Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum quartum.

TYBERIUS was Augustus stepsone, and*. [and] bis in MS.] wedded his douȝter, and bygan to regne in þe monþe*. [moneth, Cx., et infra.] of Septembre, in þe whiche*. [whuch, γ.] monþe Augustus was deed; and Tyberius regnede þre and twenty ȝere and somwhat of dayes. Policratica, libro 3o.*. [Eutropius, β., γ., and Cx.] Þese*. [þis, β. and Cx.] firste governed þe empere*. [empyre, Cx.] wiþ greet sobernesse, so þat whanne som men counsaillede hym to take grettere*. [grete, Cx.] tribute of provinces and londes, he answerede and seide: "It falleþ for a good schipherde*. [schephurde, γ.; shepherde, Cx.] to schere his schepe, and nouȝt for to swolowe hem." Þis was first wise and redy i-now,*. [ynowȝ, β.; ynow, Cx.]Page  313, vol.4 and gracious in armes; a man of greet konnynge of lettrure,*. [connynge of letture, Cx. γ. adds here, bote more konnyng of fayr spekyng a wykked man of wytte.] and of castynge, evere awaytenge and aspyenge; and what he nolde he made it as þeyȝ*. [though, Cx.] he wolde, to hem þat he lovede he made hit as þeyȝ he were wrooþ, and to hem þat he hated he semed goodliche. He wolde ȝeve better answere and coun|saille sodenliche*. [counseyl sodenly, Cx.] and wiþ oute avisement [þan wiþ grete avisement].*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] He sente for som kynges, and made hem come to hym by flaterynge, and sente hem nevere aȝen. Þis was i-cleped Tyberius Nero, but menstralles cleped hym a faire name*. [a faire name] om. γ.; mynstrals allyd hym a faier name, Cx.] Tiberius Nero,*. [Mero, β., γ., and Cx. rightly.] for he was ofte wyn dronken.*. [drunke, β; dronke, Cx.] Also þis by cause of som lettres þat Pilate sente hym wolde have be wor|schipped as God Almyȝti; but þe senatoures seide nay, and þerfore he exilede [many of þe]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] aldermen,*. [elder men, β. and Cx.] and chees hym counsaillours, and lefte unneþe tweyne of hem in good heele. Or*. [Er, β.; Ar, γ.; Eer, Cx.] he were emperour he was wise and redy in armes, but afterwarde he werrede*. [werryd, Cx.] by messangers.*. [messageris, β.; messagers, Cx.]Policratica, libro 3o, capitulo 4o. He was greetly to blame [in]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] meny of his deedes, but aȝenst chidynge stedefastnesse,*. [he was stidefast, β. and Cx.; a was studefast, γ.] and seide þat Page  315, vol.4 men*. [mennes, β. and Cx.; men, γ.] tonges and hertes schulde be free*. [freo, γ.] in þe citee. Iosephus. Þis was stedfast*. [stydfast, Cx.] in al his nedes,*. [dedes, β., γ., and Cx.] þat so*. [so þat, β., γ., and Cx.] unneþe he wolde chaunge procuratours þat he [had]*. [From β. and Cx.] made ones in provinces and in londes; me axede*. [of hym] added in γ.] why [that]*. [From Cx.] he dede soo; he an|swerde and seide þat in þat doing he sparede þe peple; "for evere þe lasse tyme," quod he, "procuratoures haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] lordschippe*. [have lordship, Cx.] over þe peple þey beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] þe more grevous." And he*. [he] om. Cx.] proved*. [preouede, γ.] þat