Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulo decimo.

GALBA SERVIUS regnede aftir Nero sevene monþes,*. [monethes, Cx.] i-chose of Spaynyellus*. [Spaynols, β.; Spaynyels, γ.; Spaynerdys, Cx.] and of*. [of] om. Cx.] Galles, þe ȝere of his age þre score and þrittene,*. [thryten, Cx.] and hadde be a senatour of olde nobelle.*. [nobley, β. and Cx.; noblete, γ.] His prive*. [pryvy, Cx.] lyf was ful noble, and hadde ofte i-be consul, and ofte proconsul, and ofte duke*. [duk, Cx.] and ledere of grete batailles and harde. He made oon Poysone,*. [pison, β. and γ.; pysonne, Cx.] a noble ȝonglyng,*. [yong man, Cx.] his sone adoptiuus and his eyr,*. [heer, Cx.] but by awaite*. [awayt, γ.] of oon Otho þey were boþe deede in þe myddel of þe chepynge place. Otho Lucius regnede thre monþes:*. [monethes, Cx., passim.] whanne Page  421, vol.4 he herde þat ȝere*. [ȝere] om. Cx.] þere was an emperour i-made in Gallia by legiouns*. [relygyons, Cx.] of Germania he rayed*. [arayed, α. and Cx.; arayede, γ.] batailles þat beeþ i-cleped*. [ben callyd, Cx.] bella civilia, and hadde the victorie in thre þe firste*. [furste, γ.] batailles; and in*. [in] om. Cx.] þe fourþe*. [feorþe, γ.] batayle, whanne he seie*. [sawe, Cx.] his men overset and falle to grounde, he seide þat he was nouȝt so worþy that civile bataile schulde for hym arise, and so he slowȝ*. [slew, Cx.] hymself. Vitellius*. [Vytellus, Cx.] regnede after Otho as it were seven monþes, and was strong and noble, but he was so greet*. [strong, γ.] a glotoun*. [gloton, γ. and Cx.] þat he eet somday þries, somday foure siþes, [and somday fyve siþes].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] But at oon sopere were i-sette tofore hym two þowsand fisches*. [fisshes, Cx.] and seven þowsand foules, so it is i-write. Þis dradde*. [drad, Cx.] þat Vaspacianus schulde regne, and slowȝ his brother Sabynus, and þanne for drede he hydde*. [hudde, γ.; hid, Cx] hym, and closed hym in a welle;*. [celle, β. and Cx.] and dukes þat were wiþ Vaspasianus drowȝ hym oute, and so he was openliche*. [openly, Cx.] and naked i|drawe*. [i-drawe] om. γ.] þoruȝ*. [þurȝ, β.; thurgh, Cx.] the citee, and hilde*. [helde, β.; huld, γ.; heelde, Cx.] up his heed an high,*. [on heiȝ, β.; on hye, Cx.] and a scharp swerd was sette undir his chyn, and alle men þrewe Page  423, vol.4 on hym drit and thost,*. [þost, α., β., and γ.; dirte and duste, Cx.] and so he was i-þrowe into Tybre.*. [Tiber, Cx.] Vaspacianus regnede as it were eyȝte ȝere, and was coveitous of money, but he took it nouȝt wrongfulliche. He wolde forȝete*. [forȝute, γ.] wronges, and liȝtliche take chidynges of men of lawe and of philosofres. Þis was somtyme i-sent by Nero into þe Iewerie for to chaste þe Iewes, and herde of Nero his deth, and lefte þere his sone Titus and wente aȝen to Rome; he fauȝt two and þritty siþes stalworthliche*. [stalwordlich, β.; tymes manly, Cx.] aȝenst his enemyes in Germanya and elleswhere.*. [elleswhare, γ.; ellys where, Cx.]Policratica, libro 3o, capitulo 14o. Oon Buculus an olde man cride in despite of Vaspacianus, and seide, "Þe fox may chaunge his skyn, but nouȝt his wille; ffor Vaspacianus his covetise was nevere þe lasse for the passinge of his age." Me seith þat he answerde in þis manere, "To suche men me oweþ*. [we o weþ, β. and γ.; we owe, Cx.] lawȝhynge,*. [lauȝinge, β.] to us*. [us sylf, γ.; our, Cx.] self correccioun, and peyne to evel doers." Also þis for the more*. [playne, Cx.] chastynge of the peple*. [chastisynge peple, β.] and naciouns of londes þat he hadde i-wonne, he made provinces of þese kyngdoms: Archaia, Licia, Rhodus, Sanius,*. [Samus, β., γ., and Cx.] Tracia and Scilicia,*. [Silicia, γ. and Cx.] and Page  425, vol.4 ordeynede stywardes to governe þese*. [þeos, γ.] londes, þat were rathir under kynges þat were sugettes and freendes*. [frendes and subgettis, Cx.] to þe Romayns. ℞. Here lakketh ten ȝere by þe comoun*. [comyn, Cx.] cronicles*. [cronykes, α. and γ.; cronykis, β.; cronykkes, Cx.] bytwene the passioun of oure Lord and Vaspacianus his tyme, as it is i-seide to forehonde*. [afore, Cx.] in þe*. [þe] om. γ.] prologe. Ierusalem is*. [was, Cx. (bis).] i-take by Tytus, þe temple is*. [was, Cx. (bis).] i-brente*. [i-brent] brend, α.] and i-throwe adoun evene to*. [to] wiþ þe, α., β., γ., and Cx.] grounde. Iosephus, libro septimo. Þe same monþe and day þat it was arst*. [fyrst, Cx.] i-brend*. [ybarnd, γ.] and i-þrowe adoun*. [and i-þrowe adoun] om. α., γ., and Cx.] by þe Caldeys,*. [Calendres, Cx.] þat is þe eyȝteþe*. [eiȝtenþe, β.; eyghtene, Cx.] day of Septembre; þe ȝere after þat Sa|lamon bulde it first enlevene hondred and þritty. After þe se|counde buldynge,*. [buyldyng, γ.; byldyng, Cx.] þat was in Ageus*. [Aggeus, Cx.] his tyme, seven hondred ȝere and nyne and þritty. But Martinus*. [Martyn, γ.] and oþer telleþ*. [tellen, Cx.] þat it was i-take in þe Ester*. [Estern, Cx.] tyme. Egesippus. In þis bren|nynge and destruccioun enleven siþes*. [tymes, Cx.] an hondred þowsand Iewes were i-slawe wiþ swerd*. [sweord, γ.] and wiþ honger. An hon|dred þowsand were i-take prisoners and i-solde awey, þritty for a peny, and nyne hondred þowsand flyȝ,*. [fledde, Cx.] and were to Page  427, vol.4 schift [and departed].*. [From Cx.]Ieromus.*. [Ieronimus, Cx.] Þat tyme was so moche*. [myche, β.] folk at Ierusalem, for in þe Ester*. [Estre, β.; Estern, Cx.] tyme þey come to þe temple out of al þe Iewerie.*. [Jeury, Cx.]Iosephus, libro 7o. Hit is no wonder þat so grete peple of Iewes were*. [was, β., γ., and Cx.] dede and i-take. For Nero somtyme wolde wite*. [wete, β. and Cx.; wyte, γ.] þe tale*. [taal, γ.] and þe nombre of Iewes þat were at Ierusalem, ffor he despised þe*. [þat, α., β., γ., and Cx.] peple wiþ al þat he*. [þat he] his, Cx.] myȝte. And Cestius þe steward,*. [styward, γ. and Cx.] as he hadde i-lerned*. [one, Cx.] of bisshoppes, wroot to Nero þat þere were i-founde at Ierusalem in an*. [one, Cx.] holy day twenty hondred þowsand [and seven hondred þowsand]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] wiþoute hem þat were polut,*. [pollute, Cx.] and persones wiþ wemmes þat hadde no leve for to offre.*. [offir, Cx.] Þe bisshop*. [bisshops, α.; byschops, γ.; bis|shopes, Cx.] acountede þis nombre by þe nombre of oystes*. [ostes, γ.; hoostes, Cx.] þat were [y-]*. [From α. and γ.] offred, þe whiche nombre was two hondred þowsand and sixe and fifty þow|sand and fyve*. [fyf, γ.] hondred, and evere*. [ever, β.; every, Cx.] ten persones offrede oon oyst.*. [offryd one hooste, Cx.] In þis fiȝtynge þe Romayns hadde konnynge*. [kunnynge, Cx.] and*. [yleorned, γ.]Page  429, vol.4 strengþe, þe Iewes hadde woodnesse and folye; ffor þe tyme was drye, and Vaspacianus wente to þe citee Iotapaten, and stoppede al þe water condites.