Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Incipit Liber Tertius.

Capitulum Primum.

THE fourth*. [fyth, Cx.] age of þe world bygan from þe transmygra|cioun of þe Iewes and þe brennynge of þe temple, þat was i-do þe enleuenþe ȝere of Zedechias. Þerfore who þat wil rekene seuenty ȝere of þe prisonynge and bondage of þe*. [Cx. omits þe.] Iewes from þis enleuenþe ȝere of Sedechias, as Eusebius dede by auc|torite of Zacharie þe prophete, þan he schulde*. [shal, Cx. and γ.] ende þis Page  107, vol.3 seuenty ȝere in þe secounde ȝere of Darius, Itapsis his sone. But it semeþ þat Iosephus and Ierom his glose rekeneþ*. [reken, Cx.] þese seuenty ȝere from [þe]*. [From α.] þrittene ȝere of Iosyas þe kyng, in þe whiche ȝere Ieremyas gan*. [began, Cx.] to prophecie, anon to þe firste ȝere of Cirus. Noþeles*. [Cx. omits, Noþeles som . . . . . laste ȝere of Cirus. Evidently an error.] som rekeneþ þese seuenty ȝere from þe laste ȝere of Ioachym anon to þe laste ȝere of Cirus; but rediliche*. [redlych, γ.] forto acounte, þe seuenty ȝeres þat endeþ in þe þridde [yere]*. [Cx.] oþer in þe laste ȝere of Cirus, beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] propurliche þe ȝeres of takynge and bondage of þe Iewes. But þe ȝeres þat endeþ in þe þridde*. [second, Cx and γ.] ȝere of Darius, beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] propurliche þe ȝeres of þe fulle*. [folle, γ.] transmygracioun and of þe destroyenge of þe temple. Petrus, libro 15o, capitulo 4o.*. [libro 154o, α., Cx., and β.] Þe men of Iuda dredde*. [drad, Cx.; dradde, β. and γ.] þe face of kyng*. [Cx. omits kyng.] Nabugodonosor for þe deth of Godolyas, whom*. [wham hy, γ.] they hadde i-slawe; þerfore þey wente wiþ hir children and*. [γ. adds wiþ al here.] catel in to Egipt. And Ieremye*. [Ieremias, Cx.] wente wiþ hem aȝenst hir wille, and for he prophecied alwey þat þey þat wente into Egipt at þat tyme schulde be destroyede, þerfore þei stonede*. [stenede, γ.]Page  109, vol.3 hym to dethe, þe fourþe ȝere of þat transmigracioun. Noþeles þe Egipcians worschippede þe prophete, and buried hym bysides þe buriels of kynges, for he hadde wiþ his prayers y-dryue away addres and cokedrilles*. [the eddres & cocadrilles, Cx.; and below; cocodrilles, γ.] from þe Egypcians. Trevisa. A cokedrille*. [cocodryl, γ.] is a foure foted best þat lyueþ boþe in water and in lond, and is comounliche*. [cominly, Cx.; comynlych, γ.] twenty cubite long, wiþ clawes and teeþ strongliche i-armed; his skyn is so harde þat he reccheþ*. [rekketh, Cx.] nouȝt of strookes of harde stones; he*. [α, γ., as usual. This pecu|liarity I shall cease to notice.] resteþ*. [rested, Cx.] by day in water and by nyȝte in londe; þe cokedrille*. [cocadrylle, Cx.; cocodril, γ.] allone*. [alon, γ.] among bestes meoueþ*. [meueþ, γ; moeneth, Cx.] þe ouer iawe,*. [jowe, α. and Cx.; geowe, γ.] so seiþ Isidre. Þanne it*. [hyt, γ.] foloweþ in þe storie, also þe prophetes*. [prophete, α., β., and Cx.; pro|phet, γ.] ȝaf*. [syg a tokon, γ.] a tokene to þe kynges of Egipt þat here mawmettis schulde*. [schulden, β.] falle whanne a mayde hadde i-bore a childe. Þerfore the preostes of mys|byleued men ordeynede hem*. [ham, γ.] an ymage of a mayde with a childe, and worschipped it in a priue place in*. [within, Cx.] þe temple. Also þis*. [þes, γ.] Ieremyas knewe þat þe temple*. [of Jewes] added in γ.] schulde be destroyed, and took þe schryne of þe testament wiþ what þere was ynne,*. [with al that was therein, Cx.] and made hit þoruȝ his prayers*. [prayeris, β.] be i-swelowed*. [yswolwet, γ.] in to a stoon by|twene Page  111, vol.3 þe hilles of wildernesse. Þere*. [where, Cx.] Moyses and Aaron beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] i-buried, and he marked þe stoon wiþ his fynger, and he*. [he] om. α. and Cx.] wroot þerynne Goddes owne name: and from þat tyme hiderto and to þe worldes ende þe stone is i-hid*. [yhud, γ.] wiþ a clowde, so þat þe place may nouȝt be knowe, noþer þat name of God may [nouȝt]*. [From α.] be rad.*. [redde, Cx.; yrad, γ.] Me semeþ*. [seiþ, α., β., and γ.; Me seyth, Cx.] þat in*. [atte, Cx.] þe firste arisynge at þe day of dome, Moyses and Aaron schulde*. [shal, Cx.; schul, γ.] brynge þat schryne, and sette hit on þat*. [the, Cx.; þe hul, γ.] hille Syna. Þere þe holy halowes schal be gadered to abyde þe ȝen*. [ayene, Cx.; aȝegoyng, γ.; ȝe|goynge, β.] goynge of God. [The]*. [Cx.] kyng Nabugodonosor, þe four*. [ferþe, γ.] and twenty*. [twentiþe, α.; xxiiij., Cx.] ȝere of his kyng|dom, wente doun [in]*. [Cx.] to Siria, and made soget*. [subget, Cx.] [to him]*. [Cx.] Amon and Moab, and ouercom Egipte, and slowȝ þe kyng of Egipte, and ordeyned þere anoþer kyng. Also at þe laste þe Iewes þat he fond þere he ladde hem*. [hem] om. Cx.; ham, γ.] into Babilon. Nabu|godonosor, þe secounde ȝere of his kyngdom, mette þe sweuene*. [sweuon, γ.] of þe ymage of foure manere þinges i-made, and was ful sore aferde. Þis secounde ȝere is nouȝt acounted from þe firste Page  113, vol.3 bygynnynge of his kyngdom. [but from his grete kyngdom,]*. [α. and γ.] whan he hadde i-made suget*. [subget, Cx.] oþer naciouns aboute, and i-brouȝt þe relyf*. [relef, α. and γ.; relyef, Cx.; re|lif, β.] of Israel and of Iuda out of Egipte. Þat ȝere byfel þe secounde siȝt and visioun of Daniel, of þe aungel þat delyuerede þe children out of þe ouene. Þat ȝere byfel*. [bifil, β.] þe þridde visioun, þat is i-cleped þe kynges pistul,*. [pistle, Cx.; pistyl, γ.] in þe whiche*. [whuch, γ.] he telleþ þat he was hym self bytokened by þe tree þat was i-seie,*. [yseen, Cx.; yseye, γ.] and at þe laste for his pride*. [pruyde, γ.] he schulde be schape tofore*. [bifore, Cx.] as an oxe, and be hynde*. [bihynde, Cx.; byhynde, γ.] as a lioun; nouȝt by chaungynge of body, but by chaungynge of disposicioun of wit and of semynge; and þat he schulde ete hey as an oxe forto*. [till, Cx.; fort þat, γ.] seuen tymes were i-torned into seuen monþes at þe prayer of Daniel. Petrus 16o. After þe whiche*. [whoch, γ.] tyme he was i-chaunged aȝen into his owne schappe; but he regnede na more, but he ordeynede seuen iuges for hym self, and dede penaunce anoon to þe seuen ȝere ende; and ete*. [eet, γ.] no brede noþer flesche, and*. [ne, Cx.] drank no wyn; but ete*. [eet, γ.] herbes and potage ware*. [ware] om. Cx.] by þe coun|seil Page  115, vol.3 of Daniel. Seruius Tullius, þe sixte [kyng]*. [Cx.] of Ro|mayns, come after Tarquinius Priscus, and wedded*. [weddid, β. (the common termi|nation in this MS.)] his douȝter, and regned foure and þritty*. [twenty, Cx.] ȝere. Eutropius, libro primo. Þis*. [þes, γ., passim.] was a noble womman*. [womans, Cx.] sone þat was i-take; he ȝaf þre hilles to þe citee of Rome, Quirinal, Esquilinus,*. [Equilinus, Cx.] and Viminal, and made diches aboute þe citee; þis ordeyned first personal tribute to þe Romayns; in his tyme were i-founde eiȝte hon|dred þowsand and seuene þowsand burgeys*. [burges, Cx.; borgeys, γ.] in Rome. Titus. Þis hadde i-maried his douȝter Tullia to oon Tarquinius Su|perbus. Sche*. [heo, β., γ.] made hire*. [heore, γ.] owne housbonde to conspire wiþ þe comounte*. [comynte, Cx.; comnete, γ.] of Rome and þe senatoures forto slee here owne fadres.*. [fader, Cx. and α.] Þerfore þis Tarquinius mette wiþ a*. [þe, α. and Cx.] kyng in*. [upon, Cx.] a tyme, and þrewe hym doun of a staire, and so þe kyng was sore i-hert and wente homwarde,*. [hamward, γ.] and was i-slawe by þe weie of men þat*. [of, α.; that, Cx.] Tarquinius hadde i-hered*. [yhyred, γ.] to doo þat false dede. And Tullia þe kynges douȝter*. [hurde, γ.] herde þerof, [and]*. [Cx.] sche*. [sche] om. Cx.] took hir*. [heore, γ.] chaar*. [char, Cx.] and wente forto grete hir*. [heore, γ.] housbonde þat was made newe kyng, and by þe weie sche*. [a lad, γ.; heo, β.] ladde hir chaar*. [chare, Cx.] ouer Page  117, vol.3 hir*. [heore, γ.] fader body. Ezechiel þe prophete was i-drawe*. [to drawe, α., β., and γ.; to drawen, Cx.] wiþ hors*. [horses, Cx.; horsis, β.] in Caldea by þe doynge of hem*. [ham, γ., passim.] þat were i-lefte of the lynages of Dan and of Gad, and þat for he hadde i-warned hem þat þei*. [ham þat hy, γ.] schulde not come aȝen to Ierusalem. Also þat ȝere he sigh*. [saw, Cx.; syȝ, γ.] visiouns and siȝtes*. [sightes and visions, Cx.] of þe newynge of þe temple. [Iosephus, libro 10, capitulo 11o.]*. [From α.]

Capitulum secundum.

AFTER þe grete Nabugodonosor, [his sone Nabugodonosor]*. [α. and γ.] regnede in Babilon ten ȝere. He putte*. [pot, γ.] moche more to his fader realte*. [rialte, β.]; for Megasten, in libro Iudiciorum, seiþ þat in strengþe and grete dedes he passede Hercules, and he destroyed*. [destruyde, γ.] Libia and Hiberia, and [pulled and]*. [Cx.] drowȝ out of*. [of] om. α.] places greet stoones as it were hilles, and sette þere treen, and made þere an orcharde þat was i-cleped suspensilis, þat his wif myȝte stonde in þat orcharde and see hoom*. [hom, γ.] in to hir owne contray Page  119, vol.3 where sche*. [α, γ.; heo, β.] was i-bore: his wif*. [and she, Cx.] was Darius douȝter. Darius was Astrages sone. Astrages heet Assuerus also. Also þis kyng byseged Tyrus þre ȝere and þre monþes. [℞]*. [From α. and γ.] Noþeles Marcianus spekeþ nouȝt of þis secounde Nabugodonosor; but he seiþ þat Enilmarodach*. [Enilmarodoth, Cx.] and Balthasar were tweyne*. [tweyne] om. Cx.; tweie, α.; twey, β. and γ.] breþeren. Þat tyme were in here floures Anaximander and Anaximenes, philosofres, Tales his disciples. Petrus 162. Þis Nabugodonozor his broþer, Enilmerodach, bygan to regne whan his broþer was dede, and a noon he took up*. [up] om. Cx.] Ioachym kyng of Iuda out of prisoun, þat hadde i-bee in prisoun and in bondes seuene and þritty ȝere; and he sette his trone aboue alle kynges trones*. [al kyngene trones, γ.] þat were wiþ hym in Babilon. He dede*. [dude, γ.] hym þis grace and mercy for his broþer Nabugodonosor, in þe tyme of his fader meschef,*. [meschyef, Cx.; meschief, γ.] hadde i-doo many euel dedes. And whanne his fader was restored aȝen to his owne schappe he hadde i-putte*. [he put, Cx.; ypot, γ.] his broþer Enilmerodach in prisoun, þat was accused*. [acuset, γ.] to his fader; and Ioachym was þere in prisoun anon to þe deth of þe secounde Nabugodonosor. Þerfore þis Enil|merodach, whan he gan*. [began, Cx.] to regne, took up*. [up] om. Cx.] Ioachym out of prisoun; for he dredde leste his fader wolde arise from deþ to Page  121, vol.3 lyue, as he was somtyme i-torned out of*. [from, Cx.] þe schap of a best in to þe schap of mankynde;*. [mankunde, γ.] and by counseile and lore of þis Ioachym he took up his fader body of þe erþe,*. [out of the erth his faders body, Cx.] and deled*. [cutte, Cx.] it in to an hondred parties,*. [peces, Cx.] and ȝaf it to þre hondred vul|tures to etynge,*. [deled the peces to an honderd vulters for to ete, Cx.] for Ioachym seide þat his fader schulde neuer arise or*. [rise er, Cx.; aryse ar, γ.] alle þe vultures come to gidres. Þis Enilmerodach hadde þre sones; oon hiȝte Egessarius and Regusar, þat oþer hatte Labosardachus, and þe þridde hiȝte Nabar and Balthasar, also to hym fil*. [fylle, Cx.; bifil, β.; ful, γ.] þe kyngdom. Petrus 169. In þis Enilmero|dach his tyme*. [was Suzanna accused, that is not . . ., Cx.] byfel þe storie of Susanne, þat is nouȝt in Danyel his book of Hebrew, but is i-cleped a fable, nouȝt for feynynge þat is þerynne, but for somwhat false i-radde*. [is rade, Cx.] þer|ynne of þe preostes, þat þey*. [α, γ.] were i-stened to dethe, for Ierom*. [Ierem, β.] seiþ þat þey*. [α, γ.] were i-brent in fire.*. [fier, β.] Also for we telleþ*. [saye, Cx.; telliþ, β.] þat it was i-write of Daniel, and noþeles hit was i-write of oon þat was of Grees;*. [Grece, β.; Gres, γ.] and þat semeþ wel by som manere acordynge of wordes þat is nouȝt*. [be not, Cx.] in Hebrewe.

Page  123, vol.3

Capitulum tertium.

BALTHASAR regnede in Caldea and in Babilon; in his firste ȝere [Daniel]*. [From α. and γ.] siȝe*. [sawe, Cx.] his fourþe*. [feorþe, β.] siȝte of þe foure wyndes of*. [in, Cx. and γ.] the see, þat is þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] foure anglis,*. [angels, Cx. and β.; angles, γ.] of þe foure bestes, of þe leon, þe beere,*. [beore, γ.] þe pardus, and þe boor, þat is [of]*. [Cx.] þe foure chef kyngdoms of þe world,*. [world, from Cx., β., and γ.; whiche, MS.] and of þe ten hornes, þat is [of]*. [Cx.] þe oþere ten smale kyngdoms þat sprang out of þe fourþe*. [ferþe, γ.] best, and schal be sodued*. [shold be subdued, Cx.; sudewide, β.; soduwed, γ.] of a litel horn, þat is Antecrist. Petrus 163. Þis Antecrist unworþy, of þe lynage of Dan, schal be bore*. [borne, Cx.] of þe seed of fader and [of]*. [Cx.] moder in a derk place of Babilon; and after þat he is conceyued an euel spirit schal alite*. [lyght, Cx.; alyȝt, γ.] in to his moder wombe, and by vertue of hym þe childe schalle afterward be i-fedde,*. [yued, β.] i-bore,*. [yned, born, Cx.] and wexe, and be cleped þe childe of lost and*. [losse or, Cx.] of lesynge,*. [leesing, β.; leosyng, γ.] and þre of*. [þre of, from α., β., γ., and Cx.; þerof, MS.] þe firste ten hornes beeþ i-smete*. [y-smyȝte, α.; smyten, Cx.] of his face; þat is to menynge*. [say, Cx.] he Page  125, vol.3 schal firste slee þre kynges of þilke ten kynges,*. [kynges] om. Cx.] þe kyng of Assiria,*. [Affrica, Cx.] þe kyng of Egipte, [and]*. [From α. and γ.] þe kyng of Ethiopia, and þan þe oþere seuene kynges schal ȝilde hem to þat [fals]*. [Cx.] victor Antecrist. He schal haue wonder witte and konnynge, for by wycchecraft*. [wytchecrafte, Cx.] he schal wirche wondres, and fynde tresour þat is hidde.*. [yhud, γ.] He schal circumcide*. [circumside, Cx.] hym, and clepe hym self Messias, þat is Crist. Iewes schalle falle on*. [on] om. Cx.] to hym, and he schal bulde þe temple aȝen, and sette his trone þerynne; he schal torne men to hym wiþ drede, wiþ ȝiftes, and wiþ wonder werkes þat he schal worche. He schal slee Ennoc and Hely; he schal greue God alle myȝty*. [almyghties, Cx.] his holy peple, þat schal be i-take*. [bitake, β.] into*. [bitaken unto, Cx.] his hond anon to þe tyme and tymes and half a tyme, þat is anon to þe*. [α, α., γ., and Cx.] ȝere and two ȝere and half a ȝere; and Remigius seiþ þat þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Antecrist schal feyne him i-slawe,*. [deed, Cx.] and arise [agayne];*. [Cx.] but at þe laste Crist schal slee hym oþer by his owne heste oþer by seruice of Seint Michel*. [Michael, Cx.; Mighel, β.] þe arch|angel: and Ieronimus*. [Jeromus, α.] super Danielem seiþ þat Antecrist schal be slawe in his owne tent in þe mount [of]*. [From α.] Olyuete: þere*. [where, Cx.] Crist stiȝe*. [steyȝ, α.; ascended, Cx.; stiȝ, β.; styȝ, γ.] in to heuene. And Remigius seiþ þat þe Crist*. [Crist, from Cx., β., and γ.; Antecriste, MS.] schal nouȝt come to*. [unto, Cx.] þe dome anon as þe Ante|Crist*. [till Antecrist, Cx.] is i-slawe; but men þat schal be saued schal haue fyue Page  127, vol.3 and fourty dayes forto do penaunce. Þerfore take hede þat þeigh it be writte in Mattheu and in Mark 13o, þat no man knoweþ þat hour but þe fader allone, ȝit Goddes sone knoweþ it, for he is þe same God þat is þe fader. But þerfore it is seide þat he knoweþ it nouȝt, for he makeþ not us knowe it þat beeþ his lemes*. [lymmes, Cx.] and holy chirche here in þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] erþe; it is nouȝt spedeful*. [spedfol, γ.] to us to knowe þat day. Austyn in glosa seiþ þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] þe laste day is unknowe to us for we schulde be war of alle, and sowe*. [Soo we, Cx.] schulde lyue*. [lybbe, γ.] alway as þey*. [þeyȝ, γ.] we schulde be demed to day oþer to morwe. Trogus, libro 2o. Aboute þat tyme at Athenes, after þe deþ of Salon þe wise, oon Phili|stratus bete*. [Phisistratus botte, Cx.; beote, β.] hym self þat he bledde, and seide þat*. [þe juges and] added in γ.] þe grete maistres hadde i-bete hym so for loue þat he hadde to þe peple and þe comounte.*. [comyntee, Cx.; comynte, γ.] Þerfore were meny knyȝtes i-sette forto*. [assigned to, Cx.] kepe hym, and he regnede at Athene foure and þritty ȝere. Polichronicon, libro octavo. Þus*. [þis, α.; þus, γ.] his wif*. [The wyf of this, Cx.] egged hym for to slee oon þat hadde ycused*. [y-cussed, α. and γ.; kysshed, Cx.; kisside, β.] his douȝter in þe hiȝe weye, and he answerede and seide, "ȝif we sleeþ hym þat loueþ*. [them that loven, Cx.] us, what schulle we doo to hym þat hateþ*. [hem that haten, Cx.] us." Daniel seiȝ*. [siȝ, γ.] þe fifte siȝt and visioun of þe weder*. [whether or sheep, Cx.; weþer, γ.] þat hadde hornes nouȝt al i-liche, þat is to menynge*. [understande, Cx.] of þe kyngdom of [þe]*. [From α.]Page  129, vol.3 Medes and of Perses; and of þe goot bukke,*. [buck, Cx.] þat is þe grete Alisaundre*. [Alysander, Cx.] þat was i-drad and bytokened by þat book,*. [buk, Cx.; bokke, γ.] and on hym þrewe*. [grewe, Cx.] foure hornes þat were his successours. On*. [One, Cx.] litel horne, þat is Antiochus*. [Anthyochus, Cx.] Epiphanus, com of oon of*. [oon of] om. α.; one, Cx.] þe foure hornes, for he come of Seleucus, þat was somtyme plegge and prisoner at Rome; but he scaped þennes [and wente þennes],*. [Inserted in α. but not in Cx.] and werred in þe kyngdom, and defouled þe temple. Þe sixte siȝte of Daniel byfel*. [was, Cx.; bifil, β.; byful, γ.] whan Balthazar wiþ his concubynes drank of þe vessel of þe temple of oure Lord, whiche*. [þe whuch, γ.] vessel his graunsire*. [grauntsire, Cx.] þe grete Nabugodonosor hadde i-brouȝt out of Ierusalem. Balthasar seigh*. [sawe, Cx., et passim.] an hond write to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] hym in*. [on, Cx.] þe wal [these wordes],*. [Cx.] and wroot*. [and wroot] om. Cx.]Mane, techel, phares, þat is to mene,*. [understonde, Cx.] noumbre, wyȝte,*. [wight, Cx.] and delynge, Þan*. [which, Cx.] Danyel expowned and seide, "God haþ i-tolde and noum|bred þy kyngdom; þat is now fulfilde*. [folfuld, γ.] ffor þe firste; þou art i-weye on a balaunce and i-founde þat þou hast lasse; þat is, þou leuest*. [lyvest, Cx. and γ.] lasse while þan þou wendest,*. [wentest, γ.] for þe secounde: þy kyngdom is deled from þe, andi-ȝeue to þe Perses, for þe þridde." Page  131, vol.3 Þanne þe same nyȝt Cirus and Darius come and took þe citee Babilon, and slowh Balthasar. Orosius.*. [Oracius, Cx.] Whan Cirus hadde i-wonne þe est*. [eeste, Cx.] londes, and come towarde Paradys,*. [Babilon, α. and γ.; Babyloyn, Cx.] þe ryuer Eufrates lette hym, and a bolde knyȝt and a faire þat þe kyng louede wel, auntred*. [aventured, Cx.; auntride, β.] hym in to þe water and was adraynt.*. [drowned, Cx.; adreynt, γ.] Þanne þe kyng was sory and wrooþ, and made his auowe*. [afow, γ.] þat he wolde make þat greet ryuer so schalowe*. [schoolt, γ.; schoold, β.] þat*. [so shalde withoute depnesse that, Cx.] þe water schulde nouȝt reche*. [come, Cx.; tille to, β.; tylle to wymmen knen, γ.] to*. [tille, α.] women kneen*. [knees, Cx.] þat wolde wade over; þerfore in þe brode feeldes he departed þe ryuer in foure hundred and sixty*. [thre score, Cx.] chaneles, and so destroyed þe ryuer þat was i-wonte*. [ywond, γ.] to renne þoruȝ þe myddel of Babyloyne, and so enemyes wente ynne and took þe citee þat me wolde wene þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] myȝte nouȝt be bulde noþer destroyed by no manis dede. Petrus 16, 5.*. [165, α. and Cx.] Som telleþ*. [Somme wryte, Cx.] þat Balthasar his moder, for whom*. [wham, γ.] the orchard suspensilis was i-made, was Darii his douȝter,*. [Darius doughter, Cx.] and for Balthasar hadde no sone, Darius, Cirus his Page  133, vol.3 eme, i-socied to Cirus*. [Cyrus eame socyed and ioyned to Cyrus, Cx.] occupied þat kyngdom. Petrus [166].*. [From α. and γ.] Whan Balthasar was i-slawe, Darius tornede þe kyngdom of Babilon and of Caldea to þe Perses*. [Pers, γ.] and Medes. Þat ȝere byfel þe seuenþe siȝt*. [vysion, Cx.] of Daniel: ffor Daniel suede*. [sywede, γ.] Darius for to þat he was i-doo in þe pitte*. [put, α. and γ.; till he was done and putt in to the pitte, Cx.] of leons in Meda for [that]*. [Cx.] he worschipped his God. And þe same ȝere bifel þe eiȝte siȝte*. [echt avision, Cx.] of Danyel; for þe aungel Gabriel certefied hym of þe fynel*. [fynal, γ.] taking and bondage þat was to*. [þat was to] om. Cx.] comynge by þe Romayns, and of þe comynge of Crist after seuenty wokes*. [wekes, Cx.] of ȝeres. For Gabriel seide seuenty schort wokes beeþ uppon þe*. [thy, Cx. and γ.] peple, þere*. [that be wekes sette not of dayes but of yeres, Cx., and similarly, α., β., and γ.] beeþ wokes i-sette nouȝt of ȝeres but of dayes, so þat oon woke conteyneþ*. [weke conteyned, Cx.] seuene ȝere; and he seyþ*. [sayd, Cx.] schort wekes, for we schulde understonde ȝere*. [yeres, Cx. and γ.] of þe mone and nouȝt of þe sonne, for a ȝere of þe mone is schortere by enleuene dayes þan a ȝere*. [an yere, Cx.] [of þe sonne].*. [From α. and γ.]Trevisa. Þe*. [α, Cx.] ȝere of þe sonne is from a day of the ȝere to þe same anoþer ȝere; but þe ȝere of þe mone is from prime in a monþe*. [monethe, Cx., et infra.] of þe ȝere to þe firste prime in þe same monþe [of]*. [Cx.]Page  135, vol.3 anoþer ȝere, and þat wil be enleuene dayes raþer in þe secounde ȝere þan in þe firste ȝere: ensample, whanne prime gooþ by oon þanne falleþ the prime þe þre*. [þridde, γ.] and twenty day of Ianyuer,*. [Ianuary, Cx.] and þe next ȝere after it schal falle þe twelfþe*. [twelf, γ.] day of Ianyuer,*. [Ianuary, Cx.] and þat is enleuene dayes raþer. Þanne hit seweþ*. [sueþ, α. and Cx.; hyt folweþ, γ.] in þe storie,*. [thistory, Cx.] þanne seuenty wokes of ȝeres of þe sonne makeþ foure hondred ȝere foure score and ten; [but seuenty wokes of ȝeres of þe mone makeþ foure hondred yere foure score;*. [and fyue] added in γ.] and]*. [but seventy . . . score and] om. Cx., but inserted in α.] Beda rekeneþ þese*. [this, Cx.; þeos, γ.] seuenty wokes of ȝeres of þe mone from þe twentiþe*. [twenty, Cx.] ȝere of Artaxerses*. [Artaxzerses, Cx.] þe king. Þat ȝere Neomias hadde leue and bulde þe temple anon to þe eiȝtenþe ȝere of Tyberius Cesar, þat ȝere Crist suffrede deþ. Affricanus historicus*. [Affrycanus history, Cx.] accordeþ wiþ Beda touchinge the by|gynnynge, but*. [bote, γ., semper.] he endeþ þe seuenty wokes in þe fifteþe*. [xv., Cx.] ȝere of Tyberius Cesar, in þat ȝere Crist was i-cristened.*. [baptysed, Cx.; folewide, β.; yfolled, γ.] Ter|tullianus*. [Tercullianus, Cx.] rekeneþ þese*. [this, Cx.; þeos, γ.] ȝeres from þe firste ȝere of Darius. Þat ȝere was Goddes word i-schewed to Danyel forto þat Titus*. [till Titus, Cx.] destroyed þe temple. Þe nynþe siȝte*. [avision, Cx.] [of Danyel was]*. [Cx. and β.]Page  137, vol.3 of a man i-cloþed in lynnen, whos*. [whas, γ.] body was of crissolitus; and þe tenþe*. [teoþe, γ.] siȝt of þe after folwynge of þe kynges of Perse, and of þe kyng of*. [of] om. Cx.] Alisaundre his successoures, and of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Antecrist Daniel sigh*. [siȝ, γ.] þe þridde ȝere of Cirus kyng of Perse. [℞.]*. [Cx.] Hit is uncerteyn how longe Daniel lyuede, but noþeles me redeþ in þe firste chapitre of his book þat he durede anon to þe firste ȝere of Cirus.

Capitulum quartum.

AFTER þe deth of Darius of Medya, þat was i-made Assu|erus oþer*. [ether, Cx.] Astiages his sone, Cirus heeld þe hool*. [huld þe hole, γ.] kyngdom of þe est, and sette his see*. [se, γ.] in Persia, þey*. [Percia though, Cx.] þe kyngdom of Media were more worschipful, for þe men of Persia hadde auaunced*. [avaunside, β.] hym to [be]*. [Cx.] kyng. Þis Cirus was Darius his*. [his] om. α. and Cx.] suster sone, and Astiages suster*. [doughter, Cx. and γ.] sone. Trogus, libro primo. Astiages, þat heet*. [otherwyse called, Cx.] Assuerus, hadde but oon douȝter, and he Page  139, vol.3 mette in his slepe þat a vyne sprang out of his [douȝter]*. [From α.] priue chose, and by sprad al Asia. Þat*. [Than, Cx.; þanne, γ.] dreem rederes*. [dremredars, γ.] undrede*. [undude, γ.; undide, β.] þe*. [expowned this, Cx.] sweuene, and seide þat his douȝter schulde haue a childe þat schulde be lorde of Asia, and putte*. [pot, γ.] hym out his kyngdom.*. [out of it, Cx.] Þan þe kyng dradde, and ȝaf his douȝter to a sym|ple knyȝt þat was priuileche i-bore, for his douȝter schulde bere noon nobil*. [no noble, Cx.] childe; and also whan his douȝter was with childe he took hire*. [heore, γ.] to hym, and whan þe childe was i-bore he took it to oon Arpagus, þat was his secretarie, for he schulde slee þe childe. [And]*. [Cx.] he trowed þat þe kyngdom schulde somtyme falle to þe kynges douȝter, and toke*. [bitoke, Cx.] þe childe to an herde*. [heurde, γ.] þat kepte þe kynges [bestes],*. [Cx.] to legge hym in þe wode;*. [to ley the child in a woode, there to be devoured, Cx.] and whanne þe herde*. [heurde, γ.] hadde i-leide þe childe in þe woode and*. [he, Cx.] i-tolde his wif [thereof],*. [Cx.] fore þat*. [which was lyghter of child the same time, Cx.] sche*. [sche] om. α.] hadde a childe þe same tyme þat þe kynges douȝter hadd child,*. [þat . . . child] om. α. and Cx.] his wif*. [and she, Cx.] prayede þat he wolde brynge*. [fette, Cx.] to hire þe childe to Page  141, vol.3 norischynge,*. [and she wold nowrysshe him, Cx.] and that he wolde leie hire*. [legge heore, γ.] owne sone for hym in þe wode; and whanne þe herde come to þe childe, he fonde a bicche ȝeue þe childe*. [bytche yeuyng it, Cx.] souke, and kepte hym*. [it, Cx.] from bestes and foules. Petrus 173. And whanne þe childe was brouȝt to þe herdes wyf, he*. [it, Cx.; a made heore good semblaunt, γ.] made hire good semlaunt*. [semblaunt, Cx.] as þey he*. [it, Cx.] hadde i-knowe hir longe,*. [longe] om. Cx.] and sche*. [heo, β.] cleped þe child Spari|tatus,*. [Spartatus, α. and Cx.] þat is a whelp in þe longage of Perse; and whan þe childe was of age and strengþe [and]*. [Cx.] þat he couþe goo aboute and pleye wiþ children, his pleye feres cleped hym Cirus, and made hym here kyng in pleyes, and [he]*. [chastysede, Cx.; chastiside, β.] chastede*. [chastysede, Cx.; chastiside, β.] sore hem*. [ham, γ.] þat were rebel to his hestes. Þerfore children fadres*. [Wherfor the fader of the childre, Cx.; þe childern faders, γ.] were agreued, and playned*. [compleyned, Cx.; pleynede, γ.] to þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] kyng Astiages of*. [on, Cx.] þe herdes sone. Þanne þe kyng sente after þe childe, and axede why he ferde soo wiþ þe children. He answerede boldliche, and seide þat he dede [so]*. [Cx.] as a kyng schulde. Þe kyng wondrede þat þe childe was so bolde and [so]*. [Cx.] stedfast,*. [stydfast, Cx.; studefast, γ.] and took heede þat þe childe hadde signes and tokenes of a kyng, [and]*. [Cx.] he toke þe herde aside priueliche and lernede*. [leornede, γ.] þe soþe al how*. [hou, α.] it stood. Page  143, vol.3 Noþeles þe drede of his neuew was aslaked, for he trowed þat þe menynge of [his]*. [Cx.] drem rederes was fulfilled in þe kyngdom of children. Þerfore to þe same man Arpagus, to whom he hadde raþer i-take*. [bytake, Cx.] þe childe to slee, he bytook þo hym to norische and to fede, and tolde hym þat þat childe was þe herdes sone; but he made Aspargus priueliche ete his owne childe, for he hadde i-broke his heste; and whan he hadde ete*. [yete, γ.] his childe þoo*. [than, Cx.] he tolde hym [al]*. [Cx.] fore.*. [fore] om. Cx.; a told hym for, γ.] Hit byfel þat Astiages made þis Arpagus ledere*. [ledar, γ.] of his oost for to werre aȝenst his enemyes of Perse, and the kyng left hym self in Medya. Þan Arpagus byþouȝt hym and hadde [in]*. [Cx.] mynde of þat euel dede þat þe kyng hadde i-doo hym, and consaillede þe oost*. [conseyled thoost, Cx.] forto chese Cirus and make hym [the]*. [Cx.] kyng of Pers;*. [Perses, Cx.] and þo þey cleped hym*. [hem, Cx.] Cirus, as þey wolde mene, þeiȝ Astiages stryue, þis schal be heir.*. [eyr, β.]Petrus,*. [Trogus, α., γ., and Cx.]libro primo. In þe mene tyme Arpagus sente a lettre to Cirus for he schulde haue mynde how he saued hym and loste his owne childe by cause*. [for loue, Cx.] of him. Arpagus ne*. [ne] om. α. and Cx.] myȝte nouȝt send þis lettre openliche, for þe kynges war|deyns, Page  145, vol.3 and þerfore*. [for the kyng, therfor, Cx.] he took out the boweles of an hare, [and dede*. [put, Cx.; dude, γ.] þe lettre wiþ ynne þe haare,]*. [Added from α.] and for þe fraude schulde not be knowe he sent it on a dreye*. [daye, Cx.] as it were venysoun, and whan þe lettre was i-rad Cirus was i-warned in his slepe þat þe firste man þat he mette erliche a*. [erly on the, Cx.; erlych a mo|rowe, γ.] morwe he [schulde take hym wiþ him on his way; þanne erliche a morwe*. [erly on morow, Cx.] he]*. [Added from α.] mette oon Sabar*. [Sebar, γ.] þat fliȝe*. [one Sebar, that was escaped, Cx.] out of prisoun,*. [ygyued] added in γ.] and was i-bore in Pers. He dede of his gyues, and ladde hym wiþ hym to Persi|polis;*. [Persipol, Cx.] þere he gadrede þe peple, and made*. [bade, Cx.] hewe a-doun a grete wode, and made hem a grete feste amorwe; and whan he sigh hem merye and wel at ese wiþ mete and drynke,*. [dryngke, γ.] [he]*. [Cx.] axed hem wheþer he*. [hem, α. and Cx.; ham, γ.] were leuer þe trauail of þe raþer day oþer þe feste of þat day [and hy al seyde, Þe feste of þat day].*. [Added from γ.] Þan Cirus seide "Who þat foloweþ þe Medes, [he]*. [Cx.] schal haue þe trauaille of ȝister day;*. [ȝursday, γ.] and þey*. [hy, γ.] þat foloweþ me schal haue suche festes." Þanne anon þey*. [he, Cx. and γ.]Page  147, vol.3 arrayed hem to [a]*. [From α.] bataille aȝenst Astiages. Petrus 173. Þanne Astiages dredde sore, and made his cosyn Darius to be his sone adoptiuus; and whanne þe batailles come to gidres and gonne*. [gon, γ.] for to*. [began to, Cx.] fiȝte, Cirus and þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Perses gonne*. [began, Cx.; gon, γ.] forto flee. Þanne hir wifes and hir modres come faste aȝenst hem, and schewed hem her priue choses, and axede of hem and seide,*. [and seide] om. Cx.] "Wil ȝe crepe*. [Wol ȝe kreope, γ.] in to ȝour moder wombe and be i-bore aȝen?" Þanne þe men worþe*. [were, Cx.; werþe, γ.] aschamed, and tornede fersliche*. [sodeynliche, α., β.; sodenly, Cx.] aȝen, and fil*. [ful, γ.] on hire enemyes, and hadde þe victorie. Cirus bar hym to Astiages as his neuew after þe victorie, and nouȝt as his victor, for he graunted hym the kyngdom of Hircane*. [Hircans, Cx.] while he leuede, and he graunted þe kyngdom of Medes to his eme Darius, as to his moder broþer, and hoped þat it schulde torne to hym aȝe. Petrus 174. Cirus, whan he hadde [y]*. [From α.]-herde Isay*. [Ysayas, Cx.] his prophecie, þat was i-wrete of hym an hondred ȝere and twenty ȝere*. [ȝere] om. Cx.] to forehonde*. [bifore, Cx.] in þis manere, "To my Crist,*. [Cirus] added in γ.] whos riȝt hond I*. [ych, γ.] haue i-take," and so forþ,*. [&c., Cx.] he delyuerede þe Iewes þe firste ȝere of his kyngdom, and made fre ny*. [nygh, Cx.; nyȝ, γ.] fifty Page  149, vol.3 þowsand men, and restored hem to*. [to] om. α., γ., and Cx.] þe holy vessel of golde and of siluer fyue*. [vyf, γ.] þowsand and þre hondred, and ȝaf hem leue to goo aȝen and bulde up*. [up] om. Cx.] þe temple in Ierusalem. Aggeus meuede*. [meouede, γ.] hem moste þerto, þat was þo ȝong, and nouȝt ȝit a prophete, and also Zacharias þe prophete meuede*. [meode, γ.] hem,*. [meued hym, Cx.] þat blessed Salatiel his sone, and cleped hym Zerobabel, þat is to menynge,*. [say, Cx.] maister of Babilon; but for many of hem [wer ybore]*. [Added from γ.] in Caldea, and hadde þere possessioun [and]*. [Cx.] wyfes and children, hem was þe loþere [to]*. [Cx.] go þens, and abide anon to*. [abiden unto, Cx.] þe þridde ȝere of Cirus.

Capitulum quintum.

DANIEL prayed to God for þe delyueraunce of [the]*. [Cx. and β.] peple, and Darius kyng of Medes, þe firste ȝere of his kyngdom, caste forto*. [purposed to, Cx.] delyuere þe peple; but he deide sone, and he fulfilled*. [folfulde, γ.] hit nouȝt. Þerfore Cirus, þe firste [ȝere]*. [Cx.] of his kyng|dom, ȝaf þe Iewes þe same leue; but þe peple was slowȝ,*. [slowe, Cx.; sloouȝ, γ.]Page  151, vol.3 and*. [and] om. Cx.] þerfore Daniel prayed to*. [to] om. Cx.] God þat as he hadde i-ȝeue þe kyng wille for*. [for] om. Cx., as usual.] to delyuere þe peple, þat he wolde ȝeue þe peple [wille]*. [From α.] for*. [for] om. Cx., as usual.] to wende homward aȝen. Petrus 174o. Þanne þe þridde ȝere of Cirus þe Iewes wente under Zeroba|bel þe duke, and [under]*. [Cx.] Iohn,*. [Johan, Cx.; Ihu, γ.] þe grete preost. And þis ȝere was þe seuentyþe ȝere of [the]*. [Cx.] bondage and takynge; so seiþ Iosephus and Ierom his glose uppon*. [apon, γ.] Ezechiel. Þat tyme was from þe þrittenþe ȝere of Iosyas þe kyng, to þe þridde ȝere of Cirus, þey*. [though, Cx.] Eusebius in his Cronicle,*. [Cronȝique, Cx.; Cronyk, γ.] by auctorite of Sachary þe prophete, seiþ þat þe secounde ȝere of Darius, Itapsis his sone, was þe seuentiþe ȝere of his*. [þis, α. and Cx.] takynge and bondage. Noþeles it may be determyned in þis manere. Þe secounde ȝere of Darius was þe seuentiþe ȝere of þe firste*. [fyfth, Cx.; vyfte, γ.] age of þe world and of þe destroyenge of þe temple. But þe þridde ȝere of Cirus [was þe seuentiþe ȝere of þe firste]*. [From α.] takynge, þat was i-doo þe þrittenthe ȝere [of]*. [From α.] Iosyas þe kyng Þanne þe Iewes wente hoom aȝen, and leide þe foundement*. [fundament, Cx.] of þe temple, and þe Samaritanes herde*. [hurde, γ.] þerof, and come to Page  153, vol.3 hem and halpe*. [asisted, Cx.] hem bulde þe temple, for þey*. [hy, γ.] worschipped alle oon God, and hadde underfonge*. [understande, Cx.; underfange, β.] Moyses his bookes. Þe Iewes*. [anshwerede, γ.] answerede and seide, "Þeiȝ we worschepe oon God; noþeles it falleþ not us to bulde oon hous." Þerfore þe Sama|ritans were wrooþ, and lette hire work with sugestiouns and wiþ ȝiftes anon to þe secounde ȝere of Darius, Itapsis his sone. Orosius, libro primo. In kyng Cirus his tyme, Phalaris, a*. [α, from α., γ., and Cx.; at, MS.] tyraunt of Sicilia, punschede*. [Scicilia punysshed, Cx.] men ofte riȝtfulliche,*. [ryȝtfolych, γ.] þey he were hym self unriȝtful. Þanne oon Parilius, a craftis man of bras, desired to plese þe tyraunt, and made hym a brasyn boole*. [brasene bole, γ.] with a dore in þe riȝt side, þerforþ dampned men schulde wende to þe bole*. [where men that were dampnd shold goo in to the boole, Cx.] for to be i-tormented; and whanne þey*. [α, γ.] were wiþ ynne and þe dore i-closed and fuyre i-made þere under, þe noyse and þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] crye of hem þat were i-tormented þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] schulde passe by dyuers wyndynge and tornynges, so þat it schulde seme griseliche rorynge of booles and of beestes, and nouȝt manis gronynge. But Phalaris þe tyraunt was wel apaied wiþ þe dede, and wrooþ wiþ þe doer, and made hym firste assaie*. [essaye, Cx.; asaye, γ.] þe torment þat he hadde wickedliche*. [wykkydlych, γ.] i-brouȝt Page  155, vol.3 up to þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] torment of*. [of] om. α. and Cx.] oþere men, and punsched*. [punysshed, Cx.] the craftes man by þe craft þat he hadde i-founde. Þat ȝere byfel*. [befelle, Cx.] þat þat me redeþ of Cresus þe riche kyng of Liddes;*. [Liddus, Cx.] ffor whanne Cirus werrede aȝenst þe Babilons, Cresus kyng of Liddes halp*. [helpe, Cx.] þe Babilons; but he was ouercome, and fliȝe;*. [fled, Cx.; fliȝ, β.] and whanne þe Babilons were i-sesed,*. [sessed, Cx.; ceeside, β.; ycesed, γ.] Cirus took Cresus, and dede by hym greet worschepe,*. [worschiplych, γ.] and þat tornede [to]*. [Cx.] eiþer of hem to*. [to] om. Cx.] grete prophite,*. [profyte, Cx.] for þe strengþe þat come out of Grees to werre aȝenst Cirus tornede aȝen for the curtesie*. [curtosye, Cx.] þat was i-doo to Cresus. Þis Cresus hadde a douȝter þat heet Fana|tica, and*. [which, Cx.] hadde a spirit of prophecie, and euere counsaillede here fader to leue þe werre. Þerfore*. [wherfor, Cx.] Cresus axed counseil of goddis, þat bygiled hym wiþ a vers and a worde of double understondinge: "Cirus Alun*. [Alim, α. and β.; Alym, Cx. and γ.] passe schal, and þan kyngdoms many lese.*. [leose, γ.]" Þerfore Cresus was rebel aȝenst Cirus, and was i-take þe þridde tyme. Petrus, 176. Cirus smot Cresus bysides þe ryuer Alun,*. [Alim, α. and Cx.; Alym, γ.] and brouȝte þe Liddes, þat were noble Page  157, vol.3 men of armes, by slithe*. [sleght, Cx.; sliȝþe, β.; sleythe, γ.] to wrecchednesse and to sleuþe; for whanne þey*. [hy, γ.] hadde i-lost here hors*. [horses, Cx.] and hire armure, he made hem to use tauernes, pleyes, iapes, and nyse craftes with horlynges*. [with comyn women, Cx.] and strompettes and euel lyuynge men, [and]*. [From α.] in þis manere, as it were schewynge loue and good wille, he ouercome by likynge and leccherye hem þat he myȝte nouȝt ouercome by bataille. And so þe kyngdom of Liddes faillede, þat hadde i-stonde two hondred ȝere and oon and þritty. Trogus, libro primo. Þere hadde be*. [I be, α.; be, Cx.; hadden be, β.; ybe, γ.] noble kynges of Liddes,*. [noble kynges of Lyddes, from Cx., β., and γ.; þe noble Liddes of kynges, MS.] but non so gracious as Candalus, þat louede his wif to moche by cause of hir fairnesse,*. [beautee, Cx.] and wolde ofte*. [ofte] om. α. and Cx.] [speke of her and]*. [From α.] preyse hir to alle manere men; and at the laste he schewed hir naked to oon Gygy þat was his owne felawe; by þat dede he made his felawe a spouse brekere and his owne enemy, and þerfore he loste boþe his kyngdom and his wif. Eutropius.

Capitulum sextum.