by ensaumple of oon þat was i-wounded, and i-sette in þe sonne, and wolde nouȝt doo awey þe flyȝes þat seten*. [sate, β. and Cx.; sete, γ.] on his woundes; þanne come oon of his frendes and droof*. [drof, γ.; drove, Cx.] away þe flyȝes þat sete on his woundes,*. [þat . . . woundes] om. β. and Cx.] for he wende þat þe seek*. [seke, Cx.] man myȝte nouȝt [suffre]*. [From Cx. (not γ.)] for feble. "Þow hast yvel i-doo"*. [done evel, β.; doone evil, Cx.] quod þe sike man, "for þe flyȝes þat þou hast i-dreve*. [dryve, Cx.] away were ful, and þerfore þey ete wel þe lasse; but now comeþ*. [comen, Cx.] hongry fliȝes, and wil*. [wole, Cx.] bite ful sore;" so newe officers greveþ*. [greven, Cx.] wors þe peple þat is under hem. Ysidorus, Page  317, vol.4libro 6o, capitulo 15o.*. [16o, Cx.] Me seiþ þat in Tyberius his tyme a craftes man hadde i-founde*. [i-founde] founde up, β.; fonde up, Cx.] a craft of temperynge*. [tempryng, γ. and Cx.] of glas to make þe glas tough i-now*. [touȝ ynow, γ.; tow ynow, Cx.] to bende*. [beende, γ.] and wende,*. [wynde, β., γ., and Cx.] and [to]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] recche*. [rechche, γ.] out wiþ strokes of hameres. Þe emperour brak som of his glas, and he amended it aȝe, and bende it, and bowd*. [bowyd, Cx.] it as it were tyn. Þanne þe emperour*. [emperour] om. γ.] lernede of þese*. [þis, β. and Cx.] craftes man þat þere was*. [nas, γ.] non oþer man on lyve þat so couþe*. [alyve that so coude, Cx.] dryve and*. [dryve and] om. β., γ., and Cx.] tempre glas; and heet*. [bade, β.; bad, Cx.] smyte of þe craftes manis heed; for ȝif þat craft were i-knowe,*. [knowen, β. and Cx.] golde and oþere precious stones*. [metal, γ. and Cx.] schulde be of no pris. Ovidius Naso þe þoete deyde in þe ilond Pontus, bysides þe Sarmates [and þe Gethes,*. [Gothes, Cx.] þe ferþe ȝere of his exiling. Þis made first a boke of þe crafte of love],*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] and made þe Romayns wrooþ wiþ hym, for he made ȝongelynges [to]*. [From Cx.] love wifes to moche; þerfore he seiþ*. [sayd, Cx.] in his book de Ponto, "Naso nouȝt wise i-now techeþ sliþe*. [sleiȝþe, β.; slyȝ, γ.; sleighte, Cx.] of love craft; wik pris*. [ylle pryse, Cx.] of loore þerfore þan hadde þe mayster." Me seiþ þat at þe laste Ovidius lay by þe emperesse,*. [emperice, β.; emperys, γ.; em|pryes, Cx.] and þerfore he was exiled. Þat ȝere Pilatus was i-made [iuge]*. [From β. and γ.; jugge, Cx.] of þe Page  319, vol.4 Iewerie.*. [in the Iewry, Cx.] Of his burþe and of his lyvinge me redeþ meny wondres. For a kynȝ þat hiȝte Tyrus he*. [he] om. Cx.] gat a sone on oon Pila, a milwardes douȝter þat heet*. [hat, β.; hete, Cx.] Atus; and þe sone hadde a name i-made of þe name of his moder Pyla and of þe name of his grauntsire Atus, and so he was i-cleped Pylatus. Þis Pylatus*. [Pylat, Cx.] was i-sent to his fader in his fourþe ȝere of elde.