*. [cundites, β.; conduytes, γ. and Cx.] Bot Iosephus was wiþ ynne, and fonde up a queynte*. [coynt, β.; connynge, Cx.] craft, and heng wete cloþes uppon þe toun walles, and for the cloþes droppede, þey þat were wiþoute wende and trowede þat þey þat were wiþ ynne hadde no lak*. [lacke, Cx.] of water forto drynke*. [dryngke, γ.] while þey hadde [plente of]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] water to wasche*. [waysche, γ.] wiþ*. [wiþ] om. Cx.] hir cloþes. Þanne Vas|pacianus destourbed þe wal wiþ þe*. [þe] a, Cx.] stroke of an engyne; but Iosephus heng sakkes*. [sakkis, Cx.] ful*. [fol, γ.] of straw aȝenst the strookes of þe engynes,*. [engyne, Cx.] and so þe strokes were i-lette, and þe walles i-saved; for harde þinges beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] bettre wiþstonde wiþ nesche*. [naysche, γ.] þinges þan wiþ hard. But þe Romayns bounde hookes*. [hokes, γ. and Cx.] to longe pooles, and kutte*. [kytte, Cx.] þe roopes*. [ropis, Cx.] of þe sakkes.*. [sackis, Cx.] But Iosephus þrewe out brennynge oyle uppon alle her gynnes, and smoot of al her gynnes.*. [engynes, Cx.] Vaspacianus wolde amende þe gynne,*. [þe gynne] gynnes, β.; hem, Cx.] and was soore i-wounded in the heele. Whan þat was i-seie,*. [whan . . . seie] after that, Cx.] þere fil so gret strengþe of castynge and of Page  431, vol.4 schot*. [shote, Cx.] of Titus his side, þat þe noble knyȝht*. [noble knyght] nolle, α., β., and Cx.; nol, γ.] of oon of*. [of] om. Cx.] Iosephus his felowes was i-smyte of þat place*. [þat place] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] wiþ a stoon, and flyȝ*. [flewe, Cx.] over þe þridde forlong.*. [forlond, α.; furlong, β. and Cx., et infra.] Also a womman þat was wiþ childe was i-smyte soo þat þe childe was i-smyte out of his*. [her, γ. and Cx.] wombe, and fligh*. [flewe, Cx.] over [half]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] a forlong. Whanne Titus hadde i-broke þe secounde wal, Iosephus was i-founde y-hid*. [founden hid, Cx.] among useles,*. [ysels, β; osers, Cx.] and hadde i-hidde hym þre dayes, þanne þey þat founde hym despised hym in þis manere: "Wherto wilt*. [wolt, β. and Cx.] þou lyve while it is not covenable, noþer leoful,*. [leefful, β.; leffol, γ.; leeful, Cx.] noþer*. [nether, Cx.] semeliche; þy lyf schal be mede*. [meede, β.] of perschynge*. [persynge, α.; persyng, γ.; per|schyng, Cx.] and of lost oþer it schal be payne of servage and of bondage. Have mynde*. [muynde, γ.] of Moyses, hym was levere be scraped out of þe book of lyf þan lyve*. [lybbe, γ.] lenger þan þe peple. Also David was levere fonge wreche*. [in se ipso written above the line in β.; take in se ipso, Cx.] þan leve*. [lyve, β. and Cx.; lybbe, γ.] and see þe peple perisshe."*. [ylost, γ.] "Who desireþ*. [desired, Cx.] nouȝt," quod Iosephus, "ȝif Page  433, vol.4 it were laweful, to be delyvered and unbounde of so greet woo and sorwe; but he þat bonde hath leve to unbynde, and none oþer; ȝif eny*. [ony, Cx.] oþer unbyndeþ he dooth the Lord wrong. Þanne as oure Lordes trewe*. [truwe, γ.] servauntes, kepe we what he haþ bytake us while it is his wille; þanne he is unkynde þat wil rather be a goo oþer lenger abyde þanne he wole*. [wole] om. γ.] to whom*. [whoome, Cx.] he is i-bounde. So it was sooþ of Abraham, of Iacob, of Moyses, of David, þat prayed*. [prayde, β. and Cx.] to be delyvered of prison*. [prysonne oft, Cx.] of þis lyf; but noon slow hym|self of alle holy seyntes. Þanne ȝif it is good to lyve, it is sacrelegy*. [sacrelege, β.; sacrylege, Cx.] to forsake it unskilfulliche;*. [unskylfolych, γ.; unrightfully, Cx.] ȝif it is glorious to dy*. [dye, Cx.] in batyale I wiþ seie*. [wiþsegge, β.; withsey hit, Cx.] it nouȝt; and ȝif it is*. [be, Cx.] good to fiȝte for þe contray, for þe peple, and for þe citeȝeynes, and deie*. [dye, Cx.] in bataille, y*. [y potte, γ.; I, Cx.] putte forþ myn heed to be i-smyte of, ȝif þe enemy axith by lawe of bataile. Noþer I flatere*. [flaterye, α.; y flatrye γ.; flater, Cx.] wiþ my