Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum octavum.

CLAUDIUS, þe eme*. [eame, Cx.] of Gayus and of Drusus,*. [Drusis, γ.] whanne Gayus was i-slawe, was made emperour by sleiþe*. [sleyhte, Cx.] and help of Herodes Agrippa, and bygan to regne in Lammesse monþe,*. [moneth, Cx.] and regnede as it were fiftene ȝere. Þis his dedes beeþ*. [The dedes of this be selde, Cx.] selde*. [sylde, α.] in mynde, but þat he made the Britouns sogette;*. [suget, β.; subget, Cx.]Page  371, vol.4 for he ȝaf*. [made, γ.] hym alwey to mete and drynke,*. [drynghe, γ.] and to*. [to] om. Cx.] leccherie oute of mesure, and caste hym to make a lawe to excuse alle þat byhynde leet goo any blaast,*. [blaste, Cx.] ffor somtyme he sparede it to moche,*. [myche, β.; meche, γ.] and fil of*. [in, α., β., and Cx.; ful in, γ.] greet peril. Ioseus, libro 2o.*. [20, α., β., and Cx.] Þis Claudius hadde þre wifes;*. [wyves, α.] the firste heet Petyva, and he gat on hir a douȝter þat heet Antonia.*. [Antompde, Cx.] Petyva deide, and he wedded Messalina, and gat on hire a sone þat heet Brytanny|cus, and a douȝter þat heet Octavia. His þridde wif hiȝte*. [hitte, α.; hete, Cx.] Agrippina, Germanicus his douȝter, and sche hadde a sone þat heet Nero. Claudius wedded his douȝter Octavia to þis Nero, and for love þat Claudius hadde do*. [to, β. and Cx.] þis Agrippina he slouȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] his wif Messalina, and whanne sche was i-slawe*. [slayn, Cx.] Claudius in triclinio, sittynge at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] mete, usede forto speke as þey he were out of his*. [his] om. β. and Cx.] mynde, and axe*. [axede, Cx.] why his lady Messalina wolde not come. Agrippina dradde*. [drad, Cx.] lest Britanni|cus the sone of Messalina schulde regne after his fader, and Page  373, vol.4 þerfore sche poysoned*. [poysened, Cx.] Claudius, for hir sone Nero schulde be emperour. And Nero quytte*. [quyt, Cx.] his moder þat triacle whan he was emperour, for he poysonede Britannicus, and slowȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] his owne*. [owne] om. Cx.] moder and his owne wif Octavia. ℞. Of þe for|saide Messalina spekiþ Iuvenalis Satiricus, and seith þat sche was so leccherous þat first sche dede hir priveliche*. [dyde hir pryvely, Cx.] to þe prive*. [pryvey, α.; pryve, Cx.] hore place,*. [harlattes place, Cx.] and afterward he*. [she, α., γ., and Cx.; heo, β.] putte hir forth openliche, and wente þennes not fulfilled*. [noȝt folfuld, γ.] of þe manere doynge, but wery of travaille; and sche also excited*. [she exyted, Cx.] noble wifes to þe same manere of doynge. Beda, libro primo, capitulo 4o. Þat ȝere was so*. [þe, α., γ., and Cx.] greet honger in Siria, þat Agabus þe pro|phete hadde i-prophecied in Actibus Apostolorum. Pe|trus, 81. While þis honger*. [hongre, Cx.] was strong in every*. [everych, γ.] place of Siria, and in the Iewerie moste,*. [Iewry moost, Cx.] Helene*. [Helyne, γ.] þe quene of Adia|benes com to Ierusalem, and bouȝt corn [al aboute]*. [From Cx.] forto susteyne nedy*. [neody, γ.] Cristen men at Ierusalem, and at þe laste sche