Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum vicesimum nonum. Valentinianus.

VALENTINIANUS wiþ his broþer Valent regnede as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] enlevene ȝere. Þis was gentil and courtays,*. [curteys, β.; corteys, γ.; cur|toys, Cx.] for whan þe oost fondede to ȝeve hym a felowe of þe empere, he answerde and seide, "Oo*. [O, α., β., and Cx.] knyȝtes, it is*. [is] was, β.] ȝoure to ȝeve me the kingdom, and now*. [I] ich, β.] I have i-fonge it, it is myn to þinke*. [þengke, γ.] on þe comyn profit;"*. [prouffyte, Cx.] and made his broþer felawe of þe empere; he overcom þe Saxons and þe Sarmates. His fadir Gracianus was i-cleped Funarius, þat was*. [was] is, β. and Cx.] a ropere, for he baar a roop þat was to sellynge,*. [sillyng, β.; sullyng, γ.; was for to selle, Cx.] and fyve knyȝtes myȝte not wreste the rope out of his hond, and þerfore he was worþy to be i-take to knyȝthode. In a tyme Page  183, vol.5 Valentinianus his wif preysede þe fairnesse of Iustina, and þer|fore Valentinianus wedded Iustina, and ȝaf a lawe þat everiche man þat wolde schulde wedde tweie wifes. In þis emperour his tyme þe eorþe schook*. [schwok into, γ.] in*. [in] into β.] al þe world, and [þe see]*. [From α., β., and Cx., who also adds aroose and.] passede þe cleves*. [clyves, β.] and destroyed meny*. [many, β. and γ.] citees. After Liberius, Damasus was pope nyntene ȝere; þis was a faire maker of metre, and wroot vers uppon tombes þat he fonde of holy seyntes, and ordeyned also þat by day and by nyȝte psalmes schulde be seide in queor, so þat þe oon vers schulde be i-seide in þe*. [From α., β., and γ.] oon side and þe oþer vers in þe oþer side,*. [From α., β., and γ.] and þat Gloria patri schulde be i-seide at þe*. [þe] ech, β.; at þe] on eche, Cx.] psalmes ende. Also by comfort of þis pope Ierom translated þe bible*. [bybel, γ.] out of Hebrewe in to Latyn, and amended also þe sauter of þe seventy*. [seventy] LXX interpretes, Cx.] þat was þoo i-used wel nyh*. [neiȝ, β.] in alle chirches,*. [clerkes, γ.] and þat psauter*. [sauter, Cx.] was eft ap|peyred, and he translated it newe aȝen; and Damasus þe pope ordeyned þat*. [þat] added in β.] [þe sauter of þat translacioun scholde]*. [From γ.] be*. [be] to be, Cx.] songe in þe citee of Rome and in þe chirches of Fraunce, and þerfore þat sauter*. [psawter, α.; psauter, Cx.] [is]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] i-cleped þe Frensche*. [Freynsch, γ.] sawter,*. [psawter, α.] psal|terium Gallicanum; ȝit he made þe þridde translacioun of þe psawter*. [sauter, α. and β.] from word to word.*. [from . . . word] word for word, Cx.] Þat ȝere deide Seint Hillary Page  185, vol.5 bisshop of Peytow. To þe aungel song þat hatte:*. [To . . . hatte] To the aungel þat song, β.; Unto the songe that the aungel songe, Cx.] "Gloria in ex|celsis" he putte to*. [to] om. α., β., and γ.] "Laudamus te, benedicimus te, [adoramus te,]"*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and so forþ. Seynt Dindimus*. [Didimus, α., β., and γ.; Dy|dimus, Cx.] of Alexandria þat loste boþe his eyȝen after his firste*. [fifte, α. and β.; vyfte, γ.; fyfth, Cx.] ȝere of age, and herde ones i-rad in chirche þat worde of þe gospel, what