Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum tertium.

THIS Augustus was so i-loved ȝe*. [ȝe] ȝhe, β.; ȝe, γ.; om. Cx.] among straunge naciouns, þat þe Schites*. [Scites, Cx.] and þe Indes,*. [Iuwes, Cx.] þat knewe not to*. [α, Cx.] forehonde þe name of þe Romayns, sente hym messangers*. [messagers, Cx.] and ȝiftes. And Page  295, vol.4 meny kynges bulde*. [bylde, Cx.] citees in worschippe*. [worship, Cx., et infra.] of hym, and cleped þe citees Cesares.*. [Cesereas, γ. and Cx.] Also kynges wente oute of here owne londes, i-cloþed as lordes of Rome, and wolde renne by his chaar. And at þe laste he hated so werre and strif þat he wolde nevere werre aȝenst man wiþ oute a riȝtful cause; and he seide*. [sayth, Cx.] þat it was þe doynge of a proude*. [prout, γ.] bostere*. [booster, Cx.] and of a liȝt witted man for to breke suerte,*. [surte, γ. and Cx.] in strif and disese*. [disease, Cx.] of þe peple, for cove|tise of worschippe and of laurial*. [laural, γ.; laureal, Cx.] leves wiþ oute eny fruyt. Also he seide þat none werre schulde be meoved*. [meved, Cx.] wiþ oute cause and greet profiȝt,*. [profyt, Cx. bis.] leste grete boost i-wonne*. [y-wonnen, β. and Cx.] by litel profiȝt*. [profyt, Cx. bis.] fareþ*. [fare, β.; faire, Cx.] as [a]*. [From β. and Cx.] goldene fischhook,*. [fisshoke, Cx.] þe loosynge*. [leosyng, γ.] þerof may be i-quytte*. [quyt, Cx.] by non wynnynge of taking of fische. He was also mylde to þe citeseyns*. [cyteȝeyns, Cx.] and trewe to his frendes; seelde*. [selde, Cx.] he wolde fonge*. [receyve, Cx.] frendschippe, and to holde frend|schippe he was trewe and stedfast;*. [stydfast, Cx.] he was konnynge in arte and in*. [in] om. Cx.] science, and specialliche in faire spekynge; he was so besy*. [bisye, β.; besye, Cx.] þat no day schulde hym scape*. [ascape, β.; escape, Cx.] þat he nolde*. [wolde, Cx.] rede, Page  297, vol.4 write, oþer declare riȝtwisnesse. Ysidorus, libro primo. He brouȝt up first þis lettre x.; me wroot þerfore*. [þerfor, γ.] to forehonde*. [to forehonde] om. Cx.] c.r.s.;*. [Sic in MS.] and he fonde it up skilfulliche,*. [skylfolych, γ.; skylfully, Cx.] for þe figure þerof is i-liche þe croys*. [crosse, Cx.] of Crist, þat was i-bore in his tyme. Eutro|pius. He echede*. [echid, Cx.] þe citee of Rome wiþ fayre buldes,*. [boldes, β.; boldyng, γ.; howses, Cx.] and hadde ioye to seie,*. [saye, β. and Cx.; sey, γ.] "I fonde a citee of brend*. [barned tyyl, γ.; brande, Cx.] tyle, and now I leve*. [leeve, Cx.] a citee of marbil." He was fayre in al his body, but his eyȝen*. [eyen, Cx.] were fairest of al; but so gret and so faire a man was nouȝt al wiþ oute vices and synne, ffor he was angry and myȝte nouȝt suffre, wreþful,*. [wretheful, Cx.] and priveliche envious and opounliche*. [openly, β. and Cx.] disceyvable,*. [disseyvable, Cx.] coveytous of lordschippe, and pleyere*. [player, Cx.] at þe dees;*. [dyces, β. and Cx.] and þeyȝ he were a grete etere and drynkere of wyn, ȝet he abstyned*. [absteyned, Cx.] from hym*. [hym] om β., γ., and Cx.] slepe and usede leecherie, so þat name and fame was couþ*. [counted, Cx.] þerof among þe comoun*. [comyn, Cx.] peple. For he was i-woned*. [wont, β.; wonte, Cx.] to lye*. [lygge, γ.; was i-woned to lye is written twice over in MS.] bytwene twelve suche þat wolde lyȝtliche*. [lyghtly, Cx.] assente to synne, and bytwene twelve maydens also; and he dede*. [dide, Cx.] awey his wif Scribonia, and wedded oon Limia,*. [Livia, β., γ., and Cx.] as it were by graunt and Page  299, vol.4 assent of here*. [heore, γ.] housebonde.