self ȝif it is to sparynge, be he my borwe*. [borowe, β.; borouȝ, γ.] me is*. [me is] i-hadde, Cx.] levere deye by here heste*. [þefte, α. and Cx.; þeofthe, γ.] þan by myn owne; ȝif ȝe seieþ*. [scyn, β.; seggeþ, γ.; saye, Cx.] þat it is swete to dye for fredom, Page  435, vol.4 I with seie*. [wiþsigge, β.; withsegge, γ.; withsay, Cx.] it nouȝt but it is swete to deye for fredom; he is feerful*. [ferfol, γ.] þat wil nouȝt deye whanne it nedeth; hit is a womman stalworthnesse for eny*. [ony, Cx.] to sle hym self. Bestes konneþ nouȝt*. [conne not, Cx.] doo so, for þeye*. [he, α.] diffendeþ*. [defende, Cx.] hemself aȝenst oþer bestes wiþ teeth*. [teþ, γ.] and wiþ clawes, but among hem self þey useþ*. [use, Cx.] cusses*. [cosses, α., β., and γ.] and likkynge and strokynge. God haþ i-take us oure lyf to kepe, but wheþer we doo we beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] to blame ȝif we þroweþ*. [throwe, Cx.] hit away wiþ oute [his]*. [From γ. and Cx.] axynge þat ȝaf it us, oþer ȝif we werneþ*. [warne, Cx.] for to take it as*. [as] at, Cx.] his axynge." Whanne þese wordes were i-seide,*. [sayd, Cx., et infra.] Iosephus sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] oon of hem þat stood by and*. [and] om. γ.] stryve*. [strof, β.; strove, Cx.] fastere þan oþere; þanne Iosephus seide, "Caste we lot*. [lotte, Cx.] who schal dye first and next,*. [laste, Cx.] and so forth of us alle, so þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] he þat schal dye first schal be slawe*. [slayne, Cx.] of hym þat schal dye next, and so everich*. [everyone, Cx.] aftir oþer." Þe condicioun plesede*. [plesyd, Cx.] hem alle, and so it happede þat þey were dede everichon*. [everichon] al, Cx.] save Iosephus and oon othir. Þan Iosephus counsailled*. [counceyled, Cx.] his felawe to Page  437, vol.4 forsake his lot, and þerby he scaped*. [ascaped, β.; escaped, Cx.] peril at home, and so he was i-brouȝt to Vaspacianus. Iosephus, libro 5o.*. [6o, Cx.] At þe laste Vaspacianus was i-cleped*. [callyd, Cx.] to be emperour, and his sone Titus was i-left at þe sege*. [siege, Cx.] of Ierusalem, and wente in a day wiþ sixe hondred horsmen wiþ oute habergeouns*. [haberions, β., γ., and Cx.] aboute for to see þe citee, and Iewes come oute and closede hym*. [them, Cx.] yn byhynde; and he whette his herte and wil wiþ hardynesse,*. [hardines, Cx.] and rood manliche þoruȝ oute þe*. [rode manly thorough the, Cx.] company of Iewes, and come to his owne men; and for grete drede he*. [he] om. Cx.] leieþ*. [leyþ, α. and β.; aledged, Cx.; γ. is very indistinct, but seems to be alete.] ofte grete wrethe, þey þat were in whanhope*. [wanhope, β., γ., and Cx.] in þe citee confe|therede*. [conforted, Cx.] to gidres in þe mene tyme; and meny of þe Iewes preide*. [prayed, Cx.] pees*. [pes, γ.] of Titus, ad*. [and, Cx.] Titus dradde gile and tresoun, and seide to hys men, "As þey þat beeþ byneþe useþ*. [ben bineth useth, Cx.] waitynge and aspyenge,*. [aspiyng, β. (bis) and Cx.; spy|yng, γ. (bis).] so it nedeþ*. [neodeþ, γ.] hem þat beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] strengere to be war of suche waytynge and spienge,*. [espieng, Cx.] leste strengþe be bytrayed by fraud and by gile." Þanne þe firste wil*. [wal, β., γ., and Cx.] was i-broke wiþ an engyne, and Titus counsailleþ*. [counseyled, Cx.] his men for|to*. [forto] to, α., γ., and Cx.]Page  439, vol.4 fiȝte warliche,*. [warly, Cx.] ffor ȝif*. [ȝef, γ. (bis).] þere*. [they, Cx.] lacked counsaile strengþe shulde seme but folie; also in þe victorie is most drede, ffor ȝif*. [ȝef, γ. (bis).] þe