THE seuenþe and þe laste kyng of [the]*. [Cx.] Romayns hadde þre names, and [het]*. [and] om. Cx.; and hiȝte, β.; and het, γ, from which the verb is added.] Lucius Tarquinius [and]*. [Cx.] Superbus; and*. [he, Cx.]Page  159, vol.3 slouȝ his wifes*. [wif his, α.] fadre Seruius Tullius, and regnede fyue and twenty ȝere. Þis founde up first dyuers manere tormentes among þe Romayns, [as]*. [Cx.] bondes, boole ȝerdes,*. [boleyerdes, Cx.] platis,*. [platis] om. γ.] battis, prisouns, gyues, cheynes, owte lawying and exiling: he ouercome þe Vulces and þe Gabies, and made pees wiþ Tuscans. Augus|tinus de Civitate, libro 2o, capitulo 14o. At þe laste he bulde a temple to Iubiter*. [of Iupiter, Cx.] in the hille*. [hul, γ.] Carpelus, and for þey*. [hy, γ.] founde a mannis hede in þat place while þey*. [hy, γ.] digged,*. [diggide, β.] þei*. [hy, γ.] cleped þat place Capitolium; þerfore here*. [wherfore theyr, Cx.] prophetes and here*. [here] om. Cx.] de|uynes tolde [þat]*. [From α.] þat place schulde be heed of þe world. Titus Livius, et Augustinus de Civitate, libro primo, capitulo 19o. Somtyme while þis Tarquinius Superbus besegede þe citee Ardea, þat was rebel to Rome, his sone Tarquinius Sextus and Lucrecia housbond*. [Lucrecias husbonde, Cx.]*. [to, added after housbond in MS., but om. α. and Cx.] Tarquinius Collatinus sette at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] sopere and talkede of þe chastite of hir wifes. Let be, quod*. [quoþ, β.; quaþ, γ.] Collatinus, and leet here owne dedes preyse oure wifes. Þerfore as it were by assent þey come by nyȝte to Rome, and fonde Lucrecia anon*. [all one, Cx.] wakynge aboute wolle*. [wol, Cx.] work, and oþer men Page  161, vol.3 wifes were a slepe, and som aboute gigelotrie.*. [gyglotrye, Cx.] Þerfore Sex|tus*. [Sixtus, Cx.] Tarquinius waited his tyme, and was i-harborwed wiþ Lu|crecia yn a geste*. [gyst, α.] wise,*. [in gestwyse, Cx.; yn a gyst|wyse, γ.] and come uppon*. [apon, γ.] hire while sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] slepte wiþ his swerd i-drawe,*. [adrawe, γ.] and*. [and] om. Cx.] to lye*. [ligge, Cx.; lygge, γ.] by hire maugre*. [maugrey, β. and γ.] hir teeþ, and seiþ, "But þou wil þat I*. [ich, γ.] ligge by þe,*. [sayde but thou suffre me lye by the, Cx.] I schal putte a naked cherle dede wiþ þe in bedde, and þou schalt ligge deed wiþ hym also." Þanne whanne [this]*. [Cx.] Sextus hadde i-doo þat dede, þe womman goþ*. [wente, Cx.] hir wey sorwful*. [sorowfully, Cx.; sorfol, γ.] and drery,*. [and drery] om. Cx; dreory, γ.] and sendeþ*. [sente, Cx.] to hire fader and housbonde, and prayeþ*. [prayed, Cx.] hem to come home out of þe oost, and telleþ*. [enformed, Cx.] hem þe myshap þat here*. [hir, Cx.] was byfalle; [and]*. [Cx.] þey took*. [gave feyth and credence to her messagier and, Cx.; hy tok fey, γ.] feiþ*. [fey, α. and β.] to þe tale, and sche*. [heo, γ.] took wreche of þe dede, and slouȝ hir self to fore hem þere wiþ a priue knyf þat sche*. [heo, γ.] bar. [℞.]*. [From α.] Wise men here telleþ þat Lucrecia slouȝ nouȝt hire self for no vertu, but for schame and for anger, for noþer man ne womman schulde be punsched wiþ oute gilt,*. [gult, γ.] noþer wiþ*. [wiþ] om. α., β., and Cx.; gulty, γ., omitting wiþ.] gilt wiþ oute iuge. But Page  163, vol.3 for þe Romayns coueyteþ most preysynge of men and worlde|liche worschepe, þis Lucrecia [had]*. [Cx.] dredde ȝif he*. [she, Cx., α., and γ.] lyuede after þe spousebreche,*. [after that dede, Cx.; spouse|bruche, γ.] leste þe peple wolde wene þat sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] was*. [were, Cx.] assentynge to þe dede, and þerfore in token*. [tokne, γ.] þat sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] was sory for*. [thereof in conservynge hir good loos and name, and in avoydyng the despite, and in example of good women he, Cx.] þe dede, and sche*. [heo, β.; α, γ.] wolde nouȝt lese*. [loose, β.; leose, γ.] hire good loos noþer be despised, sche*. [α, γ.] wolde no lenger lyue. Of þis happe spekeþ adytour*. [aditour, β.; a dytour, γ.] [or retricion]*. [Cx.] as Seint Austyn de Civitate, libro primo, capitulo 19o, toucheþ, tweyne*. [þar were tweyne and, γ.] þere*. [þere, from α. and Cx.; þat, MS.] were and*. [and, from α. and Cx.; in, MS.] oond ede spouse breche.*. [brake spousage, Cx.]Eutropius. By cause of þis dede þe peple*. [people, γ.] gadrede to gideres, and by nam þe fadres kyngdom, and exilede*. [and putte downe and deposed his fader from his kyngdome, and exyled, Cx.] hym and his children. Þe oost þat was wiþ þe kyng at Ardea forsook Tarquinius þe kyng; and whan the kyng come to Rome and fonde þe gates i-closed aȝenst hym,*. [he and his childern wente away, Cx.; a flyȝ he and his childern, γ.] þan fliȝe he and his children. After þat tyme*. [tyme] om. Cx.] kynges were i-putte out of þe citee, and tweie consulles*. [two consuls, Cx.] were i-ordeyned to gouerne þe comounte, þat were Iunius Brutus and Tar|quinius Collatinus, Lucrecia housbonde; but or*. [er, Cx.; ar, γ.] þe ȝeres Page  165, vol.3 ende Lucrecia housbonde was put out of his office of consul for hate of his name, for he hiȝte*. [het, γ.] Tarquinius; for þe Romayns wolde þat no man þat bare þat name schulde bere office in þe citee, noþer wonye þerynne,*. [neyther dwell therin, Cx.] and þat in despite of þe spouse breche*. [spousebrekyng, Cx.] þat Tarquinius Sextus hadde i-doo. [℞.]*. [From α.] Seynt Austyn de Civitate Dei, libro 2o, capitulo 14o et 19o,*. [15o, α. and Cx.] seiþ þat Lucrecia housbonde was putte out of his officie wiþynne þe ȝere by fraude of his felawe þe*. [that, Cx.] oþere consul.*. [[℞] . . .oþere consul] om. γ.]Augustinus, libro 3o, capitulo 14o, et Titus.*. [and Tytus, Cx.] Whanne Tarquinius was so i-put of, he sente messangeres*. [messagers, Cx.] in to þe citee,*. [for to have hys catel and hys goodes þat he hadde yleft in þe cite, inserted in γ.] and his messangeres*. [messagers, Cx.] hadde priue*. [pryuey, γ.] counsaille wiþ þe sones of Brutes þe consul, and wiþ Vicellies,*. [Vicilles, Cx.] þe breþeren of Brutes the consul*. [the consul] om. α., γ., and Cx.] wif; þe counsaile was þat Tarquinius schulde be brouȝt to his state*. [staat, γ.] and in to þe citee aȝen;*. [estate in the cyte ayene, Cx.] but þis come out by a seruaunt of þe Vicellies, and [was]*. [Cx.] i-knowe and i-tolde [to]*. [Cx.] þe Senatoures: þan Brutus þe consul dede him*. [dude ham, γ.] to dethe euerich on. [℞.]*. [Cx.] Virgil spekeþ þerof in fine vjti. libri Eneyd.*. [Eneidis, Cx.]Eutropius, Page  167, vol.3libro primo. Þanne Tarquinius gadrede helpe in euery*. [euerych, γ.] side, and werrede aȝenst þe citee, for he hoped to be restored in þat manere: and in þe comynge*. [encountryng, Cx.] and fiȝtinge Brutus þe consul and Aruns, Tarquinius his sone,*. [his sone] om. Cx.] slowȝ eiþer oþer; and Tar|quinius fauȝte þries*. [þryȝes, α.; thryes, Cx.] in þre ȝere aȝenst the Romayns, and was ouercome. Þerfore he wente in to Tusculus wiþ his wif, and ended þere*. [lyued, Cx.; elde, β.; eldede, γ.] fourtene ȝere: but the forseide Brutus, þe consul, was so pore*. [poure, γ.] whanne he deide, þat he hadde no money to burye*. [birye, β.] hym with, but as it was gadrede*. [gaderede, β.] among þe peple. [Petrus, c o. lxxvi., and Trogus, libro primo.]*. [Cx.]

Capitulum septimum.

CIRUS, whanne he hadde i-wonne*. [wonnen, β.] Asia, he caste*. [castide, β.] hym to werre*. [he entended to warre, Cx.] aȝenst þe Schites:*. [Sythes, Cx., et infra.] [þere Tamirus*. [Thanurus, Cx.; Thamirus, γ.] þe queene of Schytes,]*. [From α.] and Messegetes,*. [Messagetes, Cx.] þat beeþ al naciouns,*. [be alle one nacyon, Cx. and β.] come aȝenst hym, þey*. [þey] þat, MS.] sche*. [he, α.; þeyȝ heo, γ.] myȝte lette hym and alle her enemyes, and Page  169, vol.3 holde hem of at*. [Though she myght haue with|stande his entre into hyr londe, and all hyr enemyes, and haue holden hem of atte, Cx.] a passage of þe ryuer Araxis, noþeles sche*. [α., γ.] lete hym passe wilfulliche*. [wylfolych, γ.] for to haue*. [wylfully suffred them entre to haue, Cx.] þe esier*. [eysier, γ.] fitȝinge wiþ ynne þe londe þat sche*. [heo, γ.] knewe, also for þe ryuer byhinde hir enemyes schulde lette hem in her fliȝt.*. [not lete them escape by flyght, Cx.] Cirus sette his pauilouns*. [pauylon, Cx.] wiþ ynne þe*. [her, Cx.] lond wiþ grete plente of mete and [of]*. [of] om. Cx.] drynk,*. [dryngke, γ.] and feyned hym to flee and wiþdrowȝ hym, as it were for drede. Þe quene hadde i-sent hire ȝong sone wiþ þe þridde deel*. [thryddele, Cx.; thriddel, β.] of heere oost aȝenst Cirus; and whan he come to þe deynteuous*. [deynteous, Cx.; dentuos, γ.] mete and drynke,*. [dryngke, γ.] he was unkonnynge of chi|ualrie, and [he and]*. [Cx.] his men were raþer ouercome wiþ dronk|nesse*. [drongnes, γ.] þan wiþ dedes of armes. Þanne Cirus fil*. [came, Cx.; ful apon, γ.] uppon hym, and slowȝ hym. Whanne þe queene herde þerof sche wepte*. [a weep, γ.] nouȝt þerfore; but for solas and conforte sche*. [heo, γ.] desired forto take wreche, and bygiled Cirus wiþ suche a manere gile. Sche*. [heo, γ.] as it were fleynge for hir sone þat was newe wounded,*. [woundide, β.] drouȝ*. [drow, Cx.] Cirus into a narow*. [narouȝ, γ.] valey bytwene hiȝe hilles, and slow Cirus and two hondred þowsand of his men of Pers, so þat Page  171, vol.3 nouȝt oon scaped*. [escaped, Cx.; ascapede, γ.] to bere hoom tyþinges*. [tydynges, Cx.] how hem spedde.*. [how hem spedde] om. Cx.] Þe queene hiȝte*. [bade, Cx.; het, γ.] smyte of Cirus heed, and þrowe it in a flakett*. [flakette, Cx.; flaket, γ.] ful*. [fol, γ.] of manis blood, and despised hym in þis manere: "Nowe fille þy self wiþ þe blood þat þou desiredst alwey."*. [that hast euer desyred, Cx.] And so Cirus deyde,*. [was dede, Cx.] after þat he hadde i-reigned nobliche and realliche*. [ryally, Cx.; rialyche, β.; nobe lych and realych, γ.] þritty ȝere, and alwey i-doo grete dedes. Petrus, 178.

Capitulum octavum.

CAMBICES,*. [Cambyses, Cx., et infra.] Cirus his sone, regnede after his fader. Esdras clepeþ*. [called Cx.] hym Artaxerses and Assuerus; noþeles in [the]*. [Cx.] storie of Iudith he is i-cleped Nabugodonosor. In þis Cambises his tyme byfel þat is i-rad in storie*. [thystorye, Cx.] of Iudith. Trogus, 198.*. [189, α., γ., and Cx.] And no wonder þey he be so i-cleped,*. [though he mere so called, Cx.] for his owne fader, Cirus, cleped hym Nabugodonosor in þis Cambises Page  173, vol.3 tyme;*. [in þis Cambises tyme] om. α. and Cx., copied here by mistake, from the previous sentence.] and while he was on*. [α, Cx.] lyue he made þis Cambises, þat was his owne sone [to]*. [Cx.] regne twelue ȝere among þe Assiries in Niniue. But at þe laste, whan his fader was dede, he held*. [a huld, γ.] þe hool kyngdom of þe est eiȝte ȝere. Þis Cambises suffrede nouȝt þe temple of Ierusalem be i-bulde durynge al his tyme. Also the firste ȝere of his hool kyngdom he slowȝ*. [of hys kyngdom al hool a slouȝ, γ.] Arphaxath, þat wolde haue i-regned in Media, while he wolde be i-worschipped in stede of God of Israel, as he was over al, Iudith, þe wydewe,*. [widue, β.; weduwe, γ.] slowȝ Holofernus,*. [Olyfernes, Cx.; Olofernes, γ.] þe prince of his oost, in þe sege of Be|thulia, þe secounde ȝere of his empere. Þanne Cambisies, þe fifte*. [vyfte, γ.] ȝere of his kyngdom, destroyede Egipt; he forsook þe usages þerof, and destroyed þe temple, and bulde Babiloyne*. [Babylonia, Cx.] in Egipte; and whanne he tornede þennes he deyde in Da|mascus,*. [Damaske, Cx.] þe eiȝteþe*. [viii., Cx.] ȝere of hys kyngdom. Valerius, libro 6o. Þis Cambises, Cirus his sone, regnede after his fader,*. [Cirus . . . fader] om. α. and Cx.] made men*. [men] om. Cx.] stripe*. [stryke, Cx.; strike, β.; struype, γ.] of þe skyn of a iuge, for he hadde i-ȝeue a false dome,*. [yeuen fals iuggement, Cx.] and made hem [to]*. [Cx.] sprede and takkede þe skyn aboute þe chayer þere*. [and to take it aboute the chayre there as, Cx.] þe iuge schulde sitte in plee*. [ple, γ.]Page  175, vol.3 forto deme, and made þat iuges*. [iuge his, α.; iugges, Cx.] sone iuge in þat place in stede*. [stude, γ.] of his fader, and made suche vers i-write*. [suche versus to be wryton, Cx.] uppon þe chayer:*. [cheyre, γ.]

"Sittynge on þis see,
Iustice loke þou stedfast*. [studefast, γ.] be.
Kepe hondes and eres
From ȝifte from mennys*. [hande and eke eeres from yeftes and from mennes, Cx.] prayeres.
Take lanterne, lawe,
Liȝt, fader skyn to*. [lyght under skyn to, Cx.; lyȝt vader skynne, γ.] drawe.
Þow*. [þow syttest ȝette sone þar for vader ysette, γ., and in a later hand above for is written thy.] sittest [in place]*. [Cx.] ȝit
Sone*. [sone] om. Cx.] þerfore*. [þerforere, α.; where thy forn|fader was sette, Cx.] fader i-sitt."*. [Trogus, libro primo, et Petrus, 180.]

Capitulum nonum.

AFTER Cambises, oon Hermeydes, þat was oon of þe seuene wise men þat rulede*. [reulede, γ.] þe kyngdom of Perses, weddede Cambises douȝter, and made hit as þey he wolde nouȝt regne by [the tytle of]*. [Cx.] his wyf, but as þey he wolde kepe*. [have kepte, Cx.] þe kyngdom to oon Mergus, Cambises his broþer, þat ȝit*. [ȝut, γ.] was a ȝong childe. Page  177, vol.3 Noþeles Cambises hadde i-slawe*. [bifore this, Cx.] to forehonde this Mergus wiþ ynne þe temple, þat*. [but, α.; and, Cx.] no man wiste*. [wuste, γ.] þerof but Hermydes þe*. [this, Cx.] wise man. After seuene monthes of his kyngdom, þis Hermydes þe wise man*. [þe wise man] om. Cx.] schulde*. [lyeng on his deth bed, and he hadde, Cx.] deie, and hadde a faire ȝongelynge to broþer, and*. [and] om. Cx.] ordeyned hem*. [Sic.] kyng, and seide þat [that]*. [Cx.] ȝongelynge*. [ionglynge, Cx.] was Mergus, Cirus his sone, and Cam|bises his broþer. Suche hydynge*. [huydyng, β., γ.] of kynges myȝte liȝtliche be i-doo yn Perse, for no man gooþ into the kynges of Perse but men of meyny. Oon of þe wise men bygan to haue*. [habbe, γ., ut sæpe.] sus|pectioun of þis doynge, and hadde a douȝter amonge þe kynges concubynes, and charged his douȝter*. [pryveylich, added in γ.] þat sche*. [heo, γ.] schulde be nyȝte grope þe kynges heed, and take heed ȝif þe kyng hadde eeren,*. [yf he hadde eeres, Cx.; eres, β.] ffor Cambises was somtyme wroþ wiþ Hermeydes his broþer, and kutte of his eren.*. [for . . . his eren] om. Cx.] And whanne it was i|knowe by þe womman*. [wenche, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat þe kyng hadde non eren, þe seuene wise men conspired to gideres and slowȝ hym; and so þese tweyne*. [two, Cx.] breþeren regnede scarsliche*. [scarsely, Cx.] oo ȝere. Þanne þese seuene wise men tretede by twene hem self whiche of hem*. [hamsylf wuch af ham, γ.] schulde wedde the kynges douȝter, and be kyng of þat kyng|dom. Page  179, vol.3 Þan alle*. [hy alle, γ.] þey accorded þat they schulde erliche amorwe come in to a place of þe paleys to fore þe temple ȝates, and whos hors neighed*. [neyde, Cx.; neyede, γ.] first he schulde be kyng by þe schew|ynge of [the]*. [Cx.] goddes. Þan oon of hem, Darius, Itapsis his sone, spak priueliche wiþ þe keperes*. [keper, γ.] of þe hors,*. [keper of his hors, Cx. and β.] and charged hem þat he schulde make his hors assaile*. [asayle, γ.] a mare þat nyȝt in þe same place þere*. [where, Cx.] þey schulde come to gideres amorwe. So it was i-seide and*. [i-seide and] om. Cx.] do in dede;*. [in dede] om. α. and Cx.] and whan þe wise men come to gideres a morwe,*. [on the morow, Cx.] anon Darius his hors gan*. [began, Cx.] to neye, for he hadde mynde of þe mare þat he hadde assailed anyȝt,*. [þat . . . anyȝt] om. Cx.] and so Darius was i-make kyng, and regnede sixe and þritty ȝere.

Capitulum decimum.

DARIUS regned over an hondred and seuen and twenty pro|uinces; and Zerobabel, Salatiel his sone,*. [Zorobabel, Salatiels sonne, Cx.] was ful homeliche*. [right famylyer, Cx.]Page  181, vol.3 wiþ hym, and hadde i-counsailled hym, or*. [er, Cx.; ar, γ.] he were kyng, þat he schulde make his auow to God of Israel þat ȝif he were kyng he schulde restore þe temple of God, and ȝelde þe holy vessel*. [vessels, Cx., as always.] aȝen. Þerfore Zorobabel bygan boldeliche to bulde*. [buylde, γ.] þe temple, and Zacharias and Aggeus, þe prophetes, counfortede*. [comforted, Cx.; comfortiden, β.] hym wel þerto, and seide [þat God was wrooþ wiþ hem, for*. [bycause, Cx.] goddes hous was dissolate, and þey*. [hy, γ.] wonede yn hous*. [dwellyd in howses, Cx.] þat were wel i-buld, and seide]*. [From α.] þat it was a token of goddes wreche þat þey*. [hy, γ.] sewe moche and gadrede but*. [but] om. Cx.] litel. But þe princes of Pers þat were byȝonde the ryuer lette*. [letted, Cx.] þe work of þe temple; þerfore Zorobabel wente to Darius, and hadde grete worschepe of hym, and sleep*. [slept, Cx.; slep, γ.] in his owne chambre.*. [Iosephus, libro undecimo, Cx.; primo, γ. There is a space left in the MS. for the reference, but it has not been filled in.] Þe kyng putte forþ a rydels*. [redels, Cx., β., and γ.] erliche amorwe, and axede of þe þre wardeynes of his body, "Whiche," quod*. [quoþ, α.; quaþ, γ.] he, "is þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] strengest of þe*. [thes, Cx.] þre, kyng, wyn, or*. [oþer a, γ.] womman;" and byhiȝte*. [promysed, Cx.; byhet, γ.] hem ȝiftes þat ȝaf þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] redieste answere. Þan*. [Þan] om. Cx.] þe firste saide þat þe kyng is strengest of alle, Page  183, vol.3 for þis skile;*. [skylle, Cx.] ffor man is aboue alle bestes,*. [beestes, Cx.; al maner bestes, γ.] and þe kyng is aboue men, and men dooþ alle þing at his heste.*. [that he commaundeth, Cx.] Þe secounde saide þat wyn is strengest [by this reson],*. [Cx.] for*. [for] om. Cx.] þe kyng is nouȝt aboue oþer men but for*. [by, Cx.] strengþe of his witte, and wyne ouercomeþ þe strengþe of manis witte. Zorobabel seide þat a womman is strengere þan oþere þe tweyne,*. [eyther of the tweyne, Cx.] and wom|men ȝeueþ lyf and fedynde*. [fedynge, Cx.; fedyng, γ.] to kynges and to hem þat settiþ vynes; and whanne kynges comeþ*. [be comen, Cx.] to strengþe þey*. [a potteþ here lyf, γ.] putteþ þeire*. [her, α.; theyr, Cx.] lif for wommen; and [he]*. [Cx.] tolde þat he sigh*. [a syȝ, γ.] a kynges concubine ȝeue þe kyng buffetes, and whan sche*. [heo, γ.] lowȝ*. [lough, Cx.] þe kyng lowȝ, and whan sche*. [heo, γ.] was wrooþ þe kyng was wrooþ also. Noþeles, he seide, truþe is strenger þanne alle þese*. [þeos, γ.] [thre],*. [Cx.] for alle þese,*. [þeos, γ.] be þey neuere so faire,*. [veyr, γ.] so huge,*. [grete, Cx.] and so stronge, þey*. [α, γ.] schulle passe and faille, but sooþnes*. [sothenes, γ.] and truþe schal neuere deie ne chaunge, but laste for euere more.*. [ever dure, Cx.] Þis sentence Page  185, vol.3 plesede [moore]*. [From Cx. and β.] alle men, and þe kyng graunted hym þe vessel*. [vessels, β.] of þe temple, and leue to goo aȝen to bulde*. [and licenced hym to goo and buylde, Cx.] þe temple, wiþ lettres þat no man schulde hym lette.*. [and yaue hym lettres of warrant that no man shold lette him, Cx.] Þanne þe secounde ȝere of Darius [Ytapsis],*. [Cx.] þe eiȝtþe*. [eyȝteþ, γ.] monþe, of*. [of] om. Cx., β., and γ.] þe workmen wrouȝte for to bulde þe temple, and so it is sooþ þat is i-seide in þe gospel,*. [and . . . gospel] om. α. and Cx.] and fulfilled it þe seuenþe ȝere, þat was þe sixe and fourty ȝere of þe kyngdom of Perses, from þe firste ȝere of Cirus, whanne þey*. [hy, γ.] hadde leue to bulde þe temple, and so it*. [hyt, γ.] is sooþ þat is i-seide in þe gospel: "In sixe and fourty ȝere þis temple was i-bulde." [Whanne þe temple was i-buld,]*. [From α.] hit was i-halowed*. [yhalwed, γ.] þe twelfþe monþe, þat is in Marche; [and þis is þe secounde halwynge of þe temple, and was i-doo in Marche].*. [From α.] Noþeles þe firste halowynge in Salomon his tyme was i-do in haruest. Þe þridde was i-doo in wynter, in Iudas Machabeus his tyme. Petrus, 182o. Also þis ȝere þe fire*. [fuyr, γ.] þat was i-take awey of þe auȝter*. [aulter, Cx.] þe firste ȝere of þe takynge in to bondage, and i-hydde in a pitte,*. [yhud in a pot, γ.] þat*. [hit, α.; it, Cx.; hyt, γ.] was i-founde brennynge. Of þe schryne of þe olde*. [olde] om. α. and Cx.] testament, hou*. [houȝ, γ.] and whanne þe Iewes come Page  187, vol.3 þerto, it is uncertayne. But ȝif it is*. [yf it be, Cx.] sooþ þat Epiphanius seiþ,*. [seiþ] om. Cx.] þat þe schryne schulde nouȝt come out of þe den of þe stoon, þere*. [where, Cx.] Ieremyas hadde i-hidde it,*. [yhud hyt, γ.] anon to*. [till, Cx.] the day of doome; þanne it is sooþ þat the Hebrewes made anoþer to þe liknesse of þe olde schryne þat Moyses made; ffor it is i-rad*. [redde, Cx.] þat among þe prayes þat þe Romayns took*. [tok, γ.] out of þe Iewerye, þey took*. [hy tok, γ.] out of*. [out of] om. Cx.] þe schryne of God a candelstikke and a metebord. And so whan þe temple was ful bulde, in þe monþe of Marche, Aggeus and Zacharias deide.*. [deyeden, β.] This ȝere kynges were i-putte*. [pot, γ.] out of Rome, and consuls bygan*. [bygonne, γ.] to rule þe comounte, as it was*. [were, α.; is, Cx. and γ.] i-seide to forehonde,*. [byfore, Cx.] and þere were i-made tweye consuls, þat ȝif þat oon wolde outrage, þe*. [that, Cx.] oþer myȝte hym restreyne;*. [refreyne, α., β., and γ.; myght refreyne, Cx.] and þese*. [þeose, γ.] tweyne consuls were i-chose and chaunged from ȝere to ȝere, leste þey wolde doo*. [doo] om. Cx.] outrage ȝif here office durede*. [duyrede, γ.] longe tyme. Titus. After þat Tar|quinius was put*. [pot, γ.] out of Rome, þe Romayns hadde pees among hem self*. [ham sylf, γ.] whiles Tarquinius werrede aȝenst hem. But in þe fifteþe*. [fyfthe, Cx.] ȝere bygan stryf bytwene þe grete ruleres*. [of þe cite, added in γ.] and þe co|mounte in þis manere: it was usage and custom*. [customme, Cx.; costom, γ.] among þe Page  189, vol.3 Romayns þat werriours schulde werre uppon hire owne cost; but þoo by cause þat þey werred ofte, þey*. [hy, γ.] moste borowe money of þe grete maisters and of þe ruleris*. [reulers, γ.] of þe citee; and þe det|toures myȝte nouȝt pay here money at here day, and*. [they, Cx.; α, γ.] were i-putte*. [pot, γ.] in prisoun; and þerfore bygan stryf, and þe comoun*. [comynne, Cx.] peple wente þre myle out of þe citee anon to þe hille*. [hul, γ.] mount Sacer; but at þe laste pees was i-made uppon suche a condicioun, þat þe peple schulde haue*. [habbe, γ.] grete maistres and tribunes þat schulde meyntene and defende hem aȝenst þe grete.

Capitulum undecimum.

PICTHAGORAS,*. [Pictagoras, Cx. and β.; Pitta|goras, γ.] þe philosofre, deide*. [deyede, β.] þat tyme. Trogus, libro primo.*. [22, Cx. The reference in the Latin text is the correct one.] Þis was [of]*. [From α.] the nacioun of Samia, a riche mar|chaunt his sone, þat heet Maratus; but Picthagoras was wel richere*. [rychcher, γ.] þan his fader, for he myȝte forsake more þan his fader Page  191, vol.3 myȝte gete. Þis wente first in to Egipt, and siþþe*. [after, Cx.; seththe, γ.] in to Babilonia, for to lerne*. [Babilon to lerne, Cx.] þe cours of [the]*. [Cx.] sterres, and for*. [for] om. Cx.] to knowe þe bygynnynge of þe worlde; þennes he tornede ageyn into Creta and Lacedemonia, forto*. [forto . . . Lacedemonia] om. in Cx. and γ. It is evidently an error of the scribe.] knowe þe bygynnynge of þe world; þennes he torned agayn in to Creta and Lacede|monia,*. [forto . . . Lacedemonia] om. in Cx. and γ. It is evidently an error of the scribe.] forto knowe Mynoys and Ligurgis*. [Lycurgus his, α.] lawe. Þanne he torned to þe citee þat hatte ciuitas Crotoniorum,*. [Croniorum, γ.] þat was al out of rule,*. [reule, γ.] and þere he was twenty ȝere, and tauȝte þere vertues and þewes, and tauȝte [their]*. [Cx.] fader and moder, chil|dren, and olde wommen eueriche by selues,*. [every by hym self, Cx.] and at þe laste he wente to Methapontus, and deide*. [deyede, β.] þere. [℞.]*. [℞] om. Cx.] Þe*. [this, Cx.] same sentence is i-write of hym, Polichronicon, libro 7o, capitulo 4o; but þere is more i-putte*. [pot, γ.] to, in þis manere. Picthagoras wiþ ofte desputynge*. [disputynge, Cx.] brouȝte abouȝte þat olde modres dede*. [put, Cx.; dude, γ.] awey hir*. [har, γ.] noble array*. [aray, Cx.] of golde and of oþer realte, as þey*. [royalte as though, Cx.] suche array were instrumentis to leccherie,*. [instrumnet to lecherye, Cx.] and þerfore he dede*. [they dyde, Cx.; a dude ham, γ.] hem awey, and offred hem in the temple of Iuno. Picthagoras seide þat chastite is verray noble array of olde modres. Þre hondred ȝong men were i-swore*. [weren sworn, β.] to gidres, and Page  193, vol.3 lyuede in [a]*. [Cx.] felawschippe*. [yn on felouȝschyp, γ.] by hemself, as it were a companye of priue*. [preuey, γ.] conspiracie aȝenst þe citee,*. [þe citee] om. α.] and torned*. [conspyracy ayenst hym, and toruned, Cx.] þe citee aȝenst hem self, as it were a companie;*. [as it . . . companie] om. Cx., β., and γ.] so þat þe peple of þe citee gadrede hem into an hous,*. [one hows, Cx.] and wolde haue i-brend hem: and in þat strif were sixty dede, and þe oþere were i-exiled. Þis Pictagoras*. [Picthagorax, α.] was of grete auctorite in olde tyme, þat his opi|nioun passed alle oþer menis*. [men, γ.] sentence;*. [mennes sentences, Cx.] also it was i-now*. [ynowȝ, β.] to conferme eny sentence with,*. [with] om. α., γ., and Cx.] ȝif Pictagoras seide soo. Valerius, libro 3o, capitulo 7o. Þei*. [hy, γ.] þat herde hym dede hym so grete worschippe þat þei seide þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] it was*. [is, Cx.] nouȝt laweful to make noþer douȝte no questioun of lore*. [loore, Cx.] þat he hadde i-tauȝt; and ȝif*. [ȝif] om. Cx.] me axede hem any resoun of sawes þat me*. [he, γ.] seide, þei*. [hy, γ.] ȝeue noon oþer answere, but þat Pictagoras seide soo. Isidre,*. [Isidorus, Cx.] libro primo, seiþ þat Pictagoras fonde firste þis lettre Y to þe liknes of manis lif. Agellius, libro 8o, capitulo 8o. Al*. [Alle, Cx.] þe money þat eny of Pictagoras his companye hadde Page  195, vol.3 it is*. [was, Cx. and γ.] openliche i-putte forþ among hem, and so þe companye was stedefast and trewe.*. [stydfast and true, Cx.] Also þey*. [hy, γ.] þat come to his lore*. [loore, Cx.] axede besiliche*. [busylych, γ.] of þewes, and of kynde of castynge of mouth, and of semblant of array and schap of body. Also he or|deyned couenable tyme to be stille, and [to]*. [Cx.] speke nouȝt,*. [nouȝt and . . . nouȝt speke] om. Cx.] and in*. [in] om. α., β., and γ.] tyme no man so hardy to axe noþer resoun ne skile, but besiliche*. [bysylych, γ.] herkene what he seide. And Seneka, Epistola 55, and Ambrosius, libro primo de officiis, capitulo 5o, þey*. [hy, γ.] þat come to Pictagoras his lore schulde fyue ȝere be stille and nouȝt speke.*. [nouȝt and . . . nouȝt speke] om. Cx.] Hugucio Diasc.*. [Hugo didascolus, Cx.] Pictagoras hadde þis manere by [the]*. [Cx.] seuene sciences:*. [sciens, γ.] non of his scoleres schulde to fore þe seuenþe ȝere*. [before seven yere, Cx.] axe resoun noþer skile*. [skylle, Cx.] of his lore,*. [of his lore] om. Cx.] but [besyly herkynge what he sayde. And]*. [Cx.] he schulde trowe*. [byleue, Cx.] what þe maister seide forto*. [til, Cx.] þat [he]*. [Cx.] i-hadde al*. [al] om. Cx.] i-seide, and so þat*. [þanne, α.; than, Cx.] he myȝte hym self fynde skile and resoun. Polichronicon, libro 7o. Þis Pictagoras usede so grete con|tynence and abstinence þat he ete*. [eet, β.] noþer fische ne flesche.*. [fleysch, γ.] Also after his deth men wondrede so moche of hym, and his auc|torite was so grete, þat men made a temple of his hous, and wor|schipped*. [worschipiden, β.]Page  197, vol.3 hym instede of God, and on*. [in, Cx.] caas took*. [tok, γ.] occasioun of his sawe, for he seide, while he was on lyue, þat a philosofer his hous is a*. [an, Cx.] holy place of witt and of wisdom, and verrey*. [veray, Cx.] temple of God. Also me*. [he, Cx.] tauȝte men for to trowe*. [to byleue, Cx.] þat manis soule*. [mennes sowle, Cx.] schal neuere deie, but lyue*. [bote lybbe, γ.] for euere more, and fonge mede*. [fange meede, β.; fange mede, γ.] for þe lif þat he lyuede here;*. [and for to haue mede or peyne after the deseruyng in theyr lyf, Cx.] noþeles me seiþ þat he brouȝte first*. [first] om. Cx.] wickedlyche þe fable of a þowsand ȝere after þe dethe. Ieronimus contra Rufum. Pictagoras seiþ þat soules after þe deth passeþ from þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] body to body, and Virgil, sextus Eneid,*. [sexto, α.; sexto Eneydis, Cx.] seiþ ofte þey*. [hy, γ,] bygynneþ and wil|neþ*. [begyn to wylle. Cx.; to wylne β.; bygynneþ to wylne, γ.] to torne to body. Tullius, de natura Deorum, libro 3o. Whanne Pictagoras fonde newe conclucioun in gemetrie, he wolde offre an oxe to þe Muses; and þat I trowe was i-doo*. [doon, β.] for he wolde offre not to Appolyn Delphicus, for he wolde nouȝt springe þe auȝter*. [sprynge the aucter, Cx.] wiþ blood. Trevisa. Hit is won|der to speke of þe Muses, ffor some poetes*. [poetis, β.] feyneth þat þe Muses were the douȝtres*. [douȝtris, β.] of Iubiter*. [doughters of Iupiter, Cx.] and of mynde;*. [muynde, γ.] and Page  199, vol.3 som feyneþ*. [seyn, Cx.] þat þey*. [α, γ.] were þe douȝtres*. [douȝtris, β.] of Meno and Thes|bya.*. [Tesbia, Cx.]Polichronicon, libro 5o, capitulo 4o. Men of Athene brende Pictagoras his bookes, and exiled hym also, for he*. [they, Cx.] doutede of here godes, where*. [whether, Cx. and γ.] it were sooþ or no, som|what þat me spekeþ*. [speke, α. and γ.; spak, Cx.] of hir goodnes.*. [goodes, α.; goddes, Cx.; godes, γ.]Agellius, libro 5o. Whanne [that]*. [Cx.] Pictagoras was ȝong, and was besy to gete spedeful manere*. [maner, Cx.] berynge of burþens, for to gete his liflode þerwiþ,*. [lyuelode with, Cx.] he bare a burþen of meny yuy*. [Iuy, Cx.] stalkes i-bounde in a schorp rope.*. [a short roop, Cx.; a schort roop, γ.] Democritus, þe philosofer, mette hym, and sighe*. [sawe, Cx.] þe ȝongelynge dede spedeliche*. [doo spedyly, Cx.] his dedes, and hadde his burþen i-bounde as it were by craft of gemetrie,*. [geometrye, Cx.] and axed [hym]*. [Cx.] who had i-founde*. [bounde, α.; bounden, Cx.] þat faget.*. [fagott, Cx.] "I,"*. [ich, β.] quod*. [sayde, Cx.; Ich, quaþ, γ.] Pictagoras. Þan he made hym undo þe burþen and bynde it aȝen, and seide,*. [sayth, Cx.] "Siþþe þou hast wit forto doo wel, ȝif þou wilt*. [wolde, Cx.] folowe*. [volwe, γ.] me, þou schalt doo well better dedes;" and he graunted, and lerned*. [leurnede, γ] of hym philosofie. Polichronicon, libro 5o. Page  201, vol.3 Oon Anallius,*. [Enallius, α. and γ.; Auallius, Cx., et infra.] riche and ȝong, come to Pictagoras forto lerne*. [leurne, γ.] perfiȝt*. [parfyght, Cx.; parfyt, γ.] manere of spekynge, and payed hym half his money to fore honde, or he lernede,*. [ar he gan to leurne, γ.] and þe oþer haluendel*. [before er he lerned, and that other half, Cx.] he schulde paye þat day þat he pletede to fore*. [made plee bifore, Cx.] a iuge, and hadde þe maistrie. At þe laste, whanne he hadde konnynge of speche, he forsoke his facounde*. [facunde, Cx.] and his connynge to fore pledours,*. [bifore pleders, Cx.] as me trowed,*. [troweth, Cx.] for he nolde not*. [wold not, Cx.] paye þat he owede to his maister. Pictagoras took*. [tok, γ.] counsaile, and somnede*. [sommoned, Cx.] hym to fore iuges*. [bifore pleders, Cx.] and bygan in þis manere: "Lerne, þou ȝonge fool, þat þat I*. [ich, γ.] axe is dette*. [detty, γ.] to me by oþer*. [eiþer, α. and Cx.; eyþer, γ.] wey: for ȝif I*. [ich, γ.] ouer|come þe in þis cause, þan by dome it is detty to me;*. [by right is it dette to me, Cx.] and ȝif þe dome is i-ȝeue for þe, þanne is his detty to me*. [than is it dette to me, Cx.; þanne hyt ys detty, γ.] by couenaunt, for þanne þu ouercomest and hast þe maistrye." "Nay," quod*. [Naye, sayd, Cx.] Anallius, "but lene,*. [lerne, α., β., and Cx.; lern, γ.] wise maister, þat by neuere*. [ner, γ.] noþer weie*. [nether waye, Cx.] I schal paye þe þat þou axest: [for ȝif]*. [Cx.] it is i-demed*. [be demed, Cx.]Page  203, vol.3 aȝenst me,*. [A mistake for þe.] þanne I owe þe*. [y schal, γ.] nouȝt [by dome;*. [than shal I not paye by dome, Cx.] and ȝif it is i-demed*. [be demed, Cx.] aȝenst me, þanne I owe þe*. [y schal, γ.] nouȝt]*. [From α.] by couenant,*. [than shal I not by couenaunt, Cx.] for I have nouȝt þe maistrie." Þan þe iuges sigh þat þe cause was brigons,*. [brygous, Cx.; brigous, β. and γ.] as it were an insolible, and put it ofto a wel longe day.*. [an insoluble, and continued the sentence of iuggement to a long day, Cx.] So it is i-rad*. [redde, Cx.] among þe men of Athene þat a womman poysonede hire housbonde and hire owne sone, for þey hadde wickedliche i-slawe hir sone and here eyre þat sche*. [heo, γ.] hadde by hir raþer housbonde.*. [fyrst husbande, Cx.] Þe olde iuges tariede*. [trayede, α.] þe cause to an*. [respyted theyr iuggement till an, Cx.] hondred ȝere; for in þe oon*. [on that one, Cx.] side was grete sorwe to assoile, and in þe*. [that, Cx.] oþer side a cruel*. [cruwel, γ.] dede to be dampned. Ysidre,*. [Ysidorus, Cx.]libro 2o, capitulo 24o. Þey menede*. [me rede, α. and γ.; Though men rede, Cx.] þat Tubal of Caym is*. [caimes lygnage, Cx.] lynage*. [hys lynage, γ.] was fyndere of consonancie and of musyk to fore*. [music bifore, Cx.] Noe is*. [caimes lygnage, Cx.] flood;*. [Noes flode, Cx.] noþeles me redeþ among þe Grees*. [Grekes, Cx.] þat Pictagoras fonde þe craft of musyk by soun of hameres,*. [sowne of hamers, Cx.] and by strecchynge of cordes and of strenges. Mar.,*. [Marian, Cx.; Macr., β. and γ.]libro 2o. Hit happede þat Pictagoras passede forþ openliche Page  205, vol.3 and herde smethes*. [smythes, Cx.] bete wiþ hameres on*. [an, β.] hoot iren,*. [yre, γ.] and euerich hamer to oþer accordeþ in certeyn*. [hote yron, and acorde eueryche to other in certayne, Cx.] ordre of soun, [for þe scharpe soun]*. [From α.] acorded to þe grete; and he*. [he] om. Cx.] made þe smethes*. [smythes to, Cx.] chaunge hameres, but þe same acorde of sownynge folowed alwey. Þanne he took heede þat þe hameres were of dyuers weiȝtes,*. [wyȝtes, γ.] and hete hem*. [weyght, and bade hym, Cx.] make grettere hameres: and from hameres he tornede hym to examyne strenges, and streyned guttes*. [gottes, γ.] and senewes of schepe*. [shepe, Cx.] and of reþeren*. [beestes, Cx.; riþeren, β.; roþe|ron, γ.] i-fastned to dyuers wiȝtes,*. [weyghtes, Cx.] suche wiȝtes*. [weyghtes, Cx.] as he hadde i-founde in þe hamer; and hadde suche song and acorde as þe raþer acordinge of hameres, made wiþ swetnesse of kyndeliche soun*. [sowne, Cx., et infra.] of strenges. Þan whan he was konnynge of so grete priuete,*. [priueyte, γ.] he gan to fynde noumbres*. [nombres, Cx.] by þe whiche sownes accordeþ,*. [acorde, Cx.] and so he spedde to make þe craft of musyk. [℞.]*. [Cx.] Þerfore Tullius de Tusculanis quæstionibus,*. [Tusculis questio, Cx.] libro 4o, spekeþ of hym, and seiþ þat Pictagoras scoleres*. [his scolars, α.; scolers, Cx.] couþe brynge here mynde out of strif of þowȝtes to reste, by song and soun of strenges. Augustinus, Epistola 5o, contra Iulia|num.*. [contra Rut., Cx.]Page  207, vol.3 When ȝong men*. [ȝonglinges, α. and γ.; yong|lynges, Cx.] were wyndronken, and wolde breke þe ȝates of a chast*. [chaast, β.] womman,*. [of chast women, Cx.] Pictagoras hiȝte*. [bade, Cx.; het, γ.] pipers*. [pypars, γ.] to*. [to] om. Cx.] pipe a song i-made by þe enditynge*. [thendytyng, Cx.] of spondeus, and whanne þei dede*. [hy dude, γ.] so, þo þe bestialte of leccherie stynte by þe sleuþe*. [bestyaligte of moeuyng of lechery cessed by the slouth, Cx.] of þe manere of tunes.*. [teones, α. β. and γ.; tewnes, Cx.]Seneka, libro 3o, [de]*. [From γ.]ira.*. [de lira, Cx.] Pictagoras wiþ harpe and strenges cessede þe destourbaunce of wittes. ℞.*. [℞] om. α.] Here wise men telleþ þat Pictagoras passede som tyme by a smethis hous,*. [smythes hows, Cx.] and herde a swete soun, and accordynge and the smyȝtynge*. [in the smytyng, Cx.] of foure hamers [uppon an anuelt,*. [anueld, Cx.] and þerfore he lete weie*. [wey, Cx.] þe hameres],*. [From α.] and fond þat oon of the hameres weiede*. [wey, γ., et infra.] tweie so moche as anoþer; þat oþer*. [another, Cx.] weyed*. [anoþer weyȝ, α.] oþer half so moche as þat*. [anoþer, α. and Cx.] oþer,*. [The words—anoþer weyed oþer half so moche as anoþer, occur twice in the MS. where also a part of the previous clause has been repeated but is erased.] [and]*. [From α.] anoþer weyed*. [wey, α.] oþer half so moche as an oþer, and þe þridde deel of anoþer; as þey þe firste hamer were of sixe pound, the se|counde of twelue, the þridde of eyghte, the fourþe of nyne, as this figure scheweþ that is here nex folowynge.*. [that is here nex folowynge] om. α. and Cx.] Whanne*. [Cx. leaves a space but gives no figure.]Page  209, vol.3{illustration}
þese acordes were i-founde Pic|tagoras ȝaf hem names, and so þat he cleped*. [clepede, Cx.; clepuþ, γ.] in noumbre double, he clepeþ [dyapason and that he clepeth in nombre other half he clepeth]*. [From Cx., and similarly in β.] in sownes dya|pente;*. [dyapason, and þat a clepede in numbre oþer half a clepeþ in souns diapente, γ.] þat hatte in noumbres al and*. [MS. and al, by a mistake.] þe þridde deel hatte in sownes*. [and that that in nombre is called al and the thryd dele hete in sownes, Cx.] dyatesseron, [and þat hatte in noumbris al and þe eiȝte del, hatte in sownes tonus]*. [From β.; al and þe eyȝteþe del a clepeþ in souns tonus, γ.] and þat hatte in noumbres foure siþes al hatte in*. [y, α.] sownes double dyapasoun;*. [and that that in nombres is called al and the eyghteth dele heete in tewnes double dyapason, Cx. A mistake. In none of the versions is there any translation of the tripla proportio.] as in Page  211, vol.3 melodie of oon streng ȝif þe streng is i-stranȝt*. [straut, β.] ende|longes*. [stryng be streyned end longe, Cx.] uppon*. [apon, γ.] þe holownesse of a tree and departede evene a two by a brugge*. [brygge, α.; brydge, Cx.] i-sette þere under [in eiþer party of þe streng þe soun schal be diapason ȝif þe streng is y-streyned and touched, and ȝif þe streng is*. [be, Cx.] departed euene a*. [in, Cx.] þre and þe brygge y-sett under]*. [From α.] so þat he de|partede*. [it departe, Cx.; a departe, γ.] by [twene þe]*. [From α.] tweie deles and þe þridde, þanne þe lenger del of þe streng if it is*. [be, Cx.] touched schal ȝeue a sown þat hatte diatesseroun, and ȝif he is*. [it be, Cx.] departed in*. [α, γ.] nyne, and the brugge*. [brigge, Cx.] y-sette under bytwene the laste partie and þe oþer deel, þanne the lenger deel of þe streng if it is*. [be, Cx.] i-touched schal ȝeue a soun þat hatte tonus, for nyne conteyneth eiȝte and þe eiȝteþe*. [eyght, Cx.] partie of eyȝte, as in þis figure þat foloweþ.*. [Cx. omits the figure.]{illustration}
Page  213, vol.3 [Jeronimus contra Rufum.]*. [Cx. A space is left in the MS. as if for a reference.] Men*. [meny, α. and γ.; many, Cx. and β.] of Pictagoras his disciples kepte here maistres hestes yn mynde [and usede here witte and mynde]*. [From α.] in studie*. [stude, γ.] of bookes, and tauȝte forþ*. [that, Cx.] meny suche prouerbis: [me]*. [Added from γ.] schal kutte*. [kytte, Cx.; kitte, β.] and departe sorwe from the body, unkonnynge from þe witte, leccherie from þe wombe, tresoun out of þe citee, strif out of [the]*. [Cx.] hous, incontynense and hastinesse out of alle þinges; also al þat frendes haueþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] schal be comyn; a frend is þe oþer of tweyne; me mote take hede of tymes; after God soþnesse schal be worschipped, þat makeþ men be next to*. [to] om. Cx.] God. Ysidorus, libro 8o, capitulo 6o.

Capitulum duodecimum.

THE name of philosofres hadde byginning of Pictagoras; for þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] olde Grees cleped hem silf*. [Grekes callyd hymself, Cx.] Sophistris, þat is, wyse. But Pictagoras, whan me axede what man he was, he an|swerde and seide þat he was a philosofer; þat is, [a]*. [Cx.] louyer of witte and of wysdom, for to clepe hym self a wise [man]*. [wyseman, Cx.; man added from α.] hit wold seme grete boost of*. [and for of, Cx.] pryde.*. [pruyte, γ.] Afterward oþere philo|sofres Page  215, vol.3 hadde*. [hadden, β.] hire oþer names of here auctors,*. [her names of her auctours, Cx.] and so þey þat helde*. [hy þat huld, γ.] Pictagoras his lore were i-cleped*. [weren cleped, β.] Pictagorici,*. [Pyctagoraci, Cx.] and þey þat helde*. [helden, β.] Plato his lore were i-cleped Platonici. Polichronicon, libro primo. Som*. [somme, Cx.] philosofres hadde names of contrayes,*. [helden, Cx.] and so þey þat helde*. [contrees, Cx.] Pictagoras his lore were i-cleped Italici, for Pictagoras tauȝte a grete contray*. [contre, Cx.] of Italy þat somtyme heet þe greet Grecia; oþere were i-cleped Ionici, and hadde*. [that hadden, Cx.] þat name of þe ȝonder Grees. Here*. [yonder Grece. Theyr, Cx.] auctor and prince was Tales*. [Cx. inserts and after Tales.] Millesius. Ysidorus, libro 8o. Oþere hadde names of stondynge, and comynge togidres, as Stoycy, Achademicy.*. [achademice, peripatetici, Cx.] Stoici hadde þat name of a porche of Athene þat hatte Stoa in [þe longage of]*. [Inserted from α.] Grees,*. [Grece, there in was, Cx.] were*. [þere, α.; þar, γ.] ynne were i-peynt þe grete*. [beryng and dedes, Cx.] beryinge*. [berynde, α.] [and dedes]*. [From α.] of wise men and [of]*. [From Cx.] stronge. Þe firste of hem was ȝouen.*. [ȝeven, α and Cx. It appears from what follows it should be Zenon; Zenon, β. and γ.] He seide*. [Cx. om. he seide.] þat al synne was i-liche grete, so þat he wolde mene*. [and thus he meaned, Cx.] þat it were as grete synne to stele strawe as golde, and to slee a knyȝt*. [kuyte, β. and γ.] as [an]*. [From α.] hors, for þe beest he seiþ*. [saide, Cx.] is nouȝt to Page  217, vol.3 blame, but þe manis wil. Þis [Zenon]*. [Inserted from Cx.] seide, þe*. [þat, γ.] manis soul*. [that mannes soule, Cx.] schal deie wiþ þe body. Trevisa. I wolde*. [yche, α.] a wiseman hadde [y-seie]*. [seen, Cx. and β.; y-seie is added from α.] his water, and i-held*. [powred, Cx.; heldid, β.] it in his þrote þey it were a galoun.*. [galon, Cx.] Þanne it followeþ in þe storie; he and his scoleres seide þat þey schulde*. [schulden, β.] not dure*. [duyre, γ] wiþ oute*. [withouten, Cx.] ende, and noþeles þey desired*. [desireden, β.] lif wiþ outen ende. Achademici*. [Achademicy hadden. . . ., Cx.] hadde þat name of Plato his toun besides*. [bysydes, γ.] Athene þat hiȝte*. [het, γ.] Acha|demia, and was in poynt for to falle. Þere Prelalo*. [Plato, α. γ. and Cx.] was i-woned*. [ywond, γ.; wonte for to. . ., Cx.] to studie. Þese*. [This, Cx.; þis trowide, β.] trowed*. [trouwede, γ.] þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] al þing was vncerten|liche i-made. Archelaus brouȝte vp þat secte, but Demo|critus*. [Domocritus, Cx.] made it more; but it mote*. [must, Cx.] be graunted þat meny þinges be*. [beþ, γ.] unknowne*. [ben unknowen, β.] and i-hud*. [hydde, Cx.] from manis knowleche, so God wole*. [wyll, Cx.] þat meny þinges passe þe knoweleche of man, and also meny þinges beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] þat mowe*. [maye, Cx.] be knowe by manis kynde*. [kyndly, β.] wytt.*. [mannes kyndly wytte, Cx.] Paripatetici*. [Peripateticy have. . . ., Cx.] haueþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] þat name of wanderynge and of walkynge. For Aristotil*. [Arystotle, Cx.] was here auctor and was i-woned*. [ywond, γ.] to despute*. [wonte to dyspute, Cx.] wandrynge and walkynge. Augustinus de Civi|tate, libro 8o. Þere beeþ þre manere of philosofres*. [filosofris, β.] of kynde Page  219, vol.3 and takeþ hede of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] kynde of þinges; suche was*. [were, Cx.] Tales Millesius, Pictagoras, and þey þat helde*. [hulde, γ.] here lore. And som Ethici þat takeþ*. [toke, Cx.] hede and techeþ*. [taught, Cx.] þe knoweleche and kon|nynge of good*. [god, β.] lyuynge and of the*. [the] om. α. β. γ. and Cx.] þewes, suche*. [sich, β.] was Socrates and þei þat helde*. [huld, γ.] his lore, and suche was*. [suche was] om. Cx.] Plato specialliche and þey þat helde*. [hult, γ.] his lore; þerfore among alle he is i-preysed for a parfite*. [parfyght, Cx.] techere*. [techare, γ.] of philosofie. Ysidorus, libro octavo, capitulo 6o. Þerfore he is a verrey philosofre*. [veray phylosophre, Cx.] þat haþ know|leche of þinges þat longeþ to God and to man and holdeþ all manere wey of riȝtful*. [ryȝtfol, γ.] lyuynge; but among*. [of, Cx.] all manere of philosofres þey þat were i-cleped deuynes*. [dyvynes, β.] bere þe prys,*. [called dyuynes were reputed for moost excellent, Cx.] for þei treted of God þat is alle myȝhty. Noþeles meny of hem*. [ham, γ.] errede in tretynge of God and of þe world, and meny come to þe knoweleche of God; noþeles*. [α, inserted in γ.] worschipped hym nouȝt as God, but vansched*. [vanysshed, Cx.; vanischiden, β.] away in here þouȝtes and seide þat þey*. [hy, γ.] were [wise, and þey*. [α, γ.] were]*. [From α.] y-made fooles. Þe errours of hem Page  221, vol.3 brouȝte yn afterward meny errours in holy chirche. Suche a false errour is þat dede men schal*. [schulen, β.] nouȝt aryse at þe*. [atte, β.] day of dome, and þat eny mater*. [matire, γ.] is euene and peere*. [euery martir is even and pere, Cx.] to God. Au|gustinus de Civitate, libro 8o, capitulo 10o. Þey þat hadde riȝt knowleche of God profited*. [profitiden, β.] moche to þe knowleche of soþnesse*. [truth, Cx.] of truþe, and suche was Plato, þat seide þat in God is cause of beynge, resoun, and*. [and] om. γ. and Cx.] of vnderstondynge, and ordre of good lyuynge, and þerfore God is to vs bygynnynge of kynde, soþeness of lore and grace, and grace*. [and grace] om. α. β. and Cx. The repetition is an error of the scribe.] of lyf. Also þere were philosofres þat trauaillede here wittes for*. [for] om. Cx.] to fynde and knowe cause of þinges and manere of lyuynge; noþeles þey were most i-preised þat knewe God and where he is [and þat he*. [α, γ.] is cause]*. [From α. β. γ. and Cx.] of al þing*. [thynges, Cx.] þat is i-wrought,*. [ywroȝt, γ.] and liȝt of sooþnesse, and of trowþe,*. [trouthe, α.; truthe, Cx.] and welle of grace þat we schal drynke.*. [dryngke, γ.] To þis knowleche þey come in þis manere:— þeyȝ*. [þeyȝ] om. Cx. and β.] þey trauaillede here wittes to fynde the beste of alle, þat is God, þey knewe þat þat is no body, for a body may be for|doo*. [fordone, Cx.; fordo, γ.] and corrupted,*. [corrumped, γ.] for hit is i-made of contrarie þinges. Page  223, vol.3 Also þey took heede þat God is no liknesse þat may be chaunged,*. [chaungide, β.] þerfore þey*. [he, Cx. and β.] passed alle bodies and alle liknesse.*. [lykenesses, Cx.; in maner added after lyknes in γ.] Þe body is i-seie*. [seen, Cx.] wiþoute, þe liknesse of þe body is in þouȝt wiþ ynne, [and that þat is in thought within]*. [Cx.; so γ.] is no body, but*. [bote, γ.] þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] liknesse of a body, þan þe liknesse is i-knowe by a þing þat is noþer þis*. [neyther the, Cx.] liknes noþer þe body. And þat [þat]*. [From α.] þis*. [is, Cx.] liknesse is by i-seie*. [is seen, Cx.] and i-demed wheþer it be faire oþer foule is better*. [betre, γ.] þan þe þing þat is so i-demed. Þere is no faire|nesse of body wheþer it be in state*. [staat, γ.] of body as in schap of lengþe and brede, oþer in meouynge*. [moeuyng, Cx.] as in song, but suche*. [sich, β.] as þe inwitte of [man]*. [Cx.; not in γ.] deemeþ; and þat myȝte nouȝt be but þere were a bettre liknesse in þe inwitte wiþ oute swellynge of body and crienge*. [cryeng, Cx.] [of manis voys]*. [From α.; man hys foys, γ.] wiþ oute lengþe [or]*. [Cx.; not γ.] space of [the]*. [Cx.; not β. and γ.] place and of tyme; but þat is a manis þouȝt and kynde inwit*. [yn wyt, α.; in wytte, Cx.] of manis soule, and þat is no body, seþþe*. [syth, Cx.] þat þe liknesse þat is knowe þerby is no body. But ȝif*. [and, Cx.] oure inwitte is no body, schulde God þat made oure inwitte*. [God make þat our inwytte, Cx.] be a body? Also oure inwitt is chaungeable and meuable,*. [meouable, γ.] elles schulde no manis inwitte*. [wytte, β. and Cx.; wyt, γ.] knowe and deme*. [and deme] om. Cx.] bettre þat*. [than, β. γ. and Cx.]Page  225, vol.3 oþere of þat he feleþ and knoweþ, noþer he þat is wittier*. [wyttyour, γ.] better þan he þat is duller, and ȝit þe same witte amendeþ and profiteþ*. [proufiteth, Cx.] and demeþ better after þan to forehonde;*. [before, Cx.] but what [that]*. [Cx.] is amended and apeyred*. [ypeyred, γ.] is chaungeable [wiþ oute drede. Þanne þat may nouȝt be þe firste soþnes for hit is chaungeable].*. [From α. γ., but not in Cx.] Þanne philosofres and dyuynes knewe wel þat no þing þat is chaungeable may be but by hym þat is alwey*. [is stedfast and, Cx.] by oon and nouȝt chaungeable. To hym is non oþer beynge þan*. [þan, from α. β. and Cx.; þat, MS.] levynge, noon oþer beynge þan vnderstondynge, noon oþer beynge þan be wel. Eutropius [and Marianus].*. [From α. and Cx.]

