Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
Page  233, vol.5

Capitulum tricesimum tertium.

THE yonge Theodocius Archadius his sone, regned wiþ his douȝter housbonde Valentinianus as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] sixe and twenty ȝere. Þe kyngdom of Frenschemen*. [Freynschmen, γ.] bygan in his tyme under Ferramundus þe sone of Martomirus, as it is i-seide toforehonde of the*. [the] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] province*. [provyncis, β.] in þe firste book, capitulo Gallia. Þanne Theodocius knewe þat his eme Honorius was deed, and took Valentinianus þe sone of his aunte Galla Placida, [and made hym Cesar, and sente hym anon*. [anon] om. Cx.] wiþ his moder Galla Placida]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] for to governe þe Est londes. Þese*. [þeos, γ.] tweyne overcome Iohn þat werrede in þe emperour,*. [empere, α.; empire, β.; emper, γ.; in the empyre, Cx.] and*. [and they were merciful to, Cx.] Aecius þe noble knyȝt hadde mercy, ffor by his witte and sleiþe*. [sleiȝþe, β.] þe Hunnes were i-torned aȝen*. [aȝen] om. Cx.] þat caste for to werry*. [werrie, β.] in þe empere of the Westlondes. Þan Bonefacius, þe nobil knyȝt þat we spak of toforehonde, took hede þat he myȝte nouȝt holde suerliche*. [surlych, γ.; sewrly, Cx.] Affrica aȝenst Page  235, vol.5 Valentinianus and his noble knyȝt Aecius. Þerfore he prayde þe Wandales, and þe Alanes, þat hadde occupied Spayne toforn|honde, for to come*. [to a come, γ.] into Affrica wiþ here kyng Gesericus,*. [Giserichus, Cx.] and he come anon, and destroyed*. [distried, β.] Affrica and defouled þe fey of holy chirche. In þat tyme of tempest deide Seint Austyn, þe ȝere of his age foure score and sixe. He made so meny bookes þat þat*. [þat matir] the metre, Cx.] matir*. [metre, β.; meter, γ.] is sooþ,*. [that saith, added in Cx.] he lyeþ*. [likkeþ, α.; likþ, β.; lykþ, γ.] þat seide þat he hadde i-rad*. [hadde i-rad] radde, γ.] al þy*. [þy] his, Cx.] bookes. [℞.]*. [From Cx.] Þis Gisericus, kyng of Wandales, þeyȝ he in þe mene tyme overcome þe Spaynelles,*. [Spaynardes, Cx.] Galles, and Romayns, ȝit he regnede in*. [in] om. γ.] Affrica sevene and þritty ȝere, so seiþ Eusebius in his*. [in his] om. Cx.] cronyke riȝte in þe ende. After Gesericus his*. [his] om. β. and Cx.] sone oþer*. [oþer] om. Cx.] his douȝter housbonde Homericus*. [hosbond Humericus, γ.] regnede eyȝte ȝere. And he also closede cherches and outlawed þre hondred bisshoppes, þerfore by Goddes riȝtful dome he wallede*. [walled, β.; wellede, γ.; wam|bled, Cx.] ful of wormes and deide sone. After hym Gesericus his broþer sone Guinitanundus*. [Guntamundus, α. and γ.; Gut|tamundus, β. and Cx.] regnede þere twelve [ȝere. In þe twelþe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] ȝere of his kyngdom*. [regne, Cx.] he opened*. [opnede, γ.] chirches, and reconciled hem Page  237, vol.5 þat were outlawed. After hym þe forseide Homericus*. [Humericus, γ.] his broþer Trasamundus regnede as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] eiȝte and twenty ȝere. After hym his sone Hildericus, y-gete*. [goten, Cx.] on Valentinianus his douȝter, regnede eyȝte ȝere; oon Gylomaurus*. [Glomaurus, Cx.] þe tyraunt, þat hadde i-werred in Irlond and in Bretayne, put hym out of his kyngdom, and regned aftir hym þre ȝere in Affrica; and so from þe bygynnynge of þe persecucioun of Wandales, þat bygan in Gisericus his tyme, anon to þe goynge out of Wandales out of Affrica, passede as it*. [hit, β.] were an hondred ȝere. [After Celes|tinus Sixtus was pope nyne ȝere.