; but sche preysed hym nouȝt in þat [he worschipped and bylevede in a man]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] þat was i-nayled to þe Page  135, vol.5 cros. Þe emperour wroot aȝen to his moder þat sche*. [heo, β.] schulde brynge maistres of Iewes, þat þe soþe myȝte be i-knowe*. [þat . . . i-knowe] om. γ.] by desputisoun. Þanne Helene brouȝt*. [forth, added in Cx.] seven score of wise men of Iewes, þat þe soþe myȝte be i-knowe,*. [þat. . .i-knowe] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] and Silvestre come aȝenst hem; and tweie wise men, þat were no*. [non, γ.] Iewes noþer*. [ne, Cx.] Cristen men, were i-ordeyned by comoun assent for to deme þe soþe. Þanne þe Iewes were overcome, and after þat þey hadde longe desputed oon of þe Iewes spak certayne wordes in a wylde boole his ere,*. [boles eere, γ.] and þe boole deide anon. Þan anon me repreved*. [repreovede, γ.] Silvestre, and [he]*. [From γ.] seide: "It*. [hit, β.] is nouȝt Goddis name þat he haþ i-nempned, ffor God sleeþ and ȝeveþ lyf, as it is i-write 'I shal slee, and I schal make þinges lyve*. [lybbe, γ.] and be on*. [α, Cx.] lyve.' But þis haþ nempned*. [named, Cx.] the develes name, þat may nouȝt but*. [bote, γ.] slee, and þat*. [yet not that, Cx.] by suffraunce of God; for lyons*. [leons, γ.] and wylde Page  137, vol.5 bestes mowe slee, but þey mowe make not*. [not make, α. and Cx.; nouȝt make, β.; make, γ.] þinges, but þey*. [þat þey, α., β., γ., and Cx.] sleeþ efte to be on lyve.*. [efte. . .lyve] lyve agayne, Cx.] Þan ȝif he wil*. [wole, β.] þat I trowe hym,*. [trowe hym] byleve on hym, Cx.] lete hym arere*. [areyse, Cx., et infra.] þe boole from deþ to lyve þat he haaþ i-slawe."*. [þat he haaþ i-slawe] om. Cx.] And for he myȝte nouȝt arere þe boole þat he hadde i-slawe, þe Iewes byheet*. [promysed, Cx.] þat þey wolde trow in Crist ȝif Silvester myȝte arere þe boole from deth to lyve.*. [Here is inserted in the MS. a long passage commencing "Vain liknesse of the crosse. In another time . . .dwellede þere anon to his ende." All but the first word of the passage occurs in chapter xxviii., and has, through some error of the scribe, been wrongly inserted here.] Þanne by prayers of Silvester þe bole was arered*. [reysed, Cx.] from deth to lyve, and Heleyne the queene [þe Iewes]*. [From β. and γ.; and the Iewes, Cx.] and þe iuges trowede*. [byleveden, Cx.] al in Crist. Þan Constantyn sende his moder Helene to Ierusalem, for to brynge þennes Cristis*. [Cristis] the, Cx.] holy croys. Ambrose seiþ þat þis Heleyne was an hosteler at þe citee*. [þe citee] om. Cx.] Treverent*. [Trevere, Cx.] in Fraunce, and Constancius Cesar wedded hir for sche was [so]*. [From α., β., and γ.] faire.*. [for her beaute, Cx.] But þe storie of Britouns telleþ þat sche was Coelus kyng*. [Added from α. and Cx.] of Britayne his douȝter, as it is i-seide to fore honde. Þis Heleyne com to Ierusalem, and dede*. [dude, γ.] som of þe cros þat was y-founde in an holy place in Ierusalem,*. [fonde there the holy crosse and departed it and left one part in Ieru|salem, Cx.]Page  139, vol.5 and broȝte to here sone þe oþer del and þe foure nayles, and dede*. [dede] dyde do putte, Cx.] tweyne of þe nayles*. [þe nayles] them, Cx.] in here sones bridel, and þe þridde in an ymage of þe roode, and sche*. [heo, β.] þrewe þe fourþe*. [feurþe, α.; ferþe, γ.] [nayl]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] into þe see Adriaticus, þat was toforehonde a swolouȝ*. [swolow, Cx.] ful perilous to seille*. [þer] om. Cx.] þerby. And so seþþe þat tyme hit come up þat þe feste of þe fyndynge of the holy croys was*. [was] hath ben, Cx.] i-holde. Þanne þe emperour wente from Rome to Byȝancius,*. [Bysanus, Cx.] and cleped it afterward by*. [afterward by] after, Cx.] his owne name Constantynnoble, and hiȝted*. [made fayr, Cx.] þat citee with buldynges,*. [with buldynges] om. Cx.; booldes, α., β., and γ.] fayre housynge,*. [howses, Cx.] and chirches, and wiþ dignitee of patriarkes, and brouȝt þeder*. [þuder, γ.] þe noblest men*. [men] om. Cx.] of Rome. Giraldus, ubi supra. In þe bygynnynge of holy chirche were but þre patriarches, as it were in liknes of*. [in stede of, Cx.] Abra|ham, Isaac, and Iacob. Oon was in Antiochia in Asia, anoþer was at Alexandria in Affrica, and þe þridde was at Rome in Europa. Þese þre*. [þeose þre sedes, γ.] Peter halwed by his owne sittynge; in tweyne þerof he was bisshop hym self, but his disciple Marcus*. [Marchus, γ.]Page  141, vol.5 hilde þe þridde at Alexandria in Peter his name. After þat [þe]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Synodus Nicena hadde i-ȝeve þat privelege to þe bisshop of Rome þat he schulde be above alle oþere bisshoppes, as þe emperour is above*. [all, added in Cx.] kynges, and þat he schulde be cleped pope as þe cheef fader, and þe riȝt of þe patriark was i|torned to Constantynnoble, as it were [to]*. [From β. and Cx.] the secounde Rome; þe oþer sees of patriarkes were i-chaunged, þe see of Antiochia to Ierusalem, and þe see of Alexandria to Aquilia; and me troweþ*. [it is supposed, Cx.] þat cause þerof was for wikked Cristen men schulde be i-take into þe ilond*. [lond, α., β., and Cx.; hond, γ.] of mysbileved men, and so it schulde folwe þat þey schulde lese þe holy places. Eusebius in Eccle|siastica [historia], libro 10o. Constantinus dede*. [to, added in Cx.] God almyȝty his peple*. [his peple] preestes, Cx.] greet reverence and worschippe; þerfore whanne þe bisshoppis were i-gadired to giders to þe Synodus*. [in the Synode of, Cx.] Nicena, by heste*. [commaundement, Cx.] of Constantyn, and by counsaile of Silvestre, for to declare the fey of holy chirche, meny of hem pleyned everich*. [eche, Cx.] uppon*. [apon, γ.] oþer, and putte up billes to þe emperour, for he schulde Page  143, vol.5 doo hem*. [ham, γ.] right everich of oþer.*. [everich of oþer] om. Cx.] Þe emperour siȝ þat cause of*. [cause of] om. Cx.] holy chirche, for þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] þe bisshoppes were i-come, myȝte liȝtliche be lette by suche pleyntes*. [peyntes, α.] and stryf, þerfore he sette hem a certeyn day after þe synodus and counsaile for to make an ende of alle þilke*. [þulk, γ.] causis and pleyntes. But he brend priveliche alle þe*. [þe] thylke, Cx.] billes of hem þat made playntes, and seide: "God haþ ordeyned ȝow as it were goddes by*. [by] to be, Cx.] ȝoure owne iuges; þerfore I*. [ich, β.] holde þat it were unsemely*. [unfittynge, Cx.] þat we þat schulde be i-demed of ȝow schulde deme ȝow þat beeþ*. [buþ, γ.; ben, Cx.] goddes. But in holy chirche among ȝour*. [ȝou, β.] self*. [sylf, γ.] treteþ*. [trete, Cx., et infra.] of ȝour errours and ȝour*. [ȝour] om. Cx.] deffautes, so þat no þing be y-knowe outward þat is unsemeliche to ȝour holynesse. And ȝif ȝe willeþ*. [wolleþ, α.; wole, β.] nedes stryve, abydeth þe dome of God Almyȝty, as þe psalme seith, 'God stood in þe synagoge of goddes, in þe myddel demynge God.'*. [in the myddel demynge God] om. Cx.; Godes, α. and γ.; Goddes, β.] Certeynly ȝif I seie*. [syȝ, β.; y syȝ, γ.] eny*. [ony, Cx.] of ȝoure ordre synne*. [synwe, β.] wiþ a womman, I wolde helye*. [covere, Cx.] hym wiþ myn mantel, ffor*. [bycause that for, Cx.] noon evel men schulde have occasioun to speke evel of ȝoure religioun. Þerfore, breþeren, treteþ Page  145, vol.5 more of þe fey of holy chirche, for þerfore ȝe beeþ i-come."*. [ben comen, Cx.] And whanne þis was i-seide, he þrew þe billes in*. [in] into, Cx.] þe fyre,*. [fuyre, β.] and brend hem. Þat ȝere Seint Martyn was i-bore, and þanne þe twelfþe*. [twellyfth, Cx.] ȝere he was i-made cathecuminus, þat is, he þat lerneþ*. [leorneþ, γ.] þe fey*. [fayth, Cx., ut semper.] of holy chirche. In þe sixteþe [ȝere] he was i-made knyȝt, and þe eyȝteþe*. [eyȝteteþe, γ.] ȝere he was*. [made, added in Cx.] i-cristned,*. [y-fulled, β.; y-folled, γ.] and was knyȝt two ȝere aftir þat under Iulianus. In þe Synodus*. [Synode of, Cx.] Nicena were þre hondred bisshoppes and eyȝtene.*. [eyȝtetene, γ.] Þat ·synodus was i-made sixtene dayes to fore þe monþe of Iuyl,*. [Iuill, Cx.] in þe citee Nicena in Bithinia, and it was i-made aȝenst þe Arianns,*. [Arrians, Cx.] Fo|tinos,*. [Arrians Fotmos, β.; Fotinos, om. γ.] and þe Sabellians. Seint Nicolas*. [Nycholas, Cx.] was at þat synod. Þo it was i-ordeyned þe Lente*. [Leynte, β. and γ.] fastynge of Crist,*. [ordeyned that the fastyng of the lente that tho for hond dured, Cx.] þat durede to forhonde from þe sixte day of Ianyver to þe fifteþe day of Feverer, schulde bygynne and dure as it is*. [is] om. α.] now i-used, and þat for þre causes: þe first cause for oure fastynge schulde be coupled to þe tyme of Cristes passioun; þe secounde, for we Page  147, vol.5 schulde in þe ende of oure fastynge fonge*. [resseyve, Cx.] Cristes body in clene lif; þe þridde for oure Lord schulde fynde us fastynge. Hiderto Eusebius and Pamphilius writeþ*. [writeþ] om. γ.] þe storie ecclesiastica, þat is i-cleped "Historia tripartita;" þanne Ierom writeþ*. [wryten, Cx.] forþ þat storie anon*. [anong, γ.] to the ȝonger*. [yonge, Cx.] Theodocius his tyme; and þanne Theodorus þe bisshop writeþ þat storie al out. Arnobius þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] rethoricus was in his floures*. [was flouryng this tyme, Cx.] in Affrica; he was i-dreve*. [dryve, α.; dryven, Cx.] to the fey of holy cherche as it were by swevenes; and þe bisshop of þe place wolde nouȝt fonge*. [receyve, Cx.] hym or*. [ar, γ.] he hadde i-made cleer bookes of þe fey, and i-take*. [delyvere, Cx.] hem as it were in plegge*. [as for plegge, Cx.] for his trew*. [truwe, γ.] fey. Iuvencius*. [Juvencus, α., γ., and Cx.] þe preost wroot þe gospelles to þe chirche of Rome in vers*. [versus, β.] of sixe feet. After Silvester, Marchus was pope eyȝte monthes; he ordeyned*. [ordeynde, α.] þat þe bisshop Hostient schulde*. [ordeyned the bisshop Hostiensis shold, Cx.] use a pal, and also sacre þe pope. To þis Marchus, Athanasius bisshop of Alexandria, and oþer bisshoppes of Egipte, wrete*. [writen, β. and Cx.] for seventy chapitres, þat were i-publesched*. [puplisched, β.; publesed, γ.] in þe Synod Nicena. In þat epistel*. [epystola, γ.] Athanasius knowlecheþ þat his bookes schulde be i-brend of Page  149, vol.5 þe heretikes Arrians. After Marcus, Iulius was pope sixtene ȝere; he was exciled*. [exiled, γ.; exyled, Cx.] in þe secounde Constantyn his tyme. Þe boones of Andrewe*. [Andreu, γ.; Seynt Andrew, Cx.] þe apostel and the boones of Luke þe evan gelist beeþ*. [buþ, γ.; were, Cx.] i-translated to Constantynnoble. Þe grete Constan|tyne deide at Nichomedia, and Ierom is i-bore.*. [borne, Cx.] Ierom, in historia tripartita, seiþ þat*. [þan, γ.] Constantyn in his laste dayes was i-cristned*. [yfolled, β. and γ.; crystned agayne, Cx.] eft*. [efte, β.] of oon Eusebius, bisshop of Nichomedya, þat was oon*. [oon] om. Cx.] of*. [the, added before Arrians, Cx.] Arrians, and so Constantyn fil to*. [into, β., Cx.; ful into, γ.] þe evel lore of þe Arrians, but þat is undirstonde*. [understonden, β.; understanden, Cx.] of þe secounde Constantyn, þis Constantyn his sone nameliche, for Seynt Gregorie in registro suo*. [his registre, β.; in his regyster, Cx.] writeþ to Maurus*. [Maurys, α. and β.; Maurice, Cx.] þe emperour, and clepeþ Constantyn þe emperour of good mynde; and in þe storie tripartita his ende is aprevede;*. [apreoved, γ.; approved, Cx.] and Ambros super psalmum quartum decimum*. [uppon þe xiiii. psalm, β.; upon the fourten salme, Cx.] seiþ þat he was a man of grete meryt and mede, and allowed to fore God; and Ysodre,*. [Isidre, γ.; Ysidre, Cx.] in his cronike, seiþ þat he made a Page  151, vol.5 gracious ende; and also þe Grees*. [Grekes, Cx.] makeþ a feste*. [feest, β.] of hym þe enlevenþe day of May.*. [Maii, β. and γ.]Constancius.