Capitulum decimum tertium.

THE peple of Rome made stryf as þough þey were mysbode*. [mysledde by, Cx.] of the senatoures; þerfore þey made hem tribunes as deffen|ders*. [defendours, Cx.] of þe peple aȝenst*. [aȝenes, γ.] þe consuls. Quintus Marcius, duc*. [duke, Cx.] of Rome, þat hadde i-take þe Vulces to forhonde,*. [Vultes bifore, Cx.] was putte*. [pot, γ.] out of þe citee,*. [cyte, Cx.] and was wrooþ, and wente to þe Vulces*. [Vultes, Cx.] þat he hadde raþer i-take,*. [taken, Cx.] and hadde helpe of hem, and wente forto werre and destroye*. [destruye, γ.] þe contray*. [countre, Cx.] fyue*. [vyf, γ.] myle from Rome, Page  227, vol.3 and ouercome ofte*. [efte, Cx.] þe Romayns and forsook pees þat þey profered and cesed nouȝt*. [cessed not, Cx.] to werre and to*. [to] om. Cx.] greue þe citee, or*. [er, β.; ar, γ.; till, Cx.] his moder and his wyf come out [of the cyte],*. [Cx.; not γ.] and prayed*. [praieden, β.] for þe citee. Þre hondred of*. [of] om. β. and Cx.] noble men þat hatte Familia Fabia fauȝt alone aȝenst þe Fegenses,*. [Vegenses, β. γ. and Cx.] and were i-smyte to deþe. Þe Romayns beeþ byseged*. [bisegede, β.] in þe*. [hul inserted in γ.] mont Algid,*. [Algyd, Cx.] and Lucius Quincius delyuereþ*. [delyuerd, Cx.] hem. He was i-take from þe plowȝ*. [plough, Cx.; plowe, β.] and i-made a traytour*. [dictator, α. β. γ.; dictatour, Cx.]; he wyped awey his swote*. [swat, Cx.; swot, β.; swoot, γ.] and toke on a real*. [royall, Cx.; rial, β.] gowne. Egipt forsook Darius, kyng of Pers, and wolde nouȝt be vnder hym. Pomphilia,*. [Pompilia, β. γ. and Cx.] a mayde at Rome, was i-take into*. [in, α. β. γ. and Cx.] leccherie, and i-buried quyk alyue.*. [was buryed quyck alive, Cx.] Pyndarius*. [Pyndarus, Cx.; Pindarus, γ.] and Symonides, þe poetes,*. [poetis, β.] were þoo in hire floures. Trogus, libro 2o. After þe deth of Philistratus,*. [Pisistratus, α. and Cx.] þe tiraunt of Athene, oon of his sones took a mayde wiþ strengþe,*. [by vyolence, Cx.] and lay with here;*. [by hir, Cx. and β.; by here, γ.] and þerfore þe maydens*. [maydes, Cx.; mayde, γ.] broþer slowȝ hym; þat oþer broþer hiȝte Hispyas,*. [named Espyas, Cx.; Hispias, β. and γ.] and*. [and] om. Cx.] helde*. [huld, γ.] þe kyngdom of Athene after his fader, and made hym bytake*. [be take, γ.] þat Page  229, vol.3 hadde i-slawe*. [be taken that had slayne, Cx.] his broþer, and whan þe mansleer was i-com|pelled by torment to knoweleche what*. [what men wust and wer assen|tyng, γ.] men he wiste þat*. [and, α. β.] were assentynge to þe manis deeþ,*. [knowledge the men that were as|sentyng to the mannes deth, Cx.] he accusede and appelede alle*. [al, γ.] Hispias þe tyraunt his frendes,*. [appelled all the Hispias the ty|rauntes frendes, Cx.] and whanne þey alle were i-slawe, Hispias axede ȝif þere were eny moo þat woste and*. [woste and] om. Cx.] were assentynge to þat deþ,*. [consentynge to his broder deth, Cx.] and he answerede and seide, "Þere is no man on lyue*. [alyue, Cx. and γ.] þat is*. [þat is] om. Cx.] worþy to dye but þou allone." Þan þe peple knewe þe vertu of þe ȝong man, and put Hispias*. [Espyas, Cx.] out of þe citee. Þanne Hispias wente anon into Pers to Darius þe kyng, and excited*. [exited, Cx.; excitede, β.] hym aȝenst*. [aȝenes, γ.] þe men*. [them of, Cx.] of Athene. Orosius, libro 2o. Þis Darius, after þat he hadde recouered*. [rekevered, α. γ; rekeurd, Cx.] by bataille þe Assiries and þe Babyloyns þat faillede from his kyngdom,*. [that rebelled ayenst hym, Cx.] he ordeynede werre and bataille*. [batayll and warre, Cx.] aȝenst*. [aȝenes, γ.] Anticirus, kyng of Schytes,*. [Schites, Cx.] ffor he hadde i-axed þe mariage of his douȝter and hadde it nouȝt, and went forth wiþ seuene hondred þowsand men of armes, and loste seuenty Page  231, vol.3 þowsand men of armes*. [men of armes] om. α. and Cx.] in sodeyn reses and chekkes;*. [by sodayne reses and skar|mysshes, Cx.; reses and chekkis, β.] noþeles in þe tornynge aȝen he chasede þe Macedons*. [in retorning he chastysed the Macedoynes, Cx.] and þe Iones. Also he ordeyned a bataile aȝenst þe men of Athene, for þey hadde i-bee in help of Ionis.*. [helped and were assistente to Iones, Cx.] Noþeles [the]*. [Cx.] men of Athene wiþ ten þowsand [mette so meny þowsand],*. [From α. γ.] and were so glad forto fiȝte, so þat whan þere was*. [were, Cx.] a þowsand paas bytwene þe scheltroms,*. [shiltrons, Cx.; sheltrons, β.; scholtroms, γ.] þe cours was so i-sped þat the strokes*. [of arwes, added in γ.] come to fore*. [bifore, Cx.] þe enemyes. Þan þere was so strong fiȝte þat þey semede men in oon*. [on that one, Cx. and β.] side and bestes in þe oþer.*. [on that other, Cx. and β.]Trogus, libro 2o. Þe Perses were ouercome and fliȝ to hire*. [fledde to theyr, Cx.] schippes, of þe whiche*. [whuch, γ.] schippes meny were adreynt,*. [dreynt, Cx.] and meny were i-take. In so grete a victorie hit were hard to telle who gat þe firste*. [firste] om. Cx.; furste, γ.] prys;*. [pryce, Cx.] noþeles oon Cinegerus,*. [Cynegyrus, Cx.] a knyȝt of Athene, after meny grete deedes and slauȝtes,*. [slaughters, Cx.] pursuede þe Perses þat fleiȝe*. [fledde, Cx.; flyȝ, γ.] to schippes. Þere a schippe þat was i-lade*. [laded, Cx.] he helde*. [heelde, β.; a huld, γ.] wiþ his riȝt hond forto*. [fort, γ.] þat he hadde i-lore his riȝt hond*. [til it was smyten of . . ., Cx.] and Page  233, vol.3 eft wiþ þe lifte hond*. [and lost it, Cx.] [forto*. [fort, γ.] he had y-lore þe left hond],*. [From α.] and whan he hadde i-lore boþe [his]*. [Cx.] hondes at þe laste*. [at þe laste] om. Cx.] he boot*. [bote, Cx. and β.] on and hilde þe schip wiþ his teeþ, so þat þe stok of a man fouȝt wiþ his teeþ as it were a wood*. [woode, Cx.] beest. Two hon|dred of the Perses deide þere wiþ Hippius*. [Hipius, Cx.; Hispius, γ.] þe tiraunt, and sone afterward Darius lefte meny sones on lyue,*. [alyue, Cx.] and deide þe ȝere of his kyngdom seuen and þritty.*. [Cx. inverts this sentence, "Darius dyed . . . and lefte . . ."] Among his sones Artaxerses as he þat was i-gete*. [begeten, Cx.] in þe kyngdom, and he hadde þe grete Cirus to his moder graunt-sire þat was avaunsed*. [auaunced, Cx.; afansed, γ. This leaf of γ is greatly injured by fire.] to þe kyngdom.

Capitulum quartumdecimum.

ARTAXERSES, Darius his sone, was þe fifte*. [fyfth, Cx.] kyng of Pers,*. [Perses, Cx.] and regned twenty ȝere. Þis whan*. [wan, γ.; wanne, Cx.] Egipt þat his fader had i-lore and put out Aristid,*. [Arysted, Cx.] and werred fyue ȝere aȝenst Grecia,*. [Grece, Cx.] as his fader hadde bygunne. Iesephus*. [Iosephus, α. and Cx.] seiþ þat Page  235, vol.3 vnder þis Artaxarses,*. [Artarxerses, α. and Cx.] þe seuen*. [seuenth, Cx.] ȝere of his kyngdom, Es|dras wente doun [in to the Iewry, and Neemyas, the butler,*. [botiler, γ.] wente downe]*. [β. γ. and Cx.] þe fyue and twenty ȝere, and restored þe lawes of Ierusalem*. [Iherusalem, Cx.] in space of twelue ȝere. And Esdras hym self seiþ þat he wente doun in Artaxerses his tyme. Trogus. Oon Damarachus was exiled out of Athene, and woned*. [dwellyd, Cx.] wiþ kyng Artaxerses, and loued more his owne lond after þe exilynge*. [thexiling, Cx.] þan þe kyng after þat he hadde doo hym moche good; and wroot al*. [wrote alle, Cx.] þe kynges purpos in tables of tre and wexed*. [waxed, Cx.] þe tables aboue þe writynge, and sente hem*. [sende him, Cx.] by a priue*. [pryffe, γ.] messanger*. [pryuy messagier, Cx.] to þe grete of Athene. Þan þe men of Spartania auised*. [aduysed, Cx.] hem longe what it schulde mene, for þey seigh nouȝt i-write*. [they sawe no wrytyng, Cx.] in þe tables; and at þe laste kyng Leonyda his suster fonde*. [fond, γ.; Leonydas sister fonde, Cx.] out þe menynge*. [conceyte, Cx.] of þe writer, for sche*. [heo, β.] schaued*. [shaued, Cx.] of þe wax, and þanne the lettres were i-seie and rad,*. [seen and redde, Cx.; yrad, γ.] and so þey were i-warned of þe werre, for Artaxerses had i-made redy nyne hondred þowsand [of]*. [Cx.] fyȝtinge men of his owne kyngdom,*. [of his owne kyngdom] om. Cx.] so þat it semede þat þe Page  237, vol.3 oost dryed vp þe ryueres for hem byhoued*. [behoued, Cx.] so moche water. [Orosius, libro 2o.]*. [Cx.] Artaxerses hadde seuene hondred þow|sand fiȝting men of his owne kyngdom and foure hondred þowsand of help of oþer londes, and schippes of werre wiþ yren snowtes, two þowsand and two hondred and þre þowsand of oþer schippes wel arrayed, so þat þe ryueres semed scars [to fynde hem drynke, and þe lond semede skars]*. [Added from α., β. γ.] for hem to goo ynne [and þe see*. [to added in β.] skars for hem to seyle ynne].*. [scars for hem to goo in, and the see semed skars for him to sayle in, Cx.] Þanne þis grete route þat was nouȝt abeliche*. [not habyly, Cx.] arayed to fiȝte noþer fre to goo forþ and to torne,*. [renne, Cx.] noþer redy to flee come bytwene places of Termopolis,*. [Termophyles, Cx.] and foure þowsand of Sparnates fil*. [fell, Cx.] uppon hem and leyde*. [leyden, Cx.] adoun and slouȝ of hem þre dayes to gidres. Valerius, libro 6o. Whanne þe grete route was i-gedred togidres, oon of þe Perses seide, "Þe Grees*. [sayde the Grekes, Cx.] schal nouȝt only be overcome, but þey schulle be aleyde*. [alayed, Cx.; alayde, β.] wiþ the multitude of Perses." And another spak and seide, "Þe kyng schal have non enemyes to kiþe*. [kyþe, β.; kuyþe, γ.] on his strengþe." ȝit anoþer spak and seide, "Þe see is scars for oure schippes, townes beeþ*. [be, Cx.] scars for oure knyȝtes, and feldes for oure [oþer]*. [From α.] men." Þan Damarachus answerde and seide, "Here beeþ*. [be, Cx.]*. [be, Cx.]Page  239, vol.3 so meny men þat þey mowe*. [maye, Cx.] nouȝt be i-ruled,*. [reuled, γ.] ne*. [ne] om. α. and Cx.] may not longe dure." And so it byfel,*. [befelle, Cx.] for meny þat were nouȝt i-ruld*. [not rewled, Cx.] were ouercome of fewe þat were welle i-ruled. Þer|fore whan þe kyng was wel i-sette*. [wel i-sette] om. α. β. γ. and Cx.] ouersette wiþ þre*. [The scribe has omitted hundred.] of þe*. [þe] om. α.] Lacedemonies,*. [them of Lacedomones, Cx.] he seide þat he was begyled,*. [bigiled, β] for he hadde so many men and but fewe konnynge in bataille*. [connyng in batell, Cx.] forto fiȝte. Valerius, libro 3o. In þat fiȝtinge oon of þe Grees*. [one of the Grekes, Cx.] seide to his felawe, "Þe sonne is derked wiþ þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] arwes and schot*. [arowes and shotte, Cx.] of Perses." "Þou seist wel," quod*. [seyd, Cx.] þat oþer, "for we schul*. [shold, Cx.] fiȝte better in schadewe þan in hete of the sonne." Also me axede in grete despise*. [despyte, Cx.; dispite, β.] of oon þat haltede why he come*. [came, Cx.] in to þe bataile; and he answerede and seide, "It is my purpos*. [purpoos, Cx.] to abide and not for*. [for] om. Cx.] to flee, and þat byfalleþ*. [befalleth, Cx.] wel for an halt man." Trogus, libro 2o. At þe laste Leonida, kyng of Athene, come*. [Athenes came . . . ., Cx.] wiþ foure þowsand, and beet doun a greet deel*. [parte, Cx.] of þe oost of Perses, and fil*. [came, Cx.] vppon the oþer Page  241, vol.3 deel anyȝt*. [remenaunt by nyghte, Cx.] whanne þey were a-slepe, and slowȝ of hem, and chased*. [chaced, Cx.] hem, and [brake and]*. [Cx.] to schad hem euerich oon*. [oon] not in γ.] from oþer.*. [skayled the hoost every fro other, Cx.] Artaxerses myshapped twyes, for he was ouer|come in bataille in*. [bateylle on . . . . ., Cx.] þe londe, and wolde assaie þe*. [essaye his . . ., Cx.] fortune and happe of þe see,*. [upon the see, Cx.] and þere his men were i-bete, and to schad eueriche from oþer,*. [beten and shad and skayled euery from other, Cx.] and he þat hadde raþer i-heled*. [hiled, β.] and i-sprad*. [hilled and be spradde, Cx.] þe see wiþ þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] grete schippes and huge,*. [and huge] om. Cx.; huyge, γ.] was aferde and glad forto flee, and scapede awey vnneþe in a fischeres [boot].*. [disconfyte and for fere gladde to flee and unnethe escaped away in a fysshers bote, Cx.; boot from α. β. and γ.] Also þere deide wonder meny men for hunger, and meny dede careyns lay in þe fildes, and afterward [ther]*. [Cx.] come a moreyn vppon þe oost, so þat bestes and foules folowede þe oost by [the]*. [Cx.] smel*. [smyl, α.] of dede*. [deed, β.] of*. [of] om. α. β. γ. and Cx.] careyns. Herodotus, þe wrytere of stories,*. [historyes, Cx.] Eurypedes, Basilides,*. [Basilides] om. γ.] Dia|goras, and Sophocles, þe writere of gestes,*. [geestis, β,; geestes, γ.] were þat tyme in her floures. [℞.]*. [Cx.] Ieronimus, in epistola ad Nepocianum, spekeþ of þis Sophonias,*. [Sophocles, α. β. γ. and Cx.] and seiþ þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] whanne he toke but litel hede of meyny and of [his]*. [Cx.] houshold for his grete elde Page  243, vol.3 his*. [oune added in γ.] sones accused*. [accusiden, β.] hym of woodnesse.*. [wodenesse, Cx.] Þan tofore þe iuges*. [bifore the Iugges, Cx.] he rehersed and seide þe fable and gest þat he hadde i-write of Edippus, and now in his grete age of witte and of wisdom þat he schulde torne þe cruelte of iuges into fauour of þe teatre.*. [theatere, α. γ.; theatre, Cx. and β.] Þat tyme Socrates, þe philosofer, was i-bore, and a ston i-schape as a goot fil adoun*. [felle downe, Cx.] from heuene in þe see Egeus. Archabaus,*. [Artabanus, Cx.] Artaxerses the kyng his styward, caste forto be*. [steward purposed to be . . . ., Cx.] kyng of Pers, and come yn an eventyde*. [aventyde, α.; euentyde, Cx.; euetyde, γ.] wiþ his seuene sones into Artarxerses þe kynges*. [þe kynges] om. Cx.] chambre, and slouȝ the king and meny oþere. And þe kyng hadde twey sones, þat oon*. [þe toon, α.; that one, Cx.] heet Darius, and þe*. [that, Cx. and β.] oþer Artarxerses, and Archa|banus*. [Artabanus, Cx. et infra.] excited hym*. [hym] om. α. β. γ. and Cx.] Artarxerses, to slee his broþer Darius, and saide þat Darius hadde i-slawe his owne*. [owne] om. γ.] fader. But oon Vagabyns*. [Vagabaxus, α. and Cx.] knewe hou þe kyng was i-slawe, and tolde Artar|xerses how it stood, and how Archabanus hadde i-slawe his fader, and anon Artarxerses heet gadre*. [gadred, Cx.] the peple to gedres, and make*. [made, Cx.] hem come i-armed to fore*. [bifore, Cx. et infra.] hym, as þey*. [þeyȝ a, γ.] he wolde knowe þe nombre of his knyȝtes. Þan whan Archabanus stood to fore hym i-armed among oþer men, þe kyng seide þat his owne*. [owne] om. Cx.] haburgoun*. [haberion, β. γ. Cx., et infra.] was to*. [to to, Cx.] schort and heet*. [bade, Cx.] Arche|banus doo of his habergoun and chaunge wiþ hym, and whan Archebanus hadde vnarmyd hym and was naked þe kyng Page  245, vol.3 anon heet*. [commanded, Cx.] [his]*. [Cx.] men falle on hym, and slee hym*. [men to sle him, Cx.] and his sones; and so Artarxerses took wreche of his fader deth, and saued his fader trone and his broþer lyf, and hym self from gile and traysoun.*. [tresone, β.] [Marianus.]*. [Cx.]

Capitulum quintodecimum.*. [[Sequitur capitulum 15] Cx.]

ARTARXERSES þe seuenþe kyng of Pers heet Longimanus*. [was called Longimanus, Cx.] also, and regnede fourty ȝere, and bygan to regne whan Ar|chabanus hadde i-regned seuene monþes.*. [moneþes, β.] Som telleþ þat þe storie*. [somme say that thystory . . ., Cx.] of Hester and of Mordacheus byfel*. [Mardocheus befell . . . ., Cx.; bifil, β.; byful, γ.] in this Artar|xerses his tyme; but I trowe it nouȝt,*. [I trowe not, Cx.] for Esdras,*. [Hesdras, Cx.] þe wrytere, was*. [was] om. Cx.] yn þis kynges hous*. [hous] om. α. and Cx.; γ. has hys.] bygynnynge and*. [and] om. Cx.] telleþ þat he and Neemyas tornede from Babilon,*. [tournede fro Babyloyne, Cx.] and spekeþ nouȝt of Hester; but ȝif*. [and yf, Cx.] Hester hadde i-bee in his tyme [it is to presuppose]*. [Cx., not γ.] he wolde somwhat haue i-spoke of here. But Hester was in the oþer Artaxerxes his tyme, þat was þe enleuenthe kyng of Perses, and heet Assuerus. Also about þis Page  247, vol.3 tyme Donwallo Molimicius,*. [Dunwallo Moliuncius, Cx.] þat was þe duke's sone of Corn|waile,*. [Cornewayle, Cx.] bygan to reignee among [the]*. [Cx.] Britouns; and whanne þe kynges were i-slawe of Engelond,*. [Englond, Cx.] of Wales, and of Scot|lond, he regnede allone in þe ilond, and made hym a dyademe and a corone*. [crowne, Cx.] of gold, and made [certayne]*. [Cx., not in β.] lawes þat beeþ i-cleped Molimicius his lawes,*. [be called Molyuncius lawes, Cx.] þe whiche lawes afterward Gildas tornede into Latyn, and afterward kyng Aluredus made hem to be torned out of Latyn into Englische. And whanne þis Molimicius*. [Molyuncius, Cx.] hadde i-regned fourty ȝere he deide, and was i-buried by þe temple of Acord,*. [of acord] om. Cx.] in þe citee Trinouan|tum,*. [Trinouantum, Cx.] þat is Londoun. Þis is he þat ȝaf priueliche*. [gafe priuelege, β. γ. and Cx.] and fredom to temples, to plowes, to cities, and to weies þat beeþ*. [ledeþ, α. β. γ. and Cx.] þerto. Petrus. Esdras, the writere, come doun*. [of Babyloyn, added in γ.] wiþ þe kynges lettres,*. [kyng hys lettres, γ.] by þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] whiche he schulde descharge þe ministres*. [mynistris, Cx.] of þe temple of al manere tribute,*. [trybuyt, γ.] and putte*. [pot, γ.] þe kynges ministres yn oþer oute and chaunge*. [putte other yn and other oute and chaunge . . ., Cx.] hem as it were to doynge, and punsched*. [punysshe, β. and Cx.; punsche, γ.] hem þat were rebel*. [rebelle, Cx.] by deeþ, by excilynge, by Page  249, vol.3 prisoun, oþer by payeng of catel.*. [paynge of catalle, Cx.; paiyng of catel, β.; payng of catel, γ.] And Esdras come doun wiþ þe vessel*. [vessayls, Cx.] of þe temple to teche his peple in Ierusalem þe lawe þat he hadde i-wrete,*. [ywryte, γ.] and corrected þe bookes; two hundred and twenty of þe children*. [childer, Cx.] of Israel þat were by|ȝonde þe hilles*. [hulles, γ.] of Caspy come with hym att ones, and a thow|sand and seuen hundred come wiþ hym out of Babilon; þere he chastede*. [chastysed, Cx.] in his comynge þe children*. [childer, Cx.] of þe transmy|gracioun, and specialliche preostes for wifes*. [wyues, Cx.] of straunge naciouns. Esdras renewede*. [renewide, β.] and wroot þe lawe of þe*. [that the, Cx. and γ.; þat þe, β.] Caldeys hadde i-brend*. [ybarnd, γ.] and amendede þe volums*. [volumes, Cx.] þat straungers had apeyred,*. [apayred, Cx.] and gadrede al in [to]*. [γ. and Cx.] two and twenty bookes, for the Hebrewes schulde haue*. [habbe, γ.] as many bookes as þey had lettres. Also he fonde up newe manere titles and strikes*. [strykes, α.; prikkes, Cx.; strickes, β.; strykkes, γ.] to write among þe lettres þat were liȝtere to wrytinge*. [lyghter to be writon, Cx.] and to spek|ynge,*. [and to spekynge] om. Cx.] and þerfore he was i-cleped a swift writere. Also he putte to*. [to] om. Cx.] some tytles of psalmes, and telle*. [telleþ, α. β. γ. and Cx.] þat Iewes write to forehond*. [wrote before, Cx.] in manere of [bydderes],*. [From α. γ.; bidders, β.; Cx. has bydders.] from þe lift*. [lyft, γ.] side to þe Page  251, vol.3 riȝt side, and eft from the riȝt side to the lift side;*. [sydeward, α.; Cx. has syde.] [bote he tauȝte ham to wryte alwey fram þe ryȝt syde to þe lyft syde|ward].*. [Added from γ.] Empedicles, Permenides, and Zeno, þe philosofres, beeþ in here floures; oon of hem,*. [oon of hem] om. Cx.] Empedicles, chees his buryeng*. [chees to be buryed, Cx.] in þe hil mons Ethna, þat is in Sicilia*. [Scicilia that . . . ., Cx.] and brenneþ alwey. Boys,*. [Boece, Cx. and β.] de Consolacione, seiþ þat Permenides satte ten ȝere on a roche,*. [rooch, γ.] and byþouȝt hym of þe art of logik;*. [Logyke, Cx.] but Plato afterward made þat art more, and fonde þerynne meny principles and rules;*. [reules, γ.] but Aristotil*. [Aristotles, Cx.] brouȝt to gidres hit into þat art.*. [it to geder into art . . . ., Cx.] Þo was Feretydes, þe secounde writere of stories,*. [historyes, Cx.] in his floures; noþeles a*. [α] om. Cx.] litel to forehonde*. [before, Cx.] Herodotus hadde i-write stories.*. [thystoryes, Cx.] ℞. and Titus Livius.

Capitulum sextumdecimum.

THE Romayns sente*. [sende messagiers, Cx.] messangeres and prayed men of Athene to sende hem lawes i-write. Þese*. [This, Cx.] were Salon his lawes; þey Page  253, vol.3 sente nouȝt in to Lacedemonia to haue Ligurgus [his] lawes; þey his*. [þouȝ his, β.] lawes were best, for þey hadde hym suspecte as a lyere, for he hadde i-seide þat he hadde i-fonde*. [taken, Cx.; yfong, γ.] lawes of Appolyn. Þe Romayns gadred this*. [þeos, γ.] Salon his lawes into ten tables, and putte afterward [tweye tables þerto. Þerof come afterward]*. [From α.] þat famous lawe of þe twelue tables as it is i-write ff.*. [in folio, Cx.; ff., β. and γ.] de Origene Iuris,*. [lib. added in γ.] ijo, in þe glose. Ysidorus, libro 5o. Moyses ȝaf first lawe to þe Hebrewes, kyng*. [kyng] om. Cx.] Feroneus to þe Grees,*. [Grekes, Cx.] Mercurius Trimogestus to þe Egipcians, Salon to men of Athene, Ligurgus to þe Lacedemonyes,*. [Lacedomones, Cx.] and Numa Pompilius Page  255, vol.3 to the Romayns. Afterward þe peple of Rome myȝte nouȝt, noþer wolde nouȝt, suffre þe stryf of þe maistres and iuges, and ordeyned hem*. [hem] om. Cx.] ten men to write lawes, [and they wryten lawes]*. [Cx.] out of Salon his bookes, and tornede þe lawe of twelue tables out of Grewe*. [Grue, Cx.] into Latyn. Þe firste þat wolde make bookes of lawe was þe grete Pompeus, þe consul; but for drede of euel*. [euyl, Cx.] spekers he [accomplysshed ne]*. [Cx., not β.] fulfilled it nouȝt.*. [nouȝt] om. Cx.] Þan Iulius Cesar bygan*. [Cezar began . . ., Cx.] to make bookes of lawes; but he deide to sone. And so among þe Romayns litel and litel lawes were for|gendred*. [forgendride, β.] forto*. [compyled til C . . ., Cx.; fort, γ.] Constantine the Grete ordeynede*. [ordeygned, Cx.] newe lawes; but Theodocius, iunior,*. [minor, α. β. γ. and Cx.] made a book of lawe, þat is i-cleped Theodocius his code.*. [Theodosius coode, Cx.] And sone afterward*. [after, Cx.] Iustinianus, of wel nygh two þowsand [bookes and þritty hondred*. [hondred] om. Cx.] þowsend]*. [From α. and γ.] vers,*. [versus, Cx.] made and restored þe lawes of digest. Þe power of consulus secede*. [consuls cessed . . . ., Cx.; cee|side, β.; cessede, γ.] in þe citee, and ten*. [thenne, Cx.] men were i-ordeyned rulers instede*. [in stude, γ.] of þe tweie consuls; but þe secounde ȝere after, as Seint Austyn toucheþ, de Civitate Dei, libro primo, capitulo 19o, oon of þese*. [þeos, γ.] ten men þat hiȝte Apius*. [Appius, Cx. and γ.] Claudius hadde Page  257, vol.3 brennynge likynge to a mene knyȝtes douȝter forto lye*. [ligge, β.; lygge, γ.] by hire,*. [grete desire and luste to enduce and meoue a knyghtes doughter to lygge by hir, Cx.] and made falsliche oon of his seruauntes chalange here*. [chalenge hir . . ., Cx.] for his bonde womman, and so sche*. [he, α.; heo, γ.] was i-demed, and her owne*. [so Appius demed and jugged hir and hir owne . . ., Cx.] fader slowȝ hir, and made playnt to þe peple of þat falshede. Þe peple was þoo in þe hil*. [hul, γ.] Algild.*. [Algid, α. and Cx.] Þanne þe ten men were i-putte out of her office, and tribunes and idoles*. [Edilis, α.; Edyles, Cx.; Ediles, β. γ.] i-putte*. [ypot, γ.; were put, Cx.] in here stede.*. [stude, γ.] [Petrus, 186.]*. [Cx.] Neemyas,*. [Neemia, γ.] a man of Hebrewes, kyng of*. [of] om. α. and Cx.] Artaxerses his boteler,*. [butler, Cx.; botiler, γ.] come by leue of his lorde out of Babiloyne in to þe Iewerye, and ladde þe peple twelue ȝere, so þat þe fifte ȝere he bygan to restore the walles and þe ȝates of Ierusalem, and he ended his work in two ȝere and foure monthes, and hadde so grete lette in þe buldynge þat half þe peple stood i-armed wiþoute þe citee [forto defende þe cite],*. [From α.] and þe workmen*. [work, α. γ.; werke, Cx.] for resynge and stekkynge*. [resing and for slekkynge, Cx.; skekkynge, α.; resinge and shekking, β.; shekkyngs, γ.] of straunge naciouns, and þe oþer deel*. [that other dele, Cx.] of þe peple i-armed bulde þe walles*. [wallis, Cx.] and leide stones wiþ oon hond and helde eueriche his swerd in his oþer hond. Afterward Neemyas took heed Page  259, vol.3 þat þe Iewes hadde no fuyre*. [fyre, Cx., et infra.] from heuene, and clensede a pitt*. [put, γ.] in þe valey of Iosephat, þere*. [where, Cx.] Ieremyas hadde i-hud*. [hid, Cx.] fuyre in þe tyme of takynge into bondage, and fonde þe stokkes of þe auȝter*. [aulter, Cx.; auter, γ.] and brennynge coolis*. [coles, Cx.] and fatte*. [fette, Cx.; and a fette, γ.] water, and he cast of þat water vppon a fagot*. [on a fagotte, Cx.] of woode, and þerof come fuir.*. [fyre, Cx.] Þan*. [þanne, γ.] ȝif þow wilt rekene seuenty wokes*. [wekes, Cx.] of ȝeres, from þe twentiþe*. [twenty, Cx.] ȝere of Artaxerses, whan Neemias wente doun to bulde*. [byulde, Cx.] Ierusalem anon to þe comynge of Crist,*. [unto Criste, Cx.] þat is anon to þe eyȝtenþe*. [unto the eyghten, Cx.] ȝere of Tiberius Cesar.*. [Cezar, Cx.] Þe whiche*. [whuch, γ.] seuenty wokes*. [wekes, Cx., et infra.] of ȝeres from þe twentiþe*. [from þe twentiþe] om. α. and Cx.] Danyel prophe|ciede to be i-schorted*. [shorted, Cx.] vppon Goddes peple þou myȝte fynde seuenty wokes of ȝeres, so þat þou acounte*. [acompte, Cx.] a woke of ȝeres of þe mone, and a ȝere of þe mone is twelue monþes of þe mone; as it was i-used in Moyses his lawe, not þe ȝere of þe sonne, noþer of embolisme. And so seuenty wokes*. [wekys, Cx.] of ȝeres from þis ȝere anon to Crist makeþ foure hondred ȝere*. [ȝeres, α. and Cx.] of þe moone, and foure score and ten wiþ oute þe monthes of embolismes, þat makeþ foure hondred ȝere of þe sonne [and] þre score and fiftene. Trevisa. A ȝeer of the sonne is þe ful*. [fol, γ.] ȝere þat men vseþ now in Engelonde,*. [use nowe in Englond, Cx.] and in*. [in] om. Cx.] oþer londes; but þe ȝere of Page  261, vol.3 þe mone is twelue monþes*. [moneþis, β.] of þe mone, and a monþe of þe mone is from chaunge*. [chaynge (bis), γ.] to chaunge, and so þe ȝere of þe mone is lasse by enlevene dayes*. [dawes, γ.] þan þe fulle*. [folle, γ.] ȝere, and þe monþe of embolisme falleþ whanne þrittene primes falleþ*. [be, Cx.] in oon ȝere. [℞.]*. [From α. and Cx.] The noumbre of wookes*. [nombre of the wikes, Cx.; wekis, β.] and ȝeres may be i-proved*. [preoued, γ.] in þis manere: for Beda, libro de temporibus, seiþ þat þe kyngdom of Pers durede from*. [fram, γ. (semper).] þis twentiþe*. [twenty, Cx.] ȝere of Artaxerses to þe sixte*. [sixth, Cx.] ȝere of Darius, whan Darius was ouercome of Alisaundre,*. [Alysaunder, Cx.] an hondred ȝere and fiftene. And þanne þe kyngdom of Grees*. [Grece, Cx. and β.] usede*. [dured, β.; durede, γ.] anon to Iulius Cesar,*. [dured unto Julius Cezars tyme, Cx.] two hondred ȝere and*. [ȝere and] om. Cx.] foure and twenty*. [foure score and tweyne, α., β. γ., and Cx.] [yeres].*. [From Cx.] Þanne from þe bygynnynge of Iulius Cesar, þat regnede foure ȝere and seuen monþes, to þe eiȝteþe*. [xviij., Cx.] ȝere of Tyberius Cesar, were*. [was, Cx. and β.] foure score [ȝere]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] and eiȝte; and so alle þese*. [al þeos, γ.] ȝeres i-sommed to gidres makeþ*. [amounte unto the nombre of, Cx.] foure hondred ȝeres of þe sonne foure*. [þre, α., β., and γ.] score and fiftene.*. [lxxv., Cx.]Orosius, libro 3o. Forto*. [Till, Cx.; Fort, γ.] a grete*. [gret del, γ.] deel of þe day was i-passed,*. [apassed, β.] hit semed þat þe nyȝt durede. Also haile*. [haule, β.; hawelstones ful, γ.] stoones fel doun of*. [from Cx.] þe clowdes, and beet*. [beot, γ.] þe erþe Page  263, vol.3 wiþ verrey stoones.*. [veray stones, Cx.]Petrus 188o. Esdras deide in good age and elde, and Neemyas tornede aȝen to Artarxerses þe kyng; but he tornede aȝen*. [bote a turnde aȝe, γ.] to Ierusalem aȝenst his ende day,*. [endynge, Cx.] and chastede*. [chastysed, Cx.; chastiside, β.] hem þat trespassed*. [trespaced, Cx.; trespasside, β.] aȝenst þe lawe, and deide, and is i-buried by þe wal þat he made in Ierusalem. Beda de tem|pore. Hiderto þe ordre*. [thordre, Cx.] of [þe]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] holy storie*. [history, Cx.] is i-take of þe bookes of Hebrewes, þat were i-wrete of dedes and [of]*. [Cx.] doynges of ȝeres; but what dedes and doynges foloweþ*. [folowed, Cx.] after þis beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] i-take of þe bookes of Iosephus Affrican and of*. [of] om. Cx.] þe bookes of Machabeis. Eft consels*. [consuls were . . ., Cx.] ben i-made*. [buþ ymad, γ.] at Rome. Ipocras is in his floures.*. [Ypocras in this tyme flouryssh|ed, Cx.]Ysidorus, libro 4o. Appollo fond first art of fisik*. [phisike, Cx., et infra; phisyk, γ.] among þe Grees.*. [Grekes, Cx., ut semper; Gre|kis, β.] Þanne his sone Escu|lapius made more of þat art,*. [made it moore, Cx.] and was i-smyȝte with liȝt|nynge; and þan þat art was i-left fyve*. [vyf, γ.] hondred ȝere a non to þis*. [þes, γ.] Artarxerses his tyme, kyng of Pers.*. [kyng of Pers] om. Cx.] [And]*. [Inserted from Cx.] in his tyme Ipocras renewede þe art and craft of fisyk in þe ilond*. [ylande, Cx.]Page  265, vol.3 Cheo. But tweie*. [the twey first artes were untrusty, that is to say, Methodyca, Cx.] of þe firste tweie artes beeþ untrusty*. [vntrysti, γ.]; for þe first þat hatte Methodica, [that]*. [Cx. inserts.] takeþ noon hede of tymes noþer*. [noþer] om. Cx.] of causes and*. [of, Cx.] elementes, noþer of ages,*. [age, Cx.] but onliche of yvel,*. [evel, α. and β.; euyl, Cx.; euel, γ.] and useþ telynges*. [tellynges, Cx.] as olde wifes dooþ. Þe secounde hatte Emperica, and axeþ*. [axeseþ, α.] nouȝt but assay.*. [a say, α.; essay, Cx.] The þridde hatte logica, and is allowed*. [alowide, β.] and a proved.*. [appreued, Cx.; alowed and ap|preoued, γ.]

Capitulum septimumdecimum.

AFTER þis Artarxerses [Artarxerses]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe eyȝteþe*. [eyght, Cx.] kyng of Pers, regnede tweie monþes. In his tyme Plato was i-bore, and after hym Fogodianus regnede nyne monthes. After hym Darius, þat heet*. [þat heet] om. Cx.] Nothus by his surname, was þe tenþe kyng of Pers,*. [Perses, Cx.] and regnede nyntene ȝere. Gaufridus et Alfridus. In his tyme Belinus, Molimicius*. [Moliuncius sone . . . . ., Cx.] his sone, regnede in Bre|taigne,*. [Brytayn, Cx. and γ.]Page  267, vol.3 and held*. [huld, γ.] to hym half*. [self, α. and Cx.; silf, β.; sylf, γ.] Loegria, myddel Engelond, Wales, and Cornewayle, and took þe*. [that, Cx. and β.] oþer londe by ȝonde Homber*. [Humbre, Cx.] and Scotlond to his broþer Brenicius*. [Brennius, γ., et infra.]; and þey*. [hy, γ.] tweyne acorded*. [wel, added in γ.] in þe kyngdom fyve*. [fyf, γ.] ȝere wel i-now*. [ynowe, Cx.; wel inow] om. γ.]; but afterward Brenicius was rebel to Belinus, and was*. [and this Belinus overcome hym and he fledde, Cx.] overcome of Belinus, and fliȝ to þe duke Allobrog,*. [duc Alebrog, Cx.; duk of A., γ.] þat is þe duke of Litel Britayne, and wedded his douȝter, and [had]*. [From Cx.] þe lord|schepe*. [lorship, Cx.] after þe dukes deþ. After þat he hadde þat duchee*. [ducherye, α. and β.; duchery, γ.; ducherie, Cx.] oon ȝere he come in to Engelond*. [Brytayn, Cx. and β.] wiþ Frensche*. [Freynsch, γ.] men and Britouns of Litel Bretayne to werre*. [werry, γ.] aȝenst his broþer; but hir*. [bote har, γ.] moder, þat was ful oold,*. [old, Cx.; fol old, γ.] spradde hir*. [hure, γ.] heer abrood and schewed hir*. [here, γ.] brestes þat eiþer of hem hadde i-soke,*. [that they had sowked, Cx.] and so sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] made pees. Þan after a ȝere þese*. [þeos, γ.] breþeren made Fraunce suget,*. [subgett, Cx.] and overcome þe Germayns, and byseged*. [besieged, Cx.] Rome at þe laste. Page  269, vol.3 Þat tyme þe firste Denys usede tiraundise*. [used tyrannies, Cx; tyraundys, γ.] in Sicilia;*. [Scicilia, Cx. and β.] and Furius Camillus was made*. [ymad, γ.] dictator in Rome, and overcome þe Veniciens*. [Venietans, α., β., and γ.; Ve|netans, Cx.] and the Falisces*. [Falystes, Cx.]; but he was put*. [pot, γ.] out of þe citee by envie,*. [envye surmysyng upon hym that he had not egaly departed the prayes . . . ., Cx.] as þey he hadde evel i-deled prayes þat þey*. [hy, γ.] hadde i-take. Titus. Whanne þe Romayns bysegede þe Vigens*. [Vegetans, Cx.; Vegetis, β.; Vegens, γ.] þey hadde many harde happes*. [many unhappes, Cx.]; and Furius Camil|lus mynede in þe oon*. [myned on that one, Cx.] side of þe citee, and made weies under erþe,*. [eorþe, γ.] [by þe whiche*. [whoch, γ.] weies under eorþe]*. [under eorþe] om. Cx. The in|sertion is from α., β., and γ.] a knyȝt went yn and took þe toure of þe citee, while Furius Camillus ȝaf assaute*. [asaut, γ.] to þe citee in*. [on, Cx.] þee oþer side. And whan þe men of þe citee sigh þat þey ȝelde hem self*. [sawe that they yelded themself, Cx.; hy ȝulde ham sylf, γ.] and þe citee; but Furius Camillus offended þe peple*. [people, γ.] in delynge of prayes. So þat he was i-cleped to þe doome;*. [callyd to juggement, Cx.] and he dredde to be condempned, and outlawed hym self wilfulliche,*. [wylfolych, γ.] and wente in to þe citee Page  271, vol.3 Ardea. Noþeles in his absence he was condempned in ten þowsand of certeyn money of bras. But afterward he come and brak the siege of Frensche men.

Capitulum octavum decimum.