Page  375, vol.4 made tweyne*. [two, Cx.] buriels, and heet burie þerynne here body and hir sones body. Þe buriels beeþ*. [beene, Cx.] ȝit i-sene. Þerfore meny beeþ disceyved,*. [ben disseyved, Cx.] and troweþ þat þere is þe buriels of Helene*. [Elyne, γ.] Constantyn his moder, for me redeþ*. [rede, Cx.] of here þat sche*. [heo, β.] come to Ierusalem and hiȝte the citee in meny þinges. Also þat ȝere Paul*. [and . . . Ierusalem] om. in γ.] come to Ierusalem,*. [Poul, β.] and talkede*. [to talke, α., β., γ., and Cx.] wiþ Petir of þe gospel. Also þat ȝere, þe fifteþe*. [fiftenþe, β.; fyftene, Cx.] day of Iuyl, þe apostles were departed in to al þe world aboute. Þan Peter come to Rome, and sente Marcial to Limonica*. [Lymonica, Cx] and Appolinaris to Raven, and [Marchus*. [Marcus, β.] into Egipt. Þis]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Marcus, of Levy his kynde,*. [kuynde, γ.] was Peter his sone by bapteme,*. [follought, β.; folloȝt, γ.; bap|tym, Cx.] and his disciple, and come wiþ Peter to Rome. Þere at þe prayere of Cristene men he wroot*. [wrote, Cx.] þe gospel, þat Petir allowede and aprevede,*. [appreoved, γ.; alowed and ap|proved, Cx.] and took it to be i-rad*. [radde, Cx.] in chirches. Þan Marcus was sent into Aquileya, þere he converted moche*. [mych, β.] folk; at þe laste he was Page  377, vol.4 i-sent to Alexandria in Egipt, and þere he was i-doo to the*. [the] om. β. and Cx.] deth. Þan aboute þe ȝere of oure Lord foure hondred þre score and sevene, he was translated and i-brouȝt out*. [out] om. α., β., and Cx.] of*. [from, Cx.] Alexan|dria into Venys. This kut*. [kit, β.; kyt, Cx.] of his þombe somtyme, leste he schulde be made preost othir bisshop; but God his ordynaunce hadde the maistrie, and auctorite of Petir, þat made hym bisshop of Alexandria. Beda, libro primo, capitulo 5o. Kyng Guyderius regnede among þe Britouns,*. [Brytons, Cx.] and wernede*. [weornede, γ.; warned, Cx.] þe Romayns tribute; þerfore Claudius Cesar come and conquered Britayne, as it were wiþ oute bataille; and greet noyse of grucching*. [grutchyng, Cx.] was arered in Britayne as it semed;*. [semeth, Cx.] ffor here men þat flyȝ*. [fled, Cx.] were nouȝt restored aȝen. He come into an ilonde, þere Iulius Cesar to fore hym*. [to fore hym] om. Cx.] durste*. [þurste, γ.] nevere come, noþer othir men*. [man, Cx.] after hym. Also þe ilondes Orcades,*. [Orchades, γ. and Cx.] þat beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] byȝonde Britayne in þe see of occean, he made sugette to þe empere*. [subget to the empyre, Cx.] of Rome, and tornede aȝen to Rome þe sixte monþe after þat he wente out, and ȝaf his sone þat name Britannicus. Lelius Hamo, a ledere*. [ledare, γ.] of Claudius, slouȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] kyng Page  379, vol.4 Guyderius at Porchestre, and þis Hamo deyde to fore*. [afore, Cx.] Hamo his haven, þat was so i-cleped*. [called, Cx.] by his name, þat hatte*. [hatte] now hatt, β.; now hatte, γ.; is now, Cx.] Hamptoun. Þanne Claudius after dyverse happes of bataille fenge*. [toke, Cx.] Arviragus, Guiderius his brothir, to his grace, and brouȝt his douȝter Genuissa*. [Genuyssa, Cx.] from Rome, and maried hire to kyng Arviaragus.