strengere deyeþ*. [dyeth, Cx.] with the febelere,*. [febler, Cx.] þat is a victorie to hym þat is overcome. Þanne þe secounde wal was i|quasched,*. [yquaysched, γ.] and Titus profreþ*. [proferid, Cx.] pees, but in þe Iewen*. [Iewene, γ.; Iewes, Cx.] side Symon and Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] wiþ seide; þan fil*. [ful, γ.] so greet cruelnesse*. [cruwelnesse, β.] and honger in þe citee þat biggynge*. [buggyng and syllyng, γ.; byeng, Cx.] and sellynge*. [sillinge, β.] cesede,*. [ceesede, β.; seesid, Cx.] and so dede rostynge and seþinge*. [seoþyng, γ.] and greyþinge*. [dressyng, Cx.] of mete. Men ete skynnes of scheldes and of cast*. [outcast, β.; of castyng, γ.; sheldes and out caste, Cx.] of herbes þat clevede on þe walles, and filþe*. [fulthe, γ.] þat men hadde y-spewed*. [yspuwed, γ.] and i-cast up; and men soute olde dritte*. [drit, β.; dryt, γ.; dyrte, Cx.] of reþeren,*. [of reþeren] om. Cx.; ruþeren, β.; roþeron, γ.] skynnes of addres, and careyn of hors*. [horses, β. and Cx.] forto have to mete. Hit was liȝter for to gete mercy among here enemyes þan among here owne men. Galewes*. [Galwes, β.; Galowes, Cx.; Galwes and gebetes, γ.] and gibbettes were i-sette on*. [upon, Cx.] þe walles, for no man schulde flee*. [fleo, γ.] takyng deth and prisonninge wiþ oute and honger wiþ ynne, and drede in every*. [evereche, β.] side. Titus made a new Page  441, vol.4 wal þat byclipped*. [closed, Cx.] fourty forlonges aboute þe citee, and þe tentes and pavilouns byclipped*. [pavilons closed, Cx.] ten forlonges; and wardes and wacches*. [watches, Cx.] were i-sette þat no man schulde askape.*. [escape, Cx.] At þe laste the honger encresed*. [encressede, γ.; encreced, Cx.] soo þat ofte he þat bare þe deed man to his buryenge was i-buried raþer than he. There was so greet stenche of dede men, for þe grounde of þe citee sufficede nouȝt to buriels*. [suffysed not to beryels, Cx.] þat [the]*. [From Cx.; ne, β.] careyns were y-þrowe by þe sondes*. [þousondes, γ.] over þe walles. Whan Titus syȝ*. [sye, Cx.] þat,*. [and inserted in β.] he seide ofte he hadde [y-]*. [hadde y-] om. Cx.] profred mercy; but meny fliȝ*. [fled, Cx.] to þe Romayns, and whan me ȝaf hem mete þer was no strengþe forto ete oþer for to deffie*. [defye, α., β., and Cx.] þe*. [þe] theyr, Cx.] mete þat þey ete. Som of hem þat flye,*. [fled, Cx.] whanne þey clensid hir wombe, delyvered hem of ieweles*. [juels, β. and Cx.; jywels, γ.] of gold þat þey hadde i-swolwed to fore*. [swolewide tofore, β.; swolowed afore, Cx.] þat þey flyȝ,*. [fled, Cx.] for þe enemyes schulde not suche iewels openliche*. [openly suche juels, Cx.] fynde. Oon of þe Assiries*. [Assyres, β.; Assires, γ.] aspied þat doynge by oon þat hadde y-schete*. [schite, β.; cacked, Cx.] golde, and trowede þat alle þe Iewes hadde Page  443, vol.4 gold wiþ ynne hem. Þan þe Iewes þat fligh*. [fled, Cx.] to þe Romayns were y-oponed, aȝenst Titus his heste, and þe wombe*. [wombes, Cx.] and þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] bowels were i-slitte and y-turned*. [torne, α.; ycorve, β. and γ.; corven, Cx.] to seche gold wiþ ynne. Titus made Iosephus to fonde*. [foonde, β.; wete, Cx.] ȝif he myte make þe Iewes ȝelde*. [ȝulde, γ.] hem wiþ oute more harme, ȝif he myghte wiþ writynge, wiþ ensamples,*. [ensaumplis, β.] wiþ faire byhestes, [oþer]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] wiþ teres; but al [was]*. [From Cx.] for noȝt. Ioseus, libro 6o. But Symon and Iohn,*. [Iohan, Cx.] with here fautoures,*. [fautors, Cx.] stopped þe wayes al aboute, so þat the Iewes hadde no wey outward, noþer