ARTARXERSES, þe sone of Darius and of Parasitides, hadde a surname Mennon,*. [Menuon, Cx.] and þe Hebrewes cleped*. [clepiden, β.] hym Assuerus. He was þe elevenþe kyng of Pers, and regned fourty ȝere from Ynde*. [Inde, Cx.] to Ethiopia, over an hondred provinces and seven and twenty. His trone was in þe citee Susus*. [Susis, Cx., β., and γ., et infra.]: þe citee þat here hatte Susus is i-cleped*. [yclepud, γ.] Egbathanis*. [was called Egbatanis, Cx.] in þe book of Iudith, and was þe cheef*. [chyef, Cx.] citee of þe Elemytes. Iosephus seiþ þat Daniel made þere a wonder buriel of*. [for, α., β., γ., and Cx.] kynges, so wonderful þat it semeþ i-made*. [semede made, Cx.] þe same day þat it is i-seie.*. [that is to say, Cx., which makes no sense.] Þe kynges of Medea, of Pers,*. [Perses, Cx.] and of Parthia were woned*. [Perchea were wonte, Cx.] to be buried in þat buriel. Þis*. [þes, γ.] Artarxerses, þat heet*. [otherwyse callyd, Cx.] Assuerus Page  273, vol.3 also, in þe þridde ȝere of his kyngdom, made greet revel and feste to his princes, þat durede an hondred dayes þre score and ten and*. [in, α., β., and Cx.; yn, γ.] þat wonderful paleys*. [palais, Cx.; palys, γ., et infra.] þat me redeþ of in þe storie*. [thistory, Cx.] of Alisaundre; þe pilers of þat paleys*. [pyllers of that palays, Cx.] were of silver,*. [seluer, γ., et infra.] þe helynge liche*. [keueryng like, Cx.] to þe firmament i-chaumbred and having precious stoones of dyvers colours to the liknesse of þe*. [þe] om. γ.] sterres. Afterward*. [after, Cx.] he lay wiþ his peple seven dayes*. [dawes, γ.] in þe orche|ȝerd*. [orchard, β., γ., and Cx.] of likynge; þere was a vyneȝerd, with vynes of silver,*. [seluer, Cx.] wiþ braunches of golde, and cloistres*. [clustres, Cx.; clostres, γ.] of precious stoones,*. [yn stude of grapes, added in γ.] þe pavylouns*. [pauilons, Cx.] were i-peȝt*. [ypiȝte, β.] uppon pilers of silver, of marbel,*. [marbre, γ.] and of yvory,*. [evory, α. and γ.; ivory, Cx.] wiþ roopes of white silk and of reed. Þere Fasty*. [Vasty, Cx. and γ.; Vasti, β.] þe queene was rebel, and wolde nouȝt come to the kyng, þerfore Hester was i-chose queene in her stede. Democritus þe philosofre deide þat tyme. Agellus spekeþ of hym and seiþ þat he putte out his owne eyȝen,*. [eyen, Cx.; yȝene, γ.] and þat for þre skiles*. [skylles, Cx.]: the firste, for his siȝt lette hym of his holy þouȝtes; þe secounde, for he myȝte nouȝt see*. [yse, γ.] wommen Page  275, vol.3 wiþ oute greet temptaciouns*. [temptacioun, α.; temptacion, Cx. and γ.]; þe þridde, for he sawe*. [syȝ, γ.] schrewes*. [shrewes oft mysdo and deden euyl . . . . ., Cx.] ofte mysbere hem and dede*. [diden, β.; do, γ.] evel dedes, and þat he myȝt*. [myȝte he, α.; myghte, Cx.] nouȝt suffre, but it greved hym sore. Tullius, epistola 995.*. [95, Cx. and β.] Democritus was woned to seie*. [wonte to say, Cx.; wond to segge, γ.] þat þe hestes of schrewes and þe noyse*. [noyes, Cx.] of þe wombe beeþ*. [ben, Cx.; buþ, γ.] in oon place. "What have I*. [ich, γ.] to doo þerwiþ," quod*. [sayd, Cx.; quaþ, γ.] he, "wheþer þis noyse sowne upward oþer dounward." Polichronicon, libro 7o. Socrates þe philosofre, four score ȝere olde and nyntene, deyde, and*. [deyde and] om. Cx.] drank venym wiþ stedfast*. [dranke poyson with stydfast, Cx.; stedfast, β.] semblaunt.*. [Cx. inserts and dyed at the end of the sentence, not in the middle.] ℞. Leste errour byfalle in þe name of Socrates, take hede þat*. [for, Cx.] þere were þre Socrates: oon was auctor of doynge and of dedes. Cassiodorus, in þe storie þat hatte Tripartita,*. [thistory callyd tripertita, Cx.] preyseþ wel þis Socrates. Silencus*. [Selencus, Cx.; Seleucus, β. and γ.] Theodoricus, and Socrates made þat storie. Anoþer Socrates was of Grees,*. [Grece, Cx.] a greet philosofer and lawiere.*. [lawer, α. and Cx.; laweȝer, γ.] Of hym, libro primo Satur|nalium, is rehersed þat noble sawe, whanne he was prayed of his felawes to putte forþ somwhat of his noble spekynge, he seide, "As þis place axeþ, I spare no speche; and þe speche þat I spare is nouȝt covenable for þis place, noþer for þis tyme." Soche*. [Suche, Cx.; Siche, β.] a tale is i-tolde of Ysocras*. [Ipocras, Cx. and γ.] þe philosofre. The þridde Socrates was Plato his maister,*. [maystrer, Cx.] of hym is oure Page  277, vol.3 speche as*. [at, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þis tyme. Polichronicon, libro 4o, capitulo 6o. Socrates was i-demed*. [reputed, Cx.] þe wisest by answere of Appolyn, and wiþ oute eny wiþ-seyenge*. [wiþsigginge, β.; wiþsiggyng, γ.] he passede þe sevene wise men þat were i-holde wise men among þe Grees,*. [Grekes, Cx.] and was acounted to fore*. [acompted before, Cx.] hem wiþ oute*. [oute] om. γ.] comparisoun, nouȝt onliche in wit and kunnynge, but also in manere of good levynge, þerfore Tullius, libro primo de Tusculanis quæstionibus,*. [Tuscul qō, Cx.] seiþ þat Socrates was prince of philosofie, and [that he]*. [From Cx.] cleped philosofie from hevene into*. [unto, Cx.; into eorþe, γ.] erþe, and stowed*. [stowide, β.] philosofie in citees.*. [stuffed cytees with philosophie, Cx.]Augustinus de Civitate, libro 8o, capitulo 14o. A spirit*. [spyryte, Cx.] folowede Socrates, and tauȝte hym þinges. Apulius, libro suo primo de*. [di, Cx.] deo Socrates,*. [Socratis, α., β., and γ.] reherseþ*. [Cx. inverts these two verbs.] and seiþ*. [Cx. inverts these two verbs.] þat þis spirit usede to warne Socrates to leve of his doynge whanne þe doynge schulde have non good ende. ℞. Þerfore Calcidius super librum Thimei seiþ*. [seiþ] om. Cx.]: [me seiþ]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] þat a spirit folowede and tauȝte Socrates from his firste childhood, nouȝt to com|pelle Page  279, vol.3 [him]*. [From Cx. and β.] to doo ouȝt, but to forbede*. [forbeode, γ.] hym to doo what was nouȝt speedful,*. [doo thynge not spedeful, Cx.] and as in metynges*. [a dremes, Cx.] and swevenes*. [and swevenes] om. Cx.] it*. [hyt, γ.] semeþ a man þat [he]*. [From Cx.] hereþ*. [huyreþ, γ.] many þinges nouȝt by verray voys, but by som tokene þat foloweþ þe office*. [folowed thoffyce, Cx.] of manis vois,*. [foys, γ.] so Socrates his þouȝt while he was wakynge was conforted*. [comforted, Cx.] and i-tauȝt by warnynge of cleer*. [clere, Cx.] token of þe spirit. Tullius de divinatione, libro primo. We haveþ*. [habbeþ yleurned, γ.] i-lerned*. [haue lerned, Cx.] of Socrates, þat was alway tendaunt to a spirit þat was i-cleped*. [yclepud, γ.] demon; but he put*. [neuer moeued hym . . ., Cx.] on hym*. [a pot not on him, γ.] nevere to do dedes, but wiþdrowe hym ofte from doynge of dedes, and*. [and . . . schulde] not in Cx., an error of the scribe.] þerfore whanne he schulde, and þerfore whanne he schulde be dampned to deeþ, he ches forto die*. [chees to dye . . ., Cx.] in most riȝtful manere. But þo hadde he no token i-ȝeve hym of his God. Valerius, libro primo, capi|tulo 7o. Socrates in his olde age usede harpynge and glee*. [armonye, Cx.; gle, γ.] of strenges, and seide þat it was bettre to lerne*. [use, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat crafte late þan lerne*. [leurne, γ., et infra.] it nevere; and*. [Cx. omits and and reads he.] wolde [also]*. [From Cx.] take hede to þe craft*. [arte, β., γ., and Cx.] of musik, þat art þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] is ful medeful*. [meedful, α.; nedeful, β., fol neodfol, γ. Cx. reads: That art is right nedeful, sayde he. And so he. . .]; so he helde*. [shield, Cx.] hym self evere pore*. [poure, Cx.] to lerne and riche to teche, and þeigh he were*. [though he was, Cx.] wise and witty evere he seide þat he couþe*. [coude, Cx.]Page  281, vol.3 no good. Þerof come þe comoun*. [comune, Cx.; comyn, β. and γ.] sawe of Socrates, "I can nouȝt but þat I can nouȝt," as Ieromus*. [Jeronimus, Cx. and γ.] rehereseþ, epistola 39a.*. [35a, α. and Cx.]Valerius, libro 8o. Socrates schamed nouȝt to take a reed*. [a rehed, Cx. and β.; a reod, γ.] bytwene his þyes and pleie wiþ his smale children. Polichronicon, libro 8. Hit is homeliche [and necessary]*. [From Cx.] oþerwhile to a wise man*. [a wyseman otherwhile to pley, not to . . ., Cx.] for to pleie, nouȝt forto putte awey þe use of vertues,*. [vertuwes, γ.] but to refresche hym self and to make hym*. [þe inserted in γ.] more strong to dedes of vertues.*. [to doo vertues of vertues, Cx.] Also Socrates was profitable*. [parfyt, γ.] in the*. [the] om. Cx.] vertues þat makeþ men i-liche to God,*. [lyke god, Cx.] for he was a man of good temperure,*. [temprure, Cx. and β.; temprer, γ.] as Agellius*. [agell, Cx.] seiþ, libro 2o, þat wel nyh*. [neiȝ, β.] alle his lyf*. [lyues, Cx.] tyme he lyvede in hele,*. [helth, Cx.] wiþ oute siknesse, and also in þat moreyn*. [moreyne, Cx.] tyme þat destroyed*. [destruyde, γ.] þe citee Athene; þerfore Valerius, libro 2o, seiþ þat Socrates seide þat meny men wil leve*. [wolde lyue, Cx.; wol lybbe, γ.] forto ete and drynke,*. [dryngke, γ., et infra.] and þat þey*. [he, Cx.] wolde ete and drynke and*. [and þat] om. Cx.] [þat]*. [In α. and γ.] forto lyve. Also Page  283, vol.3 he was of greet suffraunce*. [suffrens, γ.]; þerfore Seneca, libro 3o de ira, seiþ þat Socrates walkede in þe citee and*. [walkede . . . and] om. γ.] was evel i-smete on*. [euyl smyten upon, Cx.] þe heed, and he answerde*. [answherede, γ., et infra.] and seide nouȝt elles*. [ellys, Cx.]; but he seide, "It*. [hyt, γ.] is evel for men þat þey weteþ*. [wyteþ, α.; witeþ, β.; a weteþ, γ.; wytte, Cx.] nouȝt whan þey*. [α, γ.] schal*. [shold, Cx.; schul, β.] goo out wiþ basynettes*. [salettes. . ., Cx.; basnettis, β.; basnetes, γ.] on [her]*. [From Cx.] heed, and whan wiþ oute." Also whan a ȝong man spat*. [spytte, Cx.] on his face, while he desputede*. [a dispuytede, γ.] of werre,*. [wreþþe, α., β., and γ.; wrath, Cx.] he answerde and seide, "I am nouȝt wroþ, but I doute where*. [whether, Cx. and γ.] I schulde be wroþ or no." Also somtyme he was wrooþ wiþ a schrewed servaunt þat he hadde, and seide, "I*. [ich, β. and γ.] wolde bete*. [ete, α.; bete, Cx.] þe, and I*. [ich, β. and γ.] were nouȝt wrooþ." Also he hadde a wyf þat*. [lyght of hir body as who sayth comyne. . ., Cx.] was an hore, and children þat were rebel and horlynges,*. [horelinges, Cx.; horlingis, β.] and more liche to þe moder þan to þe fader, and [a]*. [Cx. and γ.] servaunt þat was alwey a schrewe, alway wrooþ and grucchinge;*. [grutchyng, Cx.; gruchching, γ.] noþeles Socrates suffred al way and was pacient. Þerfore Seneca, epistola 197a, seiþ þat Socrates was wel nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] alway in batayle, oþer in tyrauntise,*. [owther in tyrannyse, Cx.; ty|raundys, γ.] oþer in fredom, hardiere*. [harder, Cx. and β.] þan bataille oþer tiraundise. Þerfore Ieromus contra Iovinianum,*. [Jeronimus contra Jonium, Cx.] and Page  285, vol.3 also epistola 33, seiþ þat Socrates hadde tweie schrewed*. [shrewde, Cx.] wifes þat wolde alway chide and stryve, and hadde ofte stryf*. [Cx. and β. insert for hym here, and omit for Socrates at the end.] by twene hem for Socrates. Þe wifes hiȝte Zamphes*. [Zantippa, Cx.; Zantipes, β. and γ.] and Altipias, and in*. [on a tyme he. . ., Cx.] a tyme he*. [he] om. α.; Socrates, γ.] blamed hem for*. [bycause, Cx.] þey stryve for hym þat was but a foul*. [fowle, Cx.] þing, and seide, "ȝe stryveþ for aman wiþ snatted nose, wiþ a balled fortop, whiþ hery schuldres,*. [with heery shulders, Cx.] and wiþ croked þiȝes;"*. [thyes, Cx.] and at þe laste boþe [the]*. [Cx.] wifes torned*. [torneden, β.] aȝenst hym, and chidde*. [chidden, β.] wiþ oon assent,*. [chidden him alto scarthes by one assent, Cx.] and after greet chidynge and dispitous*. [dispytous, Cx.] wordes, þey þrewe on his heed wommen*. [theyr pisse of foure nyghtes pis|synge out of a soler. . . ., Cx.] pisse out of a chambre*. [soler, α., β., and γ.]; and he answered*. [answherede and seyde, γ.] nouȝt elles,*. [ellys, Cx.] but wyped his heved,*. [heede, Cx.; heed, γ.] and seide, "I*. [ich, β.] wiste*. [woste, α.; ich wusted, γ.; wyste, Cx.] wel þat it schulde regne*. [rayne, Cx.; ryne, γ.] of*. [after, γ.] þonderynge of wordes." Agellius,*. [Agellus, Cx.]libro 2o, et Polichronicon, libro primo.*. [5o, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Oon axede of Socrates why he chastede*. [chastide, β.] nouȝt*. [chastysed not, Cx.] his wif Page  287, vol.3 Zamphes,*. [Zantippa, Cx.; Zantipes, β. and γ.] þat was so ful of chidynge and of anger; oþer*. [or els why he pute hir not away from hyme and he sayde, Cx.] elles why he dede*. [a dude, γ.] hir nouȝt from hym out of his hous; and he seide, "I suffre suche oon at home forto*. [for] om. Cx.] have*. [habbe, γ.] use and custom,*. [customme, Cx.; costum, γ.] þat I may þe more paciently suffre wronges of oþere men." Seneca de ira, libro 3o. Token of wreþþe*. [wrath, Cx.] in Socrates was lowe speche and liȝt.*. [and fewe wordes, Cx.; litel, β.] He was trew and trusty*. [trysty, γ.] in counsaille,*. [counseylle, Cx., et infra; con|sail, γ.] as Valerius, libro 8o, seiþ þat a ȝong man axede counsaile of Socrates where*. [wheþer, α., γ., and Cx.] he schulde wedde awif oþer no. "Wheþer*. [Whether so thou do of thes tweyn seith he . . ., Cx.] ever," quod he, "þou doo of þese tweie, þou shalt forþinke*. [aþinke, α.; aþenkke, γ.] ful sore. For ȝif þou wedde*. [weddest, α.] no wif þou schalt have þese*. [this, Cx.; þeos, γ., et infra.] disadvauntages*. [desauauntages, γ.]; þou schalt be allone, þou schalt have noon children,*. [no child, Cx.] a straunge man schal be þyn heire:*. [heyr, Cx.] and yf þou weddest*. [wedde, Cx.] a wif þou schalt have grete besynesse alwey, meny manere pleyntes, plee of dowynge,*. [doyng, Cx. and γ.] despisynge, chidynge, and strif of þy wife's dame,*. [damme, γ.] and unsikernes*. [unsekernesse, Cx.] [and drede]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] of þy children*. [childers, Cx.] ende." Also Seneca,*. [And, Cx.] epistola 30a, et Polichronicon, libro 7o, oon axede of Socrates why pilgremages stood hym to no profit?*. [prouffyte, Cx.] "What wonder," quod*. [sayth, Cx.; quaþ, γ.] Socrates, "whyle þou berest þy self alway aboute wiþ þe. Þe same cause þat greveþ þe maketh þe goo from home. What profiȝteþ*. [profyteth, Cx.; profitiþ, β.] newe*. [nuwe, γ.] lond þere þe fliȝt fleeþ nouȝt [the].*. [Added from β. and Cx] Þe disese of Page  289, vol.3 þouȝt mowe*. [must, Cx.; mot, β. and γ.] be putte away, elles*. [els, Cx.] schal no place þe plese. Also, Polichronicon, libro 5o, capitulo 6o, oon axede of hym, who schulde gete hym best name*. [fame, α., β., γ., and Cx.]? "Who þat dooþ best," quod*. [sayd, Cx.; quaþ, γ.] he, "and spekeþ litel.*. [lyte, α. and γ.; lytel, Cx.] Also Polichronicon, libro 7o. Plato his scoleres hadde envie to Plato, [in Socrates his tyme,*. [scole, β. and γ.]]*. [From α.; Cx. has in Socrates scole.] and [Plato axede of]*. [From α. and Cx.] Socrates how*. [houȝ a, γ.] he myȝte skape*. [escape, Cx.; ascape, β.] þe envie of envious men. "Be most wrecche," quod*. [sayd, Cx.; quaþ, γ.] he, "and þanne no man schal haue*. [haue] om. Cx.] envie to*. [to] om. Cx.] þe. No þing is wiþ oute envie but wrecchednesse allone." Ysidorus, Ethimologia, libro 2o, capitulo xiiijo. Þis*. [þes, γ.] Socrates ordeyned first moral philosofie, for rulynge of good lyvynge and*. [and] om. Cx.] [of] riȝtwisnesse, stalworþynesse*. [stalworthynesse] om. Cx.] and temperure,*. [temprure, Cx.] vertues and redynesse.*. [In γ. the sentence is—of good lyuung and of þewes and delede hyt in foure vertues, redynes, ryȝtwysnes, stalworþnes, and temprure.]Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro 8o. Þis Socrates tornede first all manere [of]*. [Cx.] philosophie to help of good lyvynge and of riȝtwisnesse*. [good maners, Cx.] stalworþynesse and*. [þewis, β.; þewes, γ.] tempe|rure;*. [stalworþynesse and temperure] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] but I knowe nouȝt wheþer he dede, for þat*. [þat for, α. and Cx.] he was overcome wiþ*. [of greef of hardnesse, Cx.] noye and hardynesse*. [nuy of hardnes, γ.] of derk and [of]*. [Cx.] un|certyn Page  291, vol.3 þinges, to fynde som certeyn manere*. [maner, Cx.] of doynge, by the whiche*. [whoche, γ.] þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] lyf of man myȝte be þe bettre, oþer for manis soule schulde bee þe bettre, and*. [þe bettre and] om. γ.] descharged of unskilful levynge*. [likynge, α. and β.; lykynge, Cx. and γ.]; and be bore*. [and be borne, Cx.] up by kynde strengþes*. [strengthe, Cx. and γ.] to knowe þinges þat evere schale*. [schulen. β.] laste, for þe soule may not knowe þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] cheef causes of þinges, but whan he*. [it, Cx.] is pured and i-made al cleene. Þis Socrates whan he deide left many disciples on lyve,*. [alyve, α., γ., and Cx.] þat desputede*. [disputed, Cx.; despuytede, γ.] in many manere*. [wyse, Cx.] of oure laste ende, and of hym þat is [the]*. [Cx.] best; but of alle his scolers Plato was cheef.*. [chyef, Cx.] Seneca, epistola 107a, spekeþ of þe cause and manere of þis*. [þis] om. Cx.; þes, γ.] Socrates his deeþ: For Socrates, he seiþ, was levere*. [sayd he was more lyef, Cx.] [to]*. [Cx.] swere*. [swerye, α. and γ., et infra.] by creatures þan by goddes, me putte aȝenst*. [it was leyde ayenst, Cx.] hym þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] he dede aȝenst þe lawe, and þat he apayred þe children,*. [appeyred childer, Cx.] and þerfore he was i-dampned to prisoun, þere he schulde use venym þat me clepeþ Farma|cum.*. [where he shold ete venym called fermacum, Cx.]Augustinus de vera religione, capitulo primo. Socrates was hardyer*. [hardur, γ.] þan oþer in swerynge, for me seiþ þat he wolde Page  293, vol.3 swere*. [swerye, α.] by [hondes and stones, and al þat he wolde swere by]*. [From α. and γ.] þat*. [þat] om. α., γ., and Cx.] he hadde redy in mynde. I trow þat he understood þat al þe workes of kynde þat God ordeyneþ*. [ordeyned, Cx.] to be wrouȝt by worchynge of God, beþ wel bettre þan eny*. [ony crafty mannes werkes, Cx. and β.; eny craftesmen workes, γ.] craftes men workeþ,*. [workes, α.; workis, β.] and þerfore [it is]*. [Cx.] more worþy to take worschippes þat longeþ to God þan mawmettes þat were i-worschipped in temples. [℞.]*. [From α. and Cx.] Þerfore an expositour uppon*. [apon, γ.] Boys*. [Boece,] de Discipulis,*. [Boece de disciplina, Cx.] capitulo 4o, seiþ þat oon of Socrates his disciples accused hym for he hadde i-made a book of oon God, and nouȝt of meny goddes; þerfore he was compelled to drinke*. [dryngke, γ., et infra.] a vene|mous*. [vememys, γ.] herbe in þat Goddes name, and he*. [he] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] drank and deide nouȝt; and eft he was compelled to drynke in þe*. [þe] om. Cx. and β.] name of meny goddes, and drank and diede. Þerfore Tullius telleþ*. [seiþ, γ.] þat after þat he was i-dampned þe men of Athene were sory, and punsched*. [punysshed, Cx.; punyschide, β.] hem sore þat hadde accusyd hym, and made of*. [of] om. α. γ.; of hym, om. Cx.] hym an ymage of gold, [resemblyng and remembraunce of Socrates,]*. [Cx.] and sette it in þe*. [theyr, Cx.] temple. Also the commentor, Page  295, vol.3 Eth., 5o, [seyth]*. [Cx. and γ.] þat Socrates, whan he was accused, seide, "Men of Athene mowe*. [maye, Cx.; bote a mowe, γ.] dampne Socrates, but þey mowe*. [maye, Cx.; bote a mowe, γ.] not make him unriȝtful." Þo*. [Than, Cx.; þanne, β.] þe Athenes bygonne*. [began, Cx.] to use foure and twenty lettres, and usede to fore honde*. [bifore, Cx.] but*. [but] om. Cx.] sixtene. Eutropius et Gaufridus.

Capitulum nonumdecimum.

FRENSCHE men, þat hatte Senones, by ledynge of Brennius overcome þe Romayns, enlevene myle from Rome, at þe*. [atte, γ., ut passim.] ryver Albia, and chasede*. [chaside, β.] hem anon to þe citee, and took þe citee anon to þe capitole.*. [Capitoyl, Cx. and γ.]Titus Livius. Þere þe Frensche men come yn by nyȝte by a wey under erþe*. [eorþe, γ.] everich after oþer, while þe Romayns were*. [slepte, Cx.] on slepe.*. [aslepe, α. and γ.] Mallius Torquatus and oþere Romayns were*. [were] om. Cx.] awaked wiþ crienge*. [cryyng, γ.] of gandres, þe firste day of Iuyn,*. [Jun, α. and β.; Junii, Cx., et infra similiter. The words are only once in γ.] and [they]*. [Cx.] putte*. [pot, γ.] of þe Frensche men. Þerfore Page  297, vol.3 þe Romayns longe tyme halowede*. [halewide, β.] þe feste of gandres þe firste day of Iuyn.*. [See p. 295, note 15.] Noþeles, afterward þey*. [hy, γ.] cleped þe*. [þat, α., β., γ., and Cx.] feste of Iuno moneþ,*. [monet, γ.] for þey*. [hy, γ.] trowed þat Iuno warned þe gandres, and made hem*. [hem] om. α.] to crie. In þat fiȝtinge þe senatoures arayed*. [cloþede ham and] added in γ.] hem realliche*. [ryally, Cx.] in array of senatoures, and so þey seten*. [sete, α. and γ.; sate, Cx.] in [here]*. [From α.; theyr howses, Cx.; here oune, γ.] hous; and whan þe Frensche men fonde hem sittynge in so real*. [ryall, Cx.] array, þey wende*. [wente þat hy were godes þat buþ yclepud, γ.] þat þey were goddes þat beeþ i-cleped genii, and spared hem and wente bakward.*. [and . . . bakward] om. γ.]Trevisa. God genius is to menynge*. [say, Cx.] a spirit þat foloweþ a man al his lyf*. [lyues, Cx.] time. Þanne it foloweþ*. [volweþ, γ.] in þe storie.*. [thistory, Cx. Here γ. inserts— þe Frensch men sparede ham and wente bakward.] Noþeles oon of þe Frensche men gropede, and handelede þe berde of a senatour, þat heet Marcus Papirius,*. [called Papirius, Cx.] and he up wiþ a staf þat he hadde in*. [on, α. and γ.] honde, and smoot þe Frensche man of*. [on, α., γ., and Cx.] þe heed. Þerfore alle þe Frensche men were wrooþ, and slowȝ hym first, and þanne alle þe senatoures everich oon. Þan þe Frensche men fenge*. [receyued, Cx.; fong, γ.] a þowsand pounde of golde for pees, and wente away.*. [theyr way, Cx.] Þan Furius Camillus, þat raþer was Page  299, vol.3 put*. [ypot, γ.] out of þe citee, pursewed*. [pursued, Cx.] þe Frensche men and slowȝ hem, and brouȝt þe gold and þe*. [þe] om. Cx. and γ.] iewels of knyȝtes to þe citee aȝen; and so*. [this, Cx.] Camillus dede þe þridde viage, and wente in to the citee aȝen, and was i-cleped þe secounde Romulus. He byseged*. [besieged, Cx.; bisegide, β.] somtyme þe Falisces, and þe maister*. [capitayne of hem . . ., Cx.] of pley ladde out þe*. [Cx. omits þe and prints childer.] children of þe citee, as it were to*. [forto, α., γ., and Cx.] pleie, and toke*. [yave, Cx.] [hem]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] to Camillus, and seide þat þe citee scholde be ȝolde to hym for savynge of þe children; and Camillus nouȝt onliche forsook þe fraude, but he bonde þe maister his*. [capitains, Cx.] hondes by hynde*. [behynde, Cx.] hym, and leet dryve hym wiþ ȝerdes, and sente hym and hire children*. [the childer, Cx.; þe chyldern, γ.] to hir fadres and modres, and by*. [for, Cx.] þat curteys*. [courtoys, Cx.; corteys, γ.] dede þe citee was ȝolde*. [yȝolde, γ.] to hym þat he desired nouȝt to gete wiþ fraude and tresoun. Trogus, libro 24o. Þre [honderd]*. [From Cx., who has printed honderderd; C. is added in β.] þowsand of Frensche men, by ledynge of Belgius and of Brennius, destroyeþ*. [destroyed, Cx.; destruyeþ, β. and γ.] Italy and brenneþ*. [brent, Cx.]Page  301, vol.3 Rome, and spoilleþ*. [spoylled, Cx.; spoyleþ, γ.] Pannoni*. [Pannonia, γ.] and Macedonia, and sleeþ Tho|lomeus þe kyng of Macedon. [Paulus, libro 2o.]*. [From α. and Cx.] Me seiþ þat þe cause why þe Frensche men come in to Italy was þis: þe Frensche men tasted*. [tastide, β.] wyn þat was i-brouȝt out of Italy, and were i-meved*. [ymeoued, γ.] by likynge of þat wyn, and wente into Italy. Þeledere of hem*. [ledar of ham, γ.] was Brennius, þat regnede among þe Frensche men Senones. He come wiþ þre hondred þowsand, [and sente oon*. [an, Cx.] hondred þowsand]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] to spoile þe Grees.*. [Grekes, Cx. et infra; Grekis, β.] Noþeles faste by Appolyn Delphicus þey assaied*. [essayed, Cx.; hy asayde, γ.] and felte*. [felde, γ.] þat þe Grees hadde ful*. [fol, γ.] scharpe swerdes and kene. Anoþer hondred þow|sande wente in to Galacia þat is in þe lasse Asia, and were first i-cleped*. [yclepud, γ.] Gallogreci, and afterward*. [after, Cx.] Galates. Þe þridde hondred þowsande lefte in Italy, and bulde Papie, Melan,*. [Melane, Cx. and γ.] Pergame, Brixia, Arimi, and ȝaf þe name of Fraunis*. [to Frauns, α. and β.; to Fraunce, Cx.] þat is a þis half*. [on this syde, Cx.] Alpes, and cleped it Gallia. Trevisa. Burgoyn is in þat contray þat hatte Gallia Senonensis. Polichronicon, libro 6o, capitulo 10o. Gally*. [Galli, Cx. and γ.] Frensche men in Italia bulde Page  303, vol.3 Veron and Vyncencia. Also þey*. [hy, γ.] bulde þe citee Sene*. [Cene, Cx.] fore here olde men and siklewe,*. [sekelew, Cx.; sekelewe, β.; syklew, γ.] and for here herdes*. [heordes, Cx. and β; hurdes, γ.] þat kepte here bestes, þat witnesseþ þat*. [ȝit, α.; yet, Cx.; ȝitt, β.] liknes of faire hewe and colour and faire schap of peple, in þe whiche he accordeþ*. [they acorde, Cx.; whoche hy acordeþ, γ.] wiþ Britouns and wiþ þe Galles Frensche men, þeigh*. [though, Cx.; þey, γ.] longe passynge of tyme [and place]*. [From Cx., β., and γ.] and contrary*. [countray, Cx.; contray, γ.] of þe world, and companye wiþ men þat woneþ*. [dwelle, Cx.] aboute hem, have i-chaunged hem in many poyntes. Gaufridus. Bellius*. [Bellinus, α.; Belinus, Cx. and γ.] þat*. [þat] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] tornede aȝen out of Italy into Britayne, and lyved in pees, and amended*. [repayred, Cx.] and bulde citees; among þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] he founded þe citee Caerusk, þat now hatte Carleon, uppon*. [apon, γ.] þe ryver Usk, þat is nyh*. [nyȝ, γ.] Sevarn.*. [nygh Seuarne, Cx.] And he bulde Belyn his ȝate*. [Belins gate, Cx.] þat Eng|lische men clepeþ*. [callen, Cx.] now schortliche*. [schortliche] om. Cx.] Billyngesgate, uppon*. [apon, γ.] Tempse,*. [Temyse, Cx.; Temse, γ.] in þe citee Trinouantum, þat is Londoun; and he bulde a toure above þat ȝate, þere ynne were þe askes of his body*. [Cx. inserts were after body. Evidently an error.] i-doo afterward, whan his body was i-brend.*. [ybarnd, γ.] He Page  305, vol.3 made also lawes, and foure hiȝe weies,*. [highe wayes, Cx.] as it is i-seide in þe firste book, capitulo Britannia. Trogus, libro 24o. Eft Bren|nius tornede aȝen out of þe est contrayes, and eft overcome þe Macedons and here duke Sosten, and spoyled goddes and temples, and seide meriliche,*. [myrilich, β.; myrylych, γ.] "Riche goddes mote*. [must, Cx.] ȝeve men somwhat of here riches."*. [rychesse, Cx.] Also he despoylede*. [spoylled, Cx.] Appolyn Delphicus his temple in þe hil*. [hul, γ.] mount Parnasus.*. [Pernasus, Cx.]Polichronicon, libro 6o. Þere*. [þar, γ.] men of þe contray prayed help of here god, and sodeynliche*. [sodaynly, Cx.] þe erþe*. [eorþe, γ.] gan quake,*. [shake, Cx.] and a greet partie of the hil*. [hul, γ.] fil uppon þe oost of Galles, and hail stoones*. [haulstones, β.; hawelstones, γ.] slouȝ þe*. [that, Cx.] oþer deel. Þe duke Brennius for soore of his woundes myȝte nouȝt endure,*. [enduyre, γ.] and þerfore he slowȝ hym self wiþ a scharp swerd. No man schal wondre þeyȝ*. [though, Cx.] Appolyn toke wreche of hem þat spoylled þe goddes and þe temples. For God suffrede Appolyn destroye*. [destruye, β. and γ.] many naciouns by cause of here trespas and evel lyvynge and dedes. For it is certayn þat þe spirites*. [that spirites, Cx.] of þe ayer*. [eir, β.; aer, γ.] mowe*. [may, Cx.] use here schrewednesse Page  307, vol.3 in hem þat beeþ mysbeleved and evel of dedes, for grace is wiþdrawe from suche manere of*. [of] om. β. and Cx.] men and evel spirites [have]*. [Cx., not γ.; haveþ, β.] leve i-graunted to noye*. [nuye, γ.] hem and to greve hem.*. [ham, γ.]Eutropius.

Capitulum vicesimum.

OFFYS*. [offyce, β.; office, Cx.] and dignite beeþ*. [buþ, γ. ut semper.] i-chaunged among þe Romayns, for instede*. [instude, γ. et infra.] of tweie consuls beeþ i-made tribunes of chivalrie*. [cheualrye, Cx.] wiþ þe power of consuls, þo gan þe prophetes*. [profyȝt, α.; profit, β.; profyt, γ.; prouffyte, Cx.] of Rome to encrese*. [tencreace, Cx.]; but þis dignite durede*. [duyrede, γ.] nouȝt longe. [℞.]*. [From α.] Aboute þis tyme Dyogenes, þe philosofre, was in his floures.*. [prospered, Cx.] Jo|hannes,*. [Iosephus, Cx.] in Polichronicon suo, libro 7o, seiþ þat Diogenes was Anaximenes his disciple.*. [Here γ. adds—bote Austyn de civitate, lib. 8o, seiþ þat a was Anaxa|goras hys disciple.] Ieronimus, in*. [in] om. Cx.] libro suo contra Iovinianum seiþ þat he was Antistenes his disciple,*. [his disciple] om. Cx.] þat was Socrates his disciple, and þat I*. [y, β.] trowe soþeliche, ffor Seneca and Valerius telleþ*. [telliþ, β.; seyne, Cx.] þat Diogenes was in þe grete Alisaundre Page  309, vol.3 his tyme, þat regnede longe after Anaxagoras; but ȝif*. [ȝif] om. γ.] þere were meny*. [many, Cx.] Dyogenes in dyvers tymes, as þere were meny*. [many, Cx.] Socrates Ieronimus contra Iovinianum. Dyogenes usede a double mantel for colde, and hadde a scrippe instede of his celerer,*. [celer, Cx.] and a staf for to lyne*. [leny, β.; lenye, α. and γ.] too,*. [lene to, Cx.] and wonede*. [dwellyd, Cx.] in þe*. [þe] om. β. and Cx.] ȝates and out goynge of ȝates and knowleched sooþ in every*. [eueryche, β.; yche, Cx.] side, and took heed of þe lyf of men þat passede by [þe]*. [From α. and Cx.] wey, for meny*. [many, Cx.] maneres of men stank as hym semede. Whan he punsched*. [punysshed, Cx.] hym self in a toun,*. [tonne, Cx. et infra.] ȝit*. [ȝet, α.; yet, Cx.] he hadde game þat his hous meoved. He torned þe mouth of his toun toward þe souþ in colde tyme and toward þe norþ in somer tyme, where evere þe sonne were Dyogenes his hous tornede þiderward.*. [þuderward, γ.]Valerius, libro 4o, capitulo 3o. Alisaundre Macedo come to hym sittinge so in*. [so in] on, γ.] his tonne,*. [trone, β.] and bad hym axe somwhat of hym. "I*. [Ich, γ.] wolde," quod he*. [he] om. β.; sayd this, Cx.] Dyogenes, "þat þou woldest*. [wost, γ.] not lette me*. [me] om. γ. and Cx.] my sonne." Þere*. [thereof, γ. and Cx.] come þat by-sawe þat he*. [he] om. α.; β., γ., and Cx. have that Alysaunder.] myȝte Page  311, vol.3 liȝtloker*. [lyȝtlokur potte, γ.; lyghtlyer, Cx.] putte Darius out of his trone and out of his kyng|dom þan Dyogenes out of þe state of vertue.*. [staat of vertu, γ.] [℞.]*. [Cx.] Seneca, libro 5o, de Beneficiis, seiþ þat Dyogenes was myȝtiere and richere*. [myȝtyur and rychcher, γ.] þan Alisaundre. For þere was more þat he wolde fonge*. [fange, β.] not*. [nouȝt fonge, α.; not receyue, Cx.] þanne Alisaundre [myȝte ȝeve and þo*. [þanne, β.; thenne, Cx.] Alisaun|dre]*. [From α.] was overcome, for he fonde a man to whom he myȝte noȝt ȝeve, and he myȝte byneme*. [bynyme, β. and γ.] hym riȝt nouȝt.*. [take from Dyogenes right nought, Cx.]Seneca, Epistola 94a et Ieronimus 9o.*. [Ieronimus contra . . . . Here is an omission of the next word in β. and Cx.] Dyogenes bare in his scrippe a dische of tree*. [treo, β.] forto drynke*. [dryngke, γ.] of, and sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] a childe drynke of þe pame*. [pawme, β.; paume, γ.; pawne, Cx. et infra.] of his hond and brak*. [braake, Cx.] his dische anon, and seide "How longe schal a fool bere lere fardelles?*. [bere superflue fardels . . . Cx.] I woste*. [wyste, Cx.] nouȝt raþer þat kynde hadde craft of drynkynge;" and he alway after drank*. [drang, γ.] water of þe pame of his hond. He bated Page  313, vol.3 nevere*. [nevere abated, α.; neuer abated, β. and Cx.] contenaunce, noþer reddere of his þouȝt*. [reddre of his þouȝt, β.; noþer redyur of his, γ.; neyther his thought, Cx.]; what [euer]*. [Cx.] myshappes hym evere*. [evere] om. Cx.] byfel*. [byful, γ.] he chaunged nevere his*. [his] om. Cx.] sem|blant;*. [semlaunt, γ.] he rouȝt nouȝt of disese,*. [he thought neuer of disease, Cx.] noþer of fortune; he chaunged nevere his purpos for sorwe noþer for meschief; but he seide*. [and sayde, Cx.] it falleþ nouȝt to a philosofre to chaunge his witte for hap and*. [of, Cx.] fortune. His deeth schewed*. [shewide, β.] þat he*. [α, γ. passim.] was*. [After was, γ. adds ryȝtfol.] ver|tuous and contynent; ffor whanne he was olde, he wente to þe tornement of Olympe, he was i-take wiþ a fevere in þe weie, and lay in a den by þe weie, and his frendes wolde have i-caried hym [thens]*. [Cx.] on a beest oþer on a chare, but he wolde nouȝt assente; but wente to the schadewe*. [shadow, Cx.] of a tree, and seide, "I*. [Y, β. passim; y, γ.] pray ȝou gooþ forþ and seeþ,*. [go ye hens and cesse, Cx.] for þis nyȝt I schal assaye*. [essaye, Cx.] wheþer I schal overcome oþer be overcome [ȝif*. [ȝef ich, γ.] y*. [ich, β.] overcome]*. [From α. and Cx.] of*. [of] om α., β., and Cx.] þe fovere I schal come to þe tornement, and ȝif þe fevere overcome me I schal goo doun into helle," and leide adoun*. [leyde downe, Cx.] his heed and nekke, and was þere al nyȝt in*. [and, α.; and schewede, β.; and schowede noȝt onlych, γ.; and shewed, Cx.] schadowe, nouȝt onliche þat he wolde deie, but also þat he wolde putte*. [potte, γ.] of þe fevere*. [ouer the Feure, Cx.] by deeþ, and oon*. [in, β. and Cx.; on, γ.] caas was bigiled by ensaumple and opinion and*. [of, α., β., and Cx.] noble men þat wolde gladliche deie and helpe to here owne deth. I trowe þat he Page  315, vol.3 cleped helle þe state of þe soule after þe deth*. [α. wrongly inserts of þe deþ.] of þe body. Valerius, libro 4o, capitulo 3o. Diogenes wisshe*. [wische, β.; wysch, γ.] wortes in a tyme,*. [weded wortes upon a tyme, Cx.] and oon Aristippus seide to hym, "ȝif þou woldest flatere*. [woldest flatrye, β. and γ.; use flatery, Cx.] wiþ Denys þe kyng, þou schuldest nouȝt wasche þese*. [þeos, γ. et infra.] wortes;"*. [thou ne shulde nede to wede wortes, Cx.] and he answerde*. [answherede, γ.] and seide,*. [and seide] om. Cx.] "ȝif*. [ȝif] þey, γ.] þu woldest [ete of þese wortes, þou woldest]*. [From α.] nouȝt flatere*. [flatrie, β.] wiþ Denys, þou schuldest gete but litel good."*. [þou . . . good] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] Also Dyogenes desputede*. [dispuytede, γ.] in*. [on, Cx.] a tyme of wreþþe,*. [wrath, Cx.] and oon spat in his face, and he seide, "I am nouȝt wrooþ; but I douȝte wheþer I schulde be wroþ or*. [eþer, β.] no." Seneca, de Ira, libro 3o. Diogenes pleted*. [pledide, β.] oones in a*. [α] om. Cx.] cause, and oon Lentulus spat*. [spetted, Cx.] and þrewe fast spotel*. [fat spotel, β. and γ.; ropy spotel, Cx.] in his face, and he wiped his face, and seide, "I schal seie*. [sigge, γ.] after þis þat þey alle beeþ begiled þat seiþ*. [siggiþ, β.; hy alle buþ bygyled þat siggeþ þat þou, γ.] þou hast no mouth." Polichronicon, libro octavo. Oon byhelde*. [byhuld, α. and γ.; behilde, Cx.] Dyogenes and seide, "Þou hast an horlyng*. [hoorlynges, α.; Cx. has right wanton gygly eyen.] his eiȝen." Þerfore*. [wherfor, Cx.] his disciples wolde anon*. [anon] om. Cx.] have i-falle on the man*. [beten the man, Cx.] as*. [β. and γ. insert for after as.] a liere. "Leteþ be, felawes," Page  317, vol.3 quod*. [sayde, Cx.] Dyogenes, "for I*. [ich, γ. bis.] am suche oon by kynde, but I*. [ich, γ. bis.] refreyne*. [refreigne, Cx.] me by vertue." [℞.]*. [Cx.] Iuvenal, libro 4o, Satira prima, writeþ þat Diogenes wolde wepe*. [weope, γ.] whanne he wente out openliche*. [oponlych, γ.] among men, ffor he helde þat he say*. [demede þat al þat he siȝ, γ.; demed al that he sawe, Cx.] [was wretchednesse and woo; but Democritus dide the contrary, and lough when he wente openly oute amonge men, for he helde*. [huld, γ.] al that he sawe]*. [β. and Cx.] nysete and folye.*. [nycety and foly, γ.; nyesty and fooly, Cx.]In libro de dictis phi|losophorum. Oon þat was foulest of all men schewede his hous to Dyogenes; þe hous was wonderliche [real and]*. [From α. and β.] faire arrayed,*. [wonderly plesaunt and welbe|sene, Cx.] and [this]*. [Cx.] Dyogenes spatte in þe manis face, and men axede of hym why he dede so, [and]*. [Cx.] he answerede and seide, "For I sigh*. [y syȝ, γ.] non oþer so foule þing in his hous as his owne face."*. [for I saw noo soo foule place in his hows, as his face, Cx.; as ys hys aune face, γ.] Also me axede him*. [it was axed hym, Cx.] somtyme*. [somtyme] om. Cx.] why he usede a berde; "A womman," quod he, "with a berde semeþ a foule þing."*. [sayd he, berded is unsemely syght, Cx.] Also*. [also] om. Cx.] oon tolde hym*. [one sayde to hym, Cx.] þat oon of his frendes hadde i-spoke evel by hym. "I douȝte,"*. [doute, β.] quod*. [quaþ, γ. semper.]Page  319, vol.3 he, "ȝif my frende haþ i-seide*. [yseyd, γ. et infra.] suche wordes by me; but it is openliche i-knowe þat þou hast þat þing i-seide."*. [openly knowen that thou hast that thynge sayde, Cx.]Trevisa. Hit is wonder þat Diogenes *. [α. adds þat before used.]used so lewed sophestrie,*. [lewide sofistrie, β.; sophistry, Cx.] for here he makeþ no difference bytwene þe lyere and hym þat accuseþ þe lyere and warneþ*. [warned, Cx.] men of his lesynges, and reherseþ þe lesynges;*. [and . . . lesynges] om. Cx.] it is nouȝt oon to speke evel by a man and warne hym þat me spekeþ evel by hym and reherse what me seiþ.*. [that a man speke euil of hym, and reherce what euyl was sayd, Cx.] Seint Iohn, in his gospel, seiþ*. [sayde, Cx.] nouȝt þat þe devel was in*. [on, α., β., and γ.] Crist; but Seint Iohn seiþ*. [Seint Iohn seiþ] om. Cx.] þat þe Iewes seide þat þe devel was in*. [on, α., β., and γ.] Crist: and Crist hymself despisede*. [dispiside, β.] not God; but he reherseþ hou me bere hym on honde þat he despisede God: þat*. [þan, α. and Cx., correctly; þanne, β.] it followeþ in the storie.*. [thystory, Cx.] Also oon seide hym þat alle men despisede*. [dispisiden, β.] hym, and he seide, "Witte and wisdom mote*. [mot, β. and γ.; muste, Cx.] be despisede of folie. Whanne evel spekers*. [spekars, γ.] blameþ [and missaye a man]*. [Cx.] þey*. [hy, γ.; it, Cx.] scheweþ þat he is a*. [he is right good that is of hem myssayde, Cx.] victor, and wel good man." Tullius, libro primo de Tusculanis orationibus.*. [de Tusculis questione, Cx.] Diogenes, whanne he schulde deie, heet þat he schulde nouȝt be buried, but i-þrowe and lete ligge in a feeld oþer uppon an hille.*. [veld oþer aþon an hul, γ.] Þanne his frendes seide þat he schulde be i-ete*. [eeten, β,; yȝete, γ.] wiþ bestes and foules. "Nay," quod he, "but leieth*. [lay, β.; leggeþ, γ.] a staf by me þat I mowe*. [may, β. and Cx.] þere wiþ kepe hem*. [ham, γ.] away." "Wherto," quod*. [sayd, Cx.] his frendes, Page  321, vol.3 "þanne*. [for, Cx.] þou schalt not fele." "Þan," quod*. [sayd, Cx.] he, "þe etynge of þe bestes schal not greve me whan I schal not feele."

Capitulum vicesimum primum.

DENYS, þe tyraunt, king of Sicil, dieþ,*. [Scicele, dyed, Cx.] and þe ȝong*. [ȝonger, β. and γ.] Denys takeþ*. [toke, Cx.] þe kyngdom. Valerius, libro 4o. Amon and Phiceas were tweie frendes, and Denys wolde nedes slee oon of hem,*. [tham, γ.] and [that one]*. [β. and Cx.; on of tham, γ.] axede [respyte]*. [β. and Cx., not γ.] first*. [first] om. Cx.] to a certeyn day, þat he myȝte *. [Before þe, γ. inserts in.]þe mene tyme ordeyne for his*. [dispose his, Cx.] goodes and catel,*. [cataylle, Cx.] and took his felawe*. [felouȝ, γ.] to þe tyraunt to plegge, and to wedde.*. [and to wedde] om. Cx.] Þe day come, and þe man come nouȝt; þerfore Denys demede þe*. [that, β. and Cx.] oþere þat was an unwise*. [unwys, γ.] plegge.*. [pledge, Cx.] Noþeles, þe*. [þat, α., β., and Cx.]Page  323, vol.3 oþer come to þe houre*. [atte houre, Cx.] þat was i-sette; þan þe tyraunt won|drede and forȝaf hym þe deth, and prayed þat he moste*. [might, Cx.] be oon of here felawes. Tullius de Tusculanis orationibus.*. [qo, Cx.] Oon Damocles Denys his frend preisede*. [praysed, Cx.] Denys realte and richesse,*. [riches, Cx.] and seide þat þere*. [þere] om. Cx.] was nevere man þat hadde so grete welþe. "Wilt*. [Wolt, β. and γ.] þou,"*. [Wiltow, saide Denys, essay, Cx.] quod Denys, "asay my fortune and my welþe?" And he graunted. Þanne Denys made araye a bed of gold, a noble bord realliche*. [rialiche, β.] arrayed*. [and a ryche table rychely besene, Cx.] wiþ grete plente of [deynteous]*. [Cx., not γ.] mete and drink, noble servauntes, and*. [and] om. Cx.] redy swete songes and merþe i-now. Among al þis he heet honge*. [bade hang, Cx.] a briȝt swerd and a scharp evene above his heved*. [heede, Cx.] by an horshere,*. [hoorheer, γ.] and þe poynt dounward evene to his hevedward,*. [heedward, β.; heedewarde, Cx.] and whanne he took noon hede to*. [to] of, γ.] [alle this likyng for drede of the swerd]*. [Cx. and β., which latter adds— þat he toke heede to alweye; after swerd, γ. adds þat a tok hede to.] alwey,*. [alwey] om. Cx.] þanne Denys seide such is my lyf [þat þou holdeste þe lyf]*. [From α.] of welþe and of ioye. Page  325, vol.3Valerius, libro 6o. Whanne alle men Syracusanes desired and prayed þe deth of Denys þe tyraunt for his cruelte,*. [cruwelte, β. and γ.] oon olde wydewe,*. [widue, β.; wedewe, γ.; wydue, Cx.] in here laste ende,*. [elde, β. and γ.] prayed here goddes for*. [elde to god prayed for, Cx.] Denys his lyf and his heele,*. [hele, β.; helth, Cx.] and whanne he woste*. [wyst, Cx.] þerof he wondrede of þe goode wille of þe womman wiþoute his disservynge,*. [wiþoute his disservynge] om. Cx.] and axede what here meoved so forto praye.*. [moeued soo to pray, Cx.] "Whanne I*. [ich, γ.] was," quod*. [seyd, Cx.] sche,*. [heo, γ.] "a ȝonge wenche, I was over|sette with a tiraunt and desired to be delyvered of hym; and whan he was i-slawe, oon wel*. [wel] om. Cx.] wors þan he helde*. [heelde, β. semper; huld, γ.] þe kyng|dom; and whan he was deed þanne hadde [we]*. [β. and Cx.] þe þridde þat was worst of alle; and þerfore lest þan*. [þan, not in Cx.] a wors þan þou art*. [art] om. Cx.; ert, γ.] come after þe, I wolde ȝeve myn heed [and my lyf]*. [Cx.] for to save þyn *. [thy, Cx.]lyf and þyn hele.*. [helthe, Cx.]" Tullius de Officiis, libro 2o. Denys, þe kyng, usede noon*. [no, Cx.] barbour to schave his berde, for he dredde þe barbour to schave with rasoures*. [dradde þe barbores rasours, β.] ful soore,*. [barbour his rasoures ful sore, α. and Cx.; a dradde the barbour hys rasors fol sore, γ.] and sweled of his berd heer*. [berdher, γ.] with a firy cole;*. [wiþ a fuyry coole, β.; the heer of his beerde with fyre, Cx.] þis*. [þes, γ.]Page  327, vol.3 Denys in*. [on, Cx.] a tyme come into a temple þere [where]*. [Cx. om. þere and has next where.] were meny ymages, i-cloþed in gold, and [he]*. [Cx.] took awey þe golde from hem, and seide to hem þat stood aboute,*. [that were besyde him, Cx.] "Þis cloþinge is to hevy for somer and colde for wynter." Eft he took a crowne of þe ymages heed*. [hond, β.; ryng of þe ymage hys hond, γ.] of Mercurius*. [oute of an ymages hande of Mercurye, Cx.] and seide, "Loo ȝe seeþ*. [seen, β.] wel, [that]*. [Cx.] I be-neme*. [bynyme, γ.] hym nouȝt,*. [I take no thynge from him, Cx.] but [that]*. [Cx.] he profreþ it to*. [to] om. α.; it to] om. Cx. and β.] me wiþ his wille." Þat tyme Aristotel,*. [Aristotles, Cx.] in his eyȝtenþe*. [eyȝteteþe, γ.] yere of age, lernede*. [lurnede, γ.] of his maister Plato. And Nectanabus, king of Egipt, bygan to regne, and regnede nyntene ȝere. Poli|cronicon, libro quinto. Furius Camillus, king*. [duc, γ. and Cx.; Canillus duke, β.] of Romayns, deyeþ: toforehonde*. [MS. wrongly inserts and be|fore is.] is i-made mynde*. [biforehond is made. . ., β.; is maad muynde, γ.; deyed, before is made mynde, Cx.] of his grete dedes. Page  329, vol.3Gaufridus et Alfridus. Aboute þat tyme, Gurguncius, kyng of Britouns, þat was Belyn his sone, come out of Denmarch*. [Denemarche, Cx.] þat werned*. [wurnede, γ.; warned, Cx.] hym tribute þat was i-wont to be paied to hym, and fond by þe ylond Orchades*. [Ilandes Orchades, Cx.] þritty schippes ful*. [fol. γ.] of men Basclenses þat þider were i-dryve out of Spayne side, and he sente hem and here Duke Bartholomewe into Irlonde, þat was þo voyde and*. [and inhabyte, Cx.] no man [wonede]*. [From α. and γ.] þerynne. ℞. Loke more þerof in þe firste book, capitulo Hibernia.