men may nouȝt doo God may*. [Cx. wrongly prints the negative in both clauses.] doo, þanne he was so besy aboute þe liȝt of his soule þat he hadde perfiȝt*. [parfyȝt, α. and Cx.] knowleche of sevene artis, and was i-made doctour, and made expowne*. [expowne] and expownede, α., β., γ., and Cx.] meny bookes by notaries and writers. Seynt Martyn was i-made bisshop of*. [of] at, γ.] Turon*. [Turone, Cx.] þe ȝere of his age oon and sixty, and was bisshop þere sixe and twenty ȝere. Þe grete seinte, seinte*. [seinte seinte] om. β. and Cx.] Basile, bisshop of Cassarea*. [Cesarea, β., γ., and Cx.] in Capadocea,*. [Capadocia, β. and γ.] is dede. Among his oþer grete dedes of vertue, he reconcilede a ȝongelynge to God Almyȝty þat hadde obleged hym self to the devel for þe love of a wenche, and gat aȝen þe chartre of his obligacioun. Also Ioseph a Iewe was connyngest*. [kunnyngest, β.] of all phiciciens, and Basyl lengþede þis Ioseph his lyf oo day, Page  187, vol.5 and tornede hym to þe fey of holy cherche. Also he made*. [and instituted, added in Cx.] þe rule*. [reule, γ.] of monkes and meny oþer holy tretis. Seint Ambrose, a man of dignitee of consulus,*. [consuls, β., γ., and Cx.] while he spak to þe peple he was i-made bisshop of Melane for þe voys*. [foys, γ.] of a childe þat cryde soo þat*. [þat so, α., β., γ.] it schulde be.*. [that he shold be so, Cx.] Seint Patrik is i-bore in Britayne; his fadir heet Calprym,*. [Calprun, β., γ., and Cx.] þat was a preost and a decon his*. [dekenes, β.] sone þat heet Fodun; Patrik his moder het Tonches,*. [Conches, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Martyn his suster of Gallia, þat is Fraunce. [In his crystnyng*. [follyng, β.; hys follyng, γ.] he was called Sucat*. [cleped Oncat, β.; a was cleped Sucat, γ.] and Seint Germanus called*. [German cleped, β. and γ.] hym Magonius, and Celestinus],*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] þe pope cleped hym Patrik, þat is*. [is] is to saye, Cx.] þe fader of þe*. [þe] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] citeseyns. Valentinianus Augustus was strongliche i-meoved aȝenst þe messangers of þe Sarmates, and deide in a manere out|brekynge of his veynes*. [feynes, γ.] and is auel*. [an evel, α., β., and γ.; an evil, Cx.] þat Grees clepeþ apo|plexia. Þat tyme in Egipt were noble fadres in her floures, Pastor Pambo, and tweyne*. [oþer] added in γ.] eiþer heet Macharius, Arsenius, Paphinicius, Agatho,*. [Agatho, Cx.] Moyses, Ioseph, Euagrus,*. [Evagrius, Cx.] Theodorus. Pambo wolde lerne*. [leorne, γ.] na more of þe psawter þan oon vers þat he Page  189, vol.5 hadde i-herd,*. [yhurd, γ.] or he hadde fulfilled þat vers:*. [or . . . vers] om. γ.] þis was þe vers; "Dixi custodiam vias meas ut non delinquam in lingua mea," þat is,*. [is] is to seye, Cx.] "I have i-seide I schal kepe my weyes þat I trespace nouȝt in my tonge." Pambo seide þat unneþe he fulfilde*. [fulfilled, α. and β.; fulfulde, γ.] þis vers*. [þes fers, γ.] in nyne and fourty ȝere. Þe tweie Macharies, þe oon of Egipt and þe*. [that, Cx.] oþer of Alexandria, were boþe noble men of*. [in, Cx.] ab|stinence and in lore: a womman þat was wiþ childe defamede falsliche þat*. [þat] om. β.] oon of hem, [and]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] seide þat he hadde i-brouȝt hire wiþ childe, but sche*. [heo, β., γ. (bis).] myȝte nevere have*. [have] habbe, γ.; be delyverd of, Cx.] childe or sche*. [ar heo, γ.] i-hadde i-told out þe soþe.