þe Romayns inward. Houses*. [Hous, α. and γ.] were besiliche*. [bisilich, β.; bysily, Cx.] y-serched*. [ysarched, γ.] ȝif out*. [ought, Cx., bis.] myȝt be y-founde, þat*. [þat] and yf, β. and Cx.] eny man wened*. [werned, α. and β.; weorned, γ.; warned, Cx.] out*. [oȝt, γ.] he was anon i-slawe. At þe laste wyfes cauȝte mete of hir housbondes mouþ, and fadir and modir of hir owne children*. [chyldern, γ.] mouth. ȝif eny*. [ony, Cx.] dore were i-tend,*. [tynde, β.; ytund, γ.; hytste, Cx.] anon me trowede*. [trouwede, γ.] þat som men*. [man, β. and Cx.] ete þerynne, þerfore anon the hous was i-broke; þe pore men were i-spoylled and*. [i-spoylled and] om. Cx.] i-robbed, [and]*. [From Cx.] þe riche were Page  445, vol.4 accused for hir money, as þouȝ they wolde flee oþer be|traye*. [bytray, Cx.] þe citee, and were i-slawe. Egesippus, libro 5o,*. [sexto, Cx.]et Ioseus, libro 7o. So*. [þo, α.; than, Cx.] byfel þat griseliche*. [gryslych, γ. (tris).] dede,*. [grisely dethe, Cx.] a straunge womman, þat heet Marye, was overcome wiþ honger, and spak to hir owne litel*. [lytell, Cx.] sone in þis manere: "Myn owne sone,*. [my sone, Cx.] þu art bysette aboute wiþ al þing þat is griseliche*. [gryslych, γ. (tris).] and dreed|ful,*. [grisely and dredeful, Cx.] wiþ bataille, wiþ hongir, wiþ fuyre brennynge, and with þeves.*. [þeoves, γ.] Quyte ones þy modir, and paye hir þat þou hast of hir i-fonge*. [i-fonge] om. Cx.] [and]*. [From Cx.] torne aȝen into þat*. [þat] thy, Cx.] prive*. [pryvey, Cx.] place þat þou come of. Somtyme I dede*. [y dude, γ.] as myldenesse wolde, doo we now as hunger counsailleþ."*. [constreyneth, Cx.] Þus sche*. [heo, β.] seide,*. [sethed, Cx.] and rostid hir owne sone, and eet som,*. [somme, Cx., bis.] and kept som. Bot*. [But, Cx.] men þat made stryf com þider*. [þuder, γ.] by þe smel of þe brende*. [brent, β.; brente, Cx.] flesche; but þe womman stilled hem, and spak to hem in þis manere: "Beþ*. [Be, Cx.] stille, I was nouȝt*. [nouȝt] om. Cx.] coveitous and unkynde, I*. [Ich, β.] have y-kept Page  447, vol.4 ȝow ȝoure parte;" and sche*. [heo, β.] spak to þe part þat was i-left in þis manere: "Myn owne sone, þou art kynde*. [kuynde, γ.] to me, þou lengþest*. [lengest, Cx.] my lyf; þou seesist*. [cesest, β. and Cx.; cessed, γ.] hem þat wolde me smyte, þey þat come to slee me, beeþ*. [kuynde, γ.] i-made now my frendes and gestes; þanne takeþ*. [tasteþ, α., β., and Cx.] what ȝe knoweþ*. [knowe, Cx.] þat þe childes modir haþ i-tasted, oþer elles I*. [ellys ye, Cx.] schal ete al in feere.*. [yfere, β., γ., and Cx.] Schame ȝow nouȝt to folwe a womman þat ȝe haveþ*. [have, Cx.] y-made ete*. [ete] om. Cx.] in þis manere." Anon þe citee was ful of þe clamour of þis griseliche*. [grisely, Cx.] dede. And Titus was so i|meoved*. [meved, β. and Cx.] þerwiþ, þat he ȝaf*. [haf, α., β., and γ.] up his hondes to heveneward and seide, "We come to a bataille of men, but now I see þat we fiȝteþ*. [fyghte, Cx.] aȝenst bestes; ȝit bestes*. [bestes ȝut, γ.] rampaunt spareþ*. [spare, Cx.] her owne kynde,*. [kuynde, γ.] be þey nevere so nedy,*. [neody, γ.] and helpeþ*. [helpith, Cx.] her owne children; but þese men devoureþ*. [devoreþ and freteþ, γ.; devoure, Cx.] here owne children: þanne destroye*. [destruye, β. and γ.] we hem, for alle hir dedes stinkeþ."