Capitulum vicesimum septimum.*. [From β.]

CONSTANCIUS, þe grete Constantyn his sone, regned after his fadir deth wiþ his breþeren*. [breþeron, γ.] Constantyn and Constant sex and twenty ȝere. He was by-spronge*. [bispronge, β.; bysprounge, γ.] wiþ Arius his heresie, and despised*. [dyspysed, Cx.] chirches, and chasede*. [chaced, γ. (bis).] cristen men, and exciled Iulius the pope fortene*. [for ten, α.; fourten, Cx.] ȝere, and chasede*. [chaced, γ. (bis).] Athana|sius, bisshop of Alexandria, as it were in to al þe worlde. Þat ȝere Arrius þe heretike, by help of þe emperour, wente to Constantynenoble to chirche*. [churche, γ.] for to stryve aȝenst cristen men, and tornede by Constancius his place for to clense his wombe,*. [bely, Cx.] and sched*. [schad, γ.; he voyded, Cx.] out his bowels and*. [and . . . schoot] and so he dyed there meschevously, Cx.] his lyf wiþ þe Page  153, vol.5 dritt þat he schoot.*. [schote, β.; dryt þat a schoot, γ.] Þat ȝere Iulius þe pope bygan to come aȝen out of þe contray of Cerson, þere he hadde i-be for to destroye*. [distruye, β.] Arrius his heresie; þan he was i-warned by an aungel þat he schulde translate Clement his body; and while he dede*. [dude, γ.] as þe aungel bad*. [baad, γ.] þe see wiþ drowe hym as he was i-woned at Seinte Clementes day, and his body was y-sett uppon þe brynke of þe see, and þere is i-bulde*. [bylded, Cx., et infra.] a chirche, and anon the buriels þat was i-lefte in þee see wiþ the erþe*. [eorþe, γ.] aboute aroos up, and bycam an ilond, and seþþe me*. [sith men, Cx.] comeþ to þat ylond by schippes and bootes, and þere is i-bulde a cherche. Þat ȝere Paul þe first hermyte deide in Egipte, þe ȝere of his age an hondred and þrittene. Eusebius in Historia Eccle|siastica, libro 11o.*. [21, Cx.] Þat ȝere was strong persecucion aȝenst Athanasius, for he hadde a scoler þat heet Arsenius, he hadde i-trespassed,*. [trespaced, Cx.] and dredde þe chastisynge*. [chastynge, α.] of his maister, and fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] and hidde*. [hudde, γ.] hym in hidyng*. [huydyng, β. and γ.] places. Athanasius his ene|myes Page  155, vol.5 tolde þat Athanasius bare*. [bar, γ.] wiþ hym þis scoler his arme, for to use þerwiþ wicchecrafte.*. [wychcraft, γ.] At þe laste þese*. [þeos, γ.] tiþinges come to Arsenius þere he was i-hidde þe day tofore þat his maister schulde be at answere and at strif;*. [schuld . . . strif] sholde come to his answer, Cx.] þanne*. [þanne] om. Cx.] Arsenius come to his maister, but he hidde hym eft as his maister heet.*. [bade, β. At this point it will be observed that all the versions but the Harleian leave out the trans|lation of the text from delitescente to hospitasse. The same omission occurs in all texts I have examined, and the words are inserted out of their place in chap. xxix, which I have here transposed.] [Enemyes brouȝt forþ an arme, and it was i-axed of Athanasius for what use he hadde i-kutte of þat arme, and he brouȝt forþ Arsenius þat hadde boþe his armes, and schewed hem boþe hole and sound, and axede of [the]*. [From Cx.] oþere men where þey hadde þat arme þat þey schewed þere. Also his enemyes hired*. [huyred, β.; huyrede, γ.] a womman þat schulde seie*. [segge, γ.] þat sche hadde ofte i-herberwed Athanasius,] and þe strengþe of þe unwilful corrupcioun was i-fonge of hym.*. [was resseyved therby, Cx.] Þanne Anastasius*. [Athanacius, α.; Athanasius, β. and Cx.] made a signe to his preost Thimotheus*. [Tymotheus, β.] þat he schulde answere; þanne þe preost axede besiliche ȝif he were þe same þat þe womman spak of, and sche*. [heo, β.] affermede stedefastliche þat it was so. Þanne it was sone i-knowe þat þe Page  157, vol.5 accusacioun was false and not*. [nouȝt, β.] trewe.*. [truwe, γ.] After þis Athanasius was flemed*. [fleme, γ.; exyled, Cx.] as it were into al þe world aboute so þat he hadde no siker*. [seker, Cx.] place for to dwelle ynne. Þerfore two ȝere to giders he dwelled in a ponde þat was wiþ oute watir, so þat unneþe he seyȝ*. [syȝ, β.; sawe, Cx.] þe sonne al þe mene tyme,*. [al that while, Cx.] but þere he was i-wreyed*. [ywryed, γ.; bewreyed, Cx.] wiþ*. [wiþ] by, β. and γ.] a wenche,*. [yong woman, Cx.] and tho*. [þan, β.] couþe he no siker place fynde in al Constancius his kyngdom. Þo he wente westward*. [westward] om. Cx.] in to Con|stant Cesars londes, and þere he was i-socoured*. [i-sokoured, α.; sokoured, β.; ysucrod, γ.] awhile wiþ oon Maximus, bisshop of Treverens,*. [Treverent, β. and Cx.] and þere [in]*. [From α.] þe mene tyme he made symbolum þat bygynneþ in þis manere:*. [þat . . . manere] om. Cx.] "Quicunque vult salvus esse." At þe laste Constant Cesar sente lettres to his broþer Constancius, and Athanasius was restored aȝen to his bisshopriche. But Constant Cesar deide, and þanne Athanasius fil ofte*. [ful eft, γ.; agayn, Cx.] in greet wreþþe and in greet hate, so þat grete medes were byhote*. [rewardis were promysed to, Cx.] hem þat wolde brynge hym oþer slee hym and brynge [forþ]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] his heed. Þanne in Iulius the posteta*. [apostatas, Cx.] his tyme Athanasius fligh efte, and rowed*. [rowede, β.] by þe ryver Nilus. Þan oon þat was i-sette forto take hym, pursewed*. [poursiewed, Cx.] hym, and Athanasius was war*. [waar, Cx.] þerof, and tornede his boot toward þe clif Page  159, vol.5 aȝen as it were for to mete wiþ his enemy; but his enemy myȝte not trowe*. [coude not byleve, Cx.] þat he þat fliȝ hym wolde so mete hym,*. [hym] with hym, Cx.] and þerfore he haxede*. [axsede, α.; axed, β.] of Athanasius, þat sat in his boot, ȝif he hadde i-seie Athanasius. "He passeþ nouȝt fer to fore," quod Athanasius, and so his enemy was bigiled and passed*. [forþ, added in β.: forth, added in Cx.] dayles. Sapor, kyng of Pers, byseged þe citee Nisibyn*. [Insibin, γ.] tweie monþes; and by þe prayer of Seint Iame, þat was bisshop of þat citee, þe snowtes of olyfauntes and his hors eren*. [eres, Cx.] were so ful of gnattes and stoutes*. [and stoutes] om. Cx.; stontes, α.; stoute, γ.] and of greet flyes þat þey þrew adoun al þat was uppon hem and alto schende*. [schedde, α. and β.; schadde, γ.] þe oost.*. [and disparcled al thoost, Cx.] Seint Nicholas deide; at his tombe springeþ*. [sprang, α., β., and γ.; sprange, Cx.] up a welle of oylle at his heet,*. [heed, α.; hed, β.] and a welle of water at his feet. At þe laste his bones were trans|lated to Barrus, þe ȝere of oure Lord a þowsand fourescore and sevene. After Iulius, Liberius was pope nyntene ȝere. He was outlawed þre ȝere for he wolde not favere þe Arrians. In þe mene tyme, by his counsaille, þe*. [þe] of, γ.] clergie of Rome ordeyned Felix pope. Þis Felix made a counsaille of*. [wiþ, α., β., γ., and Cx.] fourty bis|shoppes Page  161, vol.5 and eyȝte; þere he condempnede and putte of tweie preostes Arrians, Ursarius*. [Ursacius, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and Valent. Constancius þe em|perour herde þerof, and reconsiled Liberius, for hym semed þat he was esyer*. [aysyer, γ.] to þe Arrians. Þan Liberius as he þat was over|come wiþ the greef of þe excilynge, and i-gladed ffor he was pope aȝen, and*. [and] om. α., β., and Cx.] assented to heresye, and put doun Felix, and helde þe chirches of Petir and Poul and of Laurence violent|liche and with strengþe, so þat clerkes and preostes þat favored Felix were i-slawe in þe*. [þe] om. α. and γ.] chirche, and Liberius forbede*. [forbeod, γ.] it nouȝt. Felix was i-martired. Victorinus þe rethorik,*. [rethor, α.; rethour, Cx.] and Donatus þe gramarian,*. [gramaryen, Cx.] beeþ i-holde grete men at Rome. An|tonius þe monk deieþ in Egipte, þe ȝere of his age an hondred and fyve. Seint Hillary, bisshop of Peyters,*. [Payters, β.] by conspiracie of þe bisshop Arelatensis and*. [and] an, β. and Cx.] Arryan,*. [bischop of Arelatensis an Ar|rian, γ.] was exciled þre ȝere in Frigia; þere he wroot noble bookes of oure religioun. At Seleucia in Isauria is i-made a counsaille, þere a bille þat Hillary hadde i-made was i-putte uppe to the emperour Con|stancius, and Hillary hadde leve to come aȝen home into Page  163, vol.5 Peytow. Martinus. Me useþ for to seie*. [segge, γ.] of þis Hillarye þat Leon þe pope, þat was an heretik, seide to hym in þe counsaille of bisshoppes, "Þou art Gallus but nouȝt*. [of, added in β. γ., and below.] gallina.*. [and not of gallina, Cx.]Trevisa. Gallus is*. [is] y, γ. (bis).] a cok, and Gallus is*. [is] y, γ. (bis).] a Frensche man; þan*. [þan . . . cok] thenne he ment that Hillarye was a frenssheman, Cx.] whan, he seide, "Þou art Gallus and noȝt gallina," þat is an henne, his menynge was þat Hillary was a Frensche man and nouȝt a cok.*. [cokke, β.] Þan it folweþ in þe storye, Hillarye schulde answere,*. [saye, Cx.] "Þou art a*. [From α. and β.] Leoun, but nouȝt of þe lynage of Iuda." Also in þe counsaille of bisshoppes no man aroos aȝenst Hillary, and Hillary seide, "Þe eorþe*. [erth, Cx.] is our Lordes;"*. [Lordes] Lord hys, γ. This page of γ. is very much rubbed out.] þanne þe eorþe aroos in þe manere of a tufte*. [tote, α., β., γ., and Cx.] for to fonge*. [resseyve, Cx.] Hillarie; but þis is i|founde*. [founden, Cx.] in noon cronikel*. [no cronyk, β.; no cronyke, Cx.] þat is autentik.*. [auctentik, Cx.] Nameliche, for no pope was i-cleped Leon in Hillary his tyme, but ȝif Liberius þe pope þat favorede heretikes oþere som false pope was i-cleped Leon.

Page  165, vol.5

Capitulum vicesimum octavum. Iulianus.