*. [husband, Cx.] His sones were Tyberius and Drusus; and þey*. [þouȝ, β.; though, Cx.] he were a grete lecchoure,*. [lechour, γ.; lecherour, Cx.] ȝet he took greet*. [greet] om. γ.] wrecche of leccherie.*. [wrech of lechery, Cx.]Seneca. Þe Romayns siȝ*. [sawe, Cx.] þat he*. [this, Cx.] was so faire, and wolde have made hym a god, [but]*. [From Cx.] he forsook hit, and wolde nouȝt assente, and axede first þerof counsaille of Sibilla Tiburtina; and after þe fastynge of þre dayes sche*. [heo, β.; she, Cx.] answerde hym in þis manere: "Token of doom erþe*. [eorþ, γ.] schal wexe weet by swoot;*. [wete by swote, Cx.] out of hevene schal come þe kyng þat lest*. [leest, γ.] evermore;"*. [lest evermore] lest schal ever, β.; last shall ever, Cx.] and so forþ of meny oþer*. [oþer] om. Cx.] vers*. [versus, β.; versis, Cx.] þat beeþ not here i-write.*. [that be not here wreton, Cx.]Augustinus, libro 18o, capitulo 24o. Þe heed lettres of þe vers*. [versis, Cx.] speleþ*. [speketh, Cx.] þis menynge: "Iesus Crist, Goddes sone, Savyoure."*. [Saueour, γ.; Savyour, Cx.]Mar. Anon hevene openede, and Cesar sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] a faire mayden*. [mayde, β.; made, Cx.] stonde uppon an auȝter*. [aulter, Cx., et infra.] and holde a childe in here armes, and he herde*. [hurde, γ.] þis voys: "Þis is þe auȝter of Goddes sone:" and anon Cesar fil*. [fylle, Cx.] doun Page  301, vol.4 to þe eorþe uppon þe flore*. [floore, Cx.] of his chambre; þere was afterward i-bulde*. [bylte, Cx.] a chirche of oure lady þat is i-cleped*. [and is called, Cx.] in Ara cœli, þat is in þe auȝter of hevene. Gal. 3o Tyberius tolde to Augustus þat me spak mochel*. [myche, β.; moch, Cx.] evel of*. [evyl by, Cx.] hym al day; and he answerede and seide, "We takeþ*. [take, Cx.] noon indignacioun þey*. [though, Cx.] men speke evel by*. [evyl of, Cx.] us, hit is i-now to us þat þey mowe*. [may, Cx.] doo us non harme." Policratica, libro 3o, capitulo 13o. Antonius despisede Augustus his kyn in þe moder side, and cleped hym bakere*. [callyd hym bakar, Cx.] by kynde; and Augustus louȝ,*. [louwgh, Cx.] and lete þe same Antonius be i-wedded to his owne*. [owne] om. Cx.] suster. Also ones for þe schortnesse of his body oon cleped hym dwelf:*. [dworf, β. and γ.; dwarf, Cx.] "I moot,"*. [y mot, γ.; must, Cx.] quoþ he, "use wyde hosen and schon."