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] ℞. In his tyme Seint Maximus, bisshop of Carvernensis,*. [Tarvernensis, β. and γ.; Ter|verensis, Cx.] was in his floures, and made noble omelyes; and as Genadius seith, he made þat famous omelye of martires þat bygynneþ in þis manere: "Qui religiosa caritate*. [caritate] from β., γ., and Cx.; carite, MS.] sanctorum merita miratur," and so forþ. And Cassiodorus þe senatour is in his floures. He expownede the sawter, and made a cronike of þe emperours and of bis|shoppes. Also þat tyme Orosius of Spayne was in his floures; he come to Rome after Seint Austyn his deþ, and made sevene bookes aȝenst mysbyleved men, de ormesta, þat is, of þe wrec|chednesse Page  239, vol.5 of þis world. Þat tyme Eudoxia þe emperesse,*. [emperice, β.; þemperys, γ.] þat was Theodocius his douȝter and Valentinianus his wif, com out of Ierusalem, and brouȝte wiþ here þe cheynes*. [chaynes, γ.] þat Peter was i-bounde wiþ in prisoun. Of hem is þe feste [of]*. [From β. and Cx.] Lammesse day, þey Peter were brouȝt out*. [out] om. α. and γ.] of prisoun aboute Ester tyme.*. [þey Peter . . . tyme] om. Cx.] In*. [þe, α., β., γ., and Cx.] solempnite of Cesar his victorie was i-holde uppon þat day from Octovianus his tyme anon to þat tyme. Aboute þat tyme þe devel appered to þe Iewes in þe ilond Creta, in Moyses his liche, and byhet hym*. [ham, γ.; promysed hem, Cx.] þat he wolde lede hem drie foot into þe londe of byheste. Þanne meny of hem were a dreynt,*. [drowned, Cx.] and þe oþere tornede to þe fey of Crist. After Sixtus Leo was pope oon*. [on, β.] and twenty ȝere; he was holyest of alle men, and seide his masse fyve siþes and somtyme ofter in oon day. In*. [On, Cx.] an Ester day a womman kyssed*. [kussed, α.] his hond, and þe pope feled*. [felk, Cx.] it*. [it] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] so grete temptacioun þat for wreche þerof he kutte*. [kitte, β.] of his [owne]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] riȝt honde. Þanne þe peple grucched*. [grucchide, β.; gruchgede, γ.; grutchyd, Cx.]Page  241, vol.5 aȝenst hym for he song nouȝt his masse as he was woned to doo, and he prayede his bedes,*. [prayede his bedes] made his prayers, Cx.] and put hym al to oure lady, and prayede*. [besoughte, Cx.] hir of help and of*. [of] om. Cx.] grace. Þanne oure*. [blessyd, added in Cx.] lady restorede his hond aȝe, and he seide his masse as he was wont*. [woned, α.; wond, γ.] to doo, and tolde out þat miracle to fore al þe peple. In þis popes tyme, under Marcianus þe prince, was i-made þe fourþe general counsail in Calcidonia, of sixe hondred bisshoppes and þritty, aȝenst þe oon Eutices, abbot of Constantynnoble, [and]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] aȝenst oon Dyoscorus, bisshop of Alexandria. Þey deniede þat*. [denyede þat, added in MS. again.] in Crist was verray*. [verrei, β.; verrey, γ.] flesche, and denyede also þe resur|rexioun at þat*. [þe, α.; atte, β., γ., and Cx.] day of dome. Pope Leo made a lettre of þe riȝt fey for to sende to þis counsail, and leide þe lettre uppon Seint Petir his auȝter,*. [auter, γ.] and fasted*. [faste, α. and γ.] fourty dayes, and preyde Seint Petir þat ȝif ouȝt*. [ouȝt] oȝt, γ.; ony thynge, Cx.] schulde be amended þerynne þat he wolde amende it,*. [hit, β. (bis).] and so it*. [hit, β. (bis).] was i-doo. Anoþer tyme he fasted fourty dayes, and prayed Peter to gete hym forȝifnes of his synne;*. [synnes, α. and Cx.] and Peter appered to hym and seide, "Alle