WHANNE Constancius was dede, Iulyanus þe*. [þe] om. β.] aposteta,*. [apostata, Cx.] þat was Cesar, was i-made emperour, [and was emperour]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] as it were two ȝere. In his tyme were i-martred Pigmenus*. [Pigmeus, α., β., and Cx.] þe preost þat was somtyme*. [had ben tofore, Cx.] Iulianus maister, Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] and Paule, and also Quiriacus þat heet Iudas, bisshop of Ierusalem, ffor he hadde i-founde þe cros. ℞.*. [℞] om. α.] Of þis Iulianus it is i-rad, undecimo libro historie tripartite, þat Constancius, þe grete Constantyn his broþer, hadde tweie breþeren,*. [sones, Cx.] oon Gallus and þis Iulianus. But whanne þe greet Constantyn was dede, his sone Constancius was emperour, and made his eem*. [eme, γ.] Gallus Cesar, but afterward, for suspeccioun of his grete witte, he made hym be i-slawe at Histria, and þerfore þis Iulianus, Gallus his broþer, dradde leste he schulde be slawe,*. [slayn, β.] and bycam a monk, and made hym ful*. [fol, γ.] papholy*. [pop holy, Cx.] under monkes wede.*. [habyte, Cx.] Þerfore a womman brouȝte hym to kepynge þre stenes ful of gold Page  167, vol.5 i-heled*. [covered, Cx.] above wiþ askes;*. [asshes, Cx.] but Iulianus took þe gold and dely|vered þe womman þe stenes ful*. [steenes fol, γ., et infra.] of askes; and whanne þe gold was i-take Iulianus myȝte*. [coude, Cx.] nouȝt be convykt, for þe witnesse*. [witnesses, β.; wytnes, γ.; wyt|nesses, Cx.] þat were present in þe bryngynge of þe stenes*. [atte receyvyng of them, Cx.] sigh*. [sye, γ.] noȝt but askes; and so Iulianus wiþ helde*. [heuld, γ.; toke, Cx.] þe golde, and went þerwiþ*. [þerwiþ] om. Cx.] to Rome, and gat hym þat he was consul,*. [and dyde so moche that he was consul, Cx.] and at þe laste he gat hym temple,*. [temple] þe empere, α. and β.; þemper, γ.; thempyre, Cx.] and was emperour. Þis Iulianus in his childe|hode lerned*. [leornede, γ.] nygromancie and wicchecraft, and in a tyme whanne his maister was oute he radde in his bookes of þat craft, and come to fore*. [tofore] bifore, β.; there cam byfore, Cx.] hym a greet multitude of fendes, and he dradde hem sore, and made þe signe of þe crosse; þanne anon alle þe fendes vanschede*. [vanyscheden, β.; feendes fan|schede, γ.] awey, and so he tolde his maister whan he com home, and his maister seide þat fendes hateþ most*. [hated moost, Cx.] the signe of þe cros. Iulianus come to Rome, and a fend schewed*. [schewide, β.] hym to hym by þe doynge of a wicche,*. [wychche, γ.] and by|heet*. [promised, Cx.] hym þe empere ȝif he wolde forsake cristen fey, and so it Page  169, vol.5 was i-do. Þanne Constancius made hym Cesar, and sente hym into Fraunce; þere he dede meny victories, and gat a crown of laureal þat hyng bitwene tweie pilers, and brak þe rope*. [roop, γ.] þat þe corowne heng by, and was realliche*. [rialiche, β.; realych, γ.] i-crowned by þat crowne;*. [crowen, Cx.] þeyȝ*. [þei, β.] þat sigh þat tolde þat þat tokene bodede þat he schulde be emperour. Whanne Constancius was dede Iulianus was i-made emperour, and*. [he, added in Cx.] fondede for*. [for] om. Cx.] to plese al men. Þerfore in þe by|gynnynge of his empere he grauntede þat everiche man schulde holde what fey þat he wolde. But he destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] þe signe of þe crosse wiþ al þat he myȝte, and trowed*. [supposed, Cx.] þerby for to gete hym most grace of fendes. Þo*. [þanne, β.] he oponed temples and dede sacrifice*. [dude sacrefys, γ.] to mamettes;*. [mawmettes, β.] oones, while he dede so, dew fil*. [ful, γ.] uppon his cloþes and uppon all oþer men cloþes þat þere were in þe liknesse of þe croys. In anoþer tyme, in þe bowels of a beste þat was i-slawe to sacrifice, was i-founde þe schap of þe croys by|clipped aboute wiþ a crowne; þe mynistres sigh*. [syȝe, γ.; sawe, Cx.] þat, and seide þat þe victorie of Cristes croys lasteþ*. [lesteþ, γ.] wiþ oute ende. But Iulianus fykeled*. [fikeled, β.; vyclede, γ.] wiþ hem, and seide þat þat was a tokene*. [tokne was, γ.]Page  171, vol.5 of constreynynge of Cristes*. [constraynyng of Cristen, β.] lore, and þat it schulde nevere passe þe wydnesse of a*. [α] the, Cx.] cercle. Also he dede sometyme*. [sometyme] repeated in MS. by error.] sacrafice at Constantynnoble. And Calcedonius þe bischop was blynd for age, and repreved*. [repreovede, γ.] Iulianus scharpliche. "Þy man of Galilee," quod Iulianus, "myȝte nouȝt save þe from blyndenesse." "Þerof I þank*. [þonke, α. and γ.] hym," quod þe bisshop, "þat he haþ bynome my*. [bynome me my, γ.] sight, þat I schulde nouȝt see þe i|prived*. [ypryved, γ.] of al myldenesse." Also at Anthiochia*. [Antiochia, Cx.] he gadred to giders þe holy vessel and towaylls of þe auter, and defouled hem wiþ the filþe*. [vylthe, γ.] of his ers;*. [ars, Cx., et infra.] and anon wormes*. [wromes, Cx.] sprang out þer|of, and frate so Iulianus his neþer ende þat he myȝte nevere be delivered þerof while he was on*. [on] a, β., and Cx.] lyve. Also his steward pissed uppon*. [apon, γ.] the vessel*. [vessels, Cx., et infra.] of þe chirche, and seide, "Loo in what vessel Mary sone*. [Maryes, β.] is i-served;" and anon his mouþ bycom his ers, and servede aftirward in stede of his neþer ende. Also Iulianus, for hate of cristen men, gan to bulde*. [buylde, Cx.] þe temple Page  173, vol.5 of Ierusalem uppon his owne cost, but al þat was i-bulde aday, erþe shakynge þrew doun a nyȝt; also fuyre com out of þe temple and destroyed moche folk; and in þe nyȝt aftir þe signe of þe croys was i-seie uppon alle men*. [mennes, Cx.] cloþes. Also Iulianus put out of his court eunuchos, gilded*. [gelded, β.; eunuches that is ghelded, Cx.] men, barboures, and cokes. Eunuchos, for his wif was dede, and he hadde i-wedded non oþer after here; he dede awey his*. [his] þe, β.] cokes for he usede symple metes; and barboures, for oon myȝte serve*. [servy, α.] meny men; he made meny bookes and blamede þerynne his predecessoures. In þat he dede awey cokes and barboures, he dede as a philoso|fre, and nouȝt as a prince. [In that he blamed*. [þat þat he blamed, β.; þat þat he blamede, γ.] princes, he dyde not*. [he dide nouȝt, β.; a dude noȝt, γ.] as a philosopher*. [philosofre, γ.] ner*. [noþer, β. and γ.] as a prince].*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Þanne Iulianus wente doun in [to]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Pers, as it is i-rad in vitas patrum, and sent a fend in to þe west londes for he schulde brynge [hym]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] word þennes; but þe fend was ten dayes*. [dawes, γ.] i-lette of his iornay by oon Publi|cus,*. [Publius, β. and Cx.] a monk þat was alwey in his bedes, so þat þe fende brouȝt his Page  175, vol.5 lord*. [his lord] om. Cx.] noon answere aȝen. Whanne fendes hadde i-hote*. [by hoot, α.; bihote, β.; pro|mised, Cx.] hym þe victorie of the Pers, his sophister*. [sophistris, Cx.] axede in þis manere of a cristen man, "What trowest*. [supposest, Cx.] þou dooth ȝour God now, þat car|penter his sone." Þe cristen man answerde and seide, "He arrayeþ a buriels for þy maister Iulianus." Iulianus wente in to Pers, and come to Chesifont,*. [Chesysont, γ.] and byseged þere þe kyng of þe contray, and forsook som of þe kyngdom þat was profred hym, for he trowede þat þe grete Alisaundre his soule was i-putte in his body, by þe menynge*. [mevyng, Cx.] of Pictagoras and of Plato, þat seide þat þe soules of mankynde passeþ from body to body;*. [bodies, β. (bis); bodyes to bodyes, γ. and Cx.] but a darte come sodenliche and stiked in his side, and þerwiþ he ended his lif. ℞. Eutropius and Oracius,*. [Orosius, α., β., and γ.; Oro|cius, Cx.] libro sexto, telleþ þat Iulianus went to*. [to] into, β.] Pers, and was i-lad in wilde places by gile and fraude of oon þat was outlawed, and þere he was overcome wiþ travaille of þe gravel, wiþ rust,*. [þrust, α.; þirste, β.; þurst, γ.; thyrste, Cx.] and wiþ hete of þe sonne; and so an horsman of his enemyes smoot hym wiþ a spere, and he deide. Also it is i-rad*. [redde, Cx.] in Basilius his tyme*. [lyf, Cx.] þat whanne Iulianus wente into Perseward, Basilius was Page  177, vol.5 at Cesarea in Capadocia, and sent hym a present of barliche*. [barlych, γ.; barley, Cx.] loves; Iulianus byhelde þe loves, and sent hym hey*. [heyȝ, γ.] aȝe; me seiþ*. [hit is sayd, Cx.] þat Basilius seide þanne, "We sente to þe suche as we eteþ, bote þou sendest to us suche as þy*. [þy] om. Cx.] bestes eteþ." Þanne Iulianus seide, "Whanne I come aȝen victor out of Pers, I schal so destroye þis citee þat it schal bere more hey*. [heyȝ, γ.] þan corn." Þan Basilius prayde for þe savacioun of þe citee, and sigh*. [syȝ, γ.; saw, Cx.] by nyȝte in þe myddel of þe chirche a gret multitude of aungels, and in þe myddel of hem a woman sittynge on a tyme,*. [trone, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat seide, "Clepeþ*. [Clepuþ, γ.; Clepe, Cx.] to me Mercurius þe knyȝt þat schal take wreche for me and my sone of þis*. [þes, γ.] Iulianus þat despiseþ God." Mercurius was a cristene knyȝt þat Iulianus hadde i-slawe for þe fey of holy chirche, and was late i-buried in þat chirche þere þis siȝte was i-seie;*. [whereas this sight was seen, Cx.] and anon Mercurius took his wepoun,*. [wepen, β. and Cx.; wepne þat ȝut heng, γ.] þat ȝit hongeþ*. [hyng, α.; heng, β.; henge, Cx.] in þat chirche, and wente forþ aȝenst Iulianus, and stiked hym in þe myddel of his body, and vansched*. [fanschede, γ.] awey Page  179, vol.5 anon; Iulianus drouȝ out þe blood of his seide,*. [syde, α.] and þrewe it abrood, and seide, "Þou Galilee man, þou hast overcome,*. [þou hast overcome, bis, β.; þu . . . overcome, bis, γ.] and ȝit*. [ȝit] om. Cx.] now I schal forsake þe, fulfille*. [ful fulle, α.; fulfille þi silf, β.] þe*. [þe] þysylf, γ.; thy self, Cx.] after þis." Basilius awook and fonde Mercurius his spere al bloody in þe same chirche, and his armour i-sette þere as*. [in the same place, Cx.] it was raþer.*. [tofore, Cx.] After Iulianus [Iovinianus]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] was emperour as it were eyȝte monþes, a strong and a noble cristen man. Iulianus hadde i-hote*. [commaunded, Cx.] þat cristen knyȝtes schulde doo sacrifice to mawmettes oþer forsake her knyȝthode; but anon þis*. [þes, γ.] forkutte*. [forkitte, β.] þe bond,*. [fordyde that bonde, Cx.] and whanne knyȝtes drowe*. [drough hym, Cx.] wiþ strengeþe for to be emperours,*. [emperour, α. and β.] he cryde and seide þat he cristen man wolde be emperour*. [emperoures, α.] of paynyms. Whanne þat was i-herd,*. [yhurd, γ.] alle knyȝtes were i-made cristen men. Al*. [Al] Also, β., γ., and Cx.] þis was i-dryve to by greet [nede,*. [neode, γ.] and ȝaf a greet]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] deel of Mesopotamia to Sapor kyng of Pers. Þanne he deyde*. [deade, Cx.] whe|þer it were for hevy smyl*. [evil smel, Cx.] of his chambre, þat was i-made of Page  181, vol.5 newe lyme, and hevy to reste þerynne, oþer for to many coles þat he hadde i-made sette afyre*. [afuyr, β. and γ.] for þe grete colde.

Capitulum vicesimum nonum. Valentinianus.