*. [stinken, Cx.]Iosephus, libro 7o. Among þe Romayns was oon of Siria*. [Ciria, Cx.]Page  449, vol.4 þat heet Sabinus, an orped man and a*. [α] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] stalworþe of honde and of herte, and worþy [for]*. [From Cx.] to be i-preysed wiþ oute ende; þis was blak of hewe and litel*. [litul, γ.] of stature, but a noble soule schoon*. [schone, β.; shone, Cx.] by virtues in þat litel*. [lytul, γ.] body. Þis wiþ enlevene*. [enleven, γ.] felawes wente uppon þe wal*. [walle, Cx.] first, and droof*. [drof, β.; drofe, Cx.] awey þe Iewes; but at þe laste he was aleyde*. [aleyd, γ.; afelled, Cx.] wiþ a stoon, and he despisede and rouȝt*. [rowhte, Cx.] nouȝt of arwes and [of]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] stones, but he diffendid hym wiþ his schilde,*. [shelde, Cx.] and fauȝte uppon his knees,*. [knen, β. and γ.] and woundede meny men alwey, for to*. [to] om. Cx.; for to þat, γ.] he was ful of arewes and of schot,*. [shot, Cx.] and þoruȝ schot*. [thorough shote, Cx.] in every side, and deyde*. [dede, β.; ded, γ.] in þe place. Egesippus. At þe laste þe engynes were remeved*. [remeoved, γ.] toward þe temple, but it halpe but lite,*. [litel, β.; lytil, Cx.] but at þe laste þey brende þe valves*. [walles, Cx.] of þe temple þat were i-heled wit gold. ℞. Here Iosephus telleþ þat þis mescheef and destroyenge*. [distruyynge, β.; destruyyng. γ.] of þe citee and of þe peple bifel*. [befil, Cx.] for þe deeth and sleynge of Iames þe riȝtful, but more verreyliche*. [veryly, Cx.] it bifel*. [fil, Cx.] for þe Page  451, vol.4 sleynge of Crist, as þe gospelle seiþ: "þey schulleþ*. [a scholleþ, γ.] nouȝt*. [shulle not, Cx.] leve*. [leeve, β.] in þe*. [In þe] om. Cx.] [one]*. [From Cx.] stoon uppon [a]*. [From Cx.] stoon, for þou knowest nouȝt þe tyme of þyne*. [þyne] om. Cx.] visitacioun." But for*. [for] om. Cx.] oure Lord wil*. [wole, β.; wol, Cx.] nouȝt þe deeth of a synful man, but he wole*. [wil, α.; wol, Cx.] þat þe synful man amende hym, and torne to good lyf; and for þe Iewes schulde have noon excusacioun noþer chalange*. [chalenge, Cx.] noþer cause for to seie*. [segge, γ.; saye, Cx.] þat God Almyȝty toke wreche of hem unwarned; þerfore God Almyȝty abood*. [abode, Cx.] fourty ȝere ȝif þey wolde amende hem,*. [hem] om. Cx.] and warnede ofte by prechynge of þe apostles, by dredful signes and tokenes.*. [tokyns, Cx.]Egesippus et Iosephus, libro 7o. For aboute a ȝere to for*. [byfore, Cx.] þe destruccion of þe citee, þe liknes of a [fyre]*. [From Cx.; α. has fourty; fuyry, β. and γ.] swerd was y-seie honge in þe ayer*. [air, Cx.] above in*. [in] om. Cx.] þe temple. [In þat Ester*. [Estern, Cx.] tyde an hoyffer*. [heffre, β. and Cx.; heyfre, γ.] þat schulde be y-offred in þe temple]*. [From α. and γ.] enyed*. [enede, α. and γ.; ened, β.; ewed, Cx.] a lomb. Also þe Est ȝate of þe temple, þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] was so hevy of Page  453, vol.4 sound bras þat twenty men were besy i-now for to tende*. [tynde, α.; tyne, β.; tuynde, γ.; lyfte, Cx.] it, and ȝit many nyȝtes þe iren barres were i-broke,*. [to-broke, γ.] and þe ȝate opened by hymself*. [hit self, β. and Cx.; hytsylf, γ.] as it were wilfulliche,*. [wylfully, Cx.] so þat unneþe it myȝte be i-closed aftirward. Also oostes*. [hostes, α., γ., and Cx.] of armed men were i-seie in þe clouds, and chariotes flee by þe*. [þe] om. α.] ayer.