*. [shoon, Cx.]Macrobius in Satur|nalibus. Augustus passede by þe weie,*. [wye, Cx.] and oon cleped hym [a]*. [From Cx.] tyraunt: "And I were a tyraunt," quoþ he, "þou woldest not clepe*. [calle, Cx.] me soo." It was i-seide in Rome þat no man schulde be doo to deþe noþer to pyne*. [payne, Cx.] as ofte as Augustus entrede in to þe citee. Also somtyme oon come in to*. [in to] yn, β.; in, Cx.] Rome þat Page  303, vol.4 was most liche*. [ylych, γ.; moost lyke, Cx.] to Augustus in al manere poyntes, and was i|brouȝt to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] Augustus; and Augustus areyned*. [aresoned, Cx.] hym, and seide, "Sey me, ȝonge man, was þy moder ever in Rome?" "Nay," quod he, "but my fader was ful*. [ful] wel, γ.] ofte." Þe emperour was nouȝt wrooþ*. [not wroth, Cx.] þerfore, but made hym riche and sente hym aȝe.*. [agayn, Cx.]Seneca de Clementia. Whanne Cinna his tresoun was i-knowe Cesar wook*. [wakid, β.; wakede, γ.; wakyd, Cx.] al [that]*. [From γ. and Cx.] nyȝt. Þan his wif Livia spak to hym in þis manere: "Take counsaile of a womman, and do by a*. [α] om. Cx.] womman counsaile, and do as phisicians useþ*. [use, Cx., et infra.] to doo; þere comyn medicyns*. [medycynes, Cx., et infra.] þat me useþ mowe*. [maye, β.; may, Cx.] not helpe, þey assayeþ*. [essay, Cx.] medicyns þat beeþ contrarie.*. [be contrary, Cx.] Cinna his tresoun is i-knowe now; he may not greve þe; fforȝeve hym þan þe trespas; he may profiȝte to [þi]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] loos and to þy fame." Cesar was glad of hir*. [þis, β.; the, Cx.] counsaile and of þis reed, and heet*. [bade, β.; bad, Cx.] bringe Cinna tofore hym amorwe; he spak*. [afore him at morow, and spake, Cx.] to hym in þis manere: "Cinna, I fonde þe myn*. [the, I the fonde myne, Cx.] enemy in pavylons*. [pauelons, γ.] and Page  305, vol.4 tentes, and saved þe to lyve;*. [thy lyf, Cx.] I graunted to þe rentes and riches,*. [richessis, β.; rychesses, Cx.] and made þe homeliche*. [homly, Cx.] wiþ me. Now eft I ȝeve þe*. [thy, Cx.] lyf, raþer*. [first, Cx.] to myn enemy, [and]*. [From β. and γ.] now to my*. [my] the, Cx.] treytour and mansleere. From þis day forþward bytwene us*. [bytwene us] om. γ.] schal frendschippe bygynne. Now stryve we wheþer I have i-geve þe þy lyf by a bettre fey*. [feyth, Cx.] þan þou owest me, oþer þou owest me better fey*. [fayth, Cx.] þan þy lyf is i-saved by." Afterward he made hym consul, and helde hym his trusty frende; and at þe laste Cesar was made his heire.*. [heyr, γ. and Cx.]Macrobius in Saturnalibus. An olde man that was in peril of doom*. [dome, γ. and Cx.] come to Augustus and prayede hym of help forto stonde by hym,*. [hem, Cx.] and Augustus ordeyned hym anon a noble advokett.*. [avocate, β.; avoket, γ.; ad|vocate, Cx.] Þan þe olde man cride*. [cryed, Cx.] and seide, "O Cesar, whenne þu were in peril in þe batayle of Actia, I souȝte no man to putte in my stede, but my self*. [me sylfy, γ.; I myself, Cx.] I fauȝt for þe;" and schewed hym þe woundes þat were sene*. [seen, Cx.] in his bodye. Þanne Cesar was aschamed,*. [ashamed, Cx.] and Page  307, vol.4 coom anone and pletede for hym, nouȝt onliche*. [only, Cx.] for he wolde nouȝt be holde*. [holden, β. and Cx.] [proude,*. [prout, γ.] but also for he wolde nouȝt be holden]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] unkynde. Also Cesar com fro þe victorie of Actia, and oon mette hym wiþ a papengay*. [popejay, γ.; popenjay, Cx.] on his hond, þat he hadde*. [hadde] om. Cx.] i-tauȝt*. [hadde ytauȝt for to speke and segge Hayl, γ.; forto, β.; to, Cx.] seie, "Heil [Cesar,]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] victor and emperour." Þe emperour wondrede, and bouȝte þat mery bridde*. [myry byrde, Cx.] for twenty þowsand [of]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] paas.