þy Page  243, vol.5 synnes beeþ forȝeve,*. [ben foryeven, Cx.] but unwis hond leggynge*. [unwyse handlyng, Cx.] is chalenged of þe." In þis popes tyme, þat was in Theodocius [his]*. [From α. and γ.] laste tyme, at Ephesus in þe hil*. [hul, γ.] mont Selius,*. [Celius, Cx.] þe sevene slepers awook and arise,*. [aroos, Cx.] and þe fey of oure resurreccioun was moche*. [myche, β.] i-confermed and i-stabled by þat arisynge. In Decius Cesar his tyme þese*. [þeose, γ.] men flyȝ and hidde hem in a den*. [cave, Cx.] for to scape*. [ascape, β.] þe woodnesse*. [wodnes, γ.] of þe persecucioun þat was i-doo uppon Cristen men, and so þey*. [hy, γ.] slepe*. [slepte, Cx.] two hondred ȝere, and a wook at þe laste by þe vertu of God, and sente a servaunt wiþ money to þe citee for to begge*. [bygge, γ.; bye, β. and Cx.] mete, and for to aspye how*. [hou, α.; houȝ, γ.] it stood of þe persecucioun; and by olde money þat was schewed,*. [schewide, β.] þat was nouȝt þo i-used, it was knowe and i-founde þat þey hadde i|slepe aboute a*. [a] an, γ.] two hondred ȝere, and awook at þe laste by vertu of God;*. [and . . . God] om. α. and γ.] and so þe fey of [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] resurrexioun was confermed þat Entices*. [Eutices, γ.] denyede, and þei bygonne to slepe efte*. [agayne, Cx.] in presence of Theodocius þe emperour. Eutropius. Aboute þat tyme oon Page  245, vol.5 Athila*. [Anthila, γ.] kyng of Hunes governed Denmark*. [Denmarch, β. and.] and Pannonia, and ladde an oost of two hondred þowsand, and hadde help aȝenst þe Romayns of naciouns þat he hadde i-made sugette, and passeth forth wel nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] al þe Westlond anon to Allvern.*. [Alverne, β.; Alvern, γ.; unto Alverne, Cx.] Þis man was i-bore to schame and schendnes*. [schenship, β.; shendship, Cx.] of naciouns; he lovede werres, and was strong of counsail. Valentinianus þat [þo]*. [From α. and γ.; thenne, Cx.] governed þe West londes schulde fiȝte aȝenst þis Athila, and sente a lettre to þe Gothes in þese*. [þeose, γ.] wordes: "Hit byfalleþ to ȝoure redynesse and wisdom to conspire aȝenst þe tyraunt þat de|sired*. [desireþ, α. and Cx.] al þe service of þis world; he rekkeþ*. [rechcheþ, γ.; retcheth, Cx.] of [no]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] riȝt|ful cause of bataile, but what hym liketh*. [likiþ, β.] he holdeþ laweful; onliche leve*. [leve] byleve, Cx.] heleþ and kovereth*. [kevereth, α.; cureþ, β. and γ.] his pryde*. [pryte, Cx.]; he is worþy to be hated of alle men [þat is enemy to alle men]."*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] But þey write a lettre in þis manere: "ȝe haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ. (bis).] i-made Athila ȝoure enemy, ȝe haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ. (bis).] ȝoure desire." Þanne þey come to giders in þe feeldes Cathalmytes,*. [Cathalmites, β.; Cathulintes, Cx.] þat conteyneþ an hondred leges*. [leuges, β.; leghes, Cx.] in Page  247, vol.5 lengþe and seventy in brede; þere was a stronge bataille, noon olde storie spekeþ of noon*. [noon] no batayl, Cx.; batail added in γ.] so strong, for þere were in boþe sides*. [sides] om. Cx.] i-slawe*. [i-slawe] om. γ.] nyne score þowsand men, so þat dede bodyes were i-bore forth wiþ þe streme*. [streem, γ.] of blood. In the Romayns side were i-slawe þe kyng of Burgoyn*. [Borguyn, γ.] and þe kyng of Gothes. Eutropius, libro 9o. Kyng Athila, as þey*. [þouȝ, β.; though, Cx.] he were overcome, wente aȝe into Pannonia to gadre hym a