*. [Arviragus, α. and Cx.] And for he wolde make þe place of þe mariage solempne, he cleped*. [callyd, Cx., et infra.] hit Claudiocestria [by]*. [From α. and Cx.] his owne name. [℞.]*. [From α. and Cx.] Claudeocestria hatte Caerclou*. [hete Caertleon, Cx.] yn Brittisshe speche, þat is Claudius his citee; but aftir þat it was i-cleped Gloucestre, and Glovernia also, and hadde þat name of a*. [a] the, Cx.] duke of Demecia þat heet Glora. Me seiþ þat Claudius Cesar gat hym þere at Gloucetre. Þanne Claudius sente legiouns of knyȝtes into Irlond, but he tornede aȝen to Rome; and Arviragus wiþ drowe hym, and wolde nouȝt be under þe Romayns. Þerfore Vaspasianus, a duke*. [duc, Cx.] of Rome, was i-sent, and made þe kyng and þe kyngdom and þe ile of Wight,*. [Wyghte, Cx.] þat is next to Britayne in þe south side, sogette*. [subget, Cx.] to þe empere*. [thempyre, Cx.] of Rome. Herodes Agrippa whanne he hadde Page  381, vol.4 i-greved som of [the]*. [From Cx.] holy chirche, he com to Cesaria*. [Cesarea, Cx.] forto make pleyes in worschippe*. [worship, Cx.] of Cesar, and þere [to]*. [From Cx.] lete hym self be i-cleped God. Þerfore an angel smoot*. [smote, Cx.] hym, and his body swal, and he seide to his frendes, "Lo iche*. [Ich, β., et infra; Y, γ.; 1, Cx.] þat was i-cleped [god]*. [From Cx.] now I am skilfulliche*. [skylfych, γ.] i-bounde*. [rightfully bounden, Cx.] wiþ boundes*. [bondes, Cx.] of deth;" and so he deide. Petrus, capitulo 56o.*. [66o, Cx.] Þis Herodes Agrippa was Aristobolus [his sone; Aristobolus]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] was þe sone of þe grete Herodes Ascalonita,*. [Ascolonita, Cx.] and his suster was Herodias, here hilde*. [hylde, α.; heore huld, γ.] his eme*. [hir helde his eme, β.; her oldest eame, Cx.] Herodes Antipas, þe for|saide Aristobolus his broþer. Þis Herodes Agrippa was a man of greet herte, a good*. [greet, α. and Cx.] werriour, and fre*. [freo, γ.] of ȝiftes, but he was poore.*. [pour, Cx.] He come to Rome while Tyberius Cesar lyvede forto gete*. [geete, Cx.] anoþer tetrarchia, þat is anoþir forþe*. [ferthe, β.; feurþe, γ.] deel*. [fourth deele, Cx.] of þe kyngdom of Iewes, and hadde greet frendschipe*. [frenschip, β.] of Drusus, Tiberius Cesar his sone, and oblegede*. [obleged, Cx.] hym self for moche dette forto wynne þe wille of the Romayns. But Page  383, vol.4 Drusus was hastiliche deed,*. [hastly dede, Cx.] and þerfore Tyberius Cesar was sory, þat he dede alle*. [dide al, Cx.] Drusus his servauntes out of his pre|sens,*. [presence, Cx.] lest Drusus his deth come to his mynde by sight of his servauntes; þerfore it happed*. [happide, β.; happyd, Cx.] þat Herodes Agrippa wente aȝen to þe Iewerye,*. [Iewry, Cx.] as it were a man wiþ oute comfort, and for schame and for nede*. [neode, γ.] and mescheef he closed hym self*. [sylf, γ.] in a tour þat he myȝte die for honger. But at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] prayer of his suster Herodias he was releved by Herodes Antipa. But Herodes Antipa repreved