*. [age, Cx.] His fader hadde a sone by here þat was his riȝtful wif, þe whiche sone and Pilatus*. [Pilat, Cx.] were of oon age. But þis lawful sonne hadde maistrie of Pilatus in every play*. [place, Cx.] and stryf. Þerfore*. [þer, γ.] Pilatus was wrooþ,*. [wroth, Cx.] and slouȝ his owne broþer; þerefore þe kyng þat was his fader sente Pilatus to Rome, to lye*. [lygge, γ.] þere in*. [to, Cx.] plegge ffor tribute þat he schulde every ȝere paye to þe Romayns. Also the same tyme þe kynges sone of Fraunce leye*. [Fraunse lay, Cx.] in plegge at Rome, and Pilatus slowȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] hym, for he hadde ofte þe*. [þe] om. β. and Cx.] maistrie in pleies*. [playes, Cx.] and in strif. Þere|fore þe Romayns demede þat Pilatus was*. [was] om. γ.] profitable of*. [for, β. and γ.; to, Cx.] þe empere*. [empyre, Cx.] to chaste*. [chastye, β.; hastyse, Cx.] froward men and sturne*. [steorne, γ.] men,*. [men] om. β., γ., and Cx.] and Page  321, vol.4 sente hym in to þe ylond [of]*. [From Cx.] Pontus to be iuge, to chaste*. [chastye, β.; chastyse, Cx.] þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] men þat were þere þat wolde wiþ good wille over hem no iuge fonge*. [no jugge receyve, Cx.] noþer suffre*. [suffry, γ.] among hem. But þat schrewe Pila|tus chastede*. [chastised, β.; chastysed, Cx.] hem wiþ punschynge,*. [punsyng, γ.] with manas,*. [punysshyng with manaces, Cx.] and wiþ faire*. [fayer, Cx.] byhestes. Þerfore he hadde a name of þat ilond, and was i-cleped Pontius Pilatus. Herodes Antipas hadde ioye of his wickednes,*. [wykkednesse, Cx.] and sente hym*. [hym] om. Cx.] messangers and ȝiftes, and drouȝ hym [to hym],*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] and made hym princes*. [prince, β. and Cx.] under hym in þe Iewerie.*. [Iuwery, γ.] But Pilatus at þe*. [þe] om. β.] laste gadrede moche*. [mych, β.] money, and wente to Rome, unwitynge*. [unwetynge, Cx.] Herodes, and forto fonge*. [fange, β.; receyve, Cx.] þe office of Tyberius þat [he]*. [From β. and Cx.] helde of Herodes; and by cause þerof þey were enemyes, Herodes and Pilatus, anon to þe tyme of Cristes passioun, whan Pilatus sente Iesus i-cloþed*. [clothyd, Cx.] in white*. [whyyt, γ.] to Herodes. Þat tyme*. [tyme] om. γ.] Tyberius Cesar, þat is*. [was, Cx.] the emperoure, hadde an hard siknesse,*. [sekenesse, Cx.] and herde telle þat at Ierusalem was a leche þat heled sike*. [seke, Cx.] men onliche*. [only, Cx.] wiþ a word. Þerfor Tyberius sente oon Volusianus to Herodes, Page  323, vol.4 and bycause þerof*. [and . . . þerof] om. β., γ., and Cx.] for*. [that, Cx.] he schulde sende hym þat leche. Pilatus hadde þrittene dayes of*. [of] om. Cx.] avisement to ȝeve his answere, for Iesus was to forehonde*. [aforehonde, Cx.] i-nayled on*. [to, β. and Cx.] þe crosse. The forsaide Volusianus*. [Volucianus, Cx.] took aqueyntaunce and knowleche of a noble*. [nobel, Cx.] womman þat heet Veronica, so þat he brouȝte hir to Rome to the emperour wiþ here lynnen*. [lynen, Cx.] cloþ, in þe whiche cloþ sche*. [heo, β.] hadde þe prynte*. [preent, β. and γ.] of*. [and, β., γ., and Cx.] þe liknesse of oure lordes face. Þe emperour byheld*. [beheelde, Cx.] þis cloþ, and was hool anon. Whan the emperour woste*. [wiste, β.; weost, γ.; wyst, Cx.] þat Pilatus hadde i-dampned Crist, Pilatus was i-take by a maundement of þe emperour, and i-brouȝt to Rome, and i-brouȝt to fore*. [and . . . to fore] bifore, β.; by|fore, Cx.] þe