Capitulum vicesimum secundum.

TTHUS*. [Othus, α., γ., and Cx. The illu|minator has by mistake put T as the initial letter in MS.] þat heet Artarxerses the twelþe kyng of Pers regnede fyve*. [fyf, γ.] and twenty yere. In his*. [this, Cx.] tyme whanne Furius Camillus was deed amonȝ þe Romayns, þere fel a grete pestilence among þe Romayns,*. [among them, Cx.] so þat in þe myddel of the citee þe erþe*. [eorþe, γ.] was i-oponed,*. [opened, Cx.] and þere was a greet cheyne*. [chyne, β.; chene, γ. et infra; chynne, Cx.] and a weye to helle. At þe laste þe dyvynours seide þat þat wey to helle abood þe buriels of a*. [abode the buryenge of a, Cx.] quyk man. Þan Marcus Page  331, vol.3 Curtius,*. [Cursius, Cx.] an horsman of Rome, forto save þe citee, armed hym and wente doun into þat chyne,*. [clyffe, Cx.] and so þe chyne*. [clyf, Cx.] was i-closed. Þe mene tyme þe Romayns fauȝte aȝenst þe Galles, frensche men þat destroyede Italy,*. [destriede Itali, β.; destruyde Itali, γ.] and oon of þe Galles profrede hym to fiȝte wiþ oon*. [o, β.] man body for body. Þan Lucius Mallius fauȝht wiþ hym and slowȝ hym, and took a bye*. [byze, α; byȝe, β., et infra; by, γ., et infra; byce, Cx.] of golde of*. [from, Cx.] his nekke and dede*. [dude, γ.] aboute his owne, and so he*. [he] om. γ. and Cx.] took a surname for evermore to hym and to*. [to] om. Cx.] his ofspringe, and was i-cleped Tarquatus,*. [Torquatus, Cx.] þat is, a man wiþ a bye,*. [byze, α.; byse, Cx.] ffor a bye*. [byze, α.; byse, Cx.] is torques in*. [in] a, β., and γ.] Latyn. ℞.*. [℞] om. Cx.] Aus|tyn*. [Augustinus, Cx.] de Civitate, libro 5o, capitulo 18o, seiþ þat þis Tor|quatus slouȝ his owne sone þat hadde i-fouȝt for þe con|tray, and i-wonne*. [wonnen, β.] þe victorie. He slouȝ hym for he [had]*. [Cx.] fauȝt aȝenst his fader heste; lest þe*. [that, β. and Cx.] dede schulde be en|saumple of more harme and despite of þe empere*. [despyt of þe emper, γ.; empyre, Cx.] þanne þe worschepe schulde be of þe deth of þe enemye. Phelip,*. [Philip, Cx.] kyng of Macedonia þat was i-holde*. [holden, β.] Alisaundre his fader, bygan Page  333, vol.3 to regne, and regnede sixe and twenty ȝere. In his tyme Democenes,*. [Demostenes, Cx., ut passim.] þe advokett*. [avoket, α., β., and γ.; advocate, Cx.] and*. [and] om. Cx.] fairest spekere of alle was in his floures.*. [prospered, Cx.] He wente in*. [on, Cx.] a tyme to [a]*. [From α. and Cx.] wel*. [wel] om. Cx.] faire strompet þat heet Lays*. [Layes, Cx.] and was of Corinthe; and Lays axede of hym a ȝifte*. [an yefte, Cx.] þat sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] cleped*. [clepeth, Cx.] nummum quantum, and Democenes, þat was so i-mened*. [so was ymeoved to, γ.] to leccherie,*. [was gretely moeued in lust, Cx.] seide þat he wolde not begge so dere to be*. [bye so dere, β.; bygge so deore . . . forþenkke, γ.; bye so dyer and after be, Cx.] sory and forþinke his dede. Polichronicon, libro 6o. Þis*. [þes, γ.] nummum quantum makeþ ten þowsand pans of oure,*. [þousond panes, γ., et infra; pens of ours, Cx.] and is worþ half þe gretter talentum;*. [β. inserts þat after talentum.] [the grettre talentum]*. [Added from γ.] is worþ twenty þowsand pans of oure.*. [pens of ours, Cx.]Trogus and Valerius, libro 8o. De|moscenes, þe advoket,*. [avocet, β.; advocate, Cx.] was so busye to putte*. [bysy to pot, γ.] of alle manere lett of his speche þat no man spak more cleerliche*. [oponlych, γ.; cleere, Cx.] þan he what he wolde mene,*. [what he wolde mene] om. Cx.] and þeigh*. [though, Cx.] he had a welle smal voys,*. [voyx, Cx.] noþeles he used it soo þat he hadde a noble sownynge speche. Me axede of hym ofte what were moste spedful*. [spedfol, γ., et infra.] among wise men, and he seide most spedful is to knowleche þat he kan*. [can, β.] not.*. [to the knouleche of that he can nought, Cx.] Me telleþ of hym þat he spak moche and of*. [of] om. Cx.] longe tyme while he hadde stones in his mouþ, but whanne þe stones were out and his*. [the, Cx.] mouþ voyde he was more redy to speke. Agellus. Messagers of þe Moloses come to Athene, and þe firste day of plee*. [ple, γ.] Demoscenes pletede*. [pledide, β.] aȝenst hem Page  335, vol.3 and wiþ-stood hem; amorwe*. [on the morow, Cx.] he was i-stopped wiþ money for he schulde nouȝt speke aȝenst hem. Þe þridde day whanne þe cause schulde be pleted, Demoscenes come forþ wiþ wolle aboute his nekke, and seide þat he hadde the squynacy*. [squynancy, α.; squinacye, β.; squynanci, γ.; squynacy, Cx., et infra.] and þerfore he myȝt noȝt speke aȝen*. [aȝenes, γ. semper.] þe Meloses.*. [Moloses, β. and Cx.] Þanne oon of þe peple*. [of the peple] om. Cx.] cride and seide, "It is no squynacie but silverie*. [selvery, γ.] that it ailleþ."*. [him eileþ, α; him ailiþ, β.; hym eyleþ, γ.; hym ayleth, Cx.] But*. [And, Cx.] Demoscenes afterward tolde out how it was, and acounted*. [acompted, Cx.] hit for a grete worschepe, and axede of Arestedimus*. [Aristodimus, Cx.] what mede he hadde i-fonge*. [take, β.; taken, Cx.] [for]*. [Cx.] to plede for hem. "Talentum," quoþ*. [sayd, Cx.] he. "And I,"*. [ich, β. and γ.] quod*. [sayd, Cx.] Demoscenes, "hadde wel more forto holde my pees."*. [pes, γ.]Valerius, libro 7o. Tweie men hadde i-take a womman money forto kepe,*. [taken money to a woman to kepe, Cx.] and ordeyned*. [ordeyne, α.] þat the womman schulde delyvere þe money to never noþer of hem*. [to neyther of hem, Cx.] by hym self,*. [sylf, γ.] bot to hem boþe to gidres. Lonȝe tyme afterward,*. [after, Cx.] þat oon come and seide Page  337, vol.3 þat his felawe was deed, and begiled*. [bygylede, γ.] þe womman and hadde þe money of here. Þan nouȝt longe after his felawe come and axed þe money. Þan the womman was pur|sewed*. [persuwed, γ.; pursued, Cx.] [harde and] grevously,*. [grevouslych, γ.] and Demoscenes come*. [γ. adds forþ after come.] and halpe here in þis manere and seide, lete hem boþe come to gidres and axe her money; þat*. [þat] om. α. and Cx.] [as hit was y-ordeyned whanne þe money]*. [Cx.] was i-take here to kepynge,*. [to be kept, Cx.] and þanne þe money schal be payde and nouȝt arst.*. [and no raþer, β.] Bote for*. [and no rather. And for . . . ., Cx.] þey*. [hy, γ.] come nevere boþe*. [boþe] om. Cx.] to gidres, þe womman was quyte. Ysidorus, libro primo, capitulo 31o. Phelip þe king,*. [Kyng Philip, Cx.] byseged*. [bisegide, β.] the citee of Athene*. [cyte Athenes, Cx.] and axede ten wise men of þe citee to be delyvered*. [deliuer, Cx.] to hym, and he wolde goo awey from þe citee, and byseged*. [bysege, α. and γ.; bisege, β.; besiege, Cx.] it no lenger. But Demoscenes counsailled nay, and tolde þis fable. Wolves somtyme profrede frendschepe to schipherdes*. [schephurdes, γ., et infra.] uppon suche Page  339, vol.3 a*. [proferd frendship to shepperdes on this, Cx.] condicioun, ȝif*. [that, Cx.] þe schipperdes wolde delyvere here houndes to þe wolves, for þe houndes, quod þe wolves, makeþ al þe stryf bytwene us and ȝow. Þe schipperdes graunted and delyvered*. [for your dogges, sayd they, make all the varyaunce bytwyx you and us. Whereupon the shepherdes delyuered, Cx.] hem þe houndes. Þanne þe wolfes*. [wolues, β. and Cx.] whanne strengþe and warde of houndes was away slowȝ and to-haled*. [deuowred, Cx.] alle the schepe at here*. [har, γ.] owne wille. "So, [sayd he]*. [Cx.] Philip wolde destroye*. [distrye, β.] þe*. [þis, Cx.] citee ȝif þere lakkede wise men and counsail.*. [whan the cite, α.; whanne þe cite lacked, β.; whan þe cyte lakkede wys men and consayl, γ.; yf it lacked wyse men of counsayle, Cx.]" Othus, king of Pers, tornede þe Iewes in to Hircania. Þe grete Alisaundre is i-bore in Macedonia; and Denys is i-slawe at*. [at] in, β.] Siracusana.*. [Siracusa, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Þe Romayns overcomeþ þe Galles, in þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] fiȝtynge oon of the Galles axeþ*. [axed, Cx.] Marcus Valerius a tribune of Rome to fiȝte wiþ hym in a singuler*. [singler, Cx.] bataille body for body. And while þey*. [hy, γ.] fauȝte a ravoun*. [reven, γ.; rauen, Cx.] sat uppon*. [saat apon, γ.] þe riȝht schulder Page  341, vol.3 of Valerius and alwey smoot to þe yȝen*. [eȝene, γ.; eyen, Cx.] of þe Galle,*. [Frensshman, Cx.] and so þe Romayn gat þe victorie and þe name, and was afterward i-cleped*. [y-clepud, γ., et infra.] Corvynus, for a ravoun*. [revon, γ.; rauen, Cx.] is corvus in*. [in] a, β. and γ.] Latyn. And Corvynus was consul foure and twenty yere after þe*. [þat, α., β., and Cx.] dede. Polichronicon, libro 7o.

Capitulum vicesimum tertium.

PLATO, þe philosofre, deyde whan he hadde i-lyved four skore ȝere and ten in so grete reverence þat me dowtede*. [doubted, Cx.] long after his deth wheþer [that]*. [Cx.] he schulde be acounted*. [acompted, Cx.] among goddes oþer amonge half goddes. Plato was most excellent among Socrates [his]*. [From α.] disciples,*. [disciplis, β.] and was i-cleped Plato for he hadde a brood breest*. [brode brest, Cx.] and a brood space bytwene his browes;*. [browis, β.; brouwes, γ.] for platos is*. [is, β. and γ.; in, Cx.] Grewe [is]*. [Cx.] latum in*. [in] a, β. and γ.] Latyn, brood in*. [in] an, γ.] Eng|lische. Plato was i-bore in Athene.*. [Athenes, Cx.]Tullius de di, libroPage  343, vol.3primo, capitulo 16o. While Plato was a child, and lay in his cradel and sleep,*. [slepte, Cx.] bees sete*. [sate, β.] on his lippes, and dyvynours seide þat he schulde schyne in swetnes of bedes.*. [sweetnesse of eloquence, Cx.] [Valerius, libro primo, capitulo 4o].*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] Þat nyȝt þat Plato was i-sette to Socrates his lore, he mette*. [demed, Cx.] þat a swan lay on his kneen.*. [knees, β. and Cx.; knen, γ.]Policronicon, libro 8o. Þis*. [þes, γ.] Plato in his firste*. [furste, γ.] lore of lettrure was i-tauȝt of Denys, in wrastlynge of Ariston Argus. He despised nouȝt þe craft of peyntinge,*. [peynture, β. and γ.; picture, Cx.] he feynede hym self profitable to dyvynaciouns and to gestes, and he triste*. [trust, Cx.] on his endynge*. [enditynge, β.; endytyng, γ. and Cx.] and tellynges*. [teelingis, β.; telyngs, γ.; tel|yngys, Cx.] as*. [as] þat γ.] olde wifes useþ,*. [usiþ, β.] and wolde bycome*. [become, Cx.] a fiȝting man, but Socrates forbeed [hym].*. [From α. and β.]Valerius, libro 8o, [cap. 7o].*. [Cx.] Socrates deide*. [deyede, β.] at þe laste, and Plato tornede*. [turnde, γ.] to þe lore of hem þat folowede Pictagoras his lore, and worschipped hem nouȝt onliche for þey*. [α, γ. bis.] were konnynge*. [for here connynge, Cx.] but also for þey*. [α, γ. bis.] were contynent. After þat he wente to Theodorus Cirenensis, and lernede gemetrie;*. [geometrie, β., geometry, γ.] þan he wente to Egipt to lerne*. [leorne, γ.] astronomye. Policronicon, libro 7o. And meny troweþ*. [trowiþ, β.; wene, Cx.] þat he lernede þere*. [þare, γ.] þe pro|phecies Page  345, vol.3 of prophetes, but þe acountynge*. [þacountyng, γ.; acompting, Cx.] of tymes suffreþ hym not to be in tyme of prophetes; ffor Austyn, libro 8o de Civitate, capitulo 11o, seþ þat Plato was i-bore aboute an hon dred*. [hundride, β.] ȝere after þe deth of Ieremye þe prophete. Þanne aboute an*. [α, β. and Cx.] sixty ȝere after his deeth þe bookes of prophetes come into Egipt in Tholomeus þe kyng his*. [þe kynges, α.] tyme.*. [in tyme of the king Tholomeus, Cx.] Þere*. [þar, γ.] in þat pilgrymage*. [pylgremage, γ.] of Plato, [Plato]*. [From α. β.] miȝt nouȝt i-see*. [se, β.; y-seo, γ.] Ieremyas þat was deed longe tyme toforehond,*. [bifore, β. and Cx.] noþer rede þe bookes of prophecie þat were nouȝt ȝit i-torned into Grewe,*. [Greu, γ.; translate into Grue, Cx.] noþeles meny þinges beeþ i-founde in Plato his bookes þat acordeþ wiþ sawes of prophetes. Austyn, libro 16o [capitulo 20],*. [From α., β., and Cx.] et libro Confessionum ante finem, seiþ þat Seynt Iohn his gospel seiþ*. [seiþ] om. α., β., and Cx.] was i-founde in Plato his bookes þat acordeþ wiþ sawes of prophetes*. [that . . . prophetes] om. Cx.] anon*. [unto, Cx.] to þat place "Tenebre eam non comprehenderunt," þat is to mene*. [menyng, γ.; say, Cx.] derkenesse knewe nouȝt Page  347, vol.3 liȝt. For þe apostel seiþ*. [thapostle sayd, Cx.] þat suche philosofres vansched*. [vanyschiden, β.; vanysshed, Cx.] away in here þouȝtes, I*. [Ich, γ.] wolde nouȝt trowe it, nere þat it is i-rad*. [red, β.] in*. [trowt but that it is wreton in, Cx.] bookes of holy fadres. Þan Plato tornede out of*. [departed from, Cx.] Egipt [and came]*. [Cx.] in to Italy, and folwede Carentinus Arti|cus þat hilde*. [huld, γ.] Pictagoras his lore. And þan he wolde have i-goo*. [goon, β.] to þe Indes*. [Iudes, α., β., and Cx.] and Medes þat kouþe nygromancie and wicchecraft nere þat þe werre of Calet*. [Calett, γ.; but that the werre of Caldee, Cx.] lette hym forto passe, and þerfore whanne he fond Zeno and Parmenydes,*. [Ceno and Permenydes, Cx.] he*. [he] om. α.] abood*. [he abood] a bood, γ.] wiþ hem, and gadrede here*. [har, γ.] sawes. Schrewes remeneþ*. [remeveþ, γ.; remoeued this thre connyngys into Scicilia, Cx.] his þre comynges in to Sicilia by dyvers opiniouns. For som meneþ*. [moeued, Cx.] þat he com forto see þe storie*. [thystory, Cx.] of kynde and of*. [the, Cx.] resoun of brennynge on*. [on] in, β.] þe hille*. [in þe hul, γ.] þat hatte mount Ethna*. [of the montayne Ethna, Cx.]; þe secounde [sayd]*. [Cx.; seyn, β.; seggeþ, γ.] þat he come at þe prayer of Denys þe tyraunt to holde wiþ þe citee Siracusa*. [Ciracusa, Cx.] and forto teche þe*. [þar, γ.; theyr, Cx.] lawe; þe þridde seiþ*. [seyn, β.; seggeþ, γ.; sayd, Cx.] þat he come forto reconsile [one]*. [Cx.] Dyon to his contray by forȝifnesse and grace i-gete*. [geten, β.] of Denys. Ieronimus contra Iovinianum. Plato was riche for condicioun and tyme, and Dyogenes wiþ his foule feet trad*. [trade, β. and Cx.] on his bed þat was faire*. [wel besene, Cx.] araied. Þan Plato ches*. [chees, β. and Cx.] a litel toun þat heet Achademia a mile out of Athene. In þat toun Page  349, vol.3 was ofte pestilence and erþe*. [eorþe, γ.] shakynge, and þerfore [he chees]*. [β. and Cx.] þat dredful*. [dredful] om. γ.] place for suche dredful happes schulde wiþ drawe his scolers from temptacioun of leccherie, and for his scolers schulde fele*. [veele, γ.] non oþer likynge but of þinges þat þey schulde lerne.*. [hy scholde leurne, γ.]Macrobius, libro 3o. Þis Plato seide [that]*. [β. and Cx.] þere beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] tweie deþes, by oon deeþ þe soule [forsakeþ þe body, by þat oþer deth þe soule]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] while he*. [hit, β.; α, γ.; it, Cx.] is in þe body he*. [he] not in Cx.; α, γ.] for|sakeþ and despiseþ*. [dispisiþ, β.] bodilich likynges, wreþe and anger, and alle*. [alle] om. Cx.] unskilful doynges, and þis deþ*. [deþ] om. Cx.] schulde philosofres desire. Seil,*. [Seneca, α., γ., and Cx.]de Ira, libro 3o. Plato was ones wrooþ wiþ his servaunt, and heet hym doo of his kirtel,*. [curtel, γ.; kertill, Cx.] and make his schulders*. [schuldris, β.] naked and bare*. [baar, γ.]; but whan he understood þat he was wrooþ he wiþ*. [wiþ] om. β. and Cx.] helde*. [wiþhuld, γ.] his hond, and stood*. [stod, γ.] as þey*. [þey] om. Cx.; þouȝ, in β.] he wolde smyte. Þanne oon of his frendes Pseusippus axede hym why he stood soo, and what he dede and þouȝte; and he answerde and seide, "I am aboute to punsche*. [punysshe, Cx.] a man and am wrooþ and worþy to be punsched.*. [punysshed, Cx.] I pray þe," quoþ he, "bete þou þis servaunt, leste I bete hym more þan it nedeþ*. [neodeþ, γ.] [bycause Page  351, vol.3 of my wrath],*. [Cx., not γ.] for*. [for I am . . . servaunte. It] om. Cx.] I am wrooþ and worþy to be punsched. "I pray þe," quod he, "bete þou þis servaunt. It*. [It] om. α.] [Noo *. [man] servaunt, β. and γ.]man]*. [Cx.] is in his power þat is nouȝt in his owne [power].*. [From α., γ., and Cx.]" ℞. Helmand seeþ*. [saide, Cx.] þat Plato usede to title his bookes by names of his maistres,*. [mayster, γ.] for he*. [þei, β.; α, γ.; they, Cx.] schulde be of þe more auctorite, oþer by names of scolers þat he wel loved. Policronicon, libro 7o, seiþ þat men telleþ þat Plato deyde for schame, for he myȝte nouȝt assoille*. [coude not assayle, Cx.] þe questioun of schipmen. I*. [Y, γ.] trowe wel*. [wel] om. β., γ., and Cx.] bettre þat it was sooþ of Homerus, as Maximus [seiþ],*. [From α. and Cx.] ofte þe*. [þese, α. and β.; þeos, γ.; thes, Cx.] tweie men beeþ i-take eiþer in stede of oþer for here grete witte and wisdom and noble spekynge, and also for drede of restes,*. [brede of brestes, α., β., and γ.; breede of brestes, Cx.] for it is certayne þat noble men and worþy hadde many names. Polycronicon, libro 2o. Philosofres þat were i-cleped*. [y-clepud, γ., et infra.] Zenofontini hadde grete envie to*. [of, Cx.] Plato his kunnynge and his*. [his] om. Cx.] loos, and feyne*. [feynede, α. and β.; feyned, Cx.] of hym suche a tale. Flavianus, þe philosofre, libro de Vestigiis Philosophorum, seiþ þat þey*. [þey þat, α.; þouȝ þat, β.; þt þeyȝ, γ.] meny men tellen*. [telle, α.] þat Plato ȝelde*. [ȝuld, γ.] up þe goost wilfulliche*. [wylfolych, γ.] at a derk menynge of a noumbre þat was whan he hadde ful|filled*. [folfuld, γ.]Page  353, vol.3 ȝeres of his age nyne siþes nyne, þat is foure score and oon. Valerius, libro 9o, capitulo 13o. Homerus for he myȝte nouȝt assoille þe questioun deide for schame and for*. [for] om. Cx.] sorwe. [℞.]*. [From α. and Cx.] Gregorius Nauȝanȝenus, uppon*. [apon, γ.] þis word of þe apostel, seiþ*. [seiþ] om. β. and Cx.] "þe wisdom of þis world is folie tofore God," and seiþ þat Plato walkede*. [walkid, β.] uppon þe see clyve,*. [clif, β.; se clyf, γ.; clyf, Cx.] and byhelde*. [byhuld, γ.] hevene; þanne schipmen sigh hym, and lowh*. [saw hym and lough, Cx.] hym to scorne. "What have*. [habbe, γ.] ye," quod*. [sayde, Cx.] he. Þey answered and seide, "Al þat we haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ., et infra.] i-take we haveþ nouȝt, and al þat we haveþ not i-take we haveþ." Þey hadde i-lowsed*. [i-loused, β.; yloused har, γ.] her cloþes and i-slawe al þat þey myȝte take, and so þey hadde nouȝt what þey hadde i-take. Plato þouȝte on fische, and wondrede and ete nouȝt, noþer slepte,*. [sleep, α.] for he made hym so besy*. [bisye, β.; bysy, γ.] to fynde þe solucioun of þe questioun, and so he deide. Valerius, libro 4o. Plato herde telle þat his disciple Zenocrates hadde i-spoke moche Page  355, vol.3 evel of hym, and hugeliche*. [gretely, Cx.] despised hym, noþeles Plato took noon hede of þe pleynt,*. [this complaynte, Cx.] and þe iuge axede hym why he ȝaf no fey*. [credence, Cx.] to þe tale. "Hit is not to trowynge," quod*. [to be yeuen feyth unto, sayth, Cx.] Plato, "þat he*. [hym, Cx.] þat I*. [Ich, γ.] have i-loved so longe loveþ not me also." But þe iuge swoor þat he hadde i-herde*. [yhurd, γ.] suche tales of Zenocrates his mouth. Þan Plato answered and seide*. [β. inserts þ t after seide.] "Ze|nocrates wolde nevere telle suche*. [siche, β., passim.] tales, but*. [bote, γ., ut semper.] hym*. [it, Cx.] semede þat it were spedeful suche tale*. [tales, α. and Cx.] to telle." Valerius, libro 7o. After Plato in his stede come his suster sone, Pseusippus, and after hym Zenocrates, Plato his scoler þat he loved wel, in þe scole þat heet Achademia, and þerfore þey þat come after hem, Plotinus,*. [Politinus, Cx.] Porphirius, Apuleius, and after*. [affer, α., β., γ., and Cx.] hadde þe*. [that, Cx.] name of þe scole, and were i-cleped Achademici, as þey*. [hy, γ.] hadde þe name of Plato, and were i-cleped Platonici. Valerius, libro 10o. Of þis Zenocrates it is i-rad þat a faire hore*. [houre, γ.; redde that a faire comyn woman, Cx.] of Athene fenge*. [fang, β.; receyued, Cx.] mede and undertook to make hym ligge*. [lie, Cx.] by here, and come in*. [at, Cx.] a nyȝt and lay by hym in his bed, but sche*. [heo, β.] myȝte in no manere wise [make hym]*. [From α. and Cx.] abate [his chastete. Þanne ȝongelynges scornede here,*. [heore, γ.] for sche*. [α, γ.; heo, β., et infra.] myȝte in noon manner wise abate]*. [β. and Cx. omit in noon manner wise, and read not.] þe philosofres chastite. "I made Page  357, vol.3 "no covenant," quod sche, "of an ymage, but of a man." Ieronimus contra Iovinianum. Zenocrates lefte to þe men of Athene*. [Athenes, Cx.] but þre hestes of Trecolinus his lawes, to worschepe fader and moder, and herie goddes, and ete no flesche. Also in libro Dictis*. [also in the dictes, Cx.] Philosophorum, it is i-wrete*. [y-wryte, γ.] þat Zenocrates seygh*. [siȝ, β.; syȝ, γ.] oon i-lad to þe honging,*. [hongoyng, γ.] and lowh*. [sawe one ladde to be hanged and lough, Cx.] and sede, "þe gretter þeeves*. [þeoves, γ.] punscheth*. [punysshe, Cx.] þe lasse." Valerius, libro 6o in fine. Also oon Polemo,*. [Pollemo and Pollemius, Cx.] þat heet Polemius*. [Pollemo and Pollemius, Cx.] also, a ȝong man of Atthene,*. [Athenes, Cx.] was ful*. [fol, γ.] leccherous, so þat he hadde likynge and ioye nouȝt onlich of his evil doynge but also he hadde grete ioye of evel loos [and mysfame].*. [Cx.] In*. [on, Cx.] a tyme he come from a feste, nouȝt after þe goynge doun of þe sonne but after þe sonne rysinge and went home and sigh*. [siȝ, β.; sawe, Cx.] Zenocrates his ȝate opoun, and was wyn-dronke,*. [drongke, γ.] and anoynt wiþ oignementis, and i-hiȝt wiþ þe*. [þe] om. α., γ., and Cx.] gerlandes, and realliche*. [rialich, β.; realych, γ.] i-cloþed*. [enoynted with oynementes and aparaild, Cx.] and*. [and] om. Cx.] entrede in to þe scole [in this maner]*. [Cx.] ful of noble doctours, and satt [hym down]*. [Cx.] þere forto scorne þe faire speche of þe doctoures in his dronkenesse. At þe laste every man had indignacioun of hym, but Zenocrates chaunged not his semblant, but he lefte the mater*. [matyre, γ.; matier, Cx.]] [þat he spak of and tornede*. [turnde, γ.] his speche to þe matir]*. [From α. and β.] of sobernes, of pacience, and of*. [of] om. Cx.] sufferaunce, and by his resonable, faire, and noble speche Polemius was compelled to take hede, and first he drowe*. [drouȝ, α.; drough, Cx.] to hym his arme þat he helde*. [huld, γ.] stoutliche wiþ oute his mantel Page  359, vol.3 and þanne he þrewe doun þe gerland of his heed, and at þe laste he forsook al his evel likynge, so þat of a foule bollere and glotoun*. [fowle boller and goloton, Cx.] was made*. [maad, γ.] a grete philosofre. Policronicon, libro 7o, and Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro 9o, capitulo undecimo.

Capitulum vicesimum quartum.

AFTER Plato come Aristotil, a noble man of fame and of loore, and of greet wit, noþeles nouȝt so noble [a]*. [Cx.] spekere*. [spekar, γ.] as Plato, but he passed meny men in þe office*. [offys, γ.; thoffyce, Cx.] of techynge. and was konnynge in craft of faire [utterance and]*. [Cx.] schew|ynge to wiþseie*. [wiþsegge, γ.] alle oþere menis sentence.*. [sentens, γ.; mannes sentences, Cx] He brouȝte up þe secte þat is i-cleped Peripatetica,*. [Paripatetica, Cx.] for he used to dispute*. [despuyte, γ.] wandrynge and walking. While Plato leved, Aristotle gadrede meny disciples into his heresie, he made bookes of alle manere [philosofy and ȝaf certeyn hestes and rules in al manere]*. [From α.] of philosofie. Noþeles specialliche*. [specialliche] om. Cx.] passynge all oþere he brouȝt*. [broȝte, γ.] logike in to his riȝt lawe. Þis is i-cleped*. [þes is y-clepud, γ.] þe philosofre, as it were he þat bereþ þe prise*. [price, Cx.] of philosofres: so Rome is i-cleped þe citie, so Maro þe poete, and so Aristotle Page  361, vol.3 þe philosofre. Noþeles som men trowed þat he was a fendes sone, for he was sweþer*. [swyþer, α. and Cx.; swiper, β.; swepour, γ.] and swift, and cleer of witte, and desired greet worschepe, ffor by meny manere sleiȝtes*. [sleiȝþes, β.; sleygþes, γ.; sleyghtes, Cx.] he usede to wynne, and took worschepe tofore alle oþer men. Alexander de Natura. Aristotle eyȝtene ȝere olde*. [eȝtene ȝere old, α. and Cx.] among oþere tauȝte [eloquence]*. [Cx.] faire and noble spekynge*. [speche, Cx.] as it is specialliche i-sene in his Commentis Homerici*. [Comentes Homeris, Cx.] and in Ditee*. [dyte, Cx.] of Troye, þe whiche he bytook*. [bitoke, β.; whoche he bytok, γ.] Alisaundre, and in his Dyalogus of Poetis and in Tretys of Rethorik.*. [tretice of rethorique, Cx.] Aristotle eyȝtene*. [eyȝtetene, γ.] ȝere olde was i-sent into Athene, and lerned*. [leornede, γ.] þere of Zocrates*. [Socrates, β., γ., and Cx.] þre ȝere, and whanne Socrates was deed he was wiþ Plato twenty ȝere to Plato his lyves ende,*. [till Plato dyed, Cx.] and hadde so grete favour [of Plato]*. [Cx.] þat Plato cleped Aristotles hous, þe redynge hous, and wolde ofte seie,*. [sygge, γ.] "Go we to þe reder his hous;" and when Aristotle was away*. [absente, Cx.] Plato wolde crye, "Understondynge is away, þe audiens*. [audience, β. and Cx.] is deef." He levede*. [lyved, β.] after Plato his deth foure and twenty ȝere, somtyme techynge Alisaundre, somtyme wendynge aboute wiþ hym into meny Page  363, vol.3 londes, somtyme makynge bookes, somtyme techynge dis|ciples, and so he lyved in alle*. [yn al, γ.] þre and sixty ȝere. He made Alisaundre bulde a-ȝen þe citee Stagerik þat Phelip had de|stroyed*. [distruyed, β.; destruyed, γ.] and i-bete doun. Þerfore þe men of þat citie haloweþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] a feste day in worschippe of Aristotle, and clepeþ þat feste Arestotleya*. [that feste is called Aristotileya, Cx.]; and the monþe þat þe*. [this, Cx.] feste is i-halowed ynne þey clepeþ*. [clepe it, Cx.] Stagerites. Aristotle deide in Calcide, and was i-brougȝt in to Stagerik. Whanne Alisaundre wente aȝenst þe Pers,*. [Perses, Cx.] Aristotle was besy*. [bysy, γ.] about philosofie, and made a storie*. [an historye, Cx.] of two hondred and fifty lawes. Aristotle put to meny þinges of philosofie and to ethik,*. [etyk, γ.] þat is þe sciens of þewes, he putte þat parfiȝt*. [parfyt, Cx.] welþe þat is nouȝt in worldly richesse;*. [worldliche riches, β.] also to philosophie he putte þe fiftye*. [fifte, α.; fifþe, β.; fyfth, Cx.] beyng. Trevisa. In libris de Celo et Mundo and [in]*. [From β. and γ.] oþer bookes also Aristotle clepeþ þe welken*. [clepuþ þe wolkon, γ.] [or firmamente]*. [Cx.] þat is above þe foure elementes, þe fifte body. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie [that]*. [Cx.] he wiþdrewe not*. [nothing, Cx.] of dyvynite, he made problems*. [problemes, Cx., et infra.] medicinal of phisik and of kynde*. [kuynde, γ.] in foure score Page  365, vol.3 bookes, and problemys of perspective and of methaphesik. Trevisa. A problem is a questioun þat is harde to assoille, and also an hard arydels*. [redels, β. and Cx.; aredels, γ.] is also i-cleped a problem. Per|spective is a science þat specialliche longeþ to þe siȝt, þat sciens techeþ how a þing is i-seie*. [is seen, Cx.] and is lasse oþer more þan it semeþ, oþer evene as moche as it semeþ, evene oþer*. [or, Cx.] croked and riȝt as it is, oþer oþerweies i-schape*. [or otherwyse shapen, Cx.] þan it semeþ. Þan it foloweþ in þe storie.*. [thistorye, Cx.] He made statutes to iustefie*. [justifye, β.] þe citees of Grees,*. [Grece, β. and Cx.] by þe whiche statutes Phelipp*. [Philip, Cx.] determyned and made ende of plees bytwene þe Grees.*. [Grekes, β. and Cx.] He lefte after [hym]*. [From α. and Cx.] his owne*. [owne] om. α., β., and Cx.] sone Nichomachus, and his douȝter Paritharda,*. [Pitharda, α., β., and Cx.; Pi|tarda, γ.] and ful*. [fol, γ.] meny disciples, amonge the whiche*. [whoche, γ.] Theofrastus was of grete name; he made þe book of nupcius*. [de nupciis, β., γ., and Cx.] of spousails. Aristotel made a þowsand*. [þousond, γ.] bookes, and lovede to folwe þe sothe,*. [to folowe truth, Cx.] and nouȝt forsake þing þat was opounliche*. [oponlych, γ.] i-knowe.*. [openly knowen, Cx.] Avicenna preyseþ hym wel, libro 3o. Metaphysicæ suæ,*. [Methapharo suo, Cx.] and Raby Moyses, libro primo, capitulo 4o, and Agellius,*. [Agellus, Cx.] libro 8o, capitulo 3o, and Iohn in suo Policratico, libro 7o. Þis*. [þes, γ.] is he þat mevede*. [meovede, γ., et infra.] Achademia*. [Archademia, Cx.] more wiþ Page  367, vol.3 strengþe of resouns þat*. [þan, α, β., and Cx.] it was i-meved wiþ strong blastes of wynde, for þoruȝ*. [þurȝ, β.; þorouȝ, γ.] his besynesse þe Achademici þat were left after Plato mevede doutes wel nygh*. [neiȝ, β.; ny, γ.] of all þinges. Also Plinius, libro suo, seiþ þat [þe]*. [From α. and Cx.] grete Alisaundre brende in covetise of knowleche of þe kynde of bestes, and sente to Aristotel meny þowsandes*. [þousondes, γ.] of men of Grees,*. [Grece, β.; Gres, γ.] of Asia, and of*. [of] om. α.] Tracia, þat fedde bestes and foules wilde and tame, and al þat beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] i-take wiþ haukynge, oþer wiþ hontynge, and hadde alle maner bestes in kepyng in hyves,*. [yn huyves, γ.] in layes, in fisshe weres and pondes,*. [poundes, γ.] for he wolde knowe al þing þat is brouȝt forþ in kynde. Aristotle examyned hem al besiliche,*. [bisiliche, β.; ham al bysylich, γ.; al hem besyly, Cx.] and made aboute an fifty volyms*. [volums, γ.; a fyfty volumes, Cx.] of þe kynde of bestes. Þerfore Plinius de Naturis Rerum, libro 2o, seiþ þat som men telleþ þat Aristotil made his bookes so schortliche and so hard for envie, and for vaynglorie, oþer me may*. [me may] om. Cx.] saye*. [segge, γ.] þat he made his bookes so shortliche and so hard*. [so schortliche and so hard] om. γ. and Cx.] in þat manere to use of studiers*. [studieris, β.; studyers, γ.; stu|dientes, Cx.] as the [sciens axeþ: for]*. [From α. and Cx.] sciens is aboute þing þat is good and harde to knowe. Trevisa. Here take hede þat here al þing þat haþ lif and felynge is i-cleped*. [y-clepud, γ.] a beste. Þan it folweþ in þe storie.*. [thystory, Cx.]Page  369, vol.3 Aristotel whanne he schulde deie heet þat his sotel*. [sotil, β.; sotyl, γ.; subtyll, Cx.] bookes schulde be i-buried wiþ hym in his grave, for þey*. [hy, γ.] þat come after hym schulde have no profite*. [proufyt, Cx.] þerof, but I*. [y, β.; y wot, γ.] woot not by what vertue of kynde oþer of craft, þat I*. [y, β.; y segge, γ.] seie nouȝt*. [that I saye not, Cx.] by wonder of wicchecraft, þat þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] sepulchre haþ so appropred þerto the*. [there to that, Cx.] place þat is aboute hit þat no man may now come in to þat place. Som*. [somme, Cx.] men telleþ*. [say, Cx.] þat þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] antecrist schal knowe þat place, and loke and se þe bookes þat beeþ þere i-hidde,*. [buþ þer yhud, γ.] but ho*. [who, α., γ., and Cx.] dar trowe þinges þat ben in doute and uncertayne. Of þe deþ of Aristotel, Gregorius Nauȝanȝenus in his tretis*. [tretice, Cx.] uppon*. [apon, γ.] þat [word]*. [From α. and Cx.] of þe apostel,*. [þapostel, γ.] "þe wisdom of þis world*. [world] om. Cx.] is folie to fore God," and seiþ þat in Grees*. [sayd that in Grece, Cx.] at a place þat hatte þe blake brugge þe see ebbeþ and floweþ as it were at ones in þe same place, and Aristotil come and wolde knowe þe cause why, and byhelde*. [byheelde hit, β.; byhuld, γ.] it, and toke hede longe tyme; and Page  371, vol.3 for he myȝte*. [coude, Cx.] not fynde þe cause why, for greet indignacioun he spak to þe water, and seide, "For I*. [y, β.] may nouȝte [compre|hende and]*. [Cx.] take þe þou schalt take me;" and so he fel in to þe water and dreynt*. [drent, β.] hym self. Trevisa. It is wonder þat Gregorius Nauȝanȝenus telleþ so made a ungoodly tale*. [so mad a magel tale, α. γ.; mad a magil tale, β.; soo madde a magye tale, Cx.] of so worþy a prince of philosofres as Aristotil was. Why telleþ he nouȝt how*. [houȝ, γ.] Aristotil declareþ nouȝt*. [nought] om. β., γ., and Cx.] þe mater*. [matier, Cx.] of ebbynge and flowing of þe see, 2o Meth.*. [secundo meth., Cx.]? Why telleþ he nouȝt how*. [why, Cx.] it is i-write in þe book of þe appel*. [appul, γ., et infra.] [how Aristotel deyde and hylde*. [huld, γ.; helde, Cx.] an appel]*. [From α. and Cx.] in his hond [and hadde]*. [From α. and Cx.] comfort of þe smyl,*. [smelle, β. and Cx.] and tauȝte his scoleres how þey*. [hy, γ., et infra.] schulde lyve and come to God, and be wiþ God wiþ outen ende. And at þe laste his hond gan*. [began, Cx.] to quake, and þe appel fil doun of*. [fylle downe from, Cx.] his hond, and his face wax*. [wexe, β.] al wan,*. [pale, Cx.] and so Aristotil ȝelde*. [ȝulde, γ.] up þe goost and deyde. Þan it foloweþ in þe storie.*. [thystory, Cx.] Aristotel his successour was Theofrastus, and hadde þat name for his noble spekynge of God, and*. [and] om. Cx.] so seiþ þe maister in historiis*. [of thistoryes, Cx.] super librum Machabeorum. This*. [þes, γ., et infra.] Theofrastus made a book de Nupciis, of wedlok, and cleped þe book Theofrastus his Aureolus. Þere*. [þar, γ., et infra.] he desputeþ clereliche of þe tene*. [teone, γ.] and Page  373, vol.3 angwische of wedded folk.*. [anguysshe of wedded men, Cx.] Ieronimus takeþ*. [talketh, Cx.] moche of þat book aȝenst Iovinianus, and [this]*. [Cx.] Theofrastus made anoþer book of frendschipe, and putteþ [and preferreth]*. [Cx.] frendschipe to fore alle oþer þinges of men. Me seiþ þat þis Theofrastus accusede kynde,*. [kuynde for α, γ.] for he*. [it, Cx.] ȝaf lenger lif to oþer bestes þan to mankynde. Þere it is i-seide þat it is spedful*. [spedfol, γ.] þat frendes love*. [lovye, γ.] wel, and nouȝt assaie hem þat þey loveþ; also it is i-write þere [that]*. [Cx.] lovynge men haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] blynde domes. Eutropius.

Capitulum vicesimum quintum.

THE Romayns ordeyneþ*. [ordeyned, Cx.] a bataille aȝenst*. [aȝenes, γ., semper.] þe Sampnites, þat beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] bytwene Campania and Apulia, and haveþ*. [habbeth, γ.] armour of gold and of silver.*. [selver, γ.] Þe cause of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] bataille was þe lond of Campania, þat is best lond and most pleyn; þe chief citee þerof is Capua, and is peer to Rome and to Cartage in hugenesse*. [hogenes, γ.; gretenesse, Cx.] and in plente. Þanne Lucius Papirius, dictator Page  375, vol.3 [or oratour]*. [Cx.] of Rome, was sent*. [send, γ.] aȝenst þe Sampnites, and he tornede aȝen to Rome, and heet*. [and heet] a het, γ.] Quintus Fabius, maister of þe horsmen, þat he schulde nouȝt fiȝte while he were aweie. Noþeles Quintus sigh*. [siȝ, β.; syȝ, γ.; sawe, Cx.] and fond occasioun, and fauȝt wel*. [wel] om. α., γ., and Cx.] and spedde [wel],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and sconfited*. [skomfyte, Cx.; scomfitede, β.; scomfytede, γ.] þe Sampnites; and by cause þerof þe dictator dampned hym, for he hadde i-fouȝte*. [fouȝten, β.] aȝenst his heste and [in]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] his absence. Noþeles he was de|lyvered and saved by grete favour of knyȝtes of þe peple, and so grete strif was arered aȝenst Papirius þat he was nygh i-slawe.*. [in jopardy of his lyf, Cx.] But afterward in a place þat hatte Fyntule*. [Furcule, α., β., and Cx.; Fer|cule Candius, γ.] Candius þe Sampnites hadde þe Romayns i-closed in narwe weies and streite, and overcome hem wiþ so grete schame þat hem was levere kepe hem*. [ham, γ., et infra.] on*. [α, Cx.; alyve, β.] lyve to schame and to schend|schip,*. [schendes, α., β.; shenship, Cx.; schendnes, γ.] þan slee hem so i-closed, and made hem caste of her armour and here cloþes, and goo in*. [on, Cx.] a longe rewe under þe hille*. [hul, γ.] side, and had of hem*. [had of hem] ȝaf ham, γ.] a condicioun, þe whiche*. [whuch, γ.] con|dicioun ȝif þe Romayns hadde i-holde þey hadde be dede oþer bonde men to þe Sampnites. Titus Livius. Þe duke and [the]*. [Cx.] ledere of þe Sampnites, þat heet Poncius, hadde i-ordeyned*. [hadde ordeygned, Cx.]Page  377, vol.3 his oost bysides Fucule*. [Furcule, α., β., and Cx.; Fer|cule Caudines, γ.] Caudynes, þere*. [where, Cx.] þe Romayns schulde passe. Þat place is closed wiþ hilles on eiþer side, and haþ a pleyn in þe myddel by twene hiȝe landes,*. [hiȝ laundes, β.; by twey hyȝ laundes, γ.] wiþ streiȝt*. [streit, β.; streyt, γ.] entrynge*. [streyte entre, Cx.] and streiȝt*. [streit, β.; streyt, γ.] out goynge. Poncius hadde i-sent som of his knyȝtes to fore*. [bifore, Cx.] i-cloþed as herdes*. [heordes, β.] þat kepeþ bestes, and [that they]*. [Cx.] schulde answere þe oost of Romayns þat wolde passe and axe after þe Sampnites where þey were,*. [whar hy were, γ.] and þe knyȝtes schulde seie*. [sygge, γ.; to answer, Cx.] þat þe Sampnites were apassed to besege*. [passed to besiege, Cx.] Lucrecia, a citee*. [a citee] om. Cx.] þat was confethered*. [confedered, β.; comfedred, Cx.] wiþ the Romayns: and whanne þe Romayns herde*. [hurde, γ.] þat, anon þey wente swiftliche in to þe valey of Fircule,*. [Furcule, Cx.] as it were forto spede hem to socour*. [socre, γ.] þe citee þat was byseged;*. [besieged, Cx.] but in þe mene tyme þe Sampnites knyȝtes and oþere hewe doun knyȝtes*. [treen, β.; tren, γ.; trees, Cx.] and stopped þe in goynge*. [the entre, Cx.] and þe out goynge of þe wey,*. [valey, Cx.] and sette hem in þe coppes*. [wente into the toppes, Cx.] of þe hilles, and so þe Romayns were compelled by meschef*. [meschyef, Cx.] to axe pees*. [pes, γ.] of þe Sampnites, Page  379, vol.3 oþer a bataille of knyȝtes. Þanne Pocius the duke*. [Poncius the duc, Cx.] an|swerede*. [answherede, γ.] and seide now þe bataille is i-doo,*. [batel is doon, β.] and graunted pees*. [pes, γ.] uppon þese condiciouns,*. [þes condicions, γ.; this condi|cion, Cx.] þat þe Romayns schulde ȝelde*. [ȝulde, γ., et infra.] up here cloþing and her armure,*. [armour, Cx.] and goo al naked save her prive*. [sauf her preuee, Cx.] membres in a long rewe under þe hille side, and ȝelde*. [yelded, Cx.] up plegges þre hondred horsmen of [the]*. [Cx.] Romayns. [T.]*. [Cx.]Eutropius. Þe ȝere of*. [of] om. α. and Cx.] þat folowede after, by heste of þe senatoures, þe dictator Lucius Papirius scomfitede*. [scomfyted, Cx.] þe Sampnites. Orosius, libro 3o. After þat victorie þere fel*. [fille, β.; ful, γ.] so grete pestilense*. [pestylence, Cx.] in Rome of deth and of liȝtninge, þat al þe citee made sorwe of*. [for, Cx.] deed men and for sike.*. [seke, β.] Þan þei lokede þe bookes of Sibile*. [Sibil, β.; Sibylle, Cx.] þe wise, and took counsaille,*. [toke counseylle, Cx.] and sente into Epidauru, a citee of Grees,*. [Grece, β. and Cx.] forto have a mawmet,*. [habbe a mamet, γ.] þe ymage of Esculapius. He is i-feyned god of medicyn, and scheweþ hym to his worschippers in [the]*. [Cx.]Page  381, vol.3 liknes of a serpent. Item Orosius. Wifes*. [Wyues, β. and Cx.] of Rome brennynge in a wood love*. [in a wod, γ.; in wode loue, Cx.] towarde here owne housbondes made as þe*. [þey, α. and Cx.; þei, β.; hy, γ.] trowede drinkes*. [dryngkes, γ., et infra.] of love, noþeles*. [and yet, Cx.] þe drynkes were verray poysoun*. [veray poyson, Cx.] and deeþ. A wenche [þat]*. [From α. and Cx.] knewe þat doynge, and*. [and] om. α., β., and Cx.] warnede þe senatoures þerof; þanne þe wifes*. [wyues, γ. and Cx.] were compelled to drinke of þe same [manere]*. [manere] added from α.; Cx. omits manere drynke.] drynke; þanne meny of hem fil*. [of ham ful, γ.] doun deed sodenly*. [and by the vyolent poyson of that drynk many of them felle downe sodenly deed, Cx.]; and two hondred wifes and seventy, þat were maistres of þat*. [þe, Cx.] doynge, were i-dampned to the deth. Aboute þat tyme Gwytelinus,*. [Guytelinus, Cx.] Gurgunsius his sone, regnede in Bretaigne:*. [Brytayn, Cx.] his wif Marcia [was right connyng],*. [Cx.] couþe al manere*. [and coude many maner, Cx.] craftes, and*. [she, Cx.] made þe lawe þat hatte Marcene*. [Mercene, γ.] lawe. ℞. Loke more hereof in þe first book, capitulo de legibus. Gaufridus. Also þis*. [þens, γ.] Marcia regnede somwhat of tyme after her housbondes deþ; and after here regnede Sisillius, and after hym Kymarus; after Page  383, vol.3 Kymarus, Damus*. [Danius, γ., bis.]; after Damus, Morindus,*. [Kymarus Dauius, after Dauius Morindus, Cx.] þat was ful cruel,*. [cruwel, β.; fol cruwel, γ.] but at þe laste a beste devoured*. [devorede, γ.] hym.

Capitulum vicesimum sextum.