grete*. [gretter, β. and Cx.; grettre, γ.] oost. ℞. It is i-rad in Seint Germans lif þat while kyng [Athyla]*. [From Cx.] werrede in*. [in] om. Cx.] Gallia he byseged*. [bisegide, β., et intra.] in a tyme þe citee*. [citee] om. γ.] Tricasina,*. [Trecasina, β.; Trecasma, Cx.] þere Seint Lupus was bisshop þat tyme. Þanne Seint Lupus went up*. [up] om. Cx.] uppon þe ȝates of þe citee þat was byseged, and cryde and axede who it*. [it] they, Cx.] were þat so greved hem; and kyng Athila answerde and seide: "I am Athila, Goddes scourge"; "And I,"*. [ic, β.; Y, γ.] quoþ the bisshop, "am þe wold*. [wolf, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat destroyeþ oure Lord Goddes*. [Goddes] om. Cx.] folk,*. [flok, α.] and have nede*. [neode, γ.] to Goddes scourge." Lupus is a wolf. Þanne anon þe ȝates were [y-opened, and þe enemy were]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] i|blend*. [blente, Cx.]Page  249, vol.5 þorw*. [þoroȝt, γ.] Goddes myght, and wente from ȝate to ȝate, and sigh no man noþer herte.*. [noþer herte] ne hurted no man, Cx.; hirte, β.; hur γ.] Athila kyng of Hunes was i-chased*. [was i-chased] om. γ.] out of Gallia by a nobil knyȝt þat heet Aecius; in his fleynge toward Pannonia he destroyed Italy, and þere*. [þere] om. Cx.] he bysegede Aquila*. [Aquilia, α.] þre ȝere, and gat it.*. [hit, β.] Þo Leo þe pope faste and prayed þre dayes and þre nyȝt*. [nyghtes, Cx.] in Seint Peteris chirche, and seide to his clerkes,*. [clerkes] om. α. and β.; men, Cx.; peple added in γ. by a later hand.] "Who þat wil*. [wol, γ.] come after me, come a Goddes half."*. [half] name, Cx.] And whan he neighede*. [neyȝhede, α. and γ.; neiȝide, β.; approched, Cx.] to þe kyng Athila þe kyng liȝt doun of his hors, and fel doun of his hors,*. [and . . . hors] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] and fel*. [ful, γ.] doun to þe pope his feet, and prayde hym to axe what he wolde. And anon he prayde, and hadde it i-graunted, þat þe kyng schulde goo out of Itali, and delivere al þe prisoners. Afterward, whanne þe kyng was repreved*. [repreoved, γ.] and arreyned*. [arayned, β.; resoned, Cx.] why þe lord of world was so liȝtliche overcome of a preost, "In þat," quod þe kyng, "I dede*. [y dide, β.] profiȝt*. [prouffyt, Cx.] to ȝow and to me; for I seigh*. [y syȝ, α. and γ.; y siȝ, β.; sawe, Cx.] in his riȝt side a wel stalworþe clerk*. [knyȝt, β.; knyȝt, γ.; a stronge knyghte, Cx.] wiþ a swerd Page  251, vol.5 i-drawe þat manassed me*. [þat, added in γ.] but I dede*. [y dide, β.] as he wolde I scholde be deed, and all myne." Þanne þe kyng lefte Italy, and wente into Pannonia, and deyde þere sone. Eutropius, libro 9o, et Beda, libro primo,*. [et Beda, libro primo] om. Cx.]capitulo 13o. Aboute þat tyme þe poure relyf*. [pore relef, β.; relef, γ.] þat was i-left of þe Britouns sente þe þridde tyme a lettre to þat noble knyȝt Aecius into*. [and to, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Patricius in þis manere: "To Aecius, þries consul, we scheweþ*. [shewe, Cx.] the goynge*. [gronynge, α., β., and γ.; greves, Cx.] of Bretouns. Straunge naciouns chaseþ*. [chacen, Cx.] us to þe see, and þe see dryveþ us aȝe to straunge naciouns, and þerof cometh tweie manere of careyns, for we beeþ i-slawe wiþ wepoun,*. [wepen, β. and Cx.; wepne, γ.] oþer*. [oþer] or ellys, Cx.] we beeþ*. [be, α.; buþ, γ.] adreynt."*. [drouned, Cx.] But it was for noght þat þey wrete soo, ffor Aecius þat tyme was occupied in Gallia with hard werre aȝenst kyng Athila. Gaufridus et Beda, ubi supra.