*. [pans, β.; panes, γ.; pens, Cx.] Also a pye grette hym in þe same manere, and he wondrede and bouȝt hym also, and so he*. [he] om. β., γ., and Cx.] dede a stare,*. [staare, γ.] [and he wondrede and bouȝte þe stare].*. [From β. and γ.] Þanne a poore sowtere*. [pore soutare siȝ þis doyng and fondede, γ.] fondede*. [souter fonde, Cx.] to teche a chouȝhe*. [chouȝwhe, γ., et infra; chough, Cx., et infra.] to speke and seie þe same salutacioun; and whan he hadde spende what he hadde, and þe chouȝhe answerde nouȝt, he used forto seie, "Allas, al is lost, boþe*. [boþe] om. γ. and Cx.] travaile and cost." But at þe laste þe chouȝhe bygan to speke, and seide þe same salutacioun, and Cesar passed by and seide*. [herde, Cx.] hit*. [have, Cx.] and seide, "We haveþ,*. [Whe habbeþ, γ.] [at home]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] suche salutaciouns i-nowe." "Alas," quod þe chouȝhe, Page  309, vol.4 as it fel*. [ful, γ.] in her*. [his, β.; the, Cx.] mynde,*. [muynde, γ.] "al is lost, boþe*. [boþe] om. β., γ., and Cx.] travayle and cost." Þan Cesar lowh,*. [lough, Cx.] and bouȝte þe chouȝhe derere*. [derrer, Cx.] þan eny*. [ony, Cx.] of al þe oþere. Also a Greek*. [Greke, Cx.] þat was a grete makere usede to make noble ditees in preysinge of Cesar, and wroot and ȝaf hem to Cesar; and whanne he hadde ofte i-do soo wiþ oute eny mede, Cesar made suche enditynge of preysynge, and ȝaf to þe Greek þat hadde i-preysed hym. Þe Greek radde þe ditee*. [and louȝ] added in γ.] wiþ semblant and wiþ voys, and profrede*. [profered, Cx.] to ȝeve Cesar money. Þanne alle men lowgh and hadde good game, and Cesar heet*. [bade, β.; badde, Cx.] his spenser ȝeve þe Greke his money aȝen and a greet deel of more money.*. [his . . . money] a greet deel of money, β., γ., and Cx.]Eutropius, libro 7o. At þe*. [þe] om. β.] laste Cesar deyde at Nola in Champania;*. [Campania, Cx.] and alle men cride*. [cryede, Cx.] and seide: "Wolde God that he hadde nevere be i-bore,*. [born, β. and Cx.] oþer þat he schulde nevere*. [never schuld, β. and Cx.] deye. Þe man was liche God;*. [good in batail, β.; goodlyche in batayl, γ.; god in bataylle, Cx.] was no man more gracious, noþer*. [nowther, Cx.] more skilful in pees." Policratica, libro 6o. Augustus wolde seie,*. [saye, β. and Cx.; sygge, γ.] "Þe same counsaille is aȝenst þe enemye þat is aȝenst siknesse,*. [sekenesse, Cx.] for þey beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] more over|come wiþ honger þan wiþ þurst."*. [yren, β. yre, γ.; iren, Cx.] Also he made his sones Page  311, vol.4 use hem to renne,*. [eorne, γ.] to leepe,*. [lepe, Cx.] and to use of castynge; and he made his douȝtres use hem to wolle craft, to spynne at the*. [at the] om. α. and Cx.] distaf, and to make breed, ffor þey schulde ȝif hem nedede*. [neodede, γ.] lyve by þe*. [þe] om. γ.] craft.