*. [trouth, Cx.] Arsenius was a senatour of Rome, and perfit*. [parfyght, Cx.] in þe longages of Latyn and of Grewe, and made hymself a monk; in a tyme he herde a voys þat seide to hym, "Arsenius, flee*. [flee] flee fro, Cx.] men, and holde þy pees*. [kepe siylence, Cx.] and þou schalt be saved." Also he bare*. [alwey] added in β. and Cx.] a sudarie*. [sudary, γ.] in his bosom for to wype of*. [of] away, Cx.] þe teres þat ran of his eyȝen ful ofte,*. [yen fol ofte, γ.] þerfore þe heer of his eyȝe liddes fil*. [yȝe liddes ful, γ.] al of for greet wepynge. In*. [In] om. γ.] the Ester eve whanne þe sonne ȝede*. [ȝeode, γ.] to glade,*. [wente to reste, Cx.] he tornede his*. [his] þe, β.] face toward þe Est,*. [West, Cx.]Page  191, vol.5 and wook al þat nyȝt in his prayers forto he seie*. [unto the tyme that he sawe, Cx.] þe sonne aryse erliche amorwe,*. [by the morowe, Cx.] and þo he was wery of wakynge he*. [and, α.] cleped to hym slepe, and seide, "Come forth evel servaunt," and so he reste a litel what*. [what] om. Cx.] sittynge; for he wolde seie*. [segge, γ.] þat it were i-now for a monk þat fiȝteþ aȝenst temptaciouns for to slepe oon houre in þe nyȝt and day. In a tyme his fader testament was i-brouȝt to hym, in þe whiche testament he was i-made his fader heire;*. [eyr, β.; heyer, Cx.] þanne he answered and seide, I*. [Ich γ] was raþer dede;*. [that was deede tofor his fader,β] how myȝte "he þanne þat schulde deie make me his heyre*. [eyr, β.] þat was raþer dede?"*. [dede afore, Cx.] Also he wolde no man liȝtliche mete, noþer speke liȝtliche*. [gladly, Cx.] with men, noþer sende lettres; and comounliche he fliȝ þe companye of men, and seide þat he myȝte nouȝt be at ones wiþ God and wiþ men. Noþer he spak liȝtliche*. [he mevede lyghtly, Cx.] of ques|tiouns of holy writt, and ȝit*. [and ȝit] om. Cx.] [he was*. [ȝut a was, γ.] a noble*. [nobel, γ.] clerk, and kunning*. [connyng, γ.] in questions of holy writ]*. [wryt, γ.] but of stirynges*. [sturyngs, γ.] of þe soule and temptaciouns he wolde gladliche speke;*. [Cx. adds here: "and yet he was a noble clerk, and connyng in questions of holy wrytte."] þerfore in a tyme he went doun for to speke wiþ an olde man of Egipte for*. [From β. and γ.]Page  193, vol.5 to appose hym of his*. [his] om. Cx.] þouȝtes; þanne som men seide*. [seyden, Cx.] to hym, "How myȝte*. [mayst, Cx.] þow, Arsenius, þat art so connynge of loore, axe for to lerne*. [leorne, γ.] of þis olde cherle?" "I*. [Ich, β. (bis).] have," quod he, i-lerned*. [both, added in β.] Latyn and Grewe, but ȝit couþe I*. [Ich, β. (bis).] nevere þe a. b. c. of þis cherle."