ARSANIUS, þat heet Artarxerses, Othus his sone, was þe þrittenþe*. [þretteþe, γ.] kyng of Pers,*. [Cx. has, was xiii. yere kynge of Perse. Evidently a mistake.] and regnede foure ȝere. In his firste*. [furste, γ., et infra.] ȝere Iadus, bisshop of Iewes, was in his floures.*. [prospred, Cx.] Phelip kyng of Macedonia was deed, by tresoun*. [dede by trayson, Cx.] of oon Pau|sania. Trogus, libro 9o. Þis*. [þes, γ.] Phelip was more besy*. [bisy, β.] aboute dedes of armes þanne aboute festes, and ȝaf hym more to wynne rychesse [þan]*. [From α. and Cx.] forto*. [for] om. Cx.] kepe it; and for al þat he robbede alwey, ȝitte he was evere nedy*. [neody, γ.]; and lovede mercy and fals|hede*. [merci and falsede, γ.] boþe i-liche wel, and was untristy of*. [untrusty in, Cx. and β.] his speche, and wolde by-hote*. [behote, Cx.] more þan he wolde laste.*. [leste, β., γ.; perfourme, Cx.] He cowþe feyne hym gracious, and wel apaied when he were*. [was, Cx.] wrooþ, and wrooþ when he were wel apayed. He usede to make wreþþe*. [wraþthe, γ.] bytwene parties, and gete þonk of*. [thank on, Cx.] either side. Trogus, Page  385, vol.3libro 7o. Þis whanne þat*. [þat] om. α., γ., and Cx.] he had first overcome þe men of Athene, he lete þe prisoners goo wiþ*. [by, β. and Cx.] his good wille; þan he wedded Olimpiada,*. [Olimpyada, Cx.] Neoptholomeus*. [Neoptholomeus] om. γ.] þe kynges douȝter of þe Melosus,*. [Moloses, γ. and Cx.] and gat*. [bigate, Cx.] on hire þe grete Alisaundre. Þis*. [þese, β.] ȝaf asaut*. [thes yaue an assaute, Cx.] to þe citee Mathona, and þere his riȝt yȝe*. [eiȝe, β.; ryȝt ye, γ.; eye, Cx.] was i-smyte out wiþ þe*. [α, α., β., and γ.] strook of an arewe; but for þat wounde he was never þe slower to fiȝte, noþer þe wroþer to*. [with, Cx.] his enemye; but at þe laste men ȝolden*. [yelde, Cx.] up the citee, and þanne he was mylde [and merciable]*. [Cx.] inow*. [inow] ynowȝ, β.; om. Cx.] to hem alle. Trogus, libro 8o. Þis Phelip was enemye to menis fredom*. [to al men freodom, γ.]; he norscheþ*. [norischiþ, β.; norseþ, γ.; nou|rysshed, Cx.] strif in citees, and helpeþ*. [helped, Cx.] þe lasse aȝenst þe more, and brouȝt*. [bryng, γ.] boþe in to þraldom, þe victor and hym þat was*. [ys, γ.] overcome. So he made suget*. [soget, γ. et infra; subjet, Cx. et infra.] to hym tweie breþeren*. [breþeron, γ.; brether, Cx.] kynges of Tracia, þat putte here querel*. [querele, Cx.] in his hond forto deme riȝtfulliche*. [ryȝtfolych, γ.; arbytracion to deme rightly, Cx.] bytwene hem to make fynal pees, and*. [He, Cx.] made suget to hym þe Bardanes and oþer naciouns by suche manere fraude. He made his wifes broþer Alisaundre, a ȝongelynge of twenty ȝere olde, [to]*. [β. and Cx.] use fornicacioun alwey, for he wolde have hym afterward þe more i-bounde*. [bounden, β.] to hym Page  387, vol.3 and to his servise. Trogus, libro 14o. Phelip somtyme werrede aȝenst þe Sithes,*. [Schytes, β.; Shites, Cx.] and scomfitede hem more with gile and fraude þan wiþ vertue*. [vertuwe, γ.] and strengþe. He hadde wiþ hym in*. [on, Cx.] a tyme twenty þowsand of children,*. [chyldron, γ.] of wommen, and of bestes, wiþ twenty þowsand of noble mares, forto doo what it were in Macedonia,*. [Macedoyne, Cx.] as it were to have som manere newe men to wonye*. [dwelle, Cx.] þerynne. Also in*. [on, Cx.] a tyme he tornede from þe Thebanes,*. [Tebans, Cx.] men of Thebe in Grees,*. [Thebes in Grece, Cx.] þat wernede*. [warned, Cx.] hym passe,*. [passage, β., γ., and Cx.] and was i-wounded in his þigh*. [þyȝ, γ.] wonderliche sore, so þat þoruȝ out*. [out] om. Cx.] his þigh his hors was i-slawe þat he rood oon; noþeles he scomfited hem solemp|liche; but þat day for þe victorie he semed nevere þe gladdere of chere to his owne men, noþer þe more sterne*. [steurne, γ.; stierne, Cx.] to hem þat were overcome; but he sente aȝen þe prisoners,*. [prysonners, Cx.] and restored aȝen þre hondred wise men þat were i-put out. Alle þese*. [þeose, γ.; Al thes, Cx.] wise men, whan fyve*. [vyve, γ.] of hem were accused of þe trespas, seide þat þey alle were evene peres in þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] doynge of þat dede. ȝit Phelip arayeth*. [arrayed, Cx.] an hoost*. [ost, α.] of two Page  389, vol.3 hondred þowsand of*. [of] om. Cx.] foot men, and fiftene þowsand of*. [of] om. Cx.] horsmen, to werre in þe reme*. [rewme, β.; reame, Cx.] of Pers, and made [one]*. [Cx.] Attalus duke*. [duc, Cx., ut passim.] and ledere*. [ledare, γ.] of þat oost. Þis duke his suster Olympiada was Phelip his wif, and afterward i-putte*. [ypot, γ.] away and forsake. Þerfore whan Phelip sat in*. [atte, Cx.] þe feste of spousaille withoute wardecorses,*. [wardcorpses, Cx.] Pausania, a noble ȝong man, slowȝ hym riȝt þere.*. [þar, γ.] Þe cause þerof was þis: Atthalus hadde despitousliche*. [dispitously, β.; dispitefully, Cx.] i-scorned þis Pausania, and i-doo hym grete vilonye,*. [fylany, γ.; vylenye, Cx.] first priveliche, and afterward*. [after, Cx.] openliche*. [oponlych, γ.] yn a grete feste and revel; and [he]*. [Cx.] pleyned*. [complayned, Cx.] ofte to Phelip of þe despite þat Atthalus hadde i-doo hym, and hadde none amendes; þerfore he tornede*. turnde, γ.] his wreþe and was wrooþ wiþ*. [to, α. and β.] Phelip, and slowȝ hym in þat manere for vengeaunce of þat dede. Olympiada, Phelip his wif, and Alisaundre, Phelip his sone, [were hadde in suspection and]*. [Cx.] beeþ*. [beeþ] om. Cx.] nouȝt i-holde al gilteles*. [yhulde al gultles, γ.] of þat dede. Olympiada for [that]*. [Cx.] sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] was forsake, and Alisaundre for þat*. [the, Cx.] despite [in]*. [Cx.] þat was i-doo to his moder, were boþe suspecte,*. [were boþe suspecte] om. Cx.] and specialliche for Phelippe ofte repreved his sone Alisaundre for his moder was [so]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] forsake, and was ofte in poynt to rese on hym wiþ his swerd, and þerfore Alisaundre exiled dwelled awhile wiþ his uncle in Epirus. Trevisa. Þis lond is Tracia, and was somtyme þe lond of Epirotes. Hit foloweþ in þe storie.*. [thystory, Cx.] He heng*. [hanged, Cx.] afterward Pausania, and crownede Olym|piada Page  391, vol.3 wiþ gold, and brend afterward hir*. [here, γ., bis.] body uppon hir*. [here, γ., bis.] housbondes body. Trevisa. Ho*. [Who, β., γ., and Cx.] þat knoweþ þis cronicle*. [cronyk, β. and γ.; cronique, Cx.] ariȝt, knoweþ þat me usede*. [that it was used, Cx.] somtyme in dyvers londes to brenne noble bodies whanne þey were*. [a were, γ.] dede, and kepe þe askes solempliche in solempne*. [reuerent, Cx.] place. Hit foloweþ in þe storie.*. [thystory, Cx.] He heng*. [hangide, β.; hanged, Cx.] Cleopatre,*. [Cleopatra, α. and Cx.] Atthaleus*. [Atthalus, Cx.] his suster. Þis Phelip was somtym i-warned þat he schulde kepe*. [þat . . . kepe] om. Cx.] and save*. [saued, Cx.] hym self from*. [from] for, β.; for þe vyolens, γ.] þe violence of a chariot; þerfore he undede*. [undide, β.; undude, γ.] al þe chariottes and chares þat were in his kyngdom; also he voidede*. [avoided, β.; auoyded, Cx.] and wiþ-drow*. [drough, Cx.] hym from þat place þat hatte Chariot in Boicia,*. [Boecia, γ. and Cx.] and come nouȝt þerynne. Noþeles he scaped not Pausania his swerd*. [sweord, γ. bis.]; in þe hilte of þat swerd was a chariot i-grave.*. [engraven a chariot, Cx.]Policratica, libro 6o, capitulo 6o. While Phelip ordeynede*. [furst ordeignede, γ.] his oost he forbeed*. [forbeod, γ.; forbade, Cx.] alle men al manere cariage þat gooþ uppon wheles,*. [goþ apon wheoles, γ.] and heet everiche*. [commaunded every, Cx.] ten foot men bere aboute wiþ hem stones and roopes. In somer tyme he made men bere mele and floure and quernes*. [and quernes] om. γ.] on here nekkes*. [neck, Cx.] for þritty*. [thyrtty, Cx.] daies.*. [dawes, γ.]Trogus, libro primo, capitulo 27o.*. [capitulo 27o] om. Cx.]

Page  393, vol.3

Capitulum vicesimum septimum.

THE grete Alisaundre, whan his fader was deed, gan*. [bygan, Cx.] to regne after his fader in Macedonia, in his tyme*. [tyme] om. β., γ., and Cx.] twentiþe ȝere of elde; he*. [he] and, γ.] regnede*. [age and regned, β. and Cx.] but twelve ȝere and sixe monþes. He was gretter þan his fader boþe in vices and in vertues.*. [vertuwes, γ.] Noþeles þe fader was þe wiser man of counsaille, but þe sone was þe gretter man of herte. Þe fader wolde ofte helie*. [heelye, β.; helye, γ.; kepe se|crete, Cx.] and overcome his owne wrethe. Þe sone used nouȝt to seche love noþer þe manere of wreche; eyþer loved wel wyn, and were boþe goode drynkeres.*. [drinkeris, β.] Þe fader wolde slee but his enemyes, [and]*. [Cx.] þe sone wolde s[l]ee*. [slee, β. and Cx.] boþe his enemyes and his frendes. Þe fader wolde be loved, but þe sone was levere be i-drad, and*. [they, Cx.] were of oon byleve. Þe fader ȝaf hym to skilful largenesse and frenesse*. [and frenesse] om. Cx.; freones, γ.] of ȝiftes, and þe sone ȝaf hym to leccherie.*. [lechery, Cx.]Vincentius, libro 5o. Þe ȝere of Othus kyng of Pers fiftene, of Phelip kyng of Macedonia twelve, and of Nectanabus*. [Nettanabus, γ., semper.] kyng of Egipt seventene, Othus occupiede Egipt, and put out Nectanabus. And*. [And] om. β. and Cx.] [if this Nectana|bus]*. [β. and Cx.]Page  395, vol.3 dredde werre and bataille, he wolde not arraie and gadrede*. [gadre, α., β., and Cx.] his oost, noþer ordeyned*. [ordeyne, α., β., and Cx.] gynnes of werre, but he wolde goo priveleche*. [secretely, Cx.] in to a prive*. [pryuate, Cx.] place, and take wiþ hym a basyn wiþ*. [basine of, Cx.] cleer water, and make schippes and men of wex*. [wax, Cx.] to þe liknesse of a schippe in þe see, so þat it schulde seme þat alle þo mevede*. [meouede, γ.; meoued, Cx.] and were on lyve.*. [alyue, β. and Cx.] Also he wolde take a ȝerde of fir*. [fuyre, β.] holowȝ*. [vyr holouȝ, γ.; fyrre holowe, Cx.] wiþ ynne as a pipe, and [he]*. [Cx. and β.] wolde speke in þe holownesse*. [holouȝnes, γ.] of þat ȝerd and clepe goddes above and byneþe, and so he wolde fonde to drenche*. [founde to drown, Cx.; vonde to drynche, γ.] his schippe of wex*. [waxe, Cx.] in the basyn; and so it schulde byfalle þat by drenchynge of þe wex and of þe taperes*. [tapres, γ. and Cx.] þat were i-tend,*. [ytent, γ.; brennynge, Cx.] his enemyes schulde drenche in þe see. Somtyme herde i-telle*. [He herde telle yn a tyme, α., β., γ. (which reads hurde), and Cx.] þat þe Iewes,*. [Indes, α. and Cx.] Perthes,*. [Parthes, γ.] Medes, Arabes, and oþere naciouns also were*. [had, Cx.] conspired to gidres*. [to gedres] om. Cx.; togodres, γ.] to arise*. [rise, β.; ryse, γ. and Cx.] aȝenst hym, and he brak on a lawhynge,*. [lawȝinȝe, β.; lauȝwyng, γ.; on laughyng, Cx.] and wente to doo his*. [his] om. γ.] craft þat he usede, and he knewe by þat þat he schulde Page  397, vol.3 be overcome, but ȝif fliȝt myȝte helpe hym. Anoon he heet*. [bade, β.] schave his berd and his heed,*. [Anoon . . . heed] om. Cx.] and tooke al þe precious riches þat he hadde, and come in to Macedonia, and seide þat he was an*. [α, Cx.] astronomer. But*. [And, Cx.] Phelip þe kyng was þoo out of contray, and occupied in werre; and Nectanabus by his enchauntement and his fantastik feyninge gat*. [gate, Cx.] suche*. [siche, β.] love of þe quene Olimpias þat he lay by here in liknesse of Iubiter*. [Jupiter, Cx.] i-horned, and gat*. [bygate, Cx.] þe grete Alisaundre. Þanne whanne þe queene was wiþ childe, meny foules fliȝ*. [flye, γ.; flowe, Cx.] aboute Phelip,*. [Philip, Cx.] þat was þo occupied in werre. But among oþere foules an hen*. [henne, Cx.] leide an ey*. [eye, β., et infra; egge, Cx.] in Phelip his lappe, and whanne þe*. [and whanne þe] om. α.] ey*. [that egge, Cx.] was i-smyte of his lappe to þe grounde, a dragoun leep*. [lepte, Cx.] out of the schelle*. [schylle, γ., bis.] and crepe*. [shelle and crept, Cx.] al aboute, and while he wolde have i-crope*. [cropen, Cx.] in*. [ynto, α.; into, β.; into the shelle, Cx.] þe schille þat he come of*. [came oute of, Cx.] he deyde anon. Þanne Antifon,*. [Antiphon, β. and Cx.] a noble dyvynour, was apposed what þis þing schulde mene,*. [was demaunded what that shold signefye, Cx.] and he answerde*. [answherede, γ., et infra.] and seide Page  399, vol.3 þat Phelip schulde have a sone i-bore þat schulde goo aboute al þe world, but he schulde deie or*. [ar, γ.; dye er, Cx.] he came aȝen: ffor a dragoun is a real*. [ryall, Cx.] best, and an ey*. [egge, Cx.] haþ þe schap of þis*. [þe, α., β., and Cx.] world. Afterward, whan Olympias þe quene*. [the quene] om. Cx.] was in tra|vaille*. [trauelyng, Cx.] of childe, were i-herde [and]*. [From β.; yhurd and yseye eorþe . . ., γ.] i-seie erþe shakynge,*. [quakynge, Cx.] lyȝtninge and þondrynge.*. [thonder, Cx.]Quintus Curtius. Al þat day sete tweie egles uppon þe toppe*. [coppe, β. and Cx.; apon þe cop, γ.] of þe hous: þat bodede and tokenede*. [sygnefyed, Cx.] tweie grete emperes, of Europa and of*. [of] om. Cx.] Asia. Vincentius. Þe childe is i-bore, and hatte*. [named, Cx.] Alisaundre, wiþ faire heer*. [heier, Cx.] and faire eyȝen, oon ȝelow,*. [on ȝolouȝ and þat oþer, γ.] anoþer blak. Ieroni|mus, epistola 35.*. [85, α. and Cx.] Alisaundre myȝt nouȝt leve the maneres and þe vices and þe leccherie of his maister Leonides,*. [Leonis, γ., et infra.] in þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] he was infecte while has*. [he was, α., β., and Cx.; a was, γ.] a childe, and used hem whan he was lorde of þe world; and þerfore his fader Phelip dede awey Leonides and made Aristotle [to be]*. [Cx.] Alisaundre his maister. Seneca. Alisaundre putte þe*. [þes, γ.; that, Cx.] Leonides afterward to leouns*. [lyons, γ.] forto ete.*. [lyons to be deuoured, Cx.]Vincentius. Whanne Alisaundre was Page  401, vol.3 twelve*. [twellif, Cx.] ȝere olde he hadde greet lykynge and ioye to be in oostes*. [hooste, Cx.] among men of armes, and to lepe to*. [on, Cx.] hors, and usede him self as*. [right knyghtly. On a . . ., Cx.] it were a knyȝt. In a day whan Phelip was absent, Alisaundre prayed Nectanabus þat he wolde teche hym his craft, and he grauntede; [and whan]*. [γ. and Cx.] þey come in fere*. [y-fere, β.; yfere, γ.] unto*. [to geder to, Cx.] a deep water pitte,*. [deope water put, γ.] Alisaundre þrew the*. [α. has too before wicche.] wicche*. [wychche, γ.; witche, Cx.] in þe same pitte; and whan he was in þat pitte and*. [in that pitte and] om. β. and Cx.] deed*. [deþ, α. and γ.; dede wounded, Cx.] woundede, he axede*. [axide, β.] of Alisaundre why he dede so. "Þy craft," quod*. [sayde, Cx.] Alisaundre, "is to blame, for he*. [it, β. and Cx.] warnede þe not what*. [this chaunge: there . . ., Cx.] schulde byfalle: þere þou liest nevelynge,*. [nyvelyng, β. and γ.; neuelyng, Cx.] and schuldest*. [schost, α.] telle*. [and schuldest telle] and so aronȝ to tel, γ.] after þese*. [þis, β.] þynges of hevene." Þe*. [And he, Cx.] whiche*. [wychche, γ.] answerde and seide, "No man may flee*. [fleo, γ.] his owne destanye."*. [desteny, Cx.]Trevisa. Nectanabus seide þis sawe, [and]*. [From β and γ.] was a wicche,*. [wychche, γ., et infra; witche, Cx.] and þerfore it*. [he, β. and Cx.; α, γ.] is nevere þe bettre to trowynge*. [to be byleuid, Cx.]: but it were a vile*. [fyle, γ.] schame for Page  403, vol.3 a Cristen man to trowe*. [byleue, Cx.] þis false sawe of þis wicche*. [of a wytche, Cx.]; for from every myshap þat man is i-schape in þis worlde to falle ynne, God may hym save ȝif it is*. [be, Cx.] his wille. Þan it foloweþ*. [volweþ, γ.] in þe storie, Nectanabus seide, "I knowe*. [knewe, α.; ych knew, γ.] wel by þis craft þat myn owne sone schulde slee me." "What," quod*. [sayde, Cx.] Alisaundre, "art þow my fader?" And he tolde Alisaundre*. [al added before by in γ.] by ordre al þing as it stood, and deyde anon after. Þan Alisaundre ordeyned hym [a]*. [β. and Cx.] grave, and tolde his moder al*. [of al this. That tyme. . ., Cx.] þe sawes þat he hadde i-herde.*. [yhurd, γ.] Þat tyme Phelip cared besiliche*. [toke gret thought, Cx.] who schulde be his heire*. [eyr, β, et infra; eyr, γ.] and kyng after hym; and hadde answere*. [answher, γ.] of Appolyn Delphicus þat who it evere were þat myȝte ride his hors Bucefal*. [Botifal, β., et infra.] wiþ oute hirtynge,*. [who that euer myght ryde his hors withoute falle or hurtynge, Cx.] schulde be his heire and kyng after hym,*. [and kyng after hym] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] and lorde of the worlde. Alisaundre herde*. [hurde, γ., et infra.] telle þat Bucefal þe hors was perilous and evel bitynge, and alle wey*. [telle herof of Philippes hors called Bucyfall, right perillous and bytyng, and alwey, Cx.] i-kepte in cloos, and neyhede*. [neyȝed, β.; neyde, γ.; neyed, Cx.] as it were [in]*. [Cx.] þe rorynge of leons*. [lyons, Cx.]; noþeles Alisaundre took þe hors by þe mane, and lad hym out, and lepe*. [leep, γ.; lept, Cx.] on his bak, and rood hym with oute hurtynge. Phelip herde þerof, Page  405, vol.3 and worschipped Alisaundre as lorde of þe world. Þerfore Alisaundre in his sixtenþe*. [sixteþe, γ.] ȝere fauȝte in chariottes, and hadde þe victorie, and wan þe citee Methona,*. [Mothona, β.; Mathona, Cx.] þat his fader hadde i-loste. And whan he come home aȝen he seigh*. [a syȝ, γ.] messangeres*. [sawe messagers, Cx.] of Pers in his fadres hous chalengede*. [chalenge, β., γ., and Cx.] tribute þat þey were wont*. [wond, γ.] to have for lond and for water. "What," quoþ*. [seid, Cx.] Alisaundre, "chalangeþ þe [kynge of]*. [Cx.] Perses*. [Pers, Cx.] þe elementes, þat beþ comoun*. [buþ comyn, γ.] to alle men and bestes?" Þan he hiȝt Darius leve of and cese of*. [of] om. Cx.] þe unskilful doyng. Giraldus in Topographia. In an homeliche*. [homlych, γ.] and special companye and merþe*. [murþe, γ.] Alisaundre herde a swete harpe, and for*. [forkitte, β.; he, Cx.] kutte þe strenges, and seide, "It is bettre to kutte strynges*. [strengges, γ.] þan hertes." He felte*. [felde, γ.; conceyued, Cx.] þat by þis*. [þe, Cx.] swete melodie his herte schulde be more i-torned to likynge þan to hardynesse, to ese þan to chivalrye, to lecherie þan to vertu, to bestiliche likyng þan to chyvalrie.*. [manhode, β. and Cx.; manhed, γ.] Noþeles stories telleþ*. [historyes saien, Cx.] þat Antygonus brak þe harpe þat Alisaundre took greet heed Page  407, vol.3 too,*. [toke grete entent to, β.; tok gret entent to, γ.] and seide: "It by falleþ*. [grete delyte to here, and saith it befalleth, Cx.] to þyn age now forto*. [for] om. Cx.] regne; be þanne asshamed*. [ashamed, Cx.] to suffre wommen likynge*. [wymmens liking, β.; womens liking, Cx.] to regne in a kynges body." Tullius. While Alisaundre gat favour of men by ȝiftes of money, his fader wroot to hym in þis manere: "What errour haþ brouȝt þe in to þe*. [that, β. and Cx.] hope þat þou trowest to have hem trewe*. [true, Cx.] to þe þat þow hast over|come wiþ money? he þat fongeþ*. [receyueth, Cx.] is þe worse, and also more redy to waite after ȝiftes; þerby he takeþ hede to þe as to a servaunt and a ȝever of ȝiftes, and nouȝt as to a kyng."*. [The two last clauses he þat fongeþ. . . and þerby. . . are transposed in γ.] The fourtenþe*. [fourteþe, α. and γ.] kyng of Pers, Darius Arsanius his sone, gan*. [bigan, β.; began, Cx.] to regne the secounde ȝere of Alisaundre, and regnede sixe ȝere. Trogus, libro 11o. Þan Alisaundre slowȝ his stepdame sone Caranus, and alle his owne kyn þat semed able to þe kyngdom for [that]*. [Cx.] no mater of stryf schulde leve in Macedonia whan he were out of londe. Þo he alleyde*. [alayde, β.] craftiliche*. [Than he alayde craftely, Cx.] many kyngdoms*. [kyngdoms] om. β., γ., and Cx.] stryves þat were bygonne, and wente into Corinthe; he gan*. [began, Cx.] to restore þe werre in Page  409, vol.3 Pers þat his fader hadde bygonne; he made soget*. [suget, γ.; subget, Cx.] þe Lacedemones and þe Athenes*. [Athenens, α., γ., and Cx.] þat were rebel by counseil of Demoscenes.*. [Demostenes, Cx.] Þanne þe Athenens*. [Attenens, Cx.] wiþ the Flemes The|banes ȝaf hem self to Darius kyng of Pers. He delede his heritage*. [erytage, γ.] among his frendes, and trowed*. [byleued, Cx.] þat Asia*. [Asye, γ.] alone*. [Asie aloone, β.] were i-now for hym. And þerfore and þerfore*. [β. and Cx. have not the second and þerfore, nor has γ.] he heet his*. [the, Cx.] knyȝtes spare þe þinges of Asia. He lefte þe duller*. [doller, β. and γ.] men to kepe his kyngdom Macedonia, and hadde wiþ hym þe scharpest*. [sharpest, Cx.] witted*. [wyttet, γ.] men. Oolde men of sixty ȝere þat hadde i-travailled wiþ his fader, he ordeyned*. [made, Cx.] [them]*. [Cx.] maystres and lederes of his oost, for þey*. [hy, γ.] putte hope in brayn [and nouȝt in here*. [here] om. Cx.] feet, and tryste in þe victorye]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and nouȝt in þe fliȝt. In Alisaundre his oost were þre and þritty þowsand foot men, and fyve þowsande horsmen. Þerfor it was doute wheþer it was more wonder þat Alisaundre myȝte wynne þe worlde [with so lytel strengthe, owther that he durste auntre him]*. [Cx.] wiþ so litel strengþe. Page  411, vol.3Petrus, 106.*. [β. and Cx. have 196.] Þanne Alisaundre passed þe see Eles|pontes,*. [Elespontus, Cx.] and overcome Darius his dukes and lederes, þat were i-gadered*. [assembled, Cx.] aȝenst hym uppon þe Granicus. Þanne he passed forþ þoruȝ Lydya, þorw Iconia,*. [Lidia thurgh Yconia, Cx.] þoruȝ Pamphilia and took þe citee Sardus*. [Sardes, Cx.] þat is i-sette by twene þe tweie Frigies. Trogus, libro 11o. Alisaundre herde*. [hurde, γ.] of þe comynge of Darius, and dradde þe streiȝtnesse*. [streytnesse, Cx.] of places, and wente up to þe hille mount Taurus, and leide*. [leyde, β.; leyde on, γ.] on fifty forlonges, and hadde þe maistrie, and come to Tarcis ful of swoot*. [swot, β.; Tharsis fol of swot, γ.; Tharses full of swote, Cx.] and of poudre [or dust],*. [Cx.] and þrewe hym self into a water þat renneþ*. [erneþ, β.; eorneþ, γ.; spryngeth, Cx.] þere; þanne his senewes gonne*. [beganne, Cx.] to schrynke*. [schryngke, γ.] so þat he schulde have i-deied anon, but he hadde i-take a drinke*. [drench, β.; dryng, γ.] of Phelip þe*. [α, Cx.] phisician. Noþeles Darius hadde to forehonde*. [bifore, Cx.] i-ȝeve [to]*. [Cx.] Phelippe a greet somme of money forto slee Alisaundre, and Alisaundre hadde lettres þerof, and was i-warned þat he schulde in now*. [noon, β.; non, γ.; no, Cx.] wise take drynke*. [drenche, β.; drynch, γ.]Page  413, vol.3 noþer medicyne of Phelip his hond; [noþeles Alisaundre took tristeliche*. [trustly, Cx.] a drynk*. [drench, γ.] of Phelip his hond,]*. [From α.] but he took hym first þe same lettres to rede. After þe*. [þe] om. γ. and Cx.] foure dayes*. [dawes, γ.] Ali|saundre was hool, and Darius passede þe ryver Eufrates at mount Taurus wiþ foure hondred þowsand of*. [of] om. Cx.] foot men and an hondred þowsand of*. [of] om. Cx.] horsmen, and sette forþ þe [forward and]*. [Cx.] scheltroun.*. [scholtrum, γ.; sheltron, Cx.] Þere is*. [was, Cx.] strong fiȝtynge, and eiþer kyng is*. [was, Cx.] i-wounded. Darius fleeþ*. [fled, Cx.] faste away; foure score þowsand foot men and ten þowsand of horsmen of his ben*. [were, Cx.; beþ, β., et infra; buþ, γ.] i-slayn, and þritty þowsand ben*. [were, Cx.; beþ, β., et infra; buþ, γ.] i-take. His castelles and walled townes beeþ*. [were, Cx.; buþ, γ.] i-bete to grounde. Darius his moder, and his wif, and his tweie sustres beeþ*. [were, Cx.; buþ, γ.] i-take, but hir lif is*. [was, Cx.] i-saved, and þey beeþ*. [and a buþ, γ; be, Cx.] to newe mariage i-take. Þanne Alisaundre gan to lyve in leccherie,*. [gan to lychery, γ.; bigan to lyue lecherously, Cx.] and loved Barsynes þat was i-take, and gat on hire Hercules. Þan he desired to be kyng of þe Est,*. [Eest, Cx.] and wente into Siria. Petrus, 126.*. [146, α. and Cx.] Þan [one]*. [Cx.] Sarabella*. [Saraballa, Cx.] made a sugestioun to þe kyng*. [subgestion to kyng, Cx.] Ali|saundre Page  415, vol.3 þat þe Iewes wolde be the lasse rebel ȝif here power were deled a two; and by leve of þe kyng he*. [they, Cx.; þei, β.] bulde a temple in þe hille mount Garaȝym,*. [Gaȝarim, α., β., and Cx.; hul mont Gaȝirym, γ.] þat durede to þe destructioun þat was i-doo by the Romayns; and ordeyned a bisshop þerynne, Manasses, þat hadde i-wedded his douȝter, and was Iadus þe bisshoppes broþer.*. [broder, Cx.]Trogus, libro 11o. While Alisaundre was in Siria meny kynges of þe Est come aȝenst hym, and lordes wiþ crownes and dyademes. Som of [hem]*. [From α. and Cx.; ham, γ.] he took to his companie, and som [he]*. [From α. and Cx.; a bynaam, γ.] by-nam*. [bename, Cx.] here kyngdoms, and putte newe in here stede,*. [stude, γ., et infra.] and putte adoun*. [down, Cx.] meny gentil men, and putte ungentil men in here stede; among þe whiche he put of gentil men, and made an ungentil man a*. [α] om. Cx.] lorde of þe Sidonies. Þat lorde was woned*. [wont, β.] to forehonde*. [wont bifore to, Cx.] worche for*. [Cx. has for hem and laue up.] his*. [hire, α.; hyre, β. and γ.] liflode,*. [his liflode] om. β., γ., and Cx.] and lave up water of pitts and watere*. [watery, α.; watry, γ.; water, Cx.] orchardes and gardines.*. [gardens, Cx.] So he dede for men schulde take hede and trust to be avaunced by here noble dedes, and not by here greet blood. Trogus, libro 18o. Þat tyme Alisaundre filde*. [fulde, γ.; filled, Cx.] þe diches, and took þe citee Tirus, and heng on þe croys*. [yn croyses, γ.] alle þat woned*. [in croyses all that dwellyd, Cx.] þere, out take Strakon and*. [and] om. α., β., and Cx.] his blood. [Trogus, libro 81o.]*. [Cx.] Somtyme were meny cherles in þe*. [chorles in that, Cx.] citee Tirus, and conspired to gidres and slowȝ Page  417, vol.3 her lordes þat were victors longe tyme, and al þe*. [her, Cx.] fre*. [freo, γ., et infra.] men, and occupiede here hous,*. [howses, Cx.] and wedded [her]*. [Cx.] wifes, and get fre children,*. [bygate free childer, Cx.; chyl|dern, γ.] þouȝ þey were noȝt fre hem self.*. [þey hy were noȝt freo ham sylf, γ.; though hymself were bonde, Cx.] Noþeles oon cherle of so meny þowsandes hidde*. [hudde, γ.] his lorde, þat heet Stracon, and saved hym godeliche.*. [goodlych, γ.; goodly, Cx.] Þanne þe cherles come to gidres to chese*. [cheose, γ.] hem a kyng, and were assented þat whiche*. [whoche, γ.] of hem myȝt first aspie*. [espye, Cx.] þe sonne risynge amorwe,*. [on the morow, Cx.] he schulde be here kyng. Þis*. [Þes, γ.] good cherle warneþ*. [warned, Cx.] his lord Stracon of þis doynge, and Stracon counsailleþ*. [counseylled, Cx.] þe cherle þat whanne þe*. [þey, α., β., and Cx.] were al i-come at nyȝt into þe felde*. [feeld, γ.] and loked estward after þe sonne, he schulde loke westwarde, and so he dede, and schewed hem wonderliche*. [wondour erlych, γ.] þe liȝt of þe sonne bemes schynynge on þe hiȝest*. [heyȝeste, γ.] toures of þe citee: but hem semede þat þat manere of*. [of] om. Cx.] doynge come of no cherles witte, and axede faste who was counseillour*. [consailer, γ.] of þat dede, and he knowleched þat [it]*. [Cx.] was his lord; þo*. [Than, Cx.] it was i-knowe how hugeliche*. [gretely, Cx.] witt of lordes passeþ*. [passed, Cx.] wit of cherles. Þanne Page  419, vol.3 þe olde man and his children*. [chyldron, γ.; childer, Cx.] hadde grace, and Stracon was i-chose kyng. Þis manere doynge of cherles comounliche was i-used in every lond anon to Alisaundre his tyme. He took þe citee, and slowȝ al þat was þere ynne, out take Stracon his blood.*. [except Stracones blode, Cx.]Iosephus, libro 11o. Þo*. [Than, Cx.] Alisaundre wroot*. [wrot, γ.] to Iadus prince of prestes*. [preostes, γ.] in Ierusalem,*. [Jherusalem, Cx.] þat he schulde ordeyne for hym vitailles*. [vitails, β.] and tribut*. [trybute, Cx.] þat he was wont to paye to Darius þe kyng. Iadus warneþ*. [weorneþ, γ.] and seiþ*. [warned and sayde, Cx.] nay, and*. [and] om. α., β., and Cx.] for he was i-swore to Darius to paie*. [pay, Cx.] hym þat tribut, þerfore Alisaundre þretteneþ*. [þretneþ and manaseþ, γ.; was displesyd with, Cx.] þe Iewes. Petrus, libro 196o. Þan Alisaundre went forþ and took þe citee*. [citee] om. γ.] Gaza, whanne he hadde byseged it tweie monþes. And [from]*. [Cx.] þennes he wente toward Ierusalem, and Iadus þe bisshop, as he was i-tauȝt in his sleep, arrayed*. [slepe arayed, Cx.] hym in bisshoppes array and wente wiþ oþer preostes aȝenst kyng Alisaundre, and schewed*. [schewide, β.] hym þe prophecie of Daniel, in þe whiche*. [whuch, γ.] prophecie it was i-seide, þat oon of þe Grees*. [Grekes, Cx.] schulde destroye*. [destruye, γ.] þe power of þe Page  421, vol.3 Perses, and þat by Goddes doynge; and so Iadus gat grace of þe kyng, and reles*. [relesch, β.] of þe tribut*. [relesse of the trybute, Cx.] for seven*. [seve, γ.] ȝere. Trogus, libro 11o. Þan he wan Rodes*. [Rhodes, γ.; Roodes, Cx.] and Egipt as it were wiþ oute bataille. Þanne he wente to Iupiter Ammon, to wite*. [wytte, Cx.] of hym reed and counsaille up*. [of, γ. and Cx.] happes þat schulde befalle, and also of his owne birþe*. [burþe, γ., et infra.]; for his moder Olympiada*. [Olimpia, α.; Olimpias, γ. and Cx.] was i-knowe*. [aknowe, β.; beknowen, Cx.] to Phelip þat a greet serpent hadde i-gote*. [geten, Cx.] Alisaundre on hire, and nouȝt Phelip. Þerfore Phelip in þe laste tyme of his lyf tolde openliche*. [oponlych, γ.] þat Alisaundre was not his sone; and þerfore he hated Olympiada,*. [a forsook Olympiada, γ.; for|soke Olympyada, Cx.] and putte hir away from hym. Þanne Alisaundre desirede to gete hym lynage and burþe of godhede,*. [lygnage and byrthe of godheed, Cx.] and also he*. [to, α., β., γ., and Cx.] putte of þe schaundre*. [sclaundre, α. and β.; desclaun|der, γ.; sklander, Cx.] of his moder. Þanne Alisaundre medede*. [gaue mede to the . . ., Cx.] þe bisshoppes, and warned hem what answere he wolde have,*. [answher a wolde habbe, γ.] and wente into Iupiter his temple, and was i-worschipped as it*. [he, Cx.] were goddes sone. And þerfore he wax*. [wexe, Cx.] þe more proude and unesy, and loste þe usage*. [vysage, Cx.] of þewes þat he hadde i-lerned*. [yleorned, γ] in lettres of Grewe.*. [grue, Cx.] Þanne he tornede into Egipt, Page  423, vol.3 and bulde þere þe citee Alexandrina;*. [Allexandria, β. and Cx.] and passed forþ and werred uppon þe citee of Samaritanes, and wan hit, and ȝaf it to þe Macedones to wonye ynne.*. [Macedoyns to dwelle in, Cx.] For the Samarites hadde i-slawe oon Andromachus þat Alisaundre hadde*. [he lefte, Cx.] i-left to kepe þe contre.*. [countray, Cx.]Augustinus de Civitate [Dei],*. [Cx.]libro 4o, capitulo 5o,*. [4to, α.]et Policratica, libro 3o. Þat tyme Alisaundre axede of oon Dyonides,*. [Dyonydes, Cx., et infra; α. adds þat after Dyonides.] a þeef*. [þeof, γ., et infra.] of þe see, þat was i-take, why he robbed þe see, and he answerde*. [answherede studefastlych and seyde, γ.] and seide stedfastliche,*. [stydfastly, Cx.] "For þe same skile*. [skyl, Cx.] þat þou robbest al þe worlde wyde; but for I doo wiþ a litel schippe, þerfore I am i-cleped*. [yclepud, γ., et infra.] a þef; and for þou dost it wiþ [a]*. [Cx.] grete navey,*. [nauy, Cx.] þou art i-cleped an emperour; touching þe cause þerof is no differens bytwene us, boþe*. [bote, γ.] in fortune and in hap, out take þat he is þe worse*. [but unfortune and unhap, oute take that he is the werst, Cx.] þeef*. [þeef] om. Cx.] þat steleþ most. Were Alisaundre i-take allone he schulde be*. [cleped, added in α. and β.; clepud, γ.] a þeef i-cleped;*. [i-cleped] om. α., β., and Cx.] and [yf]*. [Cx.] þe peple were redy to Dionides his heste,*. [commaundemente, Cx.] þan Dionydes were an emperour. Þe lawes þat I flee*. [Ich fleo, γ.] þou nempnest*. [thou impugnest, β. and Cx.; ynpugnest, γ.] and wiþ-seist hem. Lite fortune and*. [and] om. Cx.] povert and scarste of riches*. [scarsite of ryches, Cx.] makeþ me a þeef; greet pride*. [pruyde, γ.] and covetise þat may nouȝt be fulfilled*. [fulfuld, γ.] makeþ [the]*. [Cx. and γ.; þee, β.] a þeef. On caas ȝif myn*. [my, Cx.] fortune and richesse*. [ryches, Cx.] were*. [were] om. γ.] wiþ drawe, I schulde be bettre þan I am now; and þouȝ*. [thou, Cx.] þe more fortune and richesse*. [ryches, Cx.] þat þow hast, þe worse þou schalt be." Alisaundre wondrede of his stedfastnes,*. [studfastnes, γ.; stydfastnesse, Cx.]Page  425, vol.3 and saide, "I schal assaie*. [essay, Cx.] ȝif þou wilt be [the]*. [β., γ., and Cx.] bettre ȝif [thy]*. [Cx.] fortune is i-chaunged,*. [be chaunged, Cx.] soo þat after þis þou schalt wite it þyn owne maneres, and noȝt fortune, what þu trespassest and dost amys.*. [doost amysse, Cx.]" Iustinus, libro 6o. Whanne Siria was overcome, Alisaundre and Darius come eft to gidres in bataille forto fiȝte, Darius sente lettres to Alisaundre in þis manere: "Darius, kyng of kynges and cosyn to*. [of, α. and Cx.] goddes, sendeþ to his servaunt Alisaundre. I*. [Ych, β.; Y, γ., et infra.] hote and comaunde þe þat þou torne aȝen*. [chargyng and commandyng the that thou retorne, Cx.] to myn servauntes þyn fornfadres*. [forfadris, β.; forfaders, γ. and Cx.]; þat ȝet liest*. [liste, β.; ȝut lyst in þe, γ.] in þyn moder lappe, I*. [ich, β.] hote þat þou lerne*. [leurne, γ.] manis office; and forto come þerto*. [and til thou come therto, Cx.] I sende to þe a scourge,*. [skourge, γ.] a bal,*. [ball, Cx.] and a purs*. [pors, β. and γ.] wiþ gold. Þe scourge meoneþ*. [meneþ, β.; bitokeneth, Cx.] þe to take hede to þy lore, þe bal acordeþ to þe pleyeng*. [plaiyng, β.] of þyn age, and þe money may releve þe in þyn*. [þe, γ.; thy, Cx.] wey. And but þou be entendaunt*. [obeyssaunt, Cx.] and buxum*. [and buxum] om. Cx.; buxom, γ.] to myn*. [my, Cx.] com|maundements and hestes, and doo as I*. [ich, β.] commaunde þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] and hote,*. [charge, Cx.] I schal sende men þat schal scourge þe and bynde [the],*. [Cx.] and bringe*. [bryngge, γ.] þe i-bounde to fore myn*. [bifore my, Cx.] lord|schipe Page  427, vol.3 and mageste." Þese*. [Þeos, γ., et infra.] sawes*. [saynges, Cx.] made þe lordes þat were wiþ Alisaundre sore abasshed and aferde. Þan Ali|saundre answered hem and seide, "Why be ȝe abasshed of þese wordes, þat haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] more of brag and [of]*. [Cx.] boost þan of trust and of truþe? hit is þe manere of þe feblest houndes for*. [for] om. Cx.] to berke most, and evere þe lasse myȝt þey haveþ þey*. [hy habbeþ hy, γ.] berkeþ þe fastere." Þanne Alisaundre wroot to Darius in þis manere: "Alisaundre, kyng of kynges and lorde of lordes, and cosyn of goddes, sendeþ gretynge to Darius. Þou hast sent*. [send, γ.] me a scourge, a bal, and a purs wiþ gold;*. [ball and money of gold, γ. and Cx.] þerby I knowleche*. [y knowe, γ.] þat þou hast covenableliche*. [couenablye, Cx.] i-graunted me al þing: for it behoveþ þat I*. [ych, γ.] use a scourge among myn sugettes*. [my subgettis, Cx.]; þe bal for þe roundenesse þerof tokeneþ*. [the roundenesse of the balle signe|fieth, Cx.] þat I schal be lord and emperour of al þe worlde wyde; þe money of*. [money of] om. Cx.] gold þat þou hast sent [me]*. [Cx.] by-hoteþ me lord|schipe of [al]*. [From α. and Cx.] þy richesse and tresour.*. [tresorye, α. and γ.; tresour, Cx.] Þe greet boost þat þou makest of richesse makeþ us [to]*. [Cx.] have þe gretter wille to werre aȝenst þe." Trogus, libro 11o. At þe laste Page  429, vol.3 Darius was overcome, and fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] in to Babilonia, and prayede Alisaundre by lettres þat he moste ransome*. [most raunson, β.; a moste raun|sene, γ.; myght raunson, Cx.] his men þat were i-take prisoners: but Alisaundre chalangeþ*. [chalenged, Cx.] not onliche money [but]*. [From α. and Cx.; bote, γ.] al the hole kyngdom. Efte Darius profreþ*. [proferd, Cx.] Alisaundre his*. [hise, β.] doȝter, wiþ a greet deel*. [and a grete parte, Cx.] of his kyngdom [with her].*. [Cx.] But Alisaundre hoteþ*. [β. adds hym after hoteþ.] delyvere hym*. [charged him to deliuer to hym, Cx.] his owne; and comaundeþ*. [commanded, Cx.] Darius to come mekeliche and fonge*. [receyue, Cx.] as þe victor will*. [wole, β.; wolde, γ.] ordeyne. Þan Darius hadde no hope of pees,*. [pes, γ.; peas, Cx.] and come aȝenst Alisaundre wiþ þre hondred þowsand foot men and an hondred þowsand horsmen; noþeles it was i-tolde [hym]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] by þe weie þat his wif was deed of*. [in, β., γ., and Cx.] travaille of childe in Alisaundre his warde, and þat Alisaundre hadde i-buried here wiþ grete worschepe. Noþeles Alisaundre dede it nouȝt for love, but for manhede of hym self. Þerfore Darius writeþ*. [wrote, Cx.] to hym þe þridde tyme [for]*. [for] added from α., not in Cx. or β.] þonkynge hym þat he*. [α, γ., ut sæpe.] was corteys to alle his, and dede hym none ene|myte.*. [no despyte ne enuye, Cx.] Þanne he*. [For thanne he, Cx. has and.] profreþ hym þe more deel*. [parte, Cx.] of his Page  431, vol.3 kyngdom anon to the ryver Eufrates wiþ his douȝter, and*. [with xxx. M. talentes, Cx.] profreþ hym þritty þowsand talentis for þe oþer deel of his men þat were i-take prisoners. Alisaundre answerde and seide:*. [and seide] om. Cx.] "Þonkinge of enemyes is but vanite; hit nedeth*. [neodeþ, γ.] nouȝt," quoþ*. [said, Cx.] he, "to*. [to] om. Cx.] flatere*. [flaterie, β.; flatry, γ.] among reses of werre." Þanne he hoteth hym to arraie his scheltrum*. [scheltroun, β.; scholtrum, γ.] oþer aȝilde*. [he promysed hym araye his sheltron owther yelde, Cx.] hym and his, nameliche while þat lond may nouȝt suffise*. [suffre, Cx.] tweie*. [to twey, γ.] kynges þat beeþ i-liche greet. Vincentius.*. [Vincentius] om. Cx.] Þanne Alisaundre wente priveliche in to Darius his tentes, and mette happeliche*. [happiliche, β.; happelych, γ.] wiþ Darius, and seide: "I am Alisaundre his messanger,*. [messager, Cx.] and I telle ȝow þese tidinges:*. [tyþinges, α.] I holde hym no kyng þat hiȝeþ*. [hyeth, β. and Cx.] [hym]*. [Cx.] slowliche to þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] ba|taille." "Where*. [whether thou be, β. and Cx.; wher þou, γ.] ȝe*. [þ u, α.] be Alisaundre," quod*. [said, Cx.] Darius, "þat spekeþ*. [spekist, β.; spekest, Cx.] so boldeliche to me."*. [to me] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] "Nay," quod*. [said, Cx.] Alisaundre, "but I am his messanger."*. [messager, Cx.] Þan Darius brouȝt hym into soper, þere*. [where, Cx.] Alisaundre of every vessel þat þat*. [β has not that twice over, nor γ., nor Cx.] was profred Page  433, vol.3 hym to drinke*. [dryngke, γ.] he drank*. [drang, γ.] of þe wyn, and putte þe vessel in his bosom. Whan Darius was warned þerof by his servauntes he was wrooþ, and reproved*. [repreouede, γ.] Alisaundre as a þeef. "Þis manere," quod*. [said, Cx.] Alisaundre, "is i-used in Alisaundre his court, and þerfore I wende*. [ich wente, γ.] þat þe manere were i-used*. [it be soo used, Cx.] here;" and so þe kyng was apaied and [the]*. [Cx.] noyse i-sesed; but oon þat was at the feste þat*. [þat] om. α., β., and Cx.] knewe Alisaundre, and þerof Alisaundre was sone war,*. [waar, γ.] and fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] anon, and slowȝ a childe of Pers þat hilde his hors at þe ȝate, and passed þe ryver and come to his men. Darius foloweþ*. [folowed, Cx.] Alisaundre, but Alisaundre hoteþ*. [charged, Cx.] þat non of his men schulde passe þe ryver, and hoteþ*. [hoteþ] om. Cx.] þat his men schulde ȝeve wey, and lete þe Perses passe. Trogus, libro 11o. Þere was strong fiȝtynge, and at þe laste Darius gan to flee, and Alisaundre his knyȝtes pursueþ*. [porseweþ, γ.] and takeþ*. [pursued and toke, Cx.] grete prayes ful þritty dayes. Þanne þat riche citee Persipolis, þat was þe chief*. [chef, β.] citee of Pers, was i-take; but Darius fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] wiþ many Page  435, vol.3 sore woundes, and his owne cosyns putte hym in boundes of gold, but at þe laste Darius deide,*. [deyede, β.] and Alisaundre buriede hym wiþ grete solempnite and worschip. Trogus, libro 12o. Þe mene*. [meane, Cx.] tyme messangers*. [messagers, Cx.] wiþ lettres comeþ*. [came, Cx.] out of Macedonia, and telleþ*. [tolde, Cx.] þat Antipater, þe wardayn and kepere of þe contray, hadde overcome Eacides, king of Spartania, þat is Lacedemonia, and also Alisaundre kyng of Epires,*. [Epirus, γ.] þat is Tracia; bot Antipater also was foule i-bore doun.*. [fowle born downe, Cx.] Also Zephiron, Alisaundre his styward,*. [stuard, Cx.] wiþ þritty þowsand fauȝt aȝenst þe Schites,*. [Shytes, Cx.] and was al overcome and*. [overcome and] om. α. and γ.] destroyed.*. [and were al destroyed, Cx.; destruyd, γ.] Whan Alisaundre had i-herd þese tidynges, he made þre dayes greet mone and sorwe.*. [moone and sorowe, Cx. and γ.] Þan his knyȝtes trowede þat he wolde torne aȝen into*. [turne aȝeyn to, γ.; retorne to, Cx.] his owne contray, but*. [Netheles, Cx.] Alisaundre comforteþ*. [comforted, Cx.] his knyȝtes*. [his knyȝtes] om. γ.] to travaille and to*. [to] om. Cx.] wynne þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] straunge*. [strange, β.] landes of þe Est,*. [Eest, Cx.] and seiþ*. [sayd, Cx.] þat he souȝt nouȝt Darius his body, but his kyngdom and his londe. Sone after[ward]*. [From α.; after, Cx.] he wan þe Mardes and þe Hircanes. Also Page  437, vol.3 þere Thalestres,*. [Talestris, β. and Cx.] þe quene of þe*. [þe] om. γ. and Cx.] Amazones, wiþ þre hondred wommen*. [wymmen, γ.] mette wiþ Alisaundre, and come fyve and þritty iorneys among wel*. [right, Cx.] cruel men forto have children*. [childer, Cx.] by kyng Alisaundre: þe siȝt and þe comynge of hir was wonderful*. [wonderfol, γ., et infra.] to alle manere of*. [of] om. α., β., and Cx.] men, and specialliche for þe message þat sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] brouȝt was wonderful and nouȝt i-used. Þanne sche*. [heo, β.] leved þere thrittene dayes in flescheliche likyng, and hadde her wombeful,*. [and . . . . wombeful] om. Cx.] and went hir wey. [℞.]*. [Cx.] Noþeles Ali|saundre [his story telleþ þat Alisaundre]*. [From α.] axede tribut of þe queene of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Amaȝones, and sche wroot to hym in this manere: "Of þy witte is wonder*. [Of þy wytt is wyt hath wondur, γ.] þat þou woldest fiȝt wiþ wommen; for ȝif it happeþ þat fortune favere*. [fauour, Cx.] us, and þou be overcome, þan þou hast schame and schendschipe*. [schendes, α.; schenship, β.; schendnes, γ.] for evermore,*. [art shamed for euermore, Cx.] whan þou art overcome of wommen;*. [whan . . . wommen] om. Cx.] and ȝif þou overcomest*. [ouercome, Cx.] us, þou getest but litel worschepe of victorie of wommen." Trogus, libro 12.