*. [eyr, β.] And*. [At, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Witsontyde preosts wente into þe temple by nyght, and herde a voys þat seide, "Goo we hennes*. [hens, Cx.]; passe we out of þese seges." Also Iesus Ananias his sone, an uplondische man, foure ȝere tofore*. [afore, Cx.] þe destruction of þe citee, come to þe sacrefice of þe dedicacioun of the temple, and bygan to crie in þe lon|gage of þe contre,*. [countray, Cx.] and seide, "A voys out of þe Est, a vois out of the West, a vois out of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] foure wyndes; wo, wo, wo is [to]*. [From Cx.] Ierusalem and þe temple. He cried so day and nyȝt, and cesede*. [cessed, Cx., et infra.] nevere for betynge, noþer for fair*. [fayer, Cx.] prayenge; and ȝit he was y-bore*. [brouȝt, β.; broughte afore, Cx.] tofore Albynus, þe iustice of Rome, and harde and cruelliche*. [cruwelych, γ.] bylad. But he rouȝt nouȝt of his owne*. [owne] om. Cx.] [wrong, noþer of his owne]*. [From α., β., and γ.] meschif, but cried þat þe contray schulde be destroyede,*. [distried, β.] and cesede nouȝt or*. [er, β. and Cx.; ar, γ.] þe laste day of þe Page  455, vol.4 destruccioun; and þat day he wente uppon þe wal and rehersed*. [reherced, Cx.] the same cry, and putte more þerto,*. [potte more to, γ.] and seide, "Wo is me also," and was anon i-smyte wiþ a stoon of a slynge, and deyde. [℞.]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Marianus, libro primo, seiþ þat whan þe temple was i-brend þe flore*. [flour, α.; floor, γ.; floore, Cx.] þerof was i-ered*. [anon, added in γ.] wiþ plowes for wrethe*. [wreche, Cx.] and despite of þe Iewes. Ieromus*. [Ieronimus, Cx.]in prologo super Ioseph. Whanne þe citee was destroyed, Titus wente to Rome, and ladde with hym Iosephus þe Iewe, þat wroot anoon in Grewe*. [Grue, β. and Cx.; Gru, γ.] sevene bookes of þe takyng of Iewes, and Titus dede þese bookes into þe comoun*. [comyn, Cx.] librarie; and Iosephus after his deth hadde an ymage at Rome y-made of his noble wit.*. [wytte, Cx.] Also þis Iosephus wroot of doynge and dedes from þe bygynnynge of þe world to Domicianus his tyme,*. [his tyme] om. Cx.] twenty bookes, þat beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] i-cleped libri antiquitatum, þe bookes of eelde*. [olde, Cx.]; in þe eyȝteþe book þerof he graunteþ and knowlecheþ*. [knowledgeth, Cx.] þat Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] Baptist was a verray prophete,*. [very profyte, Cx.] and þat Ierusalem was destroyed by Page  457, vol.4 cause of þe slauȝter*. [sklaunder, Cx.] of Iames þe riȝtful. Also þere he seiþ þat Crist was a wise man, and dede meny wonderful werkes and dedes, and þat he was doctour and techer of þe Iewes and of oþer men, and i-slawe*. [slayne, Cx.] at þe laste for envie, and schewed hym to his disciples þe þridde day after; and þat Cristendom and þe name of Cristen men fayled nouȝt*. [nouȝt] om. β.] anon to*. [failed never to, Cx.] þat tyme. Vaspacianus diede in þe flux in*. [aboute, Cx.] his owne toun, aboute þe Sabyns, þe ȝere of his age þrescore and ten; me seith þat he stood up whanne he schulde dye, and seide, "It falleþ for an emperour to*. [to] om. γ.] passe stondinge out of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] erþe.*. [eorþe, γ.]" Giraldus in Topographia. Appolinaris, Peter his disciple, þat was some tyme i-send to Ravenna, suffreþ*. [suffred, Cx.] deth. Everiche ȝere in his feste day ravons,*. [ravenes, β. and Cx.; revons, γ.] crowes, and chouȝhes*. [chouȝes, β.; chouȝwes, γ.; chowes comen, Cx.] comeþ þider to gidres*. [þuder to gedres, γ.; theder to gyders, Cx.] out of everiche side, as it were by covenant y-made; and þat day as it were by custome*. [customme, Cx.] is i-ȝeve*. [ȝeven, β.] hem a careyn of a deed*. [deede, β.] hors; þerfore Page  459, vol.4 som men wil*. [wol, Cx.] mene þat bybance*. [bybause, α.; bycause, β. and Cx.] þerof þat citee is i-cleped in duchisshe*. [duchysse, β.; duychysch, γ.; duche, Cx.] speche*. [spe, α.] Ravennesburgh.*. [Revenesburgh, β. and γ.]Titus.*. [Eutropius, γ. and Cx.]