VALENTINIANUS wiþ his broþer Valent regnede as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] enlevene ȝere. Þis was gentil and courtays,*. [curteys, β.; corteys, γ.; cur|toys, Cx.] for whan þe oost fondede to ȝeve hym a felowe of þe empere, he answerde and seide, "Oo*. [O, α., β., and Cx.] knyȝtes, it is*. [is] was, β.] ȝoure to ȝeve me the kingdom, and now*. [I] ich, β.] I have i-fonge it, it is myn to þinke*. [þengke, γ.] on þe comyn profit;"*. [prouffyte, Cx.] and made his broþer felawe of þe empere; he overcom þe Saxons and þe Sarmates. His fadir Gracianus was i-cleped Funarius, þat was*. [was] is, β. and Cx.] a ropere, for he baar a roop þat was to sellynge,*. [sillyng, β.; sullyng, γ.; was for to selle, Cx.] and fyve knyȝtes myȝte not wreste the rope out of his hond, and þerfore he was worþy to be i-take to knyȝthode. In a tyme Page  183, vol.5 Valentinianus his wif preysede þe fairnesse of Iustina, and þer|fore Valentinianus wedded Iustina, and ȝaf a lawe þat everiche man þat wolde schulde wedde tweie wifes. In þis emperour his tyme þe eorþe schook*. [schwok into, γ.] in*. [in] into β.] al þe world, and [þe see]*. [From α., β., and Cx., who also adds aroose and.] passede þe cleves*. [clyves, β.] and destroyed meny*. [many, β. and γ.] citees. After Liberius, Damasus was pope nyntene ȝere; þis was a faire maker of metre, and wroot vers uppon tombes þat he fonde of holy seyntes, and ordeyned also þat by day and by nyȝte psalmes schulde be seide in queor, so þat þe oon vers schulde be i-seide in þe*. [From α., β., and γ.] oon side and þe oþer vers in þe oþer side,*. [From α., β., and γ.] and þat Gloria patri schulde be i-seide at þe*. [þe] ech, β.; at þe] on eche, Cx.] psalmes ende. Also by comfort of þis pope Ierom translated þe bible*. [bybel, γ.] out of Hebrewe in to Latyn, and amended also þe sauter of þe seventy*. [seventy] LXX interpretes, Cx.] þat was þoo i-used wel nyh*. [neiȝ, β.] in alle chirches,*. [clerkes, γ.] and þat psauter*. [sauter, Cx.] was eft ap|peyred, and he translated it newe aȝen; and Damasus þe pope ordeyned þat*. [þat] added in β.] [þe sauter of þat translacioun scholde]*. [From γ.] be*. [be] to be, Cx.] songe in þe citee of Rome and in þe chirches of Fraunce, and þerfore þat sauter*. [psawter, α.; psauter, Cx.] [is]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] i-cleped þe Frensche*. [Freynsch, γ.] sawter,*. [psawter, α.] psal|terium Gallicanum; ȝit he made þe þridde translacioun of þe psawter*. [sauter, α. and β.] from word to word.*. [from . . . word] word for word, Cx.] Þat ȝere deide Seint Hillary Page  185, vol.5 bisshop of Peytow. To þe aungel song þat hatte:*. [To . . . hatte] To the aungel þat song, β.; Unto the songe that the aungel songe, Cx.] "Gloria in ex|celsis" he putte to*. [to] om. α., β., and γ.] "Laudamus te, benedicimus te, [adoramus te,]"*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and so forþ. Seynt Dindimus*. [Didimus, α., β., and γ.; Dy|dimus, Cx.] of Alexandria þat loste boþe his eyȝen after his firste*. [fifte, α. and β.; vyfte, γ.; fyfth, Cx.] ȝere of age, and herde ones i-rad in chirche þat worde of þe gospel, what men may nouȝt doo God may*. [Cx. wrongly prints the negative in both clauses.] doo, þanne he was so besy aboute þe liȝt of his soule þat he hadde perfiȝt*. [parfyȝt, α. and Cx.] knowleche of sevene artis, and was i-made doctour, and made expowne*. [expowne] and expownede, α., β., γ., and Cx.] meny bookes by notaries and writers. Seynt Martyn was i-made bisshop of*. [of] at, γ.] Turon*. [Turone, Cx.] þe ȝere of his age oon and sixty, and was bisshop þere sixe and twenty ȝere. Þe grete seinte, seinte*. [seinte seinte] om. β. and Cx.] Basile, bisshop of Cassarea*. [Cesarea, β., γ., and Cx.] in Capadocea,*. [Capadocia, β. and γ.] is dede. Among his oþer grete dedes of vertue, he reconcilede a ȝongelynge to God Almyȝty þat hadde obleged hym self to the devel for þe love of a wenche, and gat aȝen þe chartre of his obligacioun. Also Ioseph a Iewe was connyngest*. [kunnyngest, β.] of all phiciciens, and Basyl lengþede þis Ioseph his lyf oo day, Page  187, vol.5 and tornede hym to þe fey of holy cherche. Also he made*. [and instituted, added in Cx.] þe rule*. [reule, γ.] of monkes and meny oþer holy tretis. Seint Ambrose, a man of dignitee of consulus,*. [consuls, β., γ., and Cx.] while he spak to þe peple he was i-made bisshop of Melane for þe voys*. [foys, γ.] of a childe þat cryde soo þat*. [þat so, α., β., γ.] it schulde be.*. [that he shold be so, Cx.] Seint Patrik is i-bore in Britayne; his fadir heet Calprym,*. [Calprun, β., γ., and Cx.] þat was a preost and a decon his*. [dekenes, β.] sone þat heet Fodun; Patrik his moder het Tonches,*. [Conches, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Martyn his suster of Gallia, þat is Fraunce. [In his crystnyng*. [follyng, β.; hys follyng, γ.] he was called Sucat*. [cleped Oncat, β.; a was cleped Sucat, γ.] and Seint Germanus called*. [German cleped, β. and γ.] hym Magonius, and Celestinus],*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] þe pope cleped hym Patrik, þat is*. [is] is to saye, Cx.] þe fader of þe*. [þe] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] citeseyns. Valentinianus Augustus was strongliche i-meoved aȝenst þe messangers of þe Sarmates, and deide in a manere out|brekynge of his veynes*. [feynes, γ.] and is auel*. [an evel, α., β., and γ.; an evil, Cx.] þat Grees clepeþ apo|plexia. Þat tyme in Egipt were noble fadres in her floures, Pastor Pambo, and tweyne*. [oþer] added in γ.] eiþer heet Macharius, Arsenius, Paphinicius, Agatho,*. [Agatho, Cx.] Moyses, Ioseph, Euagrus,*. [Evagrius, Cx.] Theodorus. Pambo wolde lerne*. [leorne, γ.] na more of þe psawter þan oon vers þat he Page  189, vol.5 hadde i-herd,*. [yhurd, γ.] or he hadde fulfilled þat vers:*. [or . . . vers] om. γ.] þis was þe vers; "Dixi custodiam vias meas ut non delinquam in lingua mea," þat is,*. [is] is to seye, Cx.] "I have i-seide I schal kepe my weyes þat I trespace nouȝt in my tonge." Pambo seide þat unneþe he fulfilde*. [fulfilled, α. and β.; fulfulde, γ.] þis vers*. [þes fers, γ.] in nyne and fourty ȝere. Þe tweie Macharies, þe oon of Egipt and þe*. [that, Cx.] oþer of Alexandria, were boþe noble men of*. [in, Cx.] ab|stinence and in lore: a womman þat was wiþ childe defamede falsliche þat*. [þat] om. β.] oon of hem, [and]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] seide þat he hadde i-brouȝt hire wiþ childe, but sche*. [heo, β., γ. (bis).] myȝte nevere have*. [have] habbe, γ.; be delyverd of, Cx.] childe or sche*. [ar heo, γ.] i-hadde i-told out þe soþe.*. [trouth, Cx.] Arsenius was a senatour of Rome, and perfit*. [parfyght, Cx.] in þe longages of Latyn and of Grewe, and made hymself a monk; in a tyme he herde a voys þat seide to hym, "Arsenius, flee*. [flee] flee fro, Cx.] men, and holde þy pees*. [kepe siylence, Cx.] and þou schalt be saved." Also he bare*. [alwey] added in β. and Cx.] a sudarie*. [sudary, γ.] in his bosom for to wype of*. [of] away, Cx.] þe teres þat ran of his eyȝen ful ofte,*. [yen fol ofte, γ.] þerfore þe heer of his eyȝe liddes fil*. [yȝe liddes ful, γ.] al of for greet wepynge. In*. [In] om. γ.] the Ester eve whanne þe sonne ȝede*. [ȝeode, γ.] to glade,*. [wente to reste, Cx.] he tornede his*. [his] þe, β.] face toward þe Est,*. [West, Cx.]Page  191, vol.5 and wook al þat nyȝt in his prayers forto he seie*. [unto the tyme that he sawe, Cx.] þe sonne aryse erliche amorwe,*. [by the morowe, Cx.] and þo he was wery of wakynge he*. [and, α.] cleped to hym slepe, and seide, "Come forth evel servaunt," and so he reste a litel what*. [what] om. Cx.] sittynge; for he wolde seie*. [segge, γ.] þat it were i-now for a monk þat fiȝteþ aȝenst temptaciouns for to slepe oon houre in þe nyȝt and day. In a tyme his fader testament was i-brouȝt to hym, in þe whiche testament he was i-made his fader heire;*. [eyr, β.; heyer, Cx.] þanne he answered and seide, I*. [Ich γ] was raþer dede;*. [that was deede tofor his fader,β] how myȝte "he þanne þat schulde deie make me his heyre*. [eyr, β.] þat was raþer dede?"*. [dede afore, Cx.] Also he wolde no man liȝtliche mete, noþer speke liȝtliche*. [gladly, Cx.] with men, noþer sende lettres; and comounliche he fliȝ þe companye of men, and seide þat he myȝte nouȝt be at ones wiþ God and wiþ men. Noþer he spak liȝtliche*. [he mevede lyghtly, Cx.] of ques|tiouns of holy writt, and ȝit*. [and ȝit] om. Cx.] [he was*. [ȝut a was, γ.] a noble*. [nobel, γ.] clerk, and kunning*. [connyng, γ.] in questions of holy writ]*. [wryt, γ.] but of stirynges*. [sturyngs, γ.] of þe soule and temptaciouns he wolde gladliche speke;*. [Cx. adds here: "and yet he was a noble clerk, and connyng in questions of holy wrytte."] þerfore in a tyme he went doun for to speke wiþ an olde man of Egipte for*. [From β. and γ.]Page  193, vol.5 to appose hym of his*. [his] om. Cx.] þouȝtes; þanne som men seide*. [seyden, Cx.] to hym, "How myȝte*. [mayst, Cx.] þow, Arsenius, þat art so connynge of loore, axe for to lerne*. [leorne, γ.] of þis olde cherle?" "I*. [Ich, β. (bis).] have," quod he, i-lerned*. [both, added in β.] Latyn and Grewe, but ȝit couþe I*. [Ich, β. (bis).] nevere þe a. b. c. of þis cherle."*. [chorle, Cx.] And while Arsenius wonede in þe paleys of Rome no man usede bettre cloþes þan he, so while he was monk was non fouler i-heled*. [fowler coverd, Cx.] þan he. He hadde a long berd þat tilled*. [tylde, γ.] to his wombe;*. [that henge to his myddel, Cx.] and he*. [usede is here inserted in α.] lyvede in þe elder Theodocius his tyme*. [paleys α.; palays, Cx.] fourty*. [vourty, α.] ȝere,*. [yere after, Cx.] and aftirward in wildernesse fyve and fifty ȝere. Paphnucius*. [Paphinicus, β.; Paphinicius, Cx.] the abbot took secular cloþinge and abyte,*. [abyt, γ.; habyt, Cx.] and converted a strompet*. [comyn woman, Cx.] þat heet Tharsis;*. [Thaisis, α.] he prayed þries oure Lord þat he wolde schewe hym to whom he was liche in erþe. Þe abbot Pastor wolde nouȝt i-see his moder in erþe, for hym was levere*. [leover, γ.] see here in hevene. Þe abbot Agatho bare*. [haþ, γ.] a stoon þre ȝere in his mouth for he wolde lerne*. [leorne, γ.] to be stille wiþ oute eny speche;*. [wiþoute eny speche] and kepe sylence, Cx.] þis wolde Page  195, vol.5 no nyȝt slepe ȝif he hadde eny querel to*. [agenes, β.; aȝenes, γ.; ayenst, Cx.] eny man, or eny man aȝenste hym. Þe abbott Moyses was ones i-prayed for to come and deme a broþer þat hadde i-trespased; and he took and bare a panyer*. [paner, γ.] ful of gravel on his bak and seide, "Þese beeþ my synnes þat renneþ*. [erneþ, β.] after me, and I goo deme oþer men synnes, and take none hede of myn owne." Þe fader Mucius*. [Musius, Cx.] wente for to visite a broþer þat was syke, and made by his prayours þe sonne stonde stille for to he*. [unto the tyme he, Cx.] hadde i-doo his office al at þe fulle. Also ofte he blessed gravel þat was i-brouȝt hym, þe whiche was i-sowe in feeldes, and þe feeldes bare þe more corn and fruyt. Þe abbesse Sara was þrittene*. [thyrten, Cx.] ȝere to gyders inpugned and i-tempted of a fende, but sche*. [heo, β.] wolde nouȝt assente.*. [Here occurs in the MS. the passage which has been transferred to p. 155. See note there.] Sara prayde nouȝt þat the temptacioun schulde pass from here, but þat God schulde ȝeve here grace to wiþstonde; þan the spirit of fornicacioun schewed hym to hir siȝt, and seide, "Sara, þou hast overcome me." "Nay," quoþ she, "I have nouȝt overcome þe," [but*. [bote, γ.] my lord Iesus that saveth hem that trust*. [þat saveþ hem þat tristeþ, β.; þat saveþ ham þat trysteþ, γ.] on hym, he hath*. [haþ, β. and γ.] overcome the.*. [þee, β.; þe, γ.]]*. [From β., γ., and Cx. It occurs in Cx. after the next two sentences.] [℞.]*. [From α. and γ.] Þe Page  197, vol.5 abbot Euagrius, Macharius his disciple, wroot vitas patrum in Egipte, Gennadius seiþ in his book de viris illustribus. Valens wiþ his broþer sones, Gracianus and Valentinianus, [was emperour foure ȝere; his broþer het Valentinianus.]*. [From α. and β.] Also þis Valens was i-cristened*. [yfolled, β. and γ.] aȝen of þe Arrians, and pur|sewede cristen men, and ȝaf a lawe þat monkes schulde doo dedes of armes oþer be i-bete with stones.*. [staves, α., β., and Cx.] And þo were þe monkes i-martired at Nitria in Egipte. In a tyme þe Gothes sente to þis for to have cristen bishoppes to teche hem þe riȝt|ful byleve, and [he]*. [From Cx.] sente hem bisshoppes of þe Arrians, and þerfore alle the Gothes were infecte and i-gleymed; and þerfore by Goddes riȝtful dome þe knyȝtes of Rome were overcome by þe Goothes, and þis Valens was i-chased out of Antiochia, and was i-wounded wiþ an arewe,*. [arwe, γ.; arow, Cx.] and fliȝ into an hous, and was i-brend,*. [brent, β.; there was brent, Cx.] he and al his hous, and hadde noon buriels.