Capitulum vicesimum octavum.

AFTER þis Alisaundre took þe cloþinge and þe dyademe of þe kyng of Pers, as þey*. [thaugh, Cx.] he wolde passe in to þe manere Page  439, vol.3 and usage of [ham þat were overcome, aȝenes the manere and usage of]*. [From γ.] Macedonia. And for it schulde not seme þat alone he trespased in þat doynge, he heet*. [bade, Cx.] his frendes also use longe cloþes of gold; also he deled þe tymes and the stempnes of þe myȝtes*. [nyȝtes, α., γ., and Cx.; nyȝtis, β.] among companyes*. [companye, Cx.] of strom|pettes, and putte to noble*. [nobel, γ.] mete and drynke, leste fastynge destroyede*. [destruyde, γ.] leccherie. He hiȝteþ his meles*. [highted his meels, Cx.] wiþ dyvers plaies, and haþ*. [hadde, Cx.] no mynde þat grete richesse is lost by suche*. [sich, β.] manere doynge, and nouȝt i-gete and i-wonne.*. [not gete ne wonne, Cx.] Þerfore al*. [al] om. Cx.] men gonne*. [began, Cx.] to have indignacioun of hym, for he forsook þe usage and þe maneres of his forfadres. He lete his*. [his] om. Cx.] knyȝtes wedde wommen þat were i-take prisoners, for þey schulde take and suffre*. [suffry, γ.] þe liȝtloker*. [more easily, Cx.] þe travaille of chyvalrie*. [chevalry, γ.] and þenke þe lasse of her owne contrey. He hilde*. [helde, Cx.] þat Macedonia schulde be þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] strengere ȝif ȝonge kniȝtes come after elde*. [olde, β. and γ.; old, Cx.] fadres and usede dedes of knyȝtes wiþ ynne þe boundes of here owne berþe, and schulde be þe more stalworþe*. [stalward, γ.] afterward ȝif þey piȝte here tentes as it were in here owne cradeles. Also Page  441, vol.3 Alisaundre ordeyned fedynge for children,*. [childre, Cx.] hors and armour*. [armur, γ.] for ȝongelynge,*. [þe ȝongelynges, α. and Cx.] hire*. [huyre, γ.] and wages for þe fadres; and ȝif þe fadres deide þe sones schulde fonge*. [receyue, Cx.] þe wages of þe fader,*. [faders, Cx.] and so hir childhode schulde by as it were knyȝthode and chivalrie.*. [cheualrye, Cx.] Þanne whanne þe Parthies*. [Partyes, Cx.] were i-chased Alisaundre wax cruel*. [cruwel, γ.] among his owne men, and hatede most ȝif eny of his men wiþseide hym of eny manere dede. Þere he slouȝ oon*. [þar a slouȝ on, γ.] Permenion, an olde man þat was next þe kyng, and Per|menion his sone Phileta also, for þey tolde hym þat he over|tornede and destroyede*. [distruyed, β.; destruyde, γ] þe maneres and þe usages of the con|tray and of his formfadres.*. [forfadres, γ.; fornfaders, Cx.] Þanne Alisaundre dradde*. [drad, β.] leste tyþinges*. [tydynges, Cx., et infra.] of þat dede schulde come into Macedonia; he made hit as þey*. [þey] om. Cx.] he wolde sende to*. [to] om. α., β., and Cx.] some of his frendes into Macedonia to telle þere tiþinges*. [tydynges, Cx., et infra.] of þe victories, and of þe grete dedes þat he hadde i-doo, and heet*. [bade, Cx.] þat men schulde write lettres alle þat wolde tiþynges*. [tydynges, Cx., et infra.] sende, and made þe messangers*. [messageris, β.; messagers, Cx.] brynge hym þe lettres priveliche,*. [pryuately, Cx.] for he wolde knowe all menis wille*. [al men wyl, γ.] þat wolde lettres sende, oþer for he wolde rewarde hem þat were trewe,*. [truwe, γ.] oþer sende hem þat were false in to fer*. [ferre, Cx.] londes. Policratica,*. [Cx. has merely Pol.]libro.*. [libro] om. β. and γ.] Alisaundre was ofte dronke,*. [dronken, Cx.] and þanne he was cruel among his meyne,*. [meyny, γ. and Cx.]Page  443, vol.3 and so it happed in*. [on, Cx.] a tyme þat he ȝaf dome aȝenst oon þe grettest of þe paleys*. [palys, β.; his palays, Cx.] þat his heed schulde of, and he ap|pelede anon riȝt; but for me usede to appele from þe lasse to þe more. Þe tyraunt þat was wyn dronken*. [wyndronke, γ.; wyne dronken, Cx.] tornede in to more woodnesse,*. [wodenesse, Cx.] and seide, "From whom*. [wham, γ. (bis).] [and to whom]*. [Added from γ. and Cx.] appelest*. [appellyst, Cx.] þou?" "I appele," quod he, "from Alisaundre þe dronke to Alisaundre þe sobre."*. [sober, Cx.] By þat answere Ali|saundre abated his wreþe,*. [wreþthe, γ.] and put of þe sentence and þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] dome, and forȝaf hym þe trespas at þe fulle.*. [atte folle, γ.; fully foryaue hym the trespas, Cx.]Trogus. Þanne he stood wiþ*. [suduweþ, β.; sodeuweþ, γ.] þe peple þat woneþ at þe foot*. [he subdued the peple that dwellyd atte fote, Cx.] of þe hille mont*. [mont] om. Cx.] Caucasus, and buldeþ*. [bylde, Cx.] þe citee Alexandria uppon þe ryver Thanays. ℞. Here take hede þat Alisaundre bulde*. [bilde, β.] twelve*. [twelf, γ.] citees, everich of hem heet Alexandria, in dyvers kyngdoms and londes: at the ryver Thanays, Pontus, Schicia,*. [Shicia (sic), Cx.] Mesagetes, Egipt, Troada, at Tigris, and at Staurus, and made write in þe walles of þe citees in lettres of Grew,*. [Gru, γ.; Grue, Cx.]Page  445, vol.3 "Alisaundre Iubiter his*. [Jupiters, β.] kyn."*. [Jupiters cosyn, Cx.]Trogus, libro 12o. Þe men þat beeþ i-closed wiþ ynne þe watres þat hatte palludes Mcotides*. [Meotydes, Cx.] sente a lettre to Alisaundre in þis manere: "Ȝif goddes wolde þat þe having of þy body were evene to þe covetise*. [coueitese, Cx.] of þy soule, þe worlde myȝte nouȝt fonge*. [not receyue, Cx.] þe. Where*. [Whether, β. and Cx.] þou knowe nouȝt þe*. [þat, β.] treen*. [noȝt þat tren, γ.] þat groweþ long tyme*. [that trees that growe a longe tyme, Cx.] beeþ i-roted up in a litel while, þanne take hede and bewar*. [be waar, γ.] þat þou falle nouȝt wiþ the tree,*. [treo, γ.] while þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] þow takest to þe þe bowes.*. [buwes, γ.] Ofte þe leon*. [lion, Cx.] is mete to smale*. [smalleste, γ.] bestes and to fouls, and roust destroyeþ iren*. [rust destroyed yren, Cx.]; þere is no þing so strong and stedefast*. [studefast, γ.; stydfast, Cx.] þat may nouȝt be brouȝt in [to]*. [Cx.] peril,*. [peryll, Cx.] and þat by a febil*. [feble, Cx.] þing and wel litel worþ. What eyleþ þe at us? we come*. [cam, Cx.] nevere in þy lond, we mowe*. [mow servy, γ.; may, Cx.] serve no man, and we kepeþ nouȝt regne,*. [kepe not to regne, Cx.] and þou hast ioye to pursewe þeoves,*. [pursue theues, Cx.] and þou art everich naciouns*. [α. inserts his before þeef.] þeef.*. [þeof, γ.] What nede*. [neode, γ.] hast þou*. [hastow, Cx.] to riches, Page  447, vol.3 þat makeþ þe [þe]*. [From α. and Cx.] more nedy*. [neody, γ.] to desire more richesse.*. [riches, Cx.] To þe victorie is cause of bataille. No man suffre*. [suffreþ, α. and Cx.] glad|liche an alien lord. And ȝif þou art god, þou schuldest ȝeve men benefice and ȝiftes, and byneme*. [bynyme, β.; bynymme, γ.; take from no, Cx.] no man his owne; ȝif þou art*. [be, Cx.] a man, þynke what þou art. Þou myȝt have frendes of hem þat þou hast nouȝt i-greved wiþ werre*. [wiþ werre] om. Cx.]; and hem þat þou hast overcome þow myȝte euere have hem [in]*. [Cx. (not γ.)] suspecte. Bytwene a bonde*. [boond, β.] man and his lorde is no manere frendschipe þouȝ þey be in pees."*. [pese, γ.; peas, Cx.] In a day*. [One day, Cx.] at a feste among Alisaundre his trusty*. [tristy, β.] frendes was speche of þe dedes of Phelip þe kynges fader. Þere Alisaundre gan to boste*. [bosty, γ.; booste, Cx.] and make him self more worþy þan his fader, and a greet deel of hem*. [of hem] om. Cx.] þat were at þe feste hilde*. [huld, γ.] up þe kynges oyl.*. [helde up Alisandres oyle, Cx.] But Clitus,*. [Olitus, Cx.] an olde man and a wise man,*. [old man and wyse, β., γ., and Cx.] truste in þe kynges frendeschepe, and preisede þe fader; and anon Alisaundre slowȝ hym for þat [grete]*. [Cx. (not γ.)] prey|synge. But afterward [whanne]*. [From α. and Cx.] þe kynges woodnes*. [wodnes, γ.] was i-cesed,*. [wodenesse was cessed, Cx.] he beþouȝt hym of þe persone þat was Page  449, vol.3 i-slawe,*. [slayn, Cx.] of þe cause of þe*. [his, Cx.] deth, and of the feste tyme, and made so grete doel*. [deol, β. and γ.] and*. [doel and] om. Cx.] sorwe*. [sorowe, Cx.] þat he desired forto*. [for] om. Cx.] die. Þe teeres brak*. [breke, γ.] out*. [brake oute, Cx.] of his eiȝen,*. [yen, γ.; eyen, Cx.] and he weep*. [weope, β.] ful sore.*. [fol sore weop þe kyng, γ.; wepte ful soore, Cx.] Þanne he byclipped þe deed body,*. [corps, Cx.] and gropeþ the woundes,*. [wondes, γ.] and draweþ out þe schaft,*. [scheft, γ.; drewe oute the shafte, Cx.] and profreþ to stike*. [stycke, Cx.] hym self þerwiþ; for þis Clitus his suster*. [Clitus sister, Cx.] was Alisaundre his norise.*. [norse, β. and Cx.; norce, γ.] Þis sorwe durede foure daies,*. [dawes, γ., ut semper.] and oon Calistenes,*. [Calystenes, Cx.] Alisaundre scolefere*. [scolevere, γ.] under Aristotil, aleyde*. [alayed, Cx.] þis sorwe, unneþe wiþ grete besynesse. Trogus, libro 12o. But nouȝt longe afterward, for þis Calistenes þe philosofre wolde not use þe manere and þe array of Pers, Alisaundre bare hym an*. [on, α., γ., and Cx.] honde þat he was a false aspie,*. [espye, Cx.] and heet smyte of his lemes,*. [lymes, γ.; lymmes, Cx.] and þrewe þe stok of his*. [stoke of the, Cx.] body into a pitte, and an hound*. [hand, Cx.] wiþ hym. But oon Lisimachus,*. [Lysimachus, et infra, Cx.] a gentil man and a noble, made hym drynke venym for þe remedye of his sorwe. Þan Alisaundre Page  451, vol.3 was wrooþ for þatte dede, and put þis Lisimachus to a leon to be ete*. [lyon to be eten, Cx.]; but he wrapped a cloþ aboute his hond, and schove it*. [and schove it] om. α.; þruste hys hond into þe leon hys, γ.; and put it into the lyons, Cx.] in [to]*. [From α.] þe leon his mowþe, whan þe leon resede, and rasede*. [lyon resed and rased, β. and Cx.; resede he rasede, γ.] of þe tonge and slowȝ þe leon. Ali|saundre siȝ*. [sawe, Cx.] þat, and loved hym þe more afterward. Salustius.*. [Solinus, β., γ., and Cx.] After þis Alisaundre come to þe hilles of Caspie,*. [Caspy, Cx.] þere þe children*. [childern, γ.; childer, Cx.] of bondage of þe ten lynages*. [lygnages, Cx.] of Israel were i-closed, and praieden*. [prayed leve, α.; prayd for ly|cence to, Cx.] of Alisaundre to goo out of þe*. [þat, α. and Cx.] closynge. And whanne Alisaundre had i-lerned*. [had yleurned, γ.; understande, Cx.] þat þey were þere i-closed [there]*. [Cx.] for here synne, and þat it was i-prophecied of hem þat þey schulde nouȝt goo þennes,*. [thens, Cx.] Alisaundre closede hem fastere, and stopped here oute goynge fastere wiþ stones and glew*. [glu, γ.; glue, Cx.]: and he seigh*. [sawe, Cx.] þat manis witte was nouȝt suffisaunt to doo þat dede, and prayed God of Israel þat he wolde fulfille*. [folfulle, γ.] þat werk and dede; þan þe coppes of þe hilles wente and closede to gidres, and so þe place was i-closede þat no man myȝte come þerto. [℞.]*. [From α.] But þey schulleþ*. [a scholleþ go, γ.; shal, Cx.] goo out at þe Page  453, vol.3 worldes ende [and slee many men],*. [β., γ., and Cx.] so seiþ Iosephus. After þis Alisaundre, aboute þe tenþe ȝere of his kyng|dom, wente in*. [in] om. Cx.] to Ynde, and heled*. [heeled, β.; helede, γ.] þe armure*. [keuered the armour, Cx.] of his knyȝtes wiþ silver, and wente up into þe noble citee Nisa.*. [Nysa, Cx.] Þennes he lad*. [a ladde, γ.] his oost*. [Thens he ledde his hooste, Cx.] toward þe holy hille, þere men heleþ her prive herneys*. [pryvey harneys, γ.] wiþ þynne*. [yvy, α., β., and γ.] leves*. [where men hele ther preuy har|nays with yuy leues, Cx.]; þere wiþ a sodeyn doynge of þe hille, his oost was i-meoved forto*. [for] om. Cx.] crie to God Almyȝti wiþ holy cries. Þanne he wente to þe hilles þat hatte montes Dedaly, þat beeþ in þe kyngdom of þe queene Cleofilis, and for he*. [heo, β. γ., et infra; she, Cx.] myȝte nouȝt wiþstonde hym wiþ armure*. [armour, Cx.] in fiȝtinge, sche*. [heo, γ.] lete the kynge ligge*. [lye, Cx.] by here, and so*. [so] om. Cx.] sche raunsouned hir*. [heore, γ.; the, Cx.] kyngdom. Þe sone þat sche hadde by Alisaundre was i-cleped*. [yclepud, γ.] Alisaundre, and was emperour of Inde after his moder. But þe queene Page  455, vol.3 was i-cleped þe kynges hoore*. [harlatte, Cx.] while sche was on lyve.*. [a lyue, Cx.] Þanne Alisaundre come to astoon of a wonder schapnesse*. [scharpnesse, β.; scharpnes, γ.; sharpnesse, Cx.]; moche*. [miche, β.] folk*. [peple, Cx.] was i-flowe þider*. [þuder, γ.; were fledde theder, Cx.] for socour. At þat stoon Hercules was forbode þere*. [forþere, α.; forboden forther, Cx.] passage, for he schulde passe non forþer. But Alisaundre wolde passe Hercules his dedes, and gat þat place with greet travaille and peril, and made þe peple ȝelde hem to his mageste.*. [maieste, γ.] After þat Alisaundre fauȝt wiþ Porus,*. [Porrus, β. and Cx.] kynge of Inde, he slouȝ Alisaundre his hors þat heet Bucefal*. [Botifal, β.; Bucyfall, Cx.]; noþeles Porus*. [Porrus, β. and Cx.] was i-wounded al aboute and i-take prisoner, and Alisaundre restorede hym aȝen to his kyngdom: noþeles [this]*. [Cx. (not γ.)] Porus*. [Porrus, Cx.] was i-wounded so sore*. [sory, α.] þat he was*. [was so sory that he was, Cx.] overcome þat he wolde nouȝt ete noþer suffre hele*. [ne suffre men hele, Cx.] his woundes.

Capitulum vicesimum nonum.*. [Cap. 30, Cx., and it is so called in β. Cx. and this MS. divide the last chapter into two.]

WHANNE Alisaundre hadde i-goo*. [ygo, γ.] aboute þe laste clif*. [clef, γ.] of Occean, he arrayed*. [arayed, Cx.] hym to werre in þe ilond of*. [of] om. Cx.] Bragmans. Page  457, vol.3 Þey sente hym suche a lettre: "Kyng, we haveþ i-herd*. [habbeþ ihurd, γ.; haue herd, Cx.] of þy batailles and of þy victories, but what schal be*. [suffice the whom, Cx.] i-now to þe man to [þe]*. [From α.] whom al þe world*. [wordle, γ.] suffiseþ nouȝt. Rychesse we haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ., et infra.] noon for whiche*. [þe whoch, γ.] me schulde werre uppon*. [on, Cx.] us, al oure good is comoun*. [comyn, β.] to us alle; mete is oure richesse*. [ryches, Cx.]; vile*. [fyle, γ.] cloþinge and scars*. [sckars, Cx.] we haveþ in stede of gold and of greet array. Oure wommen beeþ nouȝt arrayed forto plese, for grete aray is acounted*. [acompted, Cx.] charge among us, and nouȝt hiȝenesse*. [hiȝtnes, β.; hyȝtnes, γ.] and fairnesse. Oure wommen desireþ namore fairenesse þan þey haveþ*. [han, β.] of kynde.*. [kuynde, γ., et infra.] Oure drie diches and dennes stondeþ us in double stede; [yn stede]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] of oure har|borwe*. [herberowe, β. and Cx.; har|borghe, γ.] while we beeþ on lyve,*. [we lyue, Cx.] and instede of oure buri|els*. [graues, Cx.] whanne we beeþ dede. ȝif we haveþ somtyme a kyng, it is nouȝt forto doo riȝt but for honeste of kynde. We haveþ among us noþer doomes*. [domes, γ. and Cx.] ne plee, for we doþ nouȝt þat nedeþ to be redressed*. [do not thing that nedeth redresse, Cx.] by plee oþer by dome; we desireþ no more þan resoun of kynde axeþ; we holdeþ nedeful*. [necdfol, γ.] what Page  459, vol.3 we knoweþ þat it is i-now and nouȝt to meche.*. [ynowȝ . . . myche, β.; that we knowe is mesurable, and not to moche, Cx.] Evenes*. [Euenesse, Cx.] of povert makeþ us alle riche. Oure peple haþ oon lawe, and dooþ no þing aȝenst þe lawe of kynde; we useþ no tra|vaille þat schulde make us covetous. We schoneþ*. [We shone, Cx.] and for|sakeþ foule slewþe and leccherie, we dooþ no þing þat nedeþ*. [neodeþ, γ.] punschinge.*. [punysshyng, Cx.] Hit is unlaweful among us to woundy*. [wondy, γ.; wounde, Cx.] þe hilles wiþ culter*. [cultre, β.] and wiþ schare.*. [culture and with share, Cx.] We useþ no glotenye oþer*. [ne, Cx.] outrage of mete and drynke, and þerfore we beeþ nouȝt sike.*. [be not seke, Cx.] We woneþ*. [dwelle, Cx.] in drie diches; hevene fyndeþ us helynge,*. [keueryng, Cx.] and þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] erþe*. [eorþe, γ.] fyndeþ us beddyng. We werreþ*. [werriþ, β.] not*. [We be no werriours, Cx.]; we makeþ pees wiþ good levynge*. [liuyng, Cx.] and nouȝt wiþ strengþe; also no fader folweþ þe offys*. [foloweth thoffyce, Cx.] of his sones deeþ. Comittatur exequias. We secheþ no pleies*. [seche no playes, Cx.] and iapes, for it is ful*. [fol, γ.; right, Cx.] likynge to us to beholde þe welkene*. [wolkene, γ.; firmament, Cx.] and þe sterres of hevene. We beeþ*. [ben, β.] men of symple speche; hit is comoun*. [comyn, γ.] to us alle nouȝt*. [not to lye, Cx.] for to lye. God of alle is Page  461, vol.3 oure God, for he haþ likynge in wordes and in bedes*. [beedes, Cx.] by a manere liknesse of love; he is a worde, spirit, and þouȝt, and is nouȝt i-plesed with worldly richesse, but wiþ holy werkes and þonkynges*. [thankynges, Cx.] of his grace." Responsio Alexandri. "ȝif it is*. [hyt ys soþ, γ.; be, Cx.] as þou seist, Dindimus, Bragmans alone beeþ acounted*. [allone be acompted, Cx.] in þe nombre and tale of mankynde; þey*. [hy, γ. passim.] beeþ wiþ oute vices and riches; þey acounteþ*. [acompte, Cx.] wrongful al þe dedes þat we dooþ; þey acounteþ*. [acompte, Cx.] grevous þe benefice þat God haþ i-graunted to þe help of mankinde*. [mankunde, γ. et infra.]; helpe and service of craftes þey acounteth*. [acompte, Cx.] synful; and at þe laste þey destroyeþ*. [distruyeþ, β.] the lawes of levynge. Þanne oþer þey seieþ*. [seyn, β. et infra; hy seggeth, γ. et infra.] þat þey beeþ goddes oþer þat þey haveþ*. [han, β.] envie*. [hy habbeþ envye, γ.; han enuye, Cx.] to God, and by cause þerof þey blameþ þe fairest of creatures."*. [creaturis, β.]Responsio Dindimi. "We beeþ nouȝt at home in þis worlde, but from home and gistes*. [gystes, α. and γ.; as gestes, Cx.]; we come nouȝt to dwelle here, but to wende hens*. [hennes, α.]; we beeþ nouȝt [aleyde]*. [From α., β., γ. and Cx.] wiþ no charges*. [with charge, Cx.] of synnes; but wiþ oute suche manere charges we neigheþ*. [neiȝiþ, β.; neyȝheþ, γ.; drawe nyghe, Cx.]Page  463, vol.3 toward oure oure*. [owne, α., β., and Cx.] hous, and draweþ*. [hye, Cx.] faste homward. We seieþ nouȝt*. [siȝȝeþ nouȝt, γ.; say not, Cx.] þat we be goddes; we haveþ non envie to God; but we seieþ þat we wil nouȝt mysuse þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] goodnesse of God almyȝty. We seieþ nouȝt þat alle þing is semeliche þat is laweful. God haþ putte þe use of þinges in manis fredom*. [freodom, γ.]; þan he þat leveþ þe wors and foloweþ þe bettre is nouȝt God, but he is i-made Goddes frend. Whanne þe swellynge of welþ haþ i-bolled*. [hath bolned, Cx.] up pryde, þanne ȝe for|ȝeteþ þat ȝe beeþ men, and seieþ*. [seyn, Cx.] þat God reicheþ*. [recchiþ, β.; rechcheþ, γ.; rek|keth, Cx.] nouȝt of mankynde*. [mankugnde, γ.]; ȝe buldeþ temples*. [templis, β.] to ȝoure self, in þe whiche*. [whuch, γ.] ȝe schedeþ*. [sheden, Cx.] blood, þerfore I clepe ȝow wood,*. [I call you woode, Cx.] for ȝe weteþ nouȝt*. [wytte not, Cx.] what ȝe dooþ; and ȝif ȝe despiseþ God wytyngly,*. [wyttyngly, Cx.] þanne ȝe beeþ i-holde in þe synne of sacrelegy."*. [sacrilege, γ.; Cx. has ye holden in the synne sacrylege, apparently for ye be holden. . .]Epistola Alexandri. "Þow clepest þy self a man of welþe, for þow wonest*. [dwellest, Cx.] þere no man may come to þe; ȝe preyseþ þe levynge and þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] doynge of ȝoure scarste,*. [scarsete, Cx.] but by þe Page  465, vol.3 same skile*. [skylle, Cx.] þey beþ in welþe þat beeþ in perpetuel prisoun, for þey haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] non use of richesse, but þey beeþ wiþ oute richesse riȝt as ȝe beeþ; lawe of kynde dooþ to ȝow as prisoun dooþ to hem. Þat ȝe techeþ*. [tyleþ, α.; tileþ, β.; teleþ, γ.; telle, Cx.] noþer gardyns ne feeldes, þat makeþ defaute of yren,*. [defawte of yre, Cx.] þat kynde voucheþ nouȝt saaf*. [saf, β.; kunde focheþ noȝt saf, γ.; not sauf, Cx.] to ȝeve ȝow. Þat ȝe leveþ*. [That yet (error for ye) lyue, Cx.] by rootes, so ȝe mote*. [moot, γ.; muste, Cx.] nedes, for ȝe mowe*. [maye, Cx.] not saille*. [seyle, γ.; sayle, Cx.] in to oþer londes to gete ȝow oþer liflode.*. [lyuelode, Cx.] Somtyme bestes lyveþ*. [lyued, β.] by rootes, so mote ȝe nedes*. [so mote ȝe nedes] om. α, β., γ., and Cx.] riȝt as ȝe dooþ; þerfore it is good to lyve in good rule*. [reul, γ.] and in plente, and nouȝt in streiȝtnesse, scarsite, and meschief*. [in strayte skarste and meschyef, Cx.]; elles blyndenesse and poverte schulde be noble vertues allone; blyndenesse for he*. [α (quater), γ.] seeþ nouȝt what he coveyteþ,*. [coveitiþ, β.] and povert*. [poverte, Cx.] for he haþ nouȝt what he desireþ. Þat ȝoure wommen beeþ not likyngeliche arrayed, I graunte, for ȝe haveþ*. [han, β. et infra.] neyþer konnynge ne wher|wiþ. Þat ȝe haveþ no grete fleschely likynge hit is no wonder, for þat makeþ ȝoure grete nede*. [neode, γ.] and meschif,*. [meschyef, Cx.] and Page  467, vol.3 foule siȝt of nakednesse. Þat ȝe haveþ no lawes and domesmen, and studieþ*. [studeþ, γ.] in non*. [no, Cx.] lettrure, and axeþ noþer graunteþ mercy, þereon*. [axen neyther graunt mercy ther|inne, Cx.] ȝe accordeþ with fisshes and un|skilful bestes. Mannys*. [Mannes, β. and Cx.] soule in dyverse tyme for dyvers happes of causes is able to dyvers manere of doynge; dyvers manere of soules*. [sowles, Cx.] torneþ and chaungeþ wiþ [the]*. [Cx.] chaungenge of hevene, and beeþ witted*. [wyttet, γ., and above in a later hand, quyk.] in a cleer day, and dul*. [dol, β.] witted*. [dol wyttet, γ.] in an*. [in an] and, α., β., γ., and Cx.] hevy, whan þe day is dym and clowdy. Also þe resoun of wittes as it may be in many manere wise, so it is chaungeable and nouȝt only [by dyverste of oþer þynges],*. [Added from α., β., and Cx.] but [also by]*. [Added from α., β., and Cx.] dyversite of age.*. [ages, α. and Cx.] Þerfore child|holde*. [childehode, Cx.] is mylde, and ȝonge men beeþ wilde, and olde men beeþ softe and wexeþ feble. Also alle þe wittes beeþ i-plesed wiþ þinges þat longeþ to her owne felynge." Trevisa. ȝe may knowe how þe wittes haveþ*. [han, Cx.] liking in þinges þat longeþ to here owne felynge ȝif he*. [ȝe, β.] takeþ*. [yf ye take, Cx.] hede how þe siȝt haþ likynge in faire hewe*. [huw, γ.] and colour; þe herynge in swete voys*. [noyse, γ.] and sown; þe nose in swete odour and smyll*. [smylles, α.; smelles, β. and Cx.]; þe mowþe in swete tast*. [smak, γ.] and savoure; þe gropynge in hoot and colde, drye and wete, nesche*. [nayssche, γ. et infra.] and softe*. [nessh and hard, Cx.]; but nesche*. [nessh, Cx.] is i-knowe by meny wittes, for it is Page  469, vol.3 knowe boþe by gropynge and by siȝt. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie.*. [thystorye, Cx.] "Þe elementis ȝeveþ us mater*. [matier, Cx.] of wittes and of al þat we feleþ; þe stature of þe body of mankynde*. [mankunde, γ.] is made of þe elementes i-medled*. [ymelled, γ.] to gidres, for everych*. [every, α. and Cx.] schulde make good for his owne partie, and ȝeve us special helpe and subsidie by his owne dispensacioun. Þanne ȝif þou wilt nouȝt use þe benefice þat we haveþ by þe ele|mentes, þe whiche benefice beeþ*. [benefics beþ, β.; benefyces ben, Cx.] seedes, fisches,*. [fysshes, Cx.] and foules, and meny oþere, þow schalt be accused of pride,*. [pruyte, γ.] for þou forsakest ȝiftes, oþer of*. [for, Cx.] envie, for þey beeþ*. [a buþ, γ.] i-ȝeve of hym þat is bettre þan þou." Responsio Dindimi. "ȝe meoveþ*. [moeue, Cx.] werres and batailles, and werreþ outward aȝenst men, for ȝe haveþ nouȝt overcome ȝoure enemyes wiþ ynne; but we Bragmanes haveþ*. [han, β.; Bragmans had, Cx.] overcome þe ynnere batailles of oure owne membres,*. [membrys, Cx.] and resteþ sikerliche and haveþ no bataille*. [bataylles, Cx.] outward. We byholdeþ þe wolken*. [welkene, β.; wolkon, γ.; be|holden the firmamente, Cx.] and the sterres of hevene, and hire*. [hyres, α.; hereþ, β.; hyreþ, γ.; her, Cx.] foules synge.*. [song, Cx.] We beeþ i-heled and i-fed wiþ leves and fruit of treen*. [trees, Cx.]; we drynkeþ water, and syngeþ songes in worschepe of God, Page  471, vol.3 and takeþ hede and þinkeþ of þe lyf þat is to*. [to] om. Cx.] comynge; we beeþ apayed wiþ fewe wordes, and beeþ sone stille, and holdeþ oure pees. ȝe seyen*. [seiþ, α.; seyn, β.; say, Cx.] what schulde be doo, but ȝe doth it nouȝt.*. [doo it not, Cx.] ȝour witte and wisdom is in ȝoure lippes; ȝe beeþ an hongred and aþurst*. [anhongered and afurst, γ.; ye be hongry and thyrsty, Cx.] after gold; ȝow nedeþ*. [neodeþ, γ.] hous and servauntes; ȝe coveyteþ reverence and worschipe. Water quencheþ oure kynde*. [kunde, γ.] þurst*. [kinde thirst, Cx.]; gold heleþ nouȝt*. [heeleþ, β.; heeleth not, Cx.] ȝoure woundes, noþer wiþ|draweþ and*. [ne, Cx.] refreyneþ ȝoure covetise, but makeþ it more. Þerfore it is opounliche i-knowe*. [openly knowen, Cx.] þat ȝif*. [ȝif] om. Cx.] þurst and honger*. [thyrste and hongre, Cx.] of golde come of kyndeliche nede,*. [neode, β.; kundelych neode, γ.] whan it were ones i-had, it wolde somtyme quenche suche honger and þurst.*. [thyrst, Cx.] Oon Calamus fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] from us to ȝow; we despiseþ*. [despeseþ, β.; despysed, Cx.] hym, and ȝe worschippeþ*. [worship, Cx.] hym." Þanne Ali|saundre sente oon Onesicritus to Dindimus, þat lay in a wode uppon leves of trees, wiþ þose*. [þeos, γ.] wordes: "Alisaundre, þe grete god Iubiter his*. [his] om. α.] son,*. [Jupiters sonne, Cx.] and lord of þe worlde, hoteþ*. [chargith, Cx.] and commaundeþ þe þat þou spede and come*. [that withoute delaye thou come, Cx.] to hym; and ȝif þou comest he wil*. [a wol, γ.; wold, Cx.] ȝeve þe meny grete ȝiftes; and ȝif þou Page  473, vol.3 comest*. [come, Cx.] nouȝt þow schalt þyn [hede and]*. [thi hede and thy, β. and Cx.] lyf for-goo." Dindimus lay stille, and answered hym in þis manneres*. [manere, γ.]: "Sooþfast God ȝeveþ men riȝt,*. [lyȝt, α. and γ.; liȝte, β.; lyght, Cx.] and dooþ no man wrong; he voideþ*. [foydeþ, α.; auoydeth, Cx.] manslauter,*. [manslauȝt, α. and γ.; man|slauȝte, β.; manslaughter, Cx.] and arereþ no strif noþer bataille.*. [ne werre, Cx.] But Alisaundre schal deie*. [dye, Cx.]; þan he is no god. What he byhoteþ to me is nouȝt*. [he promyseth to me is not, Cx.] nedeful*. [neodfol, γ. et infra.] to me. Me nedeþ non*. [neodeþ no, γ.; noo, Cx.] suche þinges. I goo freliche whider*. [frely wheder, Cx.] me likeþ. ȝif Ali|saundre smyte of myn*. [my, Cx.] hede and sleeþ me, he may nouȝt slee myn soule. Þe gronynge of hem þat suffreȝ*. [suffren, Cx.] wrong is bygynnynge of payne and tormentes of hem þat greveþ and*. [greveþ and] om. Cx.] dooth [the]*. [Cx.] wrong. Say þanne [to]*. [From α. and Cx.] Alisaundre þat I drede nouȝt my deth; ȝif he wil*. [wole, β.; wol, Cx.] ouȝt of myne, lete*. [lette, Cx.] hym come to me." Þaune Alisaundre lefte of al pompe and pride,*. [boste, Cx.] and come to Dindimus his feet; and Dyndimus to hym seide: "Why destourbist þou oure pees*. [peas, Cx.]? What desirest þou*. [what þu desyrest we . . . β. and γ.; þou, om. Cx.]? We haveþ nouȝt, and what we haveþ is nouȝt nedeful to þe. We worschippeþ God and loveþ*. [love, α. and Cx.] men; we Page  475, vol.3 reccheþ nouȝt*. [rek not, Cx.] of gold; we despiseþ deth. ȝe loveþ golde, and hateþ men, and despiseþ God." Þan Alisaundre seide to hym: "Teche þou me wit and wisdom, þat þou hast fonge*. [receyued, Cx.] of God, as it is i-seide." Þan Dyndimus answerde and seide: "Þou hast not wereynne*. [whereon, β.; wharon, γ.; wheron, Cx.] to doo suche a ȝifte, for þyn*. [thy, Cx.] soule is ful of covetise; þan how schal I suffice to þe, to whom*. [whome, Cx.] al þe world suffiseþ nouȝt? God haþ made þe litel*. [lytil, Cx.]; and þey*. [though, Cx.] þou desire al þe world, it nedeþ to þe have at þe laste as litel lond as þou sixte me ligge*. [seest me lye, β. and Cx.; sest me lygge, γ.] on, oþer þy self sitte on. ȝif þou lernest*. [leornest, γ.; lerne, Cx.] þis wisdom*. [wysedome, Cx.] of me, Al þou schalt have ȝif þou desirest nouȝt,*. [though thou desire nought, Cx.] for covetise is moder of povert. God is my frend; I*. [ych, β.] have hevene for my roof, þe erþe in stede of*. [þe eorþe in stude for, γ.] my bede; þe ryver fyndeþ [me]*. [Cx.] drynke, [and]*. [Cx.] þe wode is my mete borde; flesche of bestes*. [flesshe of beestys, Cx.] roteþ nouȝt wiþ ynne my gottes*. [guttes, Cx.]; I*. [y, β.] am nouȝt buriels*. [not buryels, Cx.] of dede bodyes. I leve and*. [as, β., γ., and Cx.] I am i-made*. [maad, γ.]; I knowe Goddes privetees,*. [pryuytees, Cx.] for God Page  477, vol.3 wole*. [wol, γ.; wil, Cx.] þat I be partiner*. [pertener, β., γ., and Cx.] of his workes. Þan wheþer seist þou is þis*. [þis] om Cx.] more riȝtful, [to]*. [Cx.; ueither word in γ.] mysbede*. [mysbeode, γ.] men oþer*. [eþer, β.] [to]*. [Cx.; ueither word in γ.] defende hem and do hem right; to schede*. [scheede, γ.; shede, Cx.] and to schifte, oþer to kepe and to save? ȝif þou sleest*. [slee, Cx.] me, I goo to God, and þow myȝt nouȝt askaþe*. [maist not escape, Cx.] his hond; þanne destroy*. [destree, β.] þou nouȝt þat God haþ i-wrouȝt and i-made." Þanne Alisaundre seide: "Þou comest of God, and lyvest in a place of pees and of*. [of] om. Cx.] reste. I leve in grete drede and affray*. [effray, Cx.]; myne owne wardeyns I drede, I drede more myn*. [my, β. and Cx.] frendes þan myn enemyes; I may not leve hem noþer truste on oþer*. [to oþer, α.; triste to oþere, β.; ne trust to other, Cx.] of hem. A day I greve men, and am a greved anyȝt,*. [at nyght, Cx.] and drede ful sore. ȝif I slee hem*. [him, Cx.] þat I drede, þan I am sory and ful of woo; and if I am esy*. [be easy, Cx.] and softe, þanne I am de|spised; and ȝif I wolde dwelle wiþ þe in valeyes and in dennes*. [dales, γ.; dennys, Cx.] I myȝt nouȝt endure." Whanne þese*. [þeose, γ.] tales were i-tolde, Alisaundre profrede*. [profered, Cx.] to Dindimus gold, silver, cloþes, breed, and oylle;*. [oyle, Cx.] and Dyndimus seide to him: "Myȝt*. [May, Cx.] þou Page  479, vol.3 make the briddes þat here syngeþ*. [syngiþ, β.; singe, Cx.] synge*. [to synge, β.; synge] om. Cx.] þe bettre for gold and silver? and ȝif þou myȝt nouȝt,*. [maye not, Cx.] why wilt*. [wolt, Cx.] þou make me worse þan þe briddes, and make me fong*. [receyue, Cx.] þing þat may nouȝt stonde me in stede,*. [stude, γ.] but of a fre*. [freo, γ.] man make me a bonde?*. [boonde, β.] but for I wil*. [wold, Cx.] not greve þe to swiþe,*. [swyth, Cx.] þis oyle I*. [ych, β.] wole*. [wil, α.; wol, γ.; wolle, Cx.] fonge.*. [receyue, Cx.] And whan Dindimus hadde i-seide so, he þrewe þe oyle in a woode fuyre, and song*. [a fyre of wode, and sang, Cx.] an ympne to God alle myȝty. And Alisaundre sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] þat, and wente his way

Page  [3], vol.4

Capitulum tricesimum.*. [Capitulum 31, β. and Cx.]

AFTER þis Alisaundre, aboute þe enlevenþe ȝere of his kyngdom, passede by þe Est occean; and þe bisshop of þe treen*. [tren, β. et infra; trees, Cx.] of þe sonne and of þe mone come aȝenst*. [aȝenes, β.] hym. Þe bisshop was i-closed*. [i-cloþed, α.; clothed, Cx.] in wylde bestes skynnes, and seide þat þey schulde entre into þe place ȝif þey were clene and nouȝt polute*. [not pollute, Cx.] in likynge by wommen; but þey schulde of*. [doo of, Cx.] do*. [of added in α.] her cloþes and hire array. And for þilke*. [þulke, γ.] trees were an hondred foot high,*. [heiȝ, β.; fote highe, Cx.] Alisaundre seide þat it roon*. [rone, β. and Cx.] ofte in þat place. "Nay", quoþ the preost, and seide þat þere come nevere reyn, noþer bridde, noþer wilde*. [ne byrd ne wylde, Cx.] beest; but the trees hadde i-wope*. [wepte, Cx.] in þe eclipses of þe sonne and of þe moone. Petrus, 197. Preostes took*. [toke of, Cx.] þe apples of þese*. [þeose, γ.] trees, and Page  5, vol.4 lyvede fyve hondred ȝere; and whan þe beme*. [beame, Cx.] of þe sonne touchede þe tree of þe sonne, oþer þe beme*. [beame, Cx.] of þe mone touchede þe tree*. [treo, γ.] of þe mone, þan anon þe tre wolde schake,*. [shake, Cx.] and ȝeve answere to hem þat stood aboute. Vincentius. Alisaundre wolde*. [wold have, Cx.] doo sacrefice to þe trees, and þe preost seide, "It is nouȝt leveful*. [leeful, α.; leful, Cx.] to sette ensens*. [afuyre, β.; encense afire, Cx.] on fire in þis place, noþer*. [ne, Cx.] to slee bestes." Þan Alisaundre fel doun and clipped and kissed*. [kuste, γ; clypped and kysshed, Cx.] þe stokkes of þe trees, and herde in þe sonne risynge of þe tree of þe sonne spekynge in þe longage of Ynde, and at eve*. [even, Cx.] in þe mone risynge he herde [of the tree of]*. [From Cx. (not in γ.)] þe mone spekynge in þe longage of Grees, þat oon schulde be lorde of al þe worlde aboute, and þat he schulde nevere come home in to his owne contray*. [countrey, Cx.]; and þerfore he counsaillede hym þat he schulde nouȝt come at Babiloyne, ffor ȝif he dede*. [dide, β.; yf he cam there, Cx.] he schulde be slawe*. [slayne, Cx.] þere, nouȝt wiþ egge tool*. [tole, Cx.] but wiþ venym, þe secounde ȝere after. Also he herde þat his moder schulde wrechchedly deie, and his sustres lyve longe tyme in grete welþe. Petrus, 197. Alisaundre warnede Page  7, vol.4 his maister Aristotle of þis doynge, and of oþer wondres of Ynde. ℞. Meny*. [Many, Cx.] stories telleþ*. [tellen, Cx.] þat whanne Alisaundre his knyȝtes wente aboute þe prive*. [pryuy, Cx.] places of Inde, þere was oon þat blamed greteliche*. [gretely, Cx.] Alisaundre his covetise, and sent hym a litel stone wiþ yene*. [eiȝen, β.; yen, γ.; eyen, Cx.] by his knyȝtes, and seide þat here lorde wiþ oute dowte was liche to here*. [þt, α.; that, Cx.] stoon in alle manere poyntes; and whanne þe*. [that, Cx.] stoon was i-brouȝt me wondrede longe tyme in whiche*. [whuch, γ.] side of þe stoon þat liknesse schulde be. At þe laste þe stoon was leide*. [laid, Cx.] in a balaunce,*. [a balas, γ.] and he weieþ*. [weygh, α.; weyȝ, β.; wayȝ, γ.; weyed, Cx.] up al þat me myȝte leie aȝenst hym in þe oþer*. [myghte be layde ther agayns on that other, Cx.] side forto me leide*. [till they layde, Cx.] a litel cley aȝenst þe stoon in þe balaunce in þe oþere side, but þat wey*. [weyȝ, β.; wayȝ, γ.; and it weyed, Cx.] up þe stoon liȝtliche i-now.*. [lyghtly ynowe, Cx.]Eutropius. Þat ȝere Lucius Papirus, dictator of Rome, þat was so noble a werriour,*. [þat repeated after werriour, in γ.; wereiour, Cx.] was i-chose*. [chosen, Cx.] among alle þe Romayns to wiþstonde Alisaundre, and to putte hym of, ȝif he wolde come ynto Italy. He overcome þe Sampnites so wor|schipfulliche þat he bent*. [beet, Cx.] so doun þe citees so þat þeyȝ me Page  9, vol.4 souȝt þe*. [þe] om. β.] Sampnium in þat place Sampnium, it myȝt nouȝt be founde. Petrus, 197o.

Whanne Alisaundre hadde i-wonne*. [wonne, Cx.] alle þe est londes, and wente toward his owne contray, þe messangers*. [messagers, Cx., et infra.] of þe west londes,*. [landes, Cx.] of Affrica, of Spayne, and of Italy, come in to Babilon to ȝilde*. [yelde, Cx.] hem to his lordschipe and mageste.*. [majeste, γ.] Noþeles he hopede þerby to be kynge holiche*. [holliche, β.; holych, γ.; holly, Cx.] of al þe worlde, and for grete likyng and ioye he forȝat þe answere of þe trees of the sonne and of þe mone, and wente in to Babilon to speke wiþ þese*. [þeos, γ.] messangers. Trogus, libro 12o. Also þe stewardes*. [stiwardes, β., et infra.] þat he hadde i-made wardeynes and kepers of provinces and of londes*. [of landes and of provynces, Cx.] [met wiþ hym þere, and were grevousliche accused of men of provinces and londes],*. [Added from α., β., γ., and Cx.] and heet hong hem*. [hete hem hange hem, Cx.] þere in siȝt of þe messangers þat were i-come*. [comen, Cx.] out of þe west londes. Alisaundre took Darius douȝter to wyve, and mariede noble maydons of þe contray*. [countrey, Cx.] to men of Macedonia. He lefte olde men, and took [to him]*. [Added from α., β., γ., and Cx.] ȝongelynges. Also he fong*. [receyved, Cx.] his moder lettres of þe fraude and tresoun of Anti|pater*. [Antiparte, Cx.]Page  11, vol.4 steward of Macedonia: he sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] þat þe kynge hadde i-slawe his men, and þat nouȝt*. [nouȝt] om. Cx.] he hym self was nouȝt rewarded for his grete travailles, and henge hym self,*. [hym self] om. α., β., γ.,; tra|uailes and huge and dradde, β.; and huge, γ.; and henge hymself, om. Cx.] and dredde ful sore leste hym schulde worse byfalle, and ordeyne*. [ordeynde, α.; ordeyned, Cx.] his sone Cassandrus to occipie*. [occupie, β.; occupye, γ.; em|poysen, Cx.] þe kyng wiþ venym. Þe strengþe and þe malice of þis venym was so grym and so grisliche*. [soo vyolent and tynynge, Cx.] þat no bras, ne*. [noon, α.] iren,*. [yre, γ.] ne*. [ne] om. α.] non manere metaille*. [metalle, Cx.] myȝte it holde, but oonliche þe hoo*. [hoof, Cx.] of an hors foot myȝte it holde. Þan at*. [atte, Cx.] soper of Tessalus þe fisician,*. [phicicien, Cx.] among greet service of mete and drynke, Alisaundre was i-poysoned, and grente as he were i-stiked*. [yave a groone as though he had be stykked, Cx.] wiþ a knyf*. [þorw þe body wiþ a swerd, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þoruȝ þe body, and dradde þe handelynge of manis hond as sore as harde woundes, and axede*. [axide, β.] a tool to slee hymself in remedie of sorwe. His frendes trowede þat unsete*. [unholsomme, Cx.] mete þat he hadde i-ete*. [eten, Cx.] at soper was cause of his siknesse.*. [sekenesse, Cx.]Petrus, 197o. Þanne Alisaundre loste his speche, and wroot his laste wille, Page  13, vol.4 and wolde nouȝt make oon man heier*. [heyr, Cx.] of his hole kyngdom, for me schulde [rede]*. [From α. β., γ., and Cx.] after hym of no man þat were his pere, but he made twelve ȝong men þat were his felawes of ȝowþe successoures to þe*. [of his, Cx.] kyngdom; but þat ordynaunce durede nouȝt longe, for foure of hem regnede, and þe oþere were for|sake, so it is comprehended in Daniel. Trogus, libro 12o. Whanne*. [that, added in Cx.] Alisaundres frendes seigh*. [syȝ, β.; sawe, Cx., et infra.] þat he schulde deie, þey axede of hym who schulde be his eire*. [heyr, Cx.] and emperour after hym. "Þe moste worþy," quoþ he. He was so stoute and so*. [so] om. Cx.] greet of herte þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] þey he hadde a sone Hercules and a broþer Arrideus,*. [broder Arydeus, Cx.] and sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] also his wif Raxones wiþ childe, he forȝate þe ofspringe and lynage, and ordeyned þat þe wor|þyeste schulde be his successour and hire*. [hire] his, α.; om. β. and Cx.] emperour. He seigh*. [sawe, Cx.] also þat of þis manere spekynge and doynge myȝte come greet stryf, for covetise*. [for covetise] om. Cx.] and envie. Whan he myȝt not speke, he took þe ryng of his fynger and ȝaf it to oo Perdica in tokene þat he schulde be his successour. Alisaundre deide þe ȝere of his kyngdom twelve, and the ȝere of his age þre and þritty. Strounge*. [Stronge, α.; Straunge, β.; Strange, γ. and Cx.] men made sorwe for his deeþ as þeygh he were here fader; and þey þat were next hym made ioye as þey*. [Darius moder, β. and Cx.] here enemy were overcome. Darius his moder*. [Darius moder, β. and Cx.] ordeyned for his deeþ, nouȝt forto putte her enemye to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] her sone,*. [þouȝ, β.]Page  15, vol.4 but for sche hadde i-founde wiþ hym myldenesse as it were þe myldeste*. [myldenesse, α., β., and Cx.; myldenes, γ.] of here sone. Also his frendes preyde to Iubiter, þat þey*. [þat þey] and, α., β., γ., and Cx.] had answere, and ordeyned forto burye hym nouȝt*. [nouȝt] om. Cx.] in Egipt, nouȝt in Memphis, but in þe citee Alexandria þat he hadde i-bulde.*. [bylde, Cx.]Policratica, libro 4o. In Grees was no*. [never, Cx.] man grettre þan Alisaundre; noþeles Perdica, a tombester*. [tomblestres, β. and Cx.] sone, was his successour, and nouȝt his owne sone. So it is i-rad seelde oþer nevere þat þe emperours chidren were*. [Emperours his childer wer . . ., γ.; for it is a comyn sawe, Sylde owther never emperours chil|dren were, Cx.] þe fader heyres: [for they hadde her owne enemyes to be her heyres, or els heyres]*. [From β. and Cx.] þat þey knewe nouȝt. Trogus, libro 12o. Whanne Alisaundre was i-buried, philosofres come to gidres, and seide: "Alisaundre haþ i-made tresour of golde, but now is þe contrarie." Anoþer seide, "Al þe world was so litel for*. [to β., γ., and Cx.] hym ȝisterday,*. [ȝurstonday, γ. et infra.] and nowe foure elnes beeþ*. [foure elnes of cloþ buþ ynow . . . γ.; ellnes is, Cx.] inow at þe fulle."*. [folle, γ.] Anoþer seide, "ȝisterday*. [ȝurstonday, γ. et infra.] he hadde þe peple at his hestes, and now þe peple haþ hym at here heste." Anoþer seide, "ȝisterday*. [ȝurstonday, γ. et infra.] he hadde*. [ladde, α.; had, Cx.] an oost*. [hooste, Cx.]; to day is þe contrarie, for an oost*. [hooste, Cx.] ledeþ hym." Another seide [that]*. [Cx., not β. nor γ.] ȝisterday*. [ȝurstonday, γ. et infra.] he bare doun*. [adowne, Cx.] men, and to day*. [this day, Cx.] he is i-bore doun under erþe.*. [ȝurstenday, γ.]Page  17, vol.4Petrus, 197. After þe grete Alisaundre, in þe foure parties of þe world regnede foure kynges. Phelip Arrideus,*. [Arydeus, Cx.] Ali|saundre his broþer, regnede in þe west in Macedonia in Grees; Antigonus regnede in þe norþ of Asia and of Pontus; Sileuchus*. [Selenchus, Cx.] Nichanor regnede in þe est of Siria and of Babilon, and, after Nichanor, Antiochus Sother. Kynges þat regnede þere after hym hadde þe name of hym, and were i-cleped*. [named, Cx.] Antiochi, and everiche in þe singuler*. [every in the singler, Cx.] nombre was i-cleped Anthiochus. Þe kynges þat come after*. [succeeded, Cx.] hym were Antiochus Theos, Antiochus Galericus, Antiochus þe Grete, Antiochus Epiphanes. Also in þe souþ, in*. [of, Cx.] Egipt, regnede Tholomeus, Lagus his sone. Of hym kynges hadde þat name, and were i-cleped Tholomei; the whiche*. [whoche, γ.] kynges were Phila|delphus, Euergetes, Philapator þat heet*. [Philopater otherwise called, Cx.] Eupator also, Epi|phanes, Philometor, Euergetes, Sother. Iosephus, libro 12o.*. [120, Cx.]