hym in a tyme for þe good þat he hadde i-doo hym, and Herodes [Agrippa]*. [From β. and Cx.] hadde indig|nacioun þerof, and wente to Tiberius Cesar, and gat*. [gate, Cx.] grace of hym at þe laste, and lefte*. [leefte, Cx.] wiþ Gayus Germanicus his sone. In a tyme he sat*. [saat, γ.] wiþ Gayus in his chare,*. [chaar, γ.] and wesched*. [wisschede, β.; chaar and wyss|ched, Cx.] þat Tyberius, þe olde man and unesy,*. [unnesy, γ. and Cx.] were dede, þat Gayus myȝte be emperour. The chariatour*. [charyoter, β. and Cx.] herde*. [hurde, γ.] þat, and warnede the emperour, and þerfore Agrippa was i-prisoned sixe monþes anon to*. [monethes unto, Cx.] þe deth of Tyberius Cesar. While þis Page  385, vol.4 Agrippa was in prisoun oon of his prisoneres þat was kon|nynge in devyne*. [dyvynynge, α., γ., and Cx.] warned hym þat he schulde sone be de|lyvered out of prisoun, and be a kyng, so þat his owne*. [owne] om. γ. and Cx.] frendes schulde have*. [habbe, γ.] envie to his welthe. Þis devynour de|vynede so while he seygh*. [siȝ, β.; syȝ, γ.; sawe, Cx.] an owle*. [oule, β.] sitte uppon þe tree þat Agrippa lenede too,*. [lened to, Cx.] and seide þat as sone as he sigh*. [siȝ, β.; syȝ, γ.; sawe, Cx.] evere*. [eft, α. and Cx.] suche a manere bridde*. [byrde, Cx.] sitte above hym he schulde dye þe fifte day after. Whan Tyberius was deed Gayus de|lyverede Agrippa, and ȝaf hym tweie tretrarches,*. [tetrarchies, α.] of Phelip and of Lisania, and crownede and clepede hym kyng. Þer|fore his suster Herodias was wrooþ, and hadde grete indig|nacioun, for here housebonde Herodes Antipas, þat was tetrarcha, hadde nouȝt i-gete hym the name of kyng; and sche excited hir housbonde Herodes Antipa þat he schulde goo to Gayus and begge*. [bugge, γ.; beye, Cx.] þe name of [a]*. [From Cx.] kyng. But Gayus was i-warned to forehonde*. [aforehonde, Cx.] by lettres of Agrippa, and put Herodes to Lugdinius*. [Lugdunus, β. and γ.; Lugduns, Cx.] in Fraunce; and for Herodias was Agrippa his suster, sche hadde chois wheþer*. [choes where, Cx.] sche wolde goo aȝen or Page  387, vol.4 folwe*. [other folow, Cx.] hir housbonde Herodes Antipas.*. [Herodes Antipas] om. α. β., and Cx.] And sche chees*. [heo ches, β.] to be exciled*. [exiled, γ.; exyled, Cx.] wiþ here housbonde, and seide þat sche*. [heo, β., et infra.] wolde nouȝt leve hir housbonde in his meschif, þat sche*. [sche] om. α.; γ. has a.] hadde i-folwed in his welþe and*. [in . . . and] om. Cx.] in his bonchif;*. [bonchef, α. and β.; bonchief, γ.; bonechefe, Cx.] and so þe þridde tetrarcha*. [tetrarchia, β. and Cx.] was i-take from Herodes Antipa and i-ȝeve to Herodes Agrippa. At the laste Gayus Cesar*. [Cesar] om. Cx.] was i-slawe, whan þere was strif bytwene þe senatoures and knyȝtes and þe peple of Rome. For þe senatoures dradde þe cruelnesse*. [cruwelnesse, β.; drad the cruelte, Cx.] of þe emperours and [þe]*. [From α. and Cx.] disavauntage of þe comounte,*. [comynte, Cx.] and þe peple dradde the covetise of þe consuls. Þanne by sliþe*. [sleiȝþe, β.; sleyght, Cx.] of Herodes*. [Herodes] om. Cx.] Agrippa, Claudius was i-made emperour, and anon he ȝaf Herodes