Capitulum tricesimum. Gracianus.

GRACIANUS, whanne he hadde i-reigned wiþ his fader Valen|tinianus Page  199, vol.5 þe eldre,*. [elþere, γ.] and wiþ his eme Valens, þanne after þe deþ of his eme he regned wiþ his broþer Valentinianus þe eldre,*. [ȝonger, α. and Cx., ȝongre, γ.] and wiþ Theodocius of Spayne, sixe ȝere. Beda, libro primo, capi|tulo 19o. Þis Gracianus, whanne he sigh þat [the]*. [From Cx.] staat*. [þe state, β.] of þe empere was almost afalle,*. [fallen, Cx.] he made Theodocius of Spayne governour of þe empere in þe Est: and anon Theodosius over|sette þe Siches,*. [Sithes, β.; Schites, γ.] þe Alanes, þe Alanes, þe Hunnes, and þe Goothes wiþ grete batailles and stronge, and made pees wiþ Athanarius*. [Atharicus, γ.] kyng of þe Gothes. Þat tyme oon Priscillianus of Galles made an heresye of þe lore of þe Manichees and of þe Gnostices; and þat heresye haþ þe name of hym. Þo was Theophilus bisshop of Alexandria in his floures; and in Damasus þe pope his tyme was made a counsaille at Constantynnoble of seven score*. [score] om. α.] bisshoppes and ten aȝenst Macedonus þe clerk:*. [heretyk, α., β., and Cx.] he seide þat þe Holy Gost is no God. Þere was i-made þe manere seienge*. [syggyng, γ.] of*. [þe manere seeng of] om. Cx.] þe credo þat is i-songe þe*. [þe] om. α., γ.; on, Cx.] Sondayes*. [Sondawes, γ.] in holy chirche aȝenste heretikes.*. [aȝenste heretikes] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] After Damasus, Siricus*. [Siricius, β., γ., and Cx.] was pope fiftene ȝere; he made a counsaille at Constantynnoble of þre Page  201, vol.5 hondred bisshoppes and fifty, for to declare þe fey of holy chirche aȝenst heretikes. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Octavius, kyng of Britouns, wax olde, and prayde on Maximus, þe nevewe of Heleyne and senatour of Rome, for to come*. [come] come from Rome, Cx.] and fonge þe kyngdom of Britayne and his douȝter, for he hadde no mo children.*. [chyldern, γ.] Conanus, þe kyng his nevew, cast for the*. [the] to be, α., β., γ., and Cx.] kyng, and was wrooþ þerfore, and was ofte at*. [at] om. α.] debate and at stryf wiþ þis Maximus, but at þe laste þey were ful*. [a wer fol, γ.] accorded, and ladde with hym*. [hym] om. α.; hem, β. and Cx.; ham, γ.] alle þe armed knyȝtes for to werre in þe pro|vince Armonica,*. [Armorica, β., γ., and Cx.] þat is Litel Britayne. Þere Maximus fauȝt wiþ Conanus, and overcome hym, for he was putte out of þe þridde deel þat he axede*. [þat he axede] om. Cx.; axide, β.] of þe empere. Eutropius et Beda, libro primo. Maximus was a noble man and a stalworthe, save þat he dede*. [dide, β.] aȝenst his ooþ:*. [, γ.] by tresoun of knyȝtes he was i-made emperour in Bretayne, and wente anon into Fraunce, and made Fraunce and Germania sugett*. [subget, Cx.] by cruel*. [cruwel, β.] batailles, and slouȝ Gracianus Augustus, þat was sodenliche aferd, and he fliȝ*. [he fliȝ] aflowe, β.; a flowe, γ.] in to Londoun,*. [Lugdun, α., β., and γ.; Lug|dunum, Cx.] and chasede Gracianus his broþer, Valentinianus, out of Italy. Anon Valentinianus fliȝ to Page  203, vol.5 Theodocius in to þe Est, and was myldeliche restored aȝen to his kyngdom. For sone þere after, by sleyþe*. [sleiȝþe, β.; sleyȝthe, γ.] of Theodocius, Maximus was bysette in Aquila,*. [Aquilia, β. and Cx.] and i-doo*. [and there putte, Cx.] to deþe. Gaufridus et Alfridus. In þe mene tyme Conanus, duke of Litel Briteyne, hadde no wille to wedde Frenschemen douȝtres, and sente to Dynotus, duke*. [duyk, γ.] of Cornewaille, for to have*. [for habbe, γ.] wifes to his peple; and anon he sente his faireste*. [faireste] om. Cx.] douȝter Ursula wiþ enleven þowsand maydens. Som of hem were a dreynt in þe see, and hadde weder hard and*. [and . . . and] in harde weder, α. and β.; in þe se in hard stormes, γ.] stormes,*. [were drowned in the see by tem|peste and storms, Cx.] and some were i-þrowe*. [caste, Cx.] into straunge landes, and þe cursed dukes*. [corsede duykes, γ.] Gwanius and Melga slouȝ meny of hem for þey wolde nouȝt assente to here leccherie; Guanius was kyng of Hunnes, and Melga kyng of Pictes; Gracianus and Valentinianus hadde i-sende hem boþe to þe see costes for to slee þe fautours*. [fauctours, Cx.] of Maximus þe tyraunt. Þere after these tweie corsed dukes,*. [þeos twey corsede duykes, γ.] Guanius and Melga, þey*. [he, α.; om. β. and γ.] spyed*. [þey spyed] aspyed, Cx.] þat Maximus hadde i-lad*. [led, α.; lad, β.] al þe chyvalrie out of Britayne, and þat Britayne was voyde and helplees,*. [helples, β. and γ.; helpeles, Cx.] and wiþ oute strengþe of chyvalrie, þanne þey gadrede with hem þe side ilondes, and occupiede Albania, þat is Scotlond. Maximus Page  205, vol.5 þe tyraunt herde*. [hurde, γ., et infra.] þerof, and sente anon tweie*. [two, Cx.] legiouns of knyȝtes wiþ Gracianus, a knyȝt þat longede to Rome, þat went forþ and chasede*. [chaced, Cx.] þe forsaide cursed*. [corsede, γ.] dukes into Irlond; but þis*. [bote þes, γ.] Gracianus herde þat Maximus was i-slawe, he*. [he] and, γ] made hym self kyng of Britayne, and for*. [by cause, Cx.] he usede to grete tyraundise,*. [tirauntree, β.; tyraundys, γ.; tyrantrye, Cx.] he was i-slawe of his owne peple. In his stede*. [stude, γ.] oon Con|stantinus, of þe lowest chivalrie, was i-chose, nouȝt for his worþynesse of vertue, but onliche for hope of his name.*. [only comes the last word in Cx.] He wente anon into Fraunce, and dede greet harm to þe empere.*. [þemper, γ.] Þerfore by heste*. [heeste, β.] of Honorius Augustus, Constancius þe eorle was i-sente into Fraunce, and slouȝ Constantinus at Arebate,*. [Arelate, α., β., γ., and Cx.] wiþ his sone Constancius, þat eorle*. [þe eorl, β.; erl, γ.] Geroncius hadde [of]*. [From α., β., and γ.] a monk i-made Cesar.

Capitulum tricesimum primum. Theodocius.