*. [chorle, Cx.] And while Arsenius wonede in þe paleys of Rome no man usede bettre cloþes þan he, so while he was monk was non fouler i-heled*. [fowler coverd, Cx.] þan he. He hadde a long berd þat tilled*. [tylde, γ.] to his wombe;*. [that henge to his myddel, Cx.] and he*. [usede is here inserted in α.] lyvede in þe elder Theodocius his tyme*. [paleys α.; palays, Cx.] fourty*. [vourty, α.] ȝere,*. [yere after, Cx.] and aftirward in wildernesse fyve and fifty ȝere. Paphnucius*. [Paphinicus, β.; Paphinicius, Cx.] the abbot took secular cloþinge and abyte,*. [abyt, γ.; habyt, Cx.] and converted a strompet*. [comyn woman, Cx.] þat heet Tharsis;*. [Thaisis, α.] he prayed þries oure Lord þat he wolde schewe hym to whom he was liche in erþe. Þe abbot Pastor wolde nouȝt i-see his moder in erþe, for hym was levere*. [leover, γ.] see here in hevene. Þe abbot Agatho bare*. [haþ, γ.] a stoon þre ȝere in his mouth for he wolde lerne*. [leorne, γ.] to be stille wiþ oute eny speche;*. [wiþoute eny speche] and kepe sylence, Cx.] þis wolde Page  195, vol.5 no nyȝt slepe ȝif he hadde eny querel to*. [agenes, β.; aȝenes, γ.; ayenst, Cx.] eny man, or eny man aȝenste hym. Þe abbott Moyses was ones i-prayed for to come and deme a broþer þat hadde i-trespased; and he took and bare a panyer*. [paner, γ.] ful of gravel on his bak and seide, "Þese beeþ my synnes þat renneþ*. [erneþ, β.] after me, and I goo deme oþer men synnes, and take none hede of myn owne." Þe fader Mucius*. [Musius, Cx.] wente for to visite a broþer þat was syke, and made by his prayours þe sonne stonde stille for to he*. [unto the tyme he, Cx.] hadde i-doo his office al at þe fulle. Also ofte he blessed gravel þat was i-brouȝt hym, þe whiche was i-sowe in feeldes, and þe feeldes bare þe more corn and fruyt. Þe abbesse Sara was þrittene*. [thyrten, Cx.] ȝere to gyders inpugned and i-tempted of a fende, but sche*. [heo, β.] wolde nouȝt assente.*. [Here occurs in the MS. the passage which has been transferred to p. 155. See note there.] Sara prayde nouȝt þat the temptacioun schulde pass from here, but þat God schulde ȝeve here grace to wiþstonde; þan the spirit of fornicacioun schewed hym to hir siȝt, and seide, "Sara, þou hast overcome me." "Nay," quoþ she, "I have nouȝt overcome þe," [but*. [bote, γ.] my lord Iesus that saveth hem that trust*. [þat saveþ hem þat tristeþ, β.; þat saveþ ham þat trysteþ, γ.] on hym, he hath*. [haþ, β. and γ.] overcome the.*. [þee, β.; þe, γ.]]*. [From β., γ., and Cx. It occurs in Cx. after the next two sentences.] [℞.]*. [From α. and γ.] Þe Page  197, vol.5 abbot Euagrius, Macharius his disciple, wroot vitas patrum in Egipte, Gennadius seiþ in his book de viris illustribus. Valens wiþ his broþer sones, Gracianus and Valentinianus, [was emperour foure ȝere; his broþer het Valentinianus.]*. [From α. and β.] Also þis Valens was i-cristened*. [yfolled, β. and γ.] aȝen of þe Arrians, and pur|sewede cristen men, and ȝaf a lawe þat monkes schulde doo dedes of armes oþer be i-bete with stones.*. [staves, α., β., and Cx.] And þo were þe monkes i-martired at Nitria in Egipte. In a tyme þe Gothes sente to þis for to have cristen bishoppes to teche hem þe riȝt|ful byleve, and [he]*. [From Cx.] sente hem bisshoppes of þe Arrians, and þerfore alle the Gothes were infecte and i-gleymed; and þerfore by Goddes riȝtful dome þe knyȝtes of Rome were overcome by þe Goothes, and þis Valens was i-chased out of Antiochia, and was i-wounded wiþ an arewe,*. [arwe, γ.; arow, Cx.] and fliȝ into an hous, and was i-brend,*. [brent, β.; there was brent, Cx.] he and al his hous, and hadde noon buriels.