Agrippa þe fourþe tetrarcha,*. [tetrarchia, α., β., and Cx.] þat is Iudea, and so Herodes Agrippa*. [Agrippas, α.] was i-made grete, and wente aȝen in to þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Iewerie,*. [Jewry, Cx., et infra.] and aftirward þere he slough Iames and prisoned Petir. Þanne he made pleyes*. [playes, Cx.] at Cesarea, as Page  389, vol.4 it is i-seide to forehonde,*. [aforehonde, Cx.] and swal and was i-ete wiþ wormes and deide, and lefte aftir hym, to be his successour over*. [to be . . . over] om. Cx.] tweie [other]*. [From Cx.] lynages and an half byȝonde flom*. [flum, β.; flume, Cx.] Iordan, his sone [Herodes]*. [From Cx.] Agrippa, þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] was nouȝt i-clepede Herodes, but onliche Agrippa. To hym Cristene men flye*. [fled, Cx.] aftirward out of þe Iewerie, whanne þe citee schulde be i-take and de|stroyed. Seinte Marie, oure Lordes moder, deide þe ȝere of hir age þre score and þre, ffor in þe burþe*. [byrth, Cx.] of hir sone sche was fourtene ȝere olde, and lyvede*. [leved, Cx.] wiþ hir sone þre and þritty ȝere, and*. [and] om. Cx.] aftirward sixtene ȝere, as som men wil*. [wol, Cx.] mene, and so sche was i-take hens*. [hennes, β. and Cx.] whan sche was sixty wynter olde and more; ffor me seith*. [men say, Cx.] þat þe apostles prechede aftir Crist in þe Iewerie, and in þe countrees aboute, ful twelve ȝere. Phelip the apostil was i-nailled*. [nayled, β. and Cx.] to þe cros in þe citee Ierapolis,*. [Iherapolis, β.] þe ȝere of his age þre score and eyȝtene.*. [eyghten, Cx.] Lazarus þe firste bisshop of Ciprus*. [Cipres, γ. (bis); Cipris, Cx.] deide in his secounde deþ, and hadde foure and twenty ȝere bytwene his tweie dethes. Trevisa. Lazarus deide ones and was arered from Page  391, vol.4 deth to lyve, and lyvede aftirward foure and twenty ȝere, [and was bisshop of Ciprys, and deide eft; and so Lazarus hadde foure and twenty ȝere]*. [From α.] by twene his tweyne dethes. Þanne it folweþ in storie:*. [Trevisa . . . storie] om. β. and Cx.] Felix procuratour of þe Iewerie*. [Jewry, Cx., ut semper.] was i-sent by Claudius; to fore*. [afore, Cx.] [this]*. [From γ. and Cx.] Felix Paule*. [Powle, Cx.] was accused, and appeled for his diffence*. [defens, α. and γ.; offence, Cx.] to þe emperour. Þat tyme were meny false prophetes. Egesippus, libro 2o. Also þat tyme wexe*. [were, β.] meny schrewed*. [shrewyd, Cx.; scherewed swe|ordmen, γ.] swerd men in Ierusalem, and were i-melled*. [medled, β. and Cx.] among þe peple, and slouȝ meny men so sotelliche,*. [subtily, Cx.] and so priveliche,*. [pryvely, Cx.] þat no man kouþe*. [coude, Cx.] hem aspie, so þat the drede of hem þat lyvede was more grevous þan þe meschief of hem þat were dede. Þerfore meny men wente into wildernesse for to have refute*. [refuyt, γ.] and socoure. Clau|dius deide at Rome in his owne paleys,*. [palis, Cx.] þe ȝere of his age þre score and foure, as it were in þe monþe of Marche; for his wif Agrippina slouȝ hym wiþ venym, forto putte of his sone Britannicus, and to make here owne sone Nero emperour. Nero.*. [Nero] om. β., γ., and Cx.]