THEODOCIUS, Gracianus his sone, whan his fader was i-slawe, regnede wiþ his eme*. [eame, Cx.] Valentinianus enlevene*. [eleven, α.] ȝere. His Page  207, vol.5 fadir and modir were i-warned in here slepe þat þey*. [þey] a, γ.] schulde ȝeve hym þat name Theodocius, ffor Theodocius is i-ȝeve of God Almyȝti: he ȝaf nevere bataille by his good wille, but in every bataille þat he ȝaf he hadde*. [he hadde] om. α.] þe victorie. In historia tripartita.*. [tripertita, Cx.] Þis usede dedes of armes by day, and riȝtful doomes in*. [and, Cx.] causes of his sugettes, and was occupied wel nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] al nyȝt in his bookes. Þerfore it is i-rad þat he hadde a candle|stikke i-made by craft of honde so þat þe oyle schulde renne*. [eorne, γ.] in to þe crislere*. [crysler, γ. and Cx.] wiþ oute travaile [of Theodocius, for travaile]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] schulde nouȝt lette hym, and so he wiþstood slepynge,*. [slepe, β. and Cx.] and made kynde*. [kuynde, γ.] travaille by strengþe. Also he was like*. [lyche, γ.] Traianus in alle poyntes, meke*. [meoke, γ.] and mylde and softe to men, and sugette*. [subget, Cx.] to God; but he wolde liȝtliche be wrooþ,*. [wreþþe, β.; bygan to wexe wroth, Cx.] þerfore he was i-tauȝt of a philosofre þat he schulde whanne he gan to wreþe seie ofte*. [softe, β.; segge softe, γ.] and by ordre foure and twenty lettres of Grewe or*. [er, β. and Cx.; ar, γ.] he schulde [ordeyne ouȝt þat schulde]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] greve, for [so]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] his þouȝt schulde be occupied in somwhat elles, and his wreþþe schulde cese*. [sece, Cx.] in passynge of tyme. In a tyme he wolde have i-entred into þe queor of clerkes at Melan for to hire*. [huyre, γ.] masse, and Am|bros forbeed hym forto he hadde i-doo opoun*. [open, β] penaunce*. [don his penaunce, Cx.] for Page  209, vol.5 þe deth of þritty knyȝtes þat he hadde i-slawe in wreþþe at Constantynnoble. Þerfore þe emperour dede penaunce, and ordeyned a lawe þat þe dome of princes uppon þe avisement of deþ schulde abide þritty dayes wiþ oute execucioun, for to abyde mercye*. [mercye] om. Cx.] ȝif it myȝte be i-founde, oþer ȝif*. [or if, Cx.] it were to doynge, þat þe dome schulde be wiþcleped*. [repelled, Cx.] oþer chaunged.*. [ychaungide, β.] Victor, þe sone of Maximus þe tyraunt, is i-slawe*. [was slayne, Cx.] of oon Argobastes.*. [Arbogastes, γ., et infra.] Aboute þat tyme was a child i-bore in þe castel of Emaus þat hadde tweie bodyes from þe navel upward,*. [opward, γ.] tweie brestes, tweie hedes, and ten wittes, in eiþer body fyve; so þat þe oon myȝte ete oþer slepe þey þe*. [that, Cx.] oþer dede noþer*. [dide neþer, β.] ete ne slepe. And whanne þey hadde i-lyved two ȝere to gidres, þat oon deide þre dayes raþer þan*. [tofore, Cx.] þat oþer. Valentinianus Augustus was sory of his lyf for þe grete*. [grete] om. Cx.] cruelnesse*. [cruwelnesse, β.] of Ar|gobastes,*. [Arbogastes, α., β. et infra, and γ.] þe maister of knyȝtes, and heng hym self wiþ a snare*. [snarl, α., β., and γ.; suar, Cx.] in Vien*. [Viane, Cx.] in Fraunce. Þerfore Argobastes, þe maister of knyȝtes,*. [þe maister of knyȝtes] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] made oon Eugenius*. [oon Eugenius] om. γ.] emperour in Gallia. Þerfore Page  211, vol.5 Theodocius axsede*. [axide, β., et infra; axed, Cx.] counsail of Iohn þe ermyte*. [hermyt, β., γ.; heremyte, Cx.] at Egipte,*. [at Egipte] om. γ.] and axede what ende þe batayle schulde take aȝenst Eugenius, and he seide þat þey*. [he, Cx.] schulde have þe victorie. [℞.]*. [From β.] Þat ȝere deide Seynt Martyn þe bisshop. Oon Severus Sulpicius, a preost of Geen,*. [Gyen, α., β., γ., and Cx.] wroot Seynt Martyn his lif, þat was ful*. [fol, γ.] of vertues and of goodnes. Genadius de viris illustribus seith þat Severus in his elde was begiled*. [bygyled, γ.] of þe heritikes Pelagius,*. [Pelagians, α., β.; Pelagias, γ.; Pelagyens, Cx.] and was sory þerfore; and for he hadde i-synned wiþ his speche, he toke silence uppon hym to his lyves ende, for to punsche*. [punysshe, Cx.] þat synne wiþ sparynge of speche. Archadius, Theodocius his sone, whanne his fadir was deed, he*. [he] a, γ.] regned as it were*. [is it were] om. Cx.] fourtene ȝere, and helde þe Estlondes, and his broþer Honorius helde*. [huld, γ.] þe Westlondes. Claudius*. [Claudianus, β., γ., and Cx.] þe poet is in his floures.*. [was that tyme flouryng, Cx.] Conatus, bisshop of Epirus, spat in a dra|gouns mouth, and slouȝ hym. Sixtene oxen*. [oxon, γ.] myȝte unneþe drawe þat dragoun to þe place þere he schulde be [y]*. [From α.]-brend,*. [barnd, γ.]Page  213, vol.5 for he schulde nouȝt appeyre*. [enfecte, Cx.] þe ayer*. [aer, γ.; eyer, Cx.; apeire þe eyr, β.] in þe contray aboute. A grete counsail is i-made in Cartage. Marcianus. After Ciricius,*. [Siricius, β.] Athanacius*. [Anastasius, β., γ., and Cx.] was pope fyve ȝere; he ordeyned þat a man [þat]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] were i-wemmed in his body schulde fonge*. [receyve, Cx.] non ordres; and he ordeynede þat everiche man schulde stonde while þe gospel is in*. [in] a, β., γ., and Cx.] redynge. Beda, libro primo, capitulo 10o. Aboute that ȝere Pelagius, a Bretoun, hadde helpe of Iulianus, bisshop of Campania, þat was to forehond i-putte adoun*. [doun, α.] of his bisshopriche, and Pelagius brouȝte [up]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] his heresye, þat seide þat a manis wil and his fredom of choys wiþ oute Goddis grace is i-now*. [ynowȝ, β.] for to disserve mede and the blisse of hevene. Also he seide þat Adam his synn wemmed Adam alone, and noon oþer man. Also he seide þat children beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] i-bore as clene with oute synne as Adam was to fore þat*. [tofore er that, Cx.] he synned, and seide þat it nedeþ*. [neodeþ, γ.] nouȝt to cristene*. [fullye, β.; folly, γ.] children for to clense hem of synne, but for to worshippe hem wiþ þe sacrament of adopcioun. Trevisa. [Adop|cion]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] is makynge of children in þis manere, if a man takith a childe and norscheþ and bryngeth hym up and doþ wel by hym as þey he were*. [as . . . were] and amitteth hym as, Cx.] his owne childe. Þan Pelago*. [Pelagius, α., β., and Cx.] woot Page  215, vol.5 nevere what he*. [he] a, γ.] maffleþ,*. [sayth, Cx.] ffor þe childe þat is clene wiþ oute*. [wiþ oute] oute of, Cx.] synne is verreyliche Goddes childe. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie: Seint Austyn and oþer holy fadres travaillede nam|liche*. [manliche, α.; manly, Cx.; travelide manlich, β.] aȝenst suche*. [siche, β.] heretykes, but þey myȝte nouȝt amende hem; and so seiþ Prosper the rethorik*. [rethour, Cx.] in his vers of sixe feet. [℞.] Som men wole mene of*. [Sic in MS.] þis Pelagius was abbot of þat famous abbay [of Bangor, þat was ten myle out of Le|gecestre, þat is Caerleon. Me seiþ þat in þat abbay]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] somtyme were two þowsand monkes, or*. [er, β.] þe kyng of Northumberlond, Ethelfredus,*. [Ethellfrede, Cx.] hadde i-slawe þilke*. [þulke, γ.] monkes at Caerleon. After Anastacius, Innocencius Abbanensis*. [Ablunensis, β.; Ablimensis, Cx.] was pope fourtene ȝere. He ordeyned for to faste þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Satirday, and for to ȝeve cos*. [cosse, β.] of pees at the masse,*. [to kysse the pax at masse, Cx.] and for to anoynte seke men wiþ holy oyle. Also he condempned Pelagius the heretik and his fau|toures toures. Also he acorsede Archadius þe emperour, for he was assentinge to þe puttynge out of Iohn Crisostomus; for þe emperesse*. [emperice, β.; emperys, γ.] Eudoxia had i-procured*. [y-prokered, β.] þe out puttynge of Iohn for he hadde i-preched aȝenst wommen þat pleyde aboute þe ymage of Eudoxia. Aboute þat ȝere Seint Alexis þe confessour Page  217, vol.5 deide at Rome. Genadius, in his book de viris illustribus, seiþ þat aboute þat tyme Ticonius of Affrica wroot rules for to seche and fynde out þe understondinge of holy writt, þe whiche rules beeþ ȝit famous among holy doctoures.

Capitulum tricesimum secundum. Honorius.

HONORIUS, whanne his broþer*. [broder, Cx.] Archadius was dede, regnede wiþ his broþer sone Theodocius as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] fiftene ȝere. Þis was so mylde þat whanne me repreved*. [repreovede, γ.] hym for he slouȝ nouȝt hem þat were rebel to hym, he answerde*. [answherede, γ.] and seide, "God wolde þat I*. [ych, γ.] myȝte arere*. [reise, Cx.] dede men to lyve." Eutro|pius, libro 10o. The oost of þe Gothes was i-slawe in Thuscia,*. [Tuscia, β.] and here ledere*. [ledare, γ.] Ragadasius was i-take; he com with two hondred þowsand of Gothes, and hadde i-made his avow þat he wolde offre þe blood of Romayns in sacrefice*. [sacrifice, Cx.] to his Page  219, vol.5 goddis. Me seith þat in þat fiȝtynge were so meny men i|take þat flokkes*. [flockes, Cx.] of men*. [men] hem, β.] were i-sold for*. [at, Cx.] litel prys as it were flokkes of bestes. In þe mene tyme come*. [come] om. Cx.] oon*. [on, γ.] of þe Gothes þat heet Alaricus out of Affrica, and*. [and] om. Cx.] wente into Italy, and axede*. [axide, β.] a place of Honorius for hym and his men to dwelle ynne. And [he]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] graunted hym Gallia; and while*. [while] as, Cx.] he wente þiderward he was bysette wiþ som of þe emperours dukes in a harde bataille þat fil uppon hym unwar in þe Ester day. But he toke herte and strengþe, and overcome his enemyes þat so pursued hym;*. [hem, Cx.] and þere he lefte his wey þat he hadde bygonne, and tornede aȝen to Rome, and destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] al þat he com by wiþ yre*. [iren, β.; yron, Cx.] and wiþ fuyre, and took þe citee of Rome and sette it a*. [on, α.] fuyre.