emperour, and hadde on hym Cristes owne kirtel*. [oune curtel, γ.] þat was wiþ oute semes, and was i-cleped*. [callid, Cx.] tunica inconsitulis,*. [inconsutilis, γ.] and Pilatus was i|brouȝt in þis array to fore*. [aray afore, Cx.] þe emperour ones, eft, and þe þridde tyme. But no worde myȝt be seide þat hym schulde greve while he hadde on þat cloþ; but at þe*. [þe] om. β.] laste, by Goddes wille and by counsaille of som Cristen man, þe*. [þat, β., γ., and Cx.] kyrtel was i-take Page  325, vol.4 of hym, and þan he was i-put in prisoun, and þere he slow hym self wiþ his owne honde. Of Pilatus his deeth loke we*. [we] om. β., γ., and Cx.] wiþ ynne, in Gayus his laste ȝere. Petrus. Þat tyme were þre sectes of Iewes in þe Iewerie,*. [Iewry, Cx.] severed and departed from þe comyn lyvynge of oþere men. Þe sectes were Phariseys, Saduceies, and Asseies*. [Essayes, Cx.] þat heet Assideies also. Þe Phariseies werede*. [wered, Cx.] and usede hard cloþinge, and scarste*. [scarsite, Cx.] of mete and of drinke*. [drynkke, γ.]; þey determyned Moyses lawes*. [lawe by, β. and Cx.] here ordenaunce and statutes. Þey bere scrowes in her forhedes and in hir lift armes*. [forheede and in her lyfte, Cx.] and cleped þe scrowes philateria;*. [philaterna, Cx.] in þe scrowes were þe ten hestes*. [teen commaundements, Cx.] i-write in mynde*. [muynde, γ.] of þe lawe. Also þey hadde large hemmes i-wounde*. [bounde, β. and Cx.] wiþ þornes þat prikked*. [prycked, Cx.] hem as þey wente on hir*. [in theyr, Cx.] wey; þey wiþ seide nevere here soveraynes. Also þey hopede þe arisynges*. [in a rysynge, Cx.] of*. [ded] added in γ.] bodies from deth to lyve. [Þe Saduceyes denyede þe arisinge of bodyes from deþ to lif],*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] and seide þat [they]*. [From Cx.] none aungels were; they trowede þat þe soules were*. [dyeþ, β.; deyeþ, γ.; dyed, Cx.] wiþ þe bodies; þey helde onliche*. [heelde only, Cx.] Moyses his Page  327, vol.4 fyve bookes; and for þey were to cruel and nouȝt compynable*. [compenable, γ.; not compeynable, Cx.] among hem self þey cleped hem self Saduceies, þat is riȝtful. Þe Esseies lyvede wel nygh in alle poyntes as men of religioun, and forsook wedlok but it were ful selde, for þey trowed*. [trowyd, Cx.] þat no womman is trewe to hir housbonde. Here cloþes were clene alwey; þey hadde non certayn siȝt;*. [cite, β.; no cite of certayn, γ.; cyte, Cx.] to fore*. [afore, Cx.] þe sonne arisynge*. [risyng, β. and Cx.] þey speke*. [spake, β.; spak, Cx.] no þing þat was unlawful; þey wor|schipped þe sonne whanne he dede arise; þey speke nouȝt*. [spak not, Cx.] at here mete; þey hated oþes as it were forswerynge; þey fonge*. [toke, Cx.] no man to here secte but by þe assaie of on*. [essay of one, Cx.] ȝere; ȝif þey took eny of here secte wiþ synnes,*. [synne, β. and Cx.] þey putte hym away forto ete gras as bestes doþ*. [doen, Cx.] in penaunce to his lyves ende. Þey*. [þouȝ, β.; though, Cx.] ten of hem sete*. [sate, β. and Cx.] to gidre*. [togeders, Cx.] noon of hem wolde speke a worde wiþ oute leve of þe nyne; þey wolde nouȝt spete in þe myddel of the companye, noþer in þe riȝt side. Þey helde*. [hulde, γ.] þe Saturday so