*. [ubi supra] om. Cx.] In þe mene tyme þe forseide honger incresede*. [encreced, Cx.] strongliche among þe Britouns, and compelled meny of hem to ȝelde hem to þe þeoves*. [þeeves, β.; thevys, Cx.] here enemyes; and som of hem com out of hilles*. [hulles, γ] and laundes, þere mannes help failede, and trust*. [triste, β.] in God Almyȝti, and Page  253, vol.5 chasede out þe Pikkes*. [Pictes, α.; Pyctes, Cx.] as wel as þey myȝte. Þan for a tyme þe enemyes were i-torned aȝen anon to þe uttermeste*. [outmost, β.; otmeste, γ.; putte oute unto the utterist, Cx.] part of þe lond, and made hem a wonynge place*. [place to dwelle ynne, Cx.] byȝonde Deyra, þat is þe souþ side of Norþhomberlond, and slowȝ evere among,*. [evere among] om. Cx.] and took prayes eiþer of oþer. Also þat tyme fil greet hunges*. [honger, α. and Cx.; ful so gret honger, γ. In the MS. the scribe had first written prayes, which he has expunged, but the termination of the erroneous word has been written in the correct one.] at Constantynnoble wiþ grete pestilence, and are*. [aer, α. and γ.; eyr, β.; eyer, Cx.] infecte and en|gleymed þat þe walles of þe citee fil doun wiþ sevene and fifty toures, and were deed meny þowsand*. [thousandes of, Cx.] men and*. [of, added in γ.] bestes. [Gau|fredus and Alfredus.]*. [From Cx.] Þanne þe Britouns took avisement and counsaile, and Gwitelinus þe archebisshop seilede into Armorica, þat is Litel Bretayne, to oon Aldroenus, þat was þe ferþe*. [fourþe, α.; fourth, Cx.] þat regnede þer after Conanus; and þe archebisshop declared*. [disclarede,.] to hym þe mescheef and þe sorwe of Britouns, and brouȝt wiþ hym oon Constantinus, þat was þe kynges*. [kyngis, β.] broþer, with many þowsands of men of armes; and at Surcestre*. [Surcetre, β. and Cx.; Sircetre, γ.] he made hym kyng. Also þis Constantinus hadde þre sones: þe eldest heet Constant, hym he made i-schore*. [to be shorn, Cx.] a*. [a] om. α. and γ.] monke in Seint Amphibalus his cherche Page  255, vol.5 at Wynchestre; and þe oþere tweyne,*. [tweye, α.] Aurelius and Uter, he by-took to Gwetelinus*. [Guydelynus, Cx.] þe bisshop to norschinge*. [norisshe, Cx.] and to lore.*. [teche, Cx.] Constantinus at þe laste, after ten ȝere of his kyngdom, was i-slawe by tresoun of oon of þe Pictes þat he hadde in his service. And*. [And] from α., γ., and Cx.; Ad, MS.] Fortigernus*. [Vortigerus, Cx., et infra.] a consul of þe Iewes*. [Gewisses, α. and β.; Gewysses, γ.; Iewesses, Cx.] desirede the kyngdom, and took Constant*. [Constatyn, γ.] out of Wynchestre and made hym kyng, for he was lowe*. [slouȝ, α.] and dul*. [dul and slowe, β. and Cx.] of witte.*. [slouȝ and dol of wyt, γ.] Anon For|gyvernus*. [Vortigernus, α.; Vortegernus, β.; Fortigernus, γ., semper.] hadde an hondred Pictes out of Albania, þat is Scotlond, and made hem wardeynes of þe kynges body, and Fortigernus made hem riche i-now*. [ynowȝ, β.] at þe fulle.*. [at þe fulle] om. Cx.; atte folle, γ.] And þey understood þat Vortygernus desired forto be kyng, and slouȝ Constant*. [Constantyn, γ.] þe kyng, and brouȝte his heed to Fortigernus; and for*. [by cause, Cx.] Fortigernus wolde be i-holde gulteles*. [and not culpable, added in Cx.] of þat dede, he feyned greet sorwe, and made behede alle þe hondred Pictes to fore þe lordes of þe lond, and so he was i-crowned kyng.*. [Whan, added in Cx.] Þis was i-knowe; þanne þe wardeynes þat kepte þe tweyne*. [þe tweyne] two, Cx.]Page  257, vol.5 breþeren, Aurelius and Uter, dredde hem, and fledde*. [flyȝ, α. and γ.] with þe children to þe kyng of Armonica, þat is Litel Britayne.