*. [afier, β.] Noþeles he lete crye þat me schulde spare alle men þat fleyȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] to holy places, and þat his men schulde take prayes, and spare schedynge of blood. Paulus, libro 2o.*. [undecimo, Cx.] And so Rome was i-broke and i-take of þe Gothes þe ȝere after þe buldynge þerof a þowsand an hondred þre score and foure. After þat tyme þe consulat of Rome lefte in þe Est, and the Romayns Page  221, vol.5 cesede*. [ceeseden, β.; seceden, Cx.] to regne in Bretayne, þat hadde i-regned þerynne from Iulius*. [Julianus, α.] Cesar his tyme aboute an*. [an] a, Cx.] foure hondred ȝere þre score and ten. Eutropius. The þridde day after þat Rome was i|take, Alaricus lefte the citee and destroyed*. [distried, β.] þe province aboute, and wente into Sicilia,*. [Cicilia, β., γ., and Cx.] and loste many schippes, and was soden|liche dede. There þe Gothes, by travaile of prisoners, turnede þe ryver Basentus out of þe chanel, [and buryed*. [buried, β.; buryede, γ.] her*. [here, γ.] kyng with grete ryches*. [wiþ grete riches, β.; wiþ gret rychches, γ.] in the*. [þe, β. and γ.] myddel of the*. [þe, β. and γ.] chanel, and torned the*. [turnede þe, β. and γ.] ryver agayn*. [aȝen, β.; aȝe, γ.] into his owne*. [hys oune, γ.] chanel].*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Þanne þe Gothes took oon Athulphus, kyng Alaricus his alye, and made hym here kyng, and wente aȝen to Rome and destroyed*. [distriede, β., et infra.] [al þat þere was i-left. Also þat tyme lyȝtnynge destroyed]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe noble places of Rome þat enemyes myȝte nouȝt brenne. God is*. [is] was, Cx.] despised in al þe citee, and men cride to Crist, and seide þat suche mys|happes fil*. [ful, γ.] to þe citee for þe holy places of Godes were*. [were] om. Cx.] for|gendred.*. [and alterid, added in Cx.] But the Gothes took oon Galla Placida, Theodocius Page  223, vol.5 his douȝter and Honorius his suster*. [soster, γ.] and maried hire to hire owne kyng. Sche*. [Heo, β. and γ.] was so profitable to þe comounte þat þe Gothes made pees with the Romayns, and lefte Rome, and wente into Gallia. Aboute þat tyme were i-founde*. [founden, Cx.] þe bodyes of Seint Stevene and of Gamaliel, and of here felawes, by oon Lucianus a preost of Ierusalem. Þat tyme Seint Austyn sent his disciple Orosius into Bethleem to Seint Ierom for to lerne*. [leorne, γ.] þe resoun*. [resone, β.] of þe soule, for þo*. [þanne, β.] he made þe book of þe comynge forþ of þe soule. And Orosius wente aboute to*. [to] the, Cx.] holy places, and was þe firste*. [furste, γ.] þat brouȝte þe relikes*. [relyques, Cx.] of Seint Stevene into þe Westlondes. Also þo Honorius made Constancius Cesar, and maried his suster Gallia Placida to Constancius, [and sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] was raþer*. [raþer] to fore, Cx.] i-maryed to Athulfus, on here Constancius]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.]*. [and is here wrongly inserted in MS.]gat Valentinianus, þat afterward helde*. [huld, γ.] þe empere longe tyme. After Innocencius, ȝoȝinius was pope two ȝere and sixe monþes*. [moneþes, β.]. He ordeyned þat a bonde man schulde nouȝt ben made a clerk,*. [From Cx.; and þat a gelded man schuld nouȝt be made a clerk, added in β.; and þat a gelded man scholde noȝt be mad a clerk, added in γ.]Page  225, vol.5 [ner a ghelded man],*. [From Cx.] and þat the holy tapir schulde be i-halowed*. [halewed, β.] an Ester eve. After ȝoȝinius,*. [ȝiȝonnius, γ.] Bonefacius was pope foure ȝere. He ordeyned þat no man*. [woman, β.; womman, γ.] schulde wasche*. [waysche, γ.] nor*. [noþer, α.; ne, Cx.] handle*. [noþur hondele, γ.] the tow|ayles of þe auȝter, noþer doo ensens in þe ensencer.*. [senser, β.; censer, Cx.]Gaufridus et Alfridus. Þanne þe deth of Maximus þe tyraunt, þe knyȝt þat longede to Rome, was i-knowe, and also þe deþ of Con|stancius was i-knowe, and þe forsaide enemyes,*. [enymys, γ.] Guanius and Melga, com [aȝe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] out of Irlond wiþ Scottes and Norweies, and brende and slouȝ*. [slouȝt, γ.] in þe kyngdom of Bretayne from*. [fram, β.] see to see. Þerfore þe Britouns sente to þe Romayns, and byhoteþ*. [byhoteþ] promysed, Cx.] [for]*. [From α. and β.; vor, γ.] to be sugette alwey, and axith*. [and axith] for to have, Cx.] alway*. [alway] om. α., γ., and Cx.] help. Anon Honorius sente hem a legioun of the people,*. [of the people] om. α., β., γ. and Cx.] þat destroyed*. [destriede, β.] here ene|myes,*. [henymys, γ. (bis).] and tauȝte þe Britouns*. [to] added in Cx.] make a wal þwart*. [þwert, β. and γ.] over þe ilond to holde out here enemyes. Þe legioun went aȝen, and þe men of þe ilond were unkunnynge of so greet craft, made a wal of torves*. [torvys, γ.] and of stoon, þat was noþing profitable, from*. [profyt habel vram, γ.] þe Page  227, vol.5 place þat hatte*. [from . . . hatte] whiche dured fro, Cx.] Penultoun anon to þe weste see,*. [see] om. α., β., and γ.] þere is*. [þe weste . . . is] om. Cx.] þe citee Alcluit, so þat were*. [where, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe socour*. [soker, γ.] of the watir faillede þere men schulde defende hem in*. [and, α. and γ.] þe lond*. [in þe lond] om. Cx.] by help of þe wal. But enemyes come by watir wey and destroyed*. [destruyde, γ.] al aboute, and took prayes from ȝere to ȝere as to forehonde.*. [as to forehonde] om. γ.; as they dyde to fore, Cx.] Þanne þe Romayns sente a legioun i-armed, and slowȝ and chasede þe enemyes, and made up a wal of stoon to þe Britouns of eiȝte foot þikke*. [thyck, Cx.] and twelf foot hiȝ,*. [heiȝ, β.; hye, Cx.] for*. [for] from see, α., β., and Cx.; fram se to se, γ.] to see bytwene citees, þere Severus hadde somtyme i-made a diche and a wal of torves. [And the Romanys bad]*. [From Cx.] and chargede þe Britouns to leve of unmanhede,*. [leve theyr cowardyce, Cx.] and nysete, and take to hem*. [to hem] om. Cx.] armure as men schulde, for the Romayns*. [the Romayns] they, Cx.] were so occupied in oþir sides þat þey myȝte na*. [no, Cx.] more have while*. [have while] a whyle, γ; come fro so fer, Cx.] to be wiþ hem in*. [in] and, β.] so*. [so] om. γ.] grete travaille and iornayes. Þanne þey makeþ*. [made, Cx.] a wal of stoon on þe comoun cost, and also on prive cost þat men ȝaf þerto, and hadde wiþ hem*. [hem] om. γ.] þe strengþe of Britouns, and took hem ensaumple of*. [ensaumple of] om. Cx.] armure, and bulde*. [bilde, β.] toures on þe cleves of occean and*. [in, α. and Cx.] dyvers places þere*. [þere] where as, Cx.] me dradde þe Page  229, vol.5 arryvynge and upcomynge*. [londyng, Cx.] of straunge men and of enemyes. Þanne þe Romayns bad þe Bretouns farewel, as þeyȝ wolde nevere [eft]*. [From α., β., and γ.] come aȝen. Giraldus.*. [Gildas, γ. and Cx.] Whanne þe Romayns were a goo, þanne breke out blake flokkes of Scottes and of Pictes, as wormes brekeþ out of here holes aȝenst þe hete of þe sonne.*. [In Cx. this sentence is: "Whan the Romayns were goon thenne the Scottes & Pyctes bygan to breke oute of her hooles."] Þe Scottes and þe Pictes discordeþ in maneres, but þey acordeth in cloþinge and fey and covetise of schedynge of blood; þey heleþ*. [covere, Cx.] here prive membres*. [membris, β.] more wiþ heer þan with clooþ. Whanne þey knewe þat legiouns of Rome were awent,*. [retorned, Cx.] þey destroyede þe endes of Bretayne more boldeliche þan þey were i-woned.*. [they had done to fore, Cx.]Beda. Þey slowȝ þe wardeynes of þe walles and oþere men of þe lond, and men of þe lond were i-dryve out of hir hous and hir*. [hir] of, γ.] home, and ȝaf hem to þefte*. [þeefþe, β.; þeofthe, γ.] and to*. [to] om. Cx.] robberie, and robbede eche*. [everyche, α; everech, β.] oþer for socour*. [suker, γ.] of þe peril*. [paryll, Cx.] of honger þat þey sigh [þat]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] hem schulde befalle; and so fil*. [ful, γ.] deþ uppon deth and sorwe uppon sorwe, forto*. [forto] for, Cx.] al þe kyngdom was bare,*. [baar, γ.] with oute sustenaunce of mete. After Bonefacius, Celes|tynus was pope as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] ten ȝere. He ordeynede þat þe psalme, Iudica me, Deus, et discerne causam meam, scholde be seide to fore þe entrynge of þe masse, and þe entrynge*. [thentre, Cx.] of þe masse schulde be i-take of a psalme*. [salm, β.] wiþ a vers*. [schulde . . . vers] sholde be sayde the verse, Et introi bo ad al|tare, Cx.] of þe same psalme,*. [salm, β.]Page  231, vol.5 and þat þe grayel*. [grael, β. and γ.] and þe offertorie*. [offretory, γ.] schulde be i-seide to fore þe sacrement.*. [sacrement] sacrynge, Cx.] Þis is he þat first sent [Seynt]*. [From Cx.] Patrik to con|vert Irlond, and Paladius, a dekene*. [decon, γ.] of Rome, to converte þe Scottes, in þe nynþe ȝere of his poperiche.*. [papacye, Cx.] In his fourþe*. [ferþe, β.; ferþ, γ.] ȝere, by help of Theodocius þe emperour, and of Cirillus bisshop of Alexandria, þe þridde greet synode*. [sinod, β. and γ.] of þre hondred bisshoppes was i-made at Ephisus aȝenst Nestorius þe heretik. Þere it was i-demed þat in Crist is oon persone and tweie kyndes, þe Godhede and þe manhede, and oure lady schulde be i-cleped Theothecos,*. [Theotocos, α.; Theotochos, β. and Cx.; Theothocos, γ.] þat is*. [to saye, added in Cx.] oure Lordes moder. Aboute þat tyme Ierom þe preost deide at Bethleem and was*. [was] om. Cx.] foure score ȝere olde and sixtene. Þat tyme was sent an oost out of Rome into Spayne aȝenst þe Wandales.*. [Wandels, Cx.] But for þe emperour hadde out of his companye þe orped man*. [þe orped man] that myghty, Cx.] Bonefacius, þe emperour dede*. [dude, γ.] noþing orpedliche;*. [orpedliche] manly, Cx.] but Bonefacius wente into Affrica and dede moche*. [dide mych, β.] harme to þe emperour.*. [empeer, α.; in þe empire, β.; þemper, γ.; in thempyre, Cx.]