holy þat þey wolde þat day greyþe*. [dresse, Cx.] no mete, Page  329, vol.4 noþer tende fuyre,*. [fyre, Cx.] noþer sette a vessel out of oo*. [one, Cx.] place in*. [in] om. Cx.] to anoþer, and also þey wolde nouȝt schite*. [cacke, Cx.] [in]*. [From γ. and Cx.] þe Saturday. Iosephus, libro 2o. Oþer dayes þey wolde digge þe erþe wiþ*. [withoute, Cx.] a chytelle*. [þwitel, β.; thwytel, γ. and Cx.] and make hem a pitte, and lete falle her cloþes aboute hem, and hele [al]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] aboute whan þey wolde schite,*. [cacke, Cx.] for me schulde [nouȝt]*. [From β. and γ.] wene þat þey dede no*. [no] om. β., γ., and Cx.] wrong to þe sonne beeme; and whanne þey hadde i-schete*. [schyte, β.; cacked, Cx.] þey wolde fille*. [fulle, γ.] þe pitte aȝen wiþ þe same erþe þat þey hadde*. [hadden, β.] i-digge*. [diggide, β.; digged, Cx.] up of þe same pitte.*. [pyt, Cx.] Þese lyved lengest of alle men, for þey lyvede scarsliche,*. [scarsly, Cx.] and dede noon surfeet of mete and of drynke; þey trowede þat alle þe soules were i-made at þe*. [þe] om. β.] bygynnynge, and i-putt in to*. [to] om. Cx.] bodyes whan it were*. [Here begins again MS. α.] tyme; and som of hem wolde telle what [was]*. [From α. and β.] to comynge;*. [come, Cx.] for þey forsook flescheliche likynge*. [flesshely lykynge, Cx.] as it were an evel*. [evyl, Cx.] doynge, and despised richesse.*. [ryches, Cx.] Here lond and what þey hadde was comoun*. [comyn, β. and Cx.] among hem alle; þey chaffared*. [cheffarede, γ.; barganyed, Cx.] nouȝt among hem Page  331, vol.4 alle,*. [alle] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] but everiche hadde freliche of [oþere]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] what þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] hym nedede.*. [neodede, γ.] Þey rouȝte [not]*. [From Cx.] of noon oynementis; þey chaungede nevere hosen and schoon, noþer cloþinge, but whan þey were i-tore or i-spend;*. [spente, Cx.] þey helde hospitalite; þey hadde oon manere mete; þey prayede to fore*. [afore, Cx.] mete and after. In here hous was nevere i-herde crye noþer noyse; noon of hem schulde nouȝt*. [ouȝt, α.; not, Cx.] ȝeve wiþ oute ordenaunce of þe comoun spenser.*. [spencer, β.; comyn spencis, Cx.] Þey helde alle her sawes*. [lawes, Cx.] strengere þen eny oþ;*. [oþer, Cx.] þey hated oþes as it were forswerynge.*. [þey . . . for swerynge] om. β. and Cx.] He þat schulde be fonge*. [receyved, Cx.] to abyde among hem after his a ȝere*. [ȝere, α.; yere, Cx.] of assay,*. [essay, Cx.] he schulde swere to kepe fey*. [faith, Cx.] to God, riȝt wisnesse to men, and obedience to preostes.*. [prynces, γ.; princes, β. and Cx.] And ȝif it happede hym somtyme to be above [and over]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] oþere he schulde nouȝt mysuse his power and his myȝt in damage and wrong of his*. [his] om. β.] sugettes,*. [subgettes, Cx.] but he*. [þey, α.] schulde chastise liers wiþ al his myȝte. To here dome schulde Page  333, vol.4 come no lesse*. [lees, β. and γ.; lasse, Cx.] þan an hondred persones; þe dome of hem schulde stonde stedefast*. [stedfast, β.; stycfast, Cx.] and nouȝt be i-chaunged.