Page  233, vol.5

Capitulum tricesimum tertium.

THE yonge Theodocius Archadius his sone, regned wiþ his douȝter housbonde Valentinianus as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] sixe and twenty ȝere. Þe kyngdom of Frenschemen*. [Freynschmen, γ.] bygan in his tyme under Ferramundus þe sone of Martomirus, as it is i-seide toforehonde of the*. [the] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] province*. [provyncis, β.] in þe firste book, capitulo Gallia. Þanne Theodocius knewe þat his eme Honorius was deed, and took Valentinianus þe sone of his aunte Galla Placida, [and made hym Cesar, and sente hym anon*. [anon] om. Cx.] wiþ his moder Galla Placida]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] for to governe þe Est londes. Þese*. [þeos, γ.] tweyne overcome Iohn þat werrede in þe emperour,*. [empere, α.; empire, β.; emper, γ.; in the empyre, Cx.] and*. [and they were merciful to, Cx.] Aecius þe noble knyȝt hadde mercy, ffor by his witte and sleiþe*. [sleiȝþe, β.] þe Hunnes were i-torned aȝen*. [aȝen] om. Cx.] þat caste for to werry*. [werrie, β.] in þe empere of the Westlondes. Þan Bonefacius, þe nobil knyȝt þat we spak of toforehonde, took hede þat he myȝte nouȝt holde suerliche*. [surlych, γ.; sewrly, Cx.] Affrica aȝenst Page  235, vol.5 Valentinianus and his noble knyȝt Aecius. Þerfore he prayde þe Wandales, and þe Alanes, þat hadde occupied Spayne toforn|honde, for to come*. [to a come, γ.] into Affrica wiþ here kyng Gesericus,*. [Giserichus, Cx.] and he come anon, and destroyed*. [distried, β.] Affrica and defouled þe fey of holy chirche. In þat tyme of tempest deide Seint Austyn, þe ȝere of his age foure score and sixe. He made so meny bookes þat þat*. [þat matir] the metre, Cx.] matir*. [metre, β.; meter, γ.] is sooþ,*. [that saith, added in Cx.] he lyeþ*. [likkeþ, α.; likþ, β.; lykþ, γ.] þat seide þat he hadde i-rad*. [hadde i-rad] radde, γ.] al þy*. [þy] his, Cx.] bookes. [℞.]*. [From Cx.] Þis Gisericus, kyng of Wandales, þeyȝ he in þe mene tyme overcome þe Spaynelles,*. [Spaynardes, Cx.] Galles, and Romayns, ȝit he regnede in*. [in] om. γ.] Affrica sevene and þritty ȝere, so seiþ Eusebius in his*. [in his] om. Cx.] cronyke riȝte in þe ende. After Gesericus his*. [his] om. β. and Cx.] sone oþer*. [oþer] om. Cx.] his douȝter housbonde Homericus*. [hosbond Humericus, γ.] regnede eyȝte ȝere. And he also closede cherches and outlawed þre hondred bisshoppes, þerfore by Goddes riȝtful dome he wallede*. [walled, β.; wellede, γ.; wam|bled, Cx.] ful of wormes and deide sone. After hym Gesericus his broþer sone Guinitanundus*. [Guntamundus, α. and γ.; Gut|tamundus, β. and Cx.] regnede þere twelve [ȝere. In þe twelþe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] ȝere of his kyngdom*. [regne, Cx.] he opened*. [opnede, γ.] chirches, and reconciled hem Page  237, vol.5 þat were outlawed. After hym þe forseide Homericus*. [Humericus, γ.] his broþer Trasamundus regnede as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] eiȝte and twenty ȝere. After hym his sone Hildericus, y-gete*. [goten, Cx.] on Valentinianus his douȝter, regnede eyȝte ȝere; oon Gylomaurus*. [Glomaurus, Cx.] þe tyraunt, þat hadde i-werred in Irlond and in Bretayne, put hym out of his kyngdom, and regned aftir hym þre ȝere in Affrica; and so from þe bygynnynge of þe persecucioun of Wandales, þat bygan in Gisericus his tyme, anon to þe goynge out of Wandales out of Affrica, passede as it*. [hit, β.] were an hondred ȝere. [After Celes|tinus Sixtus was pope nyne ȝere.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] ℞. In his tyme Seint Maximus, bisshop of Carvernensis,*. [Tarvernensis, β. and γ.; Ter|verensis, Cx.] was in his floures, and made noble omelyes; and as Genadius seith, he made þat famous omelye of martires þat bygynneþ in þis manere: "Qui religiosa caritate*. [caritate] from β., γ., and Cx.; carite, MS.] sanctorum merita miratur," and so forþ. And Cassiodorus þe senatour is in his floures. He expownede the sawter, and made a cronike of þe emperours and of bis|shoppes. Also þat tyme Orosius of Spayne was in his floures; he come to Rome after Seint Austyn his deþ, and made sevene bookes aȝenst mysbyleved men, de ormesta, þat is, of þe wrec|chednesse Page  239, vol.5 of þis world. Þat tyme Eudoxia þe emperesse,*. [emperice, β.; þemperys, γ.] þat was Theodocius his douȝter and Valentinianus his wif, com out of Ierusalem, and brouȝte wiþ here þe cheynes*. [chaynes, γ.] þat Peter was i-bounde wiþ in prisoun. Of hem is þe feste [of]*. [From β. and Cx.] Lammesse day, þey Peter were brouȝt out*. [out] om. α. and γ.] of prisoun aboute Ester tyme.*. [þey Peter . . . tyme] om. Cx.] In*. [þe, α., β., γ., and Cx.] solempnite of Cesar his victorie was i-holde uppon þat day from Octovianus his tyme anon to þat tyme. Aboute þat tyme þe devel appered to þe Iewes in þe ilond Creta, in Moyses his liche, and byhet hym*. [ham, γ.; promysed hem, Cx.] þat he wolde lede hem drie foot into þe londe of byheste. Þanne meny of hem were a dreynt,*. [drowned, Cx.] and þe oþere tornede to þe fey of Crist. After Sixtus Leo was pope oon*. [on, β.] and twenty ȝere; he was holyest of alle men, and seide his masse fyve siþes and somtyme ofter in oon day. In*. [On, Cx.] an Ester day a womman kyssed*. [kussed, α.] his hond, and þe pope feled*. [felk, Cx.] it*. [it] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] so grete temptacioun þat for wreche þerof he kutte*. [kitte, β.] of his [owne]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] riȝt honde. Þanne þe peple grucched*. [grucchide, β.; gruchgede, γ.; grutchyd, Cx.]Page  241, vol.5 aȝenst hym for he song nouȝt his masse as he was woned to doo, and he prayede his bedes,*. [prayede his bedes] made his prayers, Cx.] and put hym al to oure lady, and prayede*. [besoughte, Cx.] hir of help and of*. [of] om. Cx.] grace. Þanne oure*. [blessyd, added in Cx.] lady restorede his hond aȝe, and he seide his masse as he was wont*. [woned, α.; wond, γ.] to doo, and tolde out þat miracle to fore al þe peple. In þis popes tyme, under Marcianus þe prince, was i-made þe fourþe general counsail in Calcidonia, of sixe hondred bisshoppes and þritty, aȝenst þe oon Eutices, abbot of Constantynnoble, [and]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] aȝenst oon Dyoscorus, bisshop of Alexandria. Þey deniede þat*. [denyede þat, added in MS. again.] in Crist was verray*. [verrei, β.; verrey, γ.] flesche, and denyede also þe resur|rexioun at þat*. [þe, α.; atte, β., γ., and Cx.] day of dome. Pope Leo made a lettre of þe riȝt fey for to sende to þis counsail, and leide þe lettre uppon Seint Petir his auȝter,*. [auter, γ.] and fasted*. [faste, α. and γ.] fourty dayes, and preyde Seint Petir þat ȝif ouȝt*. [ouȝt] oȝt, γ.; ony thynge, Cx.] schulde be amended þerynne þat he wolde amende it,*. [hit, β. (bis).] and so it*. [hit, β. (bis).] was i-doo. Anoþer tyme he fasted fourty dayes, and prayed Peter to gete hym forȝifnes of his synne;*. [synnes, α. and Cx.] and Peter appered to hym and seide, "Alle þy Page  243, vol.5 synnes beeþ forȝeve,*. [ben foryeven, Cx.] but unwis hond leggynge*. [unwyse handlyng, Cx.] is chalenged of þe." In þis popes tyme, þat was in Theodocius [his]*. [From α. and γ.] laste tyme, at Ephesus in þe hil*. [hul, γ.] mont Selius,*. [Celius, Cx.] þe sevene slepers awook and arise,*. [aroos, Cx.] and þe fey of oure resurreccioun was moche*. [myche, β.] i-confermed and i-stabled by þat arisynge. In Decius Cesar his tyme þese*. [þeose, γ.] men flyȝ and hidde hem in a den*. [cave, Cx.] for to scape*. [ascape, β.] þe woodnesse*. [wodnes, γ.] of þe persecucioun þat was i-doo uppon Cristen men, and so þey*. [hy, γ.] slepe*. [slepte, Cx.] two hondred ȝere, and a wook at þe laste by þe vertu of God, and sente a servaunt wiþ money to þe citee for to begge*. [bygge, γ.; bye, β. and Cx.] mete, and for to aspye how*. [hou, α.; houȝ, γ.] it stood of þe persecucioun; and by olde money þat was schewed,*. [schewide, β.] þat was nouȝt þo i-used, it was knowe and i-founde þat þey hadde i|slepe aboute a*. [a] an, γ.] two hondred ȝere, and awook at þe laste by vertu of God;*. [and . . . God] om. α. and γ.] and so þe fey of [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] resurrexioun was confermed þat Entices*. [Eutices, γ.] denyede, and þei bygonne to slepe efte*. [agayne, Cx.] in presence of Theodocius þe emperour. Eutropius. Aboute þat tyme oon Page  245, vol.5 Athila*. [Anthila, γ.] kyng of Hunes governed Denmark*. [Denmarch, β. and.] and Pannonia, and ladde an oost of two hondred þowsand, and hadde help aȝenst þe Romayns of naciouns þat he hadde i-made sugette, and passeth forth wel nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] al þe Westlond anon to Allvern.*. [Alverne, β.; Alvern, γ.; unto Alverne, Cx.] Þis man was i-bore to schame and schendnes*. [schenship, β.; shendship, Cx.] of naciouns; he lovede werres, and was strong of counsail. Valentinianus þat [þo]*. [From α. and γ.; thenne, Cx.] governed þe West londes schulde fiȝte aȝenst þis Athila, and sente a lettre to þe Gothes in þese*. [þeose, γ.] wordes: "Hit byfalleþ to ȝoure redynesse and wisdom to conspire aȝenst þe tyraunt þat de|sired*. [desireþ, α. and Cx.] al þe service of þis world; he rekkeþ*. [rechcheþ, γ.; retcheth, Cx.] of [no]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] riȝt|ful cause of bataile, but what hym liketh*. [likiþ, β.] he holdeþ laweful; onliche leve*. [leve] byleve, Cx.] heleþ and kovereth*. [kevereth, α.; cureþ, β. and γ.] his pryde*. [pryte, Cx.]; he is worþy to be hated of alle men [þat is enemy to alle men]."*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] But þey write a lettre in þis manere: "ȝe haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ. (bis).] i-made Athila ȝoure enemy, ȝe haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ. (bis).] ȝoure desire." Þanne þey come to giders in þe feeldes Cathalmytes,*. [Cathalmites, β.; Cathulintes, Cx.] þat conteyneþ an hondred leges*. [leuges, β.; leghes, Cx.] in Page  247, vol.5 lengþe and seventy in brede; þere was a stronge bataille, noon olde storie spekeþ of noon*. [noon] no batayl, Cx.; batail added in γ.] so strong, for þere were in boþe sides*. [sides] om. Cx.] i-slawe*. [i-slawe] om. γ.] nyne score þowsand men, so þat dede bodyes were i-bore forth wiþ þe streme*. [streem, γ.] of blood. In the Romayns side were i-slawe þe kyng of Burgoyn*. [Borguyn, γ.] and þe kyng of Gothes. Eutropius, libro 9o. Kyng Athila, as þey*. [þouȝ, β.; though, Cx.] he were overcome, wente aȝe into Pannonia to gadre hym a grete*. [gretter, β. and Cx.; grettre, γ.] oost. ℞. It is i-rad in Seint Germans lif þat while kyng [Athyla]*. [From Cx.] werrede in*. [in] om. Cx.] Gallia he byseged*. [bisegide, β., et intra.] in a tyme þe citee*. [citee] om. γ.] Tricasina,*. [Trecasina, β.; Trecasma, Cx.] þere Seint Lupus was bisshop þat tyme. Þanne Seint Lupus went up*. [up] om. Cx.] uppon þe ȝates of þe citee þat was byseged, and cryde and axede who it*. [it] they, Cx.] were þat so greved hem; and kyng Athila answerde and seide: "I am Athila, Goddes scourge"; "And I,"*. [ic, β.; Y, γ.] quoþ the bisshop, "am þe wold*. [wolf, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat destroyeþ oure Lord Goddes*. [Goddes] om. Cx.] folk,*. [flok, α.] and have nede*. [neode, γ.] to Goddes scourge." Lupus is a wolf. Þanne anon þe ȝates were [y-opened, and þe enemy were]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] i|blend*. [blente, Cx.]Page  249, vol.5 þorw*. [þoroȝt, γ.] Goddes myght, and wente from ȝate to ȝate, and sigh no man noþer herte.*. [noþer herte] ne hurted no man, Cx.; hirte, β.; hur γ.] Athila kyng of Hunes was i-chased*. [was i-chased] om. γ.] out of Gallia by a nobil knyȝt þat heet Aecius; in his fleynge toward Pannonia he destroyed Italy, and þere*. [þere] om. Cx.] he bysegede Aquila*. [Aquilia, α.] þre ȝere, and gat it.*. [hit, β.] Þo Leo þe pope faste and prayed þre dayes and þre nyȝt*. [nyghtes, Cx.] in Seint Peteris chirche, and seide to his clerkes,*. [clerkes] om. α. and β.; men, Cx.; peple added in γ. by a later hand.] "Who þat wil*. [wol, γ.] come after me, come a Goddes half."*. [half] name, Cx.] And whan he neighede*. [neyȝhede, α. and γ.; neiȝide, β.; approched, Cx.] to þe kyng Athila þe kyng liȝt doun of his hors, and fel doun of his hors,*. [and . . . hors] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] and fel*. [ful, γ.] doun to þe pope his feet, and prayde hym to axe what he wolde. And anon he prayde, and hadde it i-graunted, þat þe kyng schulde goo out of Itali, and delivere al þe prisoners. Afterward, whanne þe kyng was repreved*. [repreoved, γ.] and arreyned*. [arayned, β.; resoned, Cx.] why þe lord of world was so liȝtliche overcome of a preost, "In þat," quod þe kyng, "I dede*. [y dide, β.] profiȝt*. [prouffyt, Cx.] to ȝow and to me; for I seigh*. [y syȝ, α. and γ.; y siȝ, β.; sawe, Cx.] in his riȝt side a wel stalworþe clerk*. [knyȝt, β.; knyȝt, γ.; a stronge knyghte, Cx.] wiþ a swerd Page  251, vol.5 i-drawe þat manassed me*. [þat, added in γ.] but I dede*. [y dide, β.] as he wolde I scholde be deed, and all myne." Þanne þe kyng lefte Italy, and wente into Pannonia, and deyde þere sone. Eutropius, libro 9o, et Beda, libro primo,*. [et Beda, libro primo] om. Cx.]capitulo 13o. Aboute þat tyme þe poure relyf*. [pore relef, β.; relef, γ.] þat was i-left of þe Britouns sente þe þridde tyme a lettre to þat noble knyȝt Aecius into*. [and to, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Patricius in þis manere: "To Aecius, þries consul, we scheweþ*. [shewe, Cx.] the goynge*. [gronynge, α., β., and γ.; greves, Cx.] of Bretouns. Straunge naciouns chaseþ*. [chacen, Cx.] us to þe see, and þe see dryveþ us aȝe to straunge naciouns, and þerof cometh tweie manere of careyns, for we beeþ i-slawe wiþ wepoun,*. [wepen, β. and Cx.; wepne, γ.] oþer*. [oþer] or ellys, Cx.] we beeþ*. [be, α.; buþ, γ.] adreynt."*. [drouned, Cx.] But it was for noght þat þey wrete soo, ffor Aecius þat tyme was occupied in Gallia with hard werre aȝenst kyng Athila. Gaufridus et Beda, ubi supra.*. [ubi supra] om. Cx.] In þe mene tyme þe forseide honger incresede*. [encreced, Cx.] strongliche among þe Britouns, and compelled meny of hem to ȝelde hem to þe þeoves*. [þeeves, β.; thevys, Cx.] here enemyes; and som of hem com out of hilles*. [hulles, γ] and laundes, þere mannes help failede, and trust*. [triste, β.] in God Almyȝti, and Page  253, vol.5 chasede out þe Pikkes*. [Pictes, α.; Pyctes, Cx.] as wel as þey myȝte. Þan for a tyme þe enemyes were i-torned aȝen anon to þe uttermeste*. [outmost, β.; otmeste, γ.; putte oute unto the utterist, Cx.] part of þe lond, and made hem a wonynge place*. [place to dwelle ynne, Cx.] byȝonde Deyra, þat is þe souþ side of Norþhomberlond, and slowȝ evere among,*. [evere among] om. Cx.] and took prayes eiþer of oþer. Also þat tyme fil greet hunges*. [honger, α. and Cx.; ful so gret honger, γ. In the MS. the scribe had first written prayes, which he has expunged, but the termination of the erroneous word has been written in the correct one.] at Constantynnoble wiþ grete pestilence, and are*. [aer, α. and γ.; eyr, β.; eyer, Cx.] infecte and en|gleymed þat þe walles of þe citee fil doun wiþ sevene and fifty toures, and were deed meny þowsand*. [thousandes of, Cx.] men and*. [of, added in γ.] bestes. [Gau|fredus and Alfredus.]*. [From Cx.] Þanne þe Britouns took avisement and counsaile, and Gwitelinus þe archebisshop seilede into Armorica, þat is Litel Bretayne, to oon Aldroenus, þat was þe ferþe*. [fourþe, α.; fourth, Cx.] þat regnede þer after Conanus; and þe archebisshop declared*. [disclarede,.] to hym þe mescheef and þe sorwe of Britouns, and brouȝt wiþ hym oon Constantinus, þat was þe kynges*. [kyngis, β.] broþer, with many þowsands of men of armes; and at Surcestre*. [Surcetre, β. and Cx.; Sircetre, γ.] he made hym kyng. Also þis Constantinus hadde þre sones: þe eldest heet Constant, hym he made i-schore*. [to be shorn, Cx.] a*. [a] om. α. and γ.] monke in Seint Amphibalus his cherche Page  255, vol.5 at Wynchestre; and þe oþere tweyne,*. [tweye, α.] Aurelius and Uter, he by-took to Gwetelinus*. [Guydelynus, Cx.] þe bisshop to norschinge*. [norisshe, Cx.] and to lore.*. [teche, Cx.] Constantinus at þe laste, after ten ȝere of his kyngdom, was i-slawe by tresoun of oon of þe Pictes þat he hadde in his service. And*. [And] from α., γ., and Cx.; Ad, MS.] Fortigernus*. [Vortigerus, Cx., et infra.] a consul of þe Iewes*. [Gewisses, α. and β.; Gewysses, γ.; Iewesses, Cx.] desirede the kyngdom, and took Constant*. [Constatyn, γ.] out of Wynchestre and made hym kyng, for he was lowe*. [slouȝ, α.] and dul*. [dul and slowe, β. and Cx.] of witte.*. [slouȝ and dol of wyt, γ.] Anon For|gyvernus*. [Vortigernus, α.; Vortegernus, β.; Fortigernus, γ., semper.] hadde an hondred Pictes out of Albania, þat is Scotlond, and made hem wardeynes of þe kynges body, and Fortigernus made hem riche i-now*. [ynowȝ, β.] at þe fulle.*. [at þe fulle] om. Cx.; atte folle, γ.] And þey understood þat Vortygernus desired forto be kyng, and slouȝ Constant*. [Constantyn, γ.] þe kyng, and brouȝte his heed to Fortigernus; and for*. [by cause, Cx.] Fortigernus wolde be i-holde gulteles*. [and not culpable, added in Cx.] of þat dede, he feyned greet sorwe, and made behede alle þe hondred Pictes to fore þe lordes of þe lond, and so he was i-crowned kyng.*. [Whan, added in Cx.] Þis was i-knowe; þanne þe wardeynes þat kepte þe tweyne*. [þe tweyne] two, Cx.]Page  257, vol.5 breþeren, Aurelius and Uter, dredde hem, and fledde*. [flyȝ, α. and γ.] with þe children to þe kyng of Armonica, þat is Litel Britayne.