Capitulum tricesimum primum.*. [Cap. xxxii. in β. and Cx.]

THOLOMEUS, Lagus his sone, regnede after Alisaundre in Egipte fourty ȝere, and was i-cleped Savyour, and hadde þat Page  19, vol.4 name Sother for a surname.*. [hadde a surname Sother, α., β., and Cx.] He putte*. [put to, Cx.] Siria to his kyng|dom, and werred wiþ þe Iewes þat were ydel in þe holy day, and took prisoners of hem, and sette hem to sale. In his dayes deide Iadus bisshop of Iewes. After Iadus, his sone Onias was bisshop; after [hym]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Symon þe riȝtful; after hym his broþer Eleazarus. Þis*. [þes, γ.] Tholomeus was so strong þat he restored Pirrus kyng of Epirotes*. [Epurtes, Cx.] to his kyngdom aȝen, after þat his enemys hadde i-putte hym out of his kyngdom, and he overcome Demetrius, Antigonus his sone, and restored som of þe kyngdom to Seleucus*. [Salencus, Cx.] kyng of Siria, ffor þe kyng|dom was bynome Seleucus to forehonde.*. [byfore, Cx.] Agatocles useþ tyrauntise*. [usiþ tirauntre, β.; tyraundyse, γ.; Agathocles used tyrannye, Cx.] in Siracusa: of his wonderful bygynnynge me redeþ in Trogus his bookes. Tholomeus took Ierusalem*. [Iherusalem, Cx.] by fraude and by*. [by] om. Cx.] gile, and took meny Iewes prisoners, and solde hem for covetise. Theophatus*. [Theophratus, Cx., et infra.] þe philosofre hadde þat name Theophatus for his noble spekynge of God allemyȝty. This Theophatus and Menander*. [Menand, α., β., and γ. (without any abbreviation mark); Menandis, Cx.] beeþ in hir*. [be in theyr, Cx.] floures. From þis ȝere [þe storye]*. [From α., β., γ.,; Cx. has the historye.] of Machabeyes acounteþ*. [acompted, Cx.] nouȝt*. [nouȝt] om. β. and γ.]Page  21, vol.4 þe kyngdom of Grees, regnum Grecorum. Aboute þis tyme Seleucus kyng of Siria bulde Antiochia, Laodicia,*. [Leodicia, Cx.] and Seleu|cia. Þe grete Symon, Onyas his sone, is in his floures,*. [prosperyte, Cx.] and is i-cleped riȝtful for his riȝtful byleve and worschippinge of God. Þe Tarentes dede grete vilonie*. [fylany, γ.; vyleny, Cx.] to þe messangers*. [messagiers, Cx.] of Rome; þerfore þey took wiþ hem Pirrus kyng of Epirotes, with foure score þowsand of*. [of] om. Cx., et infra.] foot men, and sevene þowsand of horsmen, and twenty oliphauntes, aȝenst the Romayns; but Pirrus was overcome in the þridde fiȝtynge, and tornede home aȝen to his owne contray. After þis þe Tarentynes and þe Cartaginiensis to gidres*. [togeder, Cx.] werrede aȝenst þe Romayns, and þanne arise*. [ryse, α., γ.; and rise, β.; and reysed the, Cx.] the batailles þat beeþ i-cleped Bella Punica. Eutropius. Pirrus overcom þe Romayns in þe firste bataille, and occupiede Italy anon to*. [unto, Cx.] þe citee Prenestes, eyȝtetene myle from Rome, and sent home*. [hem, Cx.] þe prisoners þat were i-take on lyve*. [taken alyve, Cx.] wiþ oute raunsoun, and buried alle þat were i-slawe*. [slayne, Cx.]; and whanne he seigh hym ligge wiþ grisliche*. [beheld them lye with grisely, Cx.] woundes and sterne semblant and cruel,*. [cruwel, β. and γ.] he ȝaf*. [haf, β. and γ.] up his hondes,*. [sterne, terrible, and cruel, he heef up his hand, Cx.] and seide þat he myȝte be lord of þe worlde ȝif he Page  23, vol.4 hadde suche knyȝtes. Pirrus profrede þe ferþe*. [fourth, Cx.] part of his kyngdom þat he hadde i-gete*. [geten, Cx.] to oon Fabricius, messanger*. [messagyer, Cx.] of Rome, forto*. [for] om. β. and Cx.] holde wiþ hym and be on*. [in, α.; yn, γ.] his side; and Fabricius wolde nouȝt assente. [Þanne Pirrus sente]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] oon Cinea come*. [come] om. α., γ., and Cx.] wiþ grete ȝiftes in message to þe Romayns, and axede*. [desired, Cx.] pees wiþ skilful condiciouns [Trogus, decimo sep|timo]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.]; but he fonde*. [founde, Cx.] no manis hous þat wolde fonge*. [receyve, Cx.] his ȝiftes, but was i-put of; and þe prisoners þat were i-sent*. [i-] om. α. and Cx.] aȝe*. [agayne, Cx.] were i-sclaundred for evermore, for þey were i-take prisoners while þey were i-armed. [Titus.]*. [From Cx.] Cineas come aȝen, and seide to Pirrus þat he hadde i-seie þe contray*. [sene the contreye, Cx.] of kynges; and seide [that]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] nygh al þat were þere were suche as Pirrus was i-holde*. [holden, Cx.] among his owne men. Þanne in þe secounde bataille Pirrus was overcome, and his olyphauntes were i-slawe*. [slayne, Cx., et infra.] and twenty þowsand of his men. For, as Isodorus*. [Isoder, Cx.] seiþ, þe Romayns hadde i-ordeyned*. [yordeyng, γ.] swift ȝonge|lynges sittynge byhynde horsmen, þe whiche ȝongelynges Page  25, vol.4 leep*. [ȝonglingis leepe, β.; yonge men lepte, Cx.] doun liȝtliche in þe fiȝtynge, and clawede and frotede*. [frotide, β.] þe oliphauntes in þe forhedes wiþ horscombes, forto*. [unto, Cx.] þe oly|phauntes fel*. [fylle, Cx.] doun and deide riȝt þere. Þan Pirrus was overcome, and wente into Tarent, and seillede*. [sayled, Cx.] þennes in to Grees, þere he was afterward i-slawe. Valerius. Pirrus and*. [and] om. Cx., in mistake.] Fabricius hadde castelles nyh to gideres,*. [nyghe togeders, Cx.] and Pirrus phicician come to Fabricius, and byhet*. [biheet, β.; promysede, Cx.] hym þat he wolde take to hym his lorde, ȝif he wolde take to*. [ȝeve, α. and Cx.] hym a covenable mede. Þanne þis Fabricius bonde þis phisician,*. [phicicien, Cx.] and sente hym to his lorde, and messangers*. [messagyers, Cx.] to warne hym of þe tresoun and of þe falshede.*. [falsed, γ.] Þan þe kynge wondrede and seide: "Þis is Fabricius, þat is hardere to be i-torned*. [tourned, Cx., bis.] out of honeste þanne is þe sonne to be torned out of his cours." Titus. Pirrus was i-praied*. [praysed, Cx.] of þe Tarentinus*. [Tarentines, Cx.] to werre aȝenst þe Romayns, and [he]*. [In β. and Cx.] axede of Appolyn what ende*. [ynde, Cx.] þe bataille schulde have; and Appolyn answered hym amphabolice,*. [amphibolice, β. and γ.; amphi|bolyce. Cx.] þat is, [that]*. [From Cx.] he ȝaf hym an answere of double understondynge: "It may falle*. [befalle the Pirrus, Cx.] þat*. [þei, β.; þe, γ.] Pirrus to scomfite Page  27, vol.4 þe Romayns." Pirrus was comforted by his*. [with this, Cx.] answere, and come to Eraclea þe citee of Sampnia; þere þe Romayns þe firste day were aferd and agrised*. [agrise, β.; agryse, γ.] of þe hugenesse*. [horrible gretenesse, Cx.] and schap and smyl of þe*. [þe] om. γ.] olyphauntes, and fligh*. [flye, γ.; smelle of olyfauntes and fledde, Cx.] awey for drede; but in þe secounde bataille Pirrus was sore i-wounded*. [soore wounded, Cx.] in his arme, and went his wey þens. In meny places of Italy blood sprang and ran out of þe*. [þe] om. β. and Cx.] welles, and reyn*. [rayne, Cx.] of melk come doun from hevene. Seleuchus*. [Selencus, Cx.] kyng of Siria took many Iewes in to þe citees of his kyngdom, and graunted hem as greet worschippe as þe Grees*. [Grekes, Cx.] hadde. Eleazarus, Symon his broþer, is bisshop of Iewes. Þe Romayns bulde Benevent in Sampnium. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Aboute þis tyme Morin|dus þe cruel, sone of Damus,*. [Danius, α., β., γ., and Cx.] regned in Bretayne;*. [Brytayne, Cx.] his moder heet*. [was called, Cx., et infra.] Tangustela, and was Damus his*. [Danius', Cx.] concubine. Þis Morindus*. [Moryndus, β.] dede*. [did, Cx.] meny cruel dedes, and was i-ete at*. [eten atte, Cx.] þe laste of a greet beest of þe see, and lefte after hym fyve sones. Þe first heet*. [was called, Cx., et infra.] Gorbonianus, and*. [he, Cx.] loved wel riȝtwisnesse, and regnede a whyle, and deide.*. [deyde, γ.] Þan þe secounde sone Arch|gallo Page  29, vol.4 regnede cruelliche,*. [cruwelich, β.; cruwelych, γ.; cruelly, Cx.] and was at þe laste i-put out by þe peple.*. [atte last by the peple was putte out, Cx.] Þanne þe þridde sone Elidurus, a mylde man and softe, was i-made*. [made, Cx.] kyng, and after fyve*. [fyf, γ.] ȝere of his kyngdom he hontede*. [hunted, Cx.] in a woode þat heet Caltum,*. [Caltrium, α., β.; Calterium, γ.; Calcum, Cx.] ℞,*. [℞] om. Cx.] þat now hatte Caltrees,*. [Caltres, β. and γ.; Caltras, Cx.] bysides ȝork. Gaufridus. Byside þe citee Alclud*. [Alcluit, α. β.; Acliut, Cx.] he fond his broþer Archgallo maskynge, þat was i-putte*. [putte, Cx.] out of his kyngdom, and kepte hym priveliche*. [pryvely, Cx.] in his chaumbre, and lay on*. [in, β. and Cx.] his bed, and feyned hym sike,*. [seke, Cx.] and sente for þe lordes of þe londe, and compelled*. [compellide, β.] hem to restore his broþer Archgallo to þe kyngdom. Þan Archgallo regnede ten ȝere, and deide. Þan Elidurus was restored efte to his*. [þe, α.; the, Cx.] kyngdom; but his tweyne*. [twey, β. and Cx.] oþer breþeren, Vigenius and Peri|durus, werred wiþ hym, and prisoned hym in Trinouantum, þat is, Londoun, and þey tweyne*. [twey, Cx.] regnede by stempnes,*. [stemnes, γ.; tymes, Cx.] eiþer after oþer, and deide at*. [deyeden atte, β.; atte, Cx.] þe laste. Þanne Elidurus was i-take*. [take, Cx.] out of prisoun, and restored to þe kyngdom, þo*. [þo] om. Cx.] þe þridde*. [þrid, β.]Page  31, vol.4 tyme, and lyved afterward in pees to his lyves ende. After hym two and þritty kynges regnede among the Britouns*. [Brytayns, Cx.] everich after oþer; among þe whiche kyng Bledgaret passede alle his predecessoures in musik*. [musicke, Cx.] and in melodie, so þat he was i-cleped*. [called, Cx.] god of glee men. After þat Hely regnede fourty ȝere, and lefte þre noble sones on lyve after hym, Lud, Cassi|belanus, and Nemius.*. [Vennius, γ.]Petrus, capitulo 200.

Capitulum tricesimum secundum.*. [Cx. has no division here.]

THOLOMEUS Philadelphus, þe secounde kyng of Egipt, regnede eyȝte and þritty*. [thyrtty, Cx.] ȝere. Me seiþ þat he overcome his owne fader,*. [fadir, β.] and hadde in his oost*. [hoost, Cx.] two hondred þowsand foot men, twenty þowsand [horsmen, two þowsend]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] chariotes, and foure hondred elephauntes.*. [olyfantes, Cx.]Petrus, 300.*. [200, γ. and Cx.] Þese*. [þis, β.; þes, γ.; This, Cx.] dely|vered þe Iewes þat were in Egipt, and lete hym*. [ham, γ.] goo fre, sixe score þowsand by tale, and payde to here lordes for every Page  33, vol.4 pol twenty [dragmes of selver, þat is, fyve and twenty]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] schillynges of oure money, and sente þe vessel*. [vessels, β.; vessaile, Cx.] þat were i-halowed*. [halowide, β.; yhalwed, γ.] by Iewes to Eleaȝarus bisshop of Iewes. Also, by counsaille of Demetrius, þat was wardeyn*. [warden, Cx.] of his bookes, he sente messangers*. [messagers, Cx.] to Eleaȝarus þe bisshop, prayenge*. [praiynge, β.] þat he wolde sende hym wise men of [the]*. [From Cx.] Iewes, þat schulde torne Moyses lawe out of Ebrewe in to Grewe.*. [Gru, γ.; Hebrew into Grue, Cx.] [Than Eleaȝarus sente unto the kyng of every lygnage vi. men, that*. [þat wole be þre score, β.; þat wol be þo, γ.] draweth to thre score and twelve; but the Scripture usith ofte time*. [time] om. β.] to speke not of the litel nombre yf it be*. [ȝif it is, β.] odde over the grete. Thes be*. [þens buþ, γ.] called the seventi, that torned holy Scripture out of Hebrewe into Grue],*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] and enformede Tholomeus þe kyng of þe know|leche of oon God, and of þe governaunce of þe kyngdom, and translated þe lawe, psalmes, and prophecies. In þat transla|cioun, where þey fonde out*. [ouȝt, α., β., and Cx.; oȝt, γ.] of þe Trinite, þei speke*. [spake, Cx.] not þerof, oþer þey translated it in a rebel*. [a redel, α., β., γ., and Cx.] wise, leste we wolde wene þat þey speke*. [spak, Cx.] of þre Goddes. Also in Isay aboute þe Page  35, vol.4 incarnacioun of Crist, þey founde sixe names of God, and sette but oon; þat name*. [name] om. Cx.] is Angelus magni consilii, an aungel*. [angel, Cx.] of greet counsaile, [leste]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] me wolde wene þat þey wolde mene þat mankynde*. [mankunde, γ.] and manhede schulde be [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] kynde*. [kunde, γ.] of God and of*. [of] om. α. and Cx.] godhede. Þey fulfilled*. [Hy folfulde, γ.] þis work in þre score dayes and ten; but it semeþ þat Seint Austyn,*. [Augustyn, Cx.] de Civitate [Dei,]*. [Cx.] libro 18o, capitulo 42o, wil mene þat þis seventy*. [understandeth that these seventy, Cx.] were departed everich*. [every, Cx.] by hym self in a celle,*. [selle, Cx.] and translated þe lawe wiþ oute discorde of wordes*. [or sentence, Cx.] oþer of menynge. Iero|nimus wil mene*. [Ierom holdeth, Cx.] þat þey alle were i-closede in oon hous, oþer þat þey come to gidres þe Saturday, and examyned [and correctede]*. [From α., β., and γ.; and cor|recte, Cx.] here werkes*. [þe work, γ.] of sixe dayes. Augustinus de Civi|tate [Dei],*. [Cx.]libro 18o, capitulo 42o. Seventy olde men of al þe lynages of Israel, everiche*. [every, Cx.] by hym self, at Alexandria in Egipt, tornede holy writt out of Hebrewe in to Grewe,*. [Grue, Cx., et infra.] and descordede not*. [discordide nouȝt, β.] in wordes, in menynge,*. [sentence, Cx.] noþer in settynge of wordes. And þough*. [þey, γ.] þere were oþere in þe tyme of þe newe Page  37, vol.4 testament þat tornede holy writ out of Hebrewe into Grewe; þat were Aquila, Simachus,*. [Symachus, Cx.] Theodocion, and þe fifte transla|cioun þe auctor þerof is not knowen,*. [unknowen, Cx.] þese*. [þeos, γ.] seventy beeþ i-sette to fore*. [be sette byfore, Cx.] alle oþere. In oure tyme oon Ieronimus, a preost, a wise man, and a*. [α] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] konnynge in þre longages, tornede holy writt*. [translated holy Scripture, Cx.] out of þe Hebrew into Latyn. Iewes telleþ*. [say, Cx.] þat his translacioun is trewest; noþeles holy chirche demeþ no man to be i-putte tofore þe auctorite of so meny men. Som men wolde amende þe translacioun of þe seventy by bookes of Hebrew; but þey durste*. [þurste, γ.; dar, Cx.] not wiþ drawe what þe seventy hadde*. [hadden, β. and Cx.] more þan þe Hebrewes; but þere þey made strikes*. [strickes, β.; strikkes, γ.] liche as ounces*. [unces, α., β., γ., and Cx.] beeþ i-write, and beeþ*. [be wrytton, and be, Cx.] also i-cleped oboly,*. [obeli, γ.] to schewe þat þere is more þan is in þe Hebrewes*. [Hebrewe, α., γ., and Cx.; He|brue, β.] bookes. But what the Hebrewes hadde more þan þe seventy þey marked*. [merkede, γ.] wiþ markede wiþ*. [markede wiþ] repeated by error of the scribe.] markes þat hatte*. [be called, Cx.] astarisces, and beeþ i-schape*. [be shapen, Cx.] as sterres, at it were to hiȝte þe defaute. Ysidorus, libro 6o. Me seiþ þat þis Tholomeus hadde seventy þowsand bookes*. [bokes, γ.] in his librarie.*. [lybrary, Cx.]Petrus, libro*. [capitulo, Cx.] 15o. Of dyvers trans|laciouns Page  39, vol.4 it is inow to speke at ones. Tofore*. [Byfore, Cx.] þe Incarna|cioun of oure Lord þre hondred ȝere [and]*. [In Cx.] fourty and oon, þe seventy þat tornede holy writt out of Hebrewe into Grewe were in here floures.*. [in prosperyte, Cx.] Also, after þe Ascencioun of oure Lord sixe score ȝere and foure, in Adrian þe princes tyme, Aquila made a translacioun. Þanne, after þre and fifty ȝere, in Comodus þe princes tyme, Theodocion was in his floures.*. [in his prosperyte, Cx.] Þanne after þritty ȝere, in Severus þe princes tyme, Sima|chus*. [Symachus, Cx.] made his translacioun. Þanne after eiȝte ȝere þe fifte*. [fifþe, β.] translacioun was i-founde*. [founden, β. and Cx.] at Ierusalem, and is i-cleped þe comoun*. [comyn, β. and γ.; comune, Cx.] translacioun, ffor he þat made it is unknowe. Þanne after eiȝtene*. [eyȝtetene, γ.] ȝere, in Alisaundre þe princes tyme, Origenes made a translacioun wiþ signes þat beeþ*. [be, Cx.] i-cleped astarisces*. [astaryches, Cx.] and obelus, and afterward he made anoþer translacioun wiþ*. [wiþ oute such signes, γ., cor|rectly.] signes*. [Here β. and Cx. have siches signes.] and merkes; and alle þese translated out of Hebrewe into Grewe.*. [Gru, γ.; Grue, Cx.] Meny translated out of Grewe*. [Gru, γ.; Grue, Cx.] into Latyn; but at þe laste Ierom translatede out of Hebrewe in to Latyn, and his translacioun is i-holde nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] in every place out take in þe Psawter.*. [Sauter, α., β., γ., and Cx.]Eutropius. Þe Romayns dede þe firste Page  41, vol.4 bataille, þat is i-cleped bellum Punicum, in*. [and, α., β., and Cx.] Cartaginense*. [Cartaginensem, Cx.] aȝenst þe Affres, þat beeþ*. [A caret is placed here in MS. Addit., but no word supplied.] men of Affrica, beeþ*. [beeþ . . . þey] for this β., γ., and Cx. have: Trevisa: Men of Affrica . . .] i-cleped Affrica, and*. [and] om. α.] þey*. [beeþ . . . þey] for this β., γ., and Cx. have: Trevisa: Men of Affrica . . .] beeþ i-cleped Affri, Puny,*. [Primi, Peni, Punici, Cx.] Peny, Puncy,*. [Punici, β. and γ.] Punices, and Cartaginenses; þerfore þe bataille þat is aȝenst hem [is cleped bellum Punicum, and*. [bellum, added here in γ.] Cartaginense also, as it were the bataylle that is ayenst hem that be called]*. [From β. and Cx.] Puny*. [Punici, Cx.] Punices, and Cartaginenses. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie. [Though]*. [From Cx.; þey, γ.] þe Romaynes hadde i-meoved*. [moved, Cx.] noon armour*. [armure, β.; armur, γ.] wiþ oute Italy to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] þat tyme, noþeles forto knowe certen|liche*. [certainly, Cx.] þe somme and noumbre of Romayns þey payede a certayn, and were acounted, and i-founde two hondred þow|sand [foure score þowsand twelf þowsand]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þre hondred and foure and þritty. Þe batailles cesed nouȝt*. [never, β.; nevere seþthe, γ.; batayll cessed never sith, Cx.] siþþe þe citee was first i-bulde. And so þe Romayns fyve ȝere continualliche*. [continually, Cx.] in*. [and, Cx, wrongly.] Sicilia aȝenst Ieron*. [Iheron, β., γ., and Cx.] kyng of Sicilia, and aȝenst þe Affris*. [Affers, Cx.] were victors, and hadde þe maistrie. Þanne þe Romayns ȝaf þe firste bataille in Affrica. Here*. [Her, Cx.] ledere was Markus*. [Marcus, Cx.] Regulus, consul of Rome; and first þey took hir schippes, and drenched hem,*. [drynchede ham, γ.] oþer*. [ether, Cx.] chased hem and her schippes; and at*. [atte, β. and Cx.] þe laste he*. [they, Cx.] took þre dukes of Affrica, and Page  43, vol.4 beet*. [bent, γ.] doun þe oost,*. [hooste, Cx.] and took meny olyphauntes, and sent sevene and twenty [þowsand]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] prisoners to Rome. Among þese*. [þeus, γ.] dedes, at*. [atte, β. and Cx.] þe ryver Bragada he slouȝ*. [they slow, Cx.] a grete serpent, and sente þe skyn þerof to Rome for a greet wonder; ffor þat skyn was sixe score foot*. [fote, β. and Cx.] long. Þanne þe Cartaginenses, men of Affrica, were overcome, and axede pees; and Marcus Regu|lus wolde graunte no*. [none, Cx.] pees but uppon wel harde condiciouns. Þanne þe Affres*. [Affers, Cx., et infra.] gat wiþ hem Ȝanȝippus*. [Zansippus, β., γ., and Cx.] kynge of Lacede|monia, and overcome Marcus Regulus wiþ al his oost*. [hoost, Cx.] at þe laste mescheef,*. [meschef, β.; atte last meschief, Cx.] so þat onliche*. [only, Cx.] tweyne of þe Romayns scapede and fligh,*. [flyȝ, β.; escapede and fledde, Cx.] þritty þowsand were deed i-slawe,*. [dede slayne, Cx.] Mar|cus Regulus and fyve hondred prisoners were i-holde longe in bondes. Afterward þe Romayns overcome þe Affres in werre in see [and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] in lond, so þat þey slouȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] of here ene|myes two hondred þowsand, and six score olyphauntes and ten were i-take; and þe Cartagynenses Affres sente Marcus Regulus to Rome, and prayde þat þey wolde chaunge prisoners. Augustinus de Civitate [Dei],*. [From Cx.]libro primo. Noþeles an oþ was i-swore þat ȝif þat*. [þat] om. Cx., wrongly.] þey axede schulde nouȝt be i-doo, Page  45, vol.4 Regulus schulde torne aȝen to Cartage. He wente forþ, and dede*. [dide, Cx., et infra.] awey his wif from his bed, as þey*. [though, Cx.] he were no Romayn; and in þe counsaille of senatoures i-gadered to gedres,*. [togeder, Cx.] he counsaillede þe contrarie of his owne message, and seide þat it was nouȝt profitable*. [not prouffitable, Cx.] to þe comounte*. [comynte, β. and γ.] of Rome to chaunge so meny noble prisoners for suche an olde man as he was. Þe Romayns dede*. [dide, Cx., et infra.] by his counsaille. Noþe|les he was not compelled for to goo aȝen, but þe Romayns counsaillede*. [counceiliden, β.] hym specialliche forto abide*. [forto abyde specyalych, γ.] at Rome; but for he swoor*. [but bycause he sware, Cx.] at Cartage þat he schulde come aȝen, and*. [yf, Cx.] he myȝt nouȝt have auctorite of an honest*. [onest, γ.; honneste bourges of the, Cx.] burgeys in þis citee of Rome after þat he was prisoner, he chees*. [ches, β.; chese, Cx.] for to goo aȝen, and wente aȝen. Þere þe Affres closed*. [closiden, β.] hym in a streiȝt*. [streyt, γ.; strayte, Cx.] tree þat was þicke*. [þicke] om. γ.; ymked, α. and β.] pikede wiþ ynne wiþ longe and scharpe nayles,*. [that was ful of pykes within forth of sharpe nayles, Cx.] and parede of his*. [þe, α.; þe lydes and made, β; hys ye lydes, γ.; the lyddes of his eyen, Cx.] yȝe liddes, and made hym stonde so þere and wake to his lyves ende. Petrus, 168. Tholomeus fauȝt aȝenst Antiochus Theos kyng of Siria, but afterward þey were confethered to gidres*. [togadris, β.; confedered to|gyder, Cx.]; ffor Antiochus weddede Beronica, Tholomeus his douȝter, and forsook his raþer wif Laodices; but at the laste Laodices hadde grace of here hous|bonde,*. [hir husbond, Cx.]Page  47, vol.4 and come to hym aȝe,*. [agayne, Cx.] and punysshed*. [puysonde, γ.] hym and his sone þat he hadde i-gete*. [begeten, Cx.] on Beronica, and made her owne sone Antiochus Galericus*. [Galericus] om. Cx.] kyng of Siria. A peny of silver is first i-schape*. [shapen, Cx.] in Rome.

Capitulum tricesimum tertium.*. [Here Cx. agrees with MS. in the numbering of the chapters.]

THOLOMEUS Euergetes, Philadelphius his broþer, was þe þridde [kyng]*. [From Cx.] of Egipt, and regnede sixe and twenty ȝere. Þis in wreche of his suster*. [soster, γ.] Beronica, for here housbond and here sone were i-slawe*. [slayn, Cx., et infra.] wiþ venym, destroyed*. [destruyede, β.; destruyde, γ.] Siria, Silica, a party of Asia, and greved Antiochus Galericus. But whan he herde þat þe princes of Egipt hadde conspired aȝenst hym in his absence, he tornede aȝen into Egipt, and ladde wiþ hym grete*. [good, Cx.] prayes, and two þowsand and sixe hondred of*. [of] om. Cx.] mawmettis.*. [mametes, γ.] Antiochus Galericus lefte tweie sones after hym, Seleucus*. [Selenchus, Cx., et infra.] and þe grete Antiochus; but at þe laste Seleucus was i-slawe, and his broþer Antiochus regnede in Siria sixe Page  49, vol.4 and þritty ȝere, and fauȝt afterward wiþ Philopater kyng of Egipt, and fliȝ,*. [fledde, Cx.] and was wel nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] i-take.*. [taken, Cx.] Ennius þe poete is i-bore*. [born, Cx.] at Tarent. Caton*. [Cato, Cx.] þe questor brouȝte hym to Rome. Trevisa. Questor is he þat gadreþ tribut*. [gadred trybute, Cx.] to Rome, and þe domesman was somtyme i-cleped questor. Also [the]*. [From Cx.] wardeyns of þe tresorie*. [tresour, Cx.] were i-cleped questores. But now cherles*. [churles, Cx.] and pardoneres*. [pardneres, β.; gyllours and pardeners, γ.] beeþ i-cleped questores. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie.*. [history, Cx.] Ennius þe poete wonede*. [dwellyd, Cx.] in þe hille Aventinus with litel cost, and hilde hym apayed wiþ þe ser|vice of oon*. [and was content with the service of a, Cx.] wenche. Þat tyme a bondeman lay by a mayde of þe temple of þe goddes Vesta, and þe mayde slowȝ hir self for sorwe.*. [sorowe, Cx.]Eutropius, libro 2o. Aboute*. [Aboute an fourty, γ.] [this tyme]*. [From Cx.] fourty þowsand of*. [of] om. Cx.] Galles passede*. [passiden, β.] þe hilles Alpes, and were i-slawe*. [slayne, Cx., ut passim.] of Romayns. Þese Galles hadde a ledere þat hiȝt*. [callyd, Cx.] Brytomarus, and þey made here avow and swore*. [swar, Cx.] þat þey wolde nevere doo of hire girdelles*. [gurdles, γ.; gurdels, Cx.] of knyȝthode ar*. [er, β.; till, Cx.] þey come in [to]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] þe capitol of Rome. And so it byfel*. [bifille, β.]; ffor whanne þey were overcome, Emylyus*. [Emilus, γ. and Cx.] þe consul dede*. [dude, γ.; putte, Cx.] hem Page  51, vol.4 to deþe in þe capitol*. [capitoil, β.; capitoyl, γ.; capy|toyle, Cx.] of Rome.*. [of Rome . . . whanne] om. β., γ., and Cx.] And so it byfel. For whanne*. [For whanne] om. α.] þat ȝere [þe grete]*. [From α. and Cx.] Antiochus gan*. [bygan, Cx.] to regne in Siria, Tholomeus Emperator,*. [Eupator, β. and γ.] þat heet*. [Eupator, otherwise callyd, Cx.] Philopator also,*. [also] om. Cx.] Euergetes his sone, regnede in Egipt seventene ȝere. In his tyme were þe dedes i-doo þat beeþ i-rad*. [that be redde, Cx.] of the firste Ma|chabeis. Trogus, libro 30o. Þis Tholomeus*. [Ptholomeus, α.] for his evel lyvynge was i-cleped Philopator, for he left [of]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] þe dedes of knyȝthode, and ȝaf hym to slewþe, to leccherie,*. [lecherye, Cx.] to children nysete,*. [childrens nicete, Cx.] to manslauȝter,*. [manslauȝt, β. and γ.] and to sle his piers.*. [peres, β. and γ.; peeres, Cx.] He spendede*. [spende, β. and Cx.] þe nyȝt in hordom,*. [hourdom, γ.; hoerdome, Cx.] and þe day in festes; at þe laste he slowȝ Erudices, þat was his suster and his wif, and ȝaf hym al to strompettes and to hoores.*. [harlattes, Cx.] Þerfore þe grete Antiochus was wrooþ, and wolde have*. [han, Cx.] i-wonne Egipt, ne hadde*. [nadde, α., β., and Cx.; nad, γ.] he be i-lette by an oost*. [hoost, Cx.] þat was i-hered*. [huyred, β; yhuyred, γ.] out of Grecia.*. [huyred oute of Grece, Cx.] At þe laste he*. [he] om. α.; This Tholomeus, β. and Cx.] was deed, and lefte a childe of fyve ȝere olde*. [of age, Cx.] to kepe þe kyngdom, þat he hadde i-gete*. [bygoten, Cx.]Page  53, vol.4 on Erudices. Þanne his strompettis were an*. [an] om. Cx.] hanged every|chon. Eutropius, libro 3o. Þat ȝere bygan þe secounde bataille þat*. [called, Cx.] hatte bellum Punicum, and durede seventene ȝere. In þat bataille þe Romayns were overcome more*. [more overcome, α. and Cx.] þan victors, and hadde more harme þan þey quytte*. [than they were quytte, Cx.]; ffor Hanybal, Amilcarius*. [Amilcarus, β.; Amilcaris sonne, Cx.] his sone, a childe of nyne ȝere olde, hadde i-swore*. [sworn, Cx.] to his owne fader at þe auȝtres*. [auctres, β. and γ.] of goddes, þat he wolde ȝeve þe Romayns a bataille as sone as he myȝte. Þanne Hanybal, in his twentiþe*. [twenty, Cx.] ȝere of age [and]*. [From β. and Cx.] eyȝte monþes, bysegede*. [bisegide, β.; bysegede eyȝte monthes S., γ.; besieged Saguntin, Cx.] Saguntum, þe faireste*. [fayrste, γ.] citee of Spayne, and moste frend to þe Romayns. Þe Romayns sendeþ messangers*. [sente a messager, Cx.] to Hanybal, prayenge þat he wolde leve þe seege, bycause of covenant þat was bytwene hem raþer. Þis axinge*. [prayer, Cx.] was*. [ys, γ.] despised, and þe messangers*. [messager, Cx.] wente forþ into Affrica to pleyne of þe covenant i-broke*. [broken, Cx.]; but þey seigh*. [siȝ, β.; sawe, Cx.] þat it was for nouȝt, and tornede home aȝen to Rome. Þanne, in þe mene tyme, Saguntum*. [Saguntin, Cx.] was destroyed in þis manere: Saguntum was hugeliche i-greved*. [gretely agreved, Cx.] by þe sege, and by [the]*. [From Cx.] grete honger, and oon of Hanybal his knyȝtes, þat was frende Page  55, vol.4 to þe citee, wente to þe citee, and counsaillede*. [counceiled, β.; consailde, γ.] þe men of þe citee to ȝilde up þe citee*. [yelde it up, Cx.] wiþ al þe gold and selver and oþere richesses*. [ryches, Cx.] þat was þere ynne, and þey schulde skape*. [ascape, β.; shold escape, Cx.] hem self on lyve*. [hem silf alyve, β.; hamsylf a lyve, γ.; themself a lyve, Cx.]; but þey avised*. [advysed, Cx.] hem, and took counsaille, and made wel huge fuyre,*. [a grete fire, Cx.] and þrewe þerynne al þe gold and silver, and hem self at the laste. Whan þis*. [the, Cx.] citee was destroyed, Hanybal lefte his broþer Asdrubal*. [Astrubal, Cx.] in Spayne, and he hym self wiþ an hondred þowsand [of*. [of] om. Cx.] foot men, and ten þowsand]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] of horsmen, and fourty olyphauntes, passede þe hilles Alpes in springynge*. [springgyng, γ.] tyme, þere no man hadde i-passed to forehonde,*. [passed byfore, Cx.] and wente into Italy. Þe mene tyme Cornelius Scipio, consul of Rome, werrede in Spayne. Orosius. Þanne Hanibal passede þe hilles Pireneus,*. [Pirenes, β. and γ., et infra; Pyrenes, Cx., et infra.] and made hym away wiþ iren*. [yre, γ.] and wiþ fuyre*. [and wiþ fuyre] om. β., γ., and Cx.] among þe cruel peple of Galles; and he come þe nynteþe day among*. [among] om. β., γ., and Cx. rightly.] from þe hilles Pireneus to Alpes. Þere he was harde a*. [a] om. Cx.] sette*. [asset, γ.] foure dayes wiþ Galles; but he made hym*. [hym] om. γ.] way wiþ iren and wiþ fuyre amonge þe Page  57, vol.4 cruel peple.*. [amonge þe cruel peple] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] Noþeles [in]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] þe hiȝest hille Appeninus,*. [Appenninus, Cx.] Hanibal was closede tweie dayes wiþ snow; þere he loste meny men, olphantes,*. [olyfauntes, Cx.] and oþere bestes. Trevisa. Pyrenus is an hiȝe hille of Spayne, and meny sigh*. [hyȝ, α. and γ.; heiȝ, β.; hyghe, Cx.] hilles in þat side beeþ i-cleped montes Pirenei.*. [Pireni, β. and Cx.] Alpes beeþ hiȝe hilles in þe side of Italy. Þerforþ Hannibal wente to Rome, and Hanibal heet Penitus also, þerfore Alpes beeþ i-cleped Appenini, as þey it were Penitus is hilles.*. [Penitus hilles, β. and Cx.]Eutropius. Þe*. [þo, β. and γ.; Tho, Cx.] wonderful mer|vailles ferede*. [feered, Cx.] þe Romayns; for among þe Arpes*. [Alpes, Cx.] hit semed þat þe sonne fauȝt wiþ þe mone, among þe Capenes hit semed þat tweye mones were aryse,*. [risen, Cx.] among þe Phalisces*. [Falisces, γ. and Cx.] hit semed þat hevene was i-clove.*. [cloven, Cx.] Þan whanne þey herde þe comynge of Hanibal, Cornelius Scipio was sente after out of Spayne,*. [forth to Spayne, Cx.] and Hanibal mette wiþ hym [and overcom hym]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] first at Ticinum, and beet*. [bent, β. and γ.] doun þe oost*. [hooste, Cx., et infra.] of Rome; and he overcome hym eft*. [wiþ his ost, added here in γ.] at þe ryver Erenia.*. [Crema, α., β., γ., and Cx.] At þe þridde tyme he beet*. [bent, β.; beot, γ.] doun*. [scomfyt, Cx.] Sempronius wiþ his oost þat come out of Sicilia.*. [Scicilia, β. and Cx.] At þe fourþe tyme he slowȝ Flamens þe consul, and fyve and twenty þowsand of his oost, and took sixe þowsand prisoners. Titus. Þere was so harde fiȝtinge þat þe fiȝtinge men woste*. [wist, β.; wuste, γ.; wyst, Cx.] nouȝt of þe erþe schakynge þat was while þey Page  59, vol.4 fouȝte, and þrewe a*. [α] om. Cx.] doun citees and cleef*. [clef, β.; and clyf and hulles, γ.; claf, Cx.] hilles. Eutro|pius, libro 3o. At þe fifte*. [Atte fyveþe, β.] tyme Frambius*. [Fabius, α., β., and Cx.] Maximus was sent aȝenst Hanybal, and piȝte his pavylouns*. [pavilons, Cx.] in þe hiȝeste hilles and in þe*. [þe] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] þrive*. [pryvate, Cx.] places of wordes,*. [wodes, β., γ., and Cx.] and scornede Hanybal his strengþe, and wayted his tyme, and overcome hem. Þe sixte*. [sixete, α.] tyme þe consuls of Rome, Lucius Emilius Publius, and Paulus*. [Paulus and Publius, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Terrencius and Farro,*. [Varro, β., γ., and Cx.] were sent aȝenst Hanibal. But Fabius Maximus warnede hem þat Hanibal was so froward*. [fraward, γ.] and so cruel*. [cruwel, β.] in fiȝtinge, þat þey schulde nevere overcome hym but by tarienge*. [taryyng, γ.] of þe bataille and of þe fiȝt|ynge. Þey were fervent, and dede*. [dide, Cx.] aȝenst counsaille, and were overcome at Canna, a strete of Appulia.*. [streyte of Apulea, Cx.] Þere þe wynde and þe gravel þat was arered wiþ þe wynde halpe wel Hanybal. Þere were dede*. [slayne, Cx.] fourty þowsand knyȝtes of Romayns, and fyve þowsand [of]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] peres of consuls and of the*. [the] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] senatoures were dede oþer i-take. Hit is no doute þo hadde i-be þe laste day of the state of Rome, ȝif Hanibal cowþe as wel use*. [have used, Cx.] þe victorie as he couþe wynne it yn fiȝt|inge. ℞. Hadde he i-goo*. [gone, Cx.] anon after þe*. [þe] þat, γ.] victorie for to take Page  61, vol.4 þe citee. Titus. Þere was so grete slauȝter*. [slauȝt, γ.] of Romayns þat Hanibal heet*. [bade, β.; bad, Cx.] his men spare þe Romayns.*. [þat Hanybal heet spare þe fyȝ|tyng, γ.]Eutropius. Farro*. [Varro, β., γ., and Cx.] þe consul tornede to Rome wiþ fifty horsmen and na*. [no, β., γ., and Cx.] mo. Þe senatoures preysede hym*. [hem, Cx.] wel, for he hadde nouȝt disparaged þe comynte of Rome. He schavede*. [schamede, α.] nevere his heed, noþer his berde,*. [his berde nor his heede, Cx.] he eet*. [et, γ.] nevere liggynge, he wolde have no worschepe, er he seigh*. [siȝ, β.; ar he syȝ, γ.; til he sawe, Cx.] wreche of*. [on, Cx.] Hanybal. Þo as*. [as] om. Cx.] it were nevere i-seie to forehonde,*. [seen byfore, Cx.] bonde men and men þat were i-made*. [men of werre made, Cx.] free, þeeves, [and]*. [From Cx.] mansleers, and prisoners were i-made knyȝtes. Orosius. Also proletarii,*. [prolitarii, γ.; poletarii, Cx.] þat were i-ordeyned forto*. [for] om. Cx.] gete children, were þoo*. [þan, β. and Cx.] i-made knyȝtes. Who þat sigh þo*. [sawe than, Cx.] þe chivalrie of Rome myȝte be wel sore aschamed, for þo everiche knyȝt and þe senatoures were nouȝt wise,*. [unwys, γ.] and cowþe nouȝt hire craft.*. [for than the knyghtes ne the senatoures were not wyse, ne couth not other craft, Cx.]Eutropius. And*. [whanne, added here in γ.] Hani|bal profered hem here prisoneres to raunsoun. Þe Romayns*. [þe Romayns] hy, γ.] answerde*. [answeriden, β.] and seide, þat þe burgeys*. [bourges, Cx.] þat myȝte be i-take i-armed*. [taken armed, Cx.] were nouȝt nedeful to þe citee. Þerfore Hanibal Page  63, vol.4 slouȝ som of þe prisoners, and solde som in to dyvers londes, and sente þre busshelles*. [boyschels, γ.] of golden*. [gold, Cx.] rynges, þat were i-take of þe hondes of þe knyȝtes of Rome into Cartage, in tokene of þe victorie. Titus. Þo*. [þanne, β.; Than, Cx.] þe comouns*. [comyns, β.] of Rome was so i-bore adoun,*. [were soo born down, Cx.] and so bare, þat þey spoylede þe temples of bras and of iren*. [yre, γ.] for*. [for] om. Cx.] to make hem armour þerof; ffor þe armour*. [armures, β.; armours, Cx.] þat were i-offred in Rome*. [in Rome] om. γ. and Cx.] in temples, and were*. [were] om. γ.] i-halowed*. [and halewide, β.] to hire goddes, as þeyȝ*. [they, Cx.] used to doo after þe*. [theyr, Cx.] victories, þey*. [þo, α. and γ.; than they, Cx.] were i-take aȝen out of þe temples*. [templis, Cx.] for grete nede and meschief þat þey were ynne.*. [yn, Cx.] Also hem lakked schipmen to governe here schippes, and here tresorye*. [they tresour, Cx.] suffised nouȝt ffor wages of werrioures.*. [werrours, Cx.] Þerfore þe consuls and þe senatoures heet*. [bade, Cx.] þat every man schulde brynge his riches in to þe tresorye. Þerfore bygan greet stryf bytwene þe comouns*. [comyns, β. et infra; comonte, Cx.] and þe senatoures. But oon of þe consuls aleyde*. [alayed, Cx.] þe strif in þis manere, and seide as þe grete passeþ þe com|ouns in worschippe and yn dignite, so þey schulde passe hem in coste and in*. [in] om. Cx.] berynge of charge in helpe of þe Page  65, vol.4 citee. And so he*. [þei, β.; they, Cx.] ordeyned þat everich in his degre schulde offre al his golde in to þe comoun tresorie, outake*. [out take, β. and γ.] oon ryng of*. [for, α., β., and Cx.] hym self and anoþer for his wif; and he schulde offre a compurnole*. [campurnole, α.; camprenol, β. and Cx.; campernole, γ.] of golde for his sone, and for everich douȝter an unce, and þe grettest schulde bygynne first; and so it was i-do.*. [done, Cx.] Þanne þere was so moche money i-brouȝt and i-offred þat þe wardeyns myȝt nouȝt wite*. [wryte, β., γ., and Cx.] þe names of hem þat brouȝt money and golde, noþer brynge into the tresorie al þat was i-brouȝt. Orosius, libro 4o. In þe tyme of [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] meschief Rome was i-sette*. [asett, β.; asset, γ.; a sette, Cx.] wiþ so meny mys|happes þat þe senatoures took hem to rede forto flee out of Italy, and gete hem oþer places forto*. [for do, Cx., an error.] dwelle ynne. Þanne dyvynes þat axede*. [axiden, β.] counsaille of Appolyn answered þe Ro|mayns, and seide þat þey schulde be i-saved ȝif þey myȝte gete þat god*. [godas, γ., et infra.] þat hatte*. [heet, α.; highte, Cx.] Numen matris pessimite. Þerfore messangers*. [messagiers, Cx.] were i-sent into Frigia for to fecche*. [fech, γ.; fetche, Cx.] þe goddes þat heet Cibele;*. [hight Sibyle, Cx.] and þe messanger*. [messagyer, Cx.] by the way axede coun|saille of Appolyn Delphicus,*. [Delphicus] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] and Appolyn counsaillede*. [counceled, β.] [hem forto gete help of Attalus, kyng of þe lasse Asia, for to gete Page  67, vol.4 þis ymage; also Appolyn counsaillede]*. [From α., β., and γ.] þat whan þe ymage come to Rome he*. [it, α., β., γ., and Cx.] schulde first be brouȝt into*. [in] om. Cx.] þe best manis hous of þe citee. Whan al þis was i-doo, oon Scipio Nasica was i-chose as þe beste man of Rome, and mette wiþ þe ymage wiþ a grete multitude of wyfes. Þe ymage heet*. [hight, Cx.] Numen matris pessimite, and Sibile*. [Sibyle, Cx.] also, þat is to menynge*. [to understande, Cx.] moder of alle goddes;*. [goddesses, β. and Cx.; godasses, γ.] and sche heet Beretinsia,*. [heo het Beretincia, β.; Bere|tincia, γ., et infra; hight Bretnicia, Cx.] þat is moder of*. [of] om. Cx., in error.] hilles; and sche heet*. [hight, Cx.] holy Frigia, for sche was i-worschipped specialliche in a wode of Frigia, þat*. [whiche, Cx.] wode hatte*. [is callid, Cx.] Idea. [℞].*. [From β. and Cx.] Ovyde*. [Ovidius, Cx.] de fastis seiþ þat of þis happe it com up among þe Romayns þat everiche ȝere þe ferþe*. [fourth, Cx.] day of Averel þey hilde a feste of þe baþynge of þe goddesse*. [godas, α. and γ.] Beretinsia;*. [Beretincia, β.; Bretnicia, Cx.] ffor whanne here ymage was i-brouȝt out*. [out] om. Cx.] of Frigia, it was i-washe*. [wasche, β.] in þe ryver Alma, þere þat þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] water falleþ in to Tybre. Þo*. [Than, Cx.] it was i-doo wiþ foule songes and gestes and*. [of, β., γ., and Cx.] iapes and nyse menstralcie,*. [mynstracy, β. and γ.; nyce myn|stralcy, Cx.] and everiche suche a*. [α] om. β. and Cx.] geste was i-cleped Ames.*. [a mes, γ.; amens, Cx.] Hanibal, þe tenþe ȝere after*. [of, Cx.] his comynge, meovede his oost*. [hooste, Cx.] out of Campania anon to þe Page  69, vol.4 ryver Amens, at þe þridde stoon, þat is þre myle out of Rome; [and Hanybal hym self, with noble hors men and swyfte, wente anone to the yate of Rome]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] þat hatte*. [hight, Cx.] Porta Collina. Þe con|sulis wiþdrowȝ nouȝt þe fiȝtinge; but whanne þe scheltroms*. [scheltrons, β.; scholtroms, γ.; sheltrons, Cx.] were arrayed in*. [on, β. and Cx.] eiþer side þere fel so grete reyn i-medled wiþ hailstones,*. [hawelstones, γ.] þat the oostes*. [hoostes, Cx.] were so i-schend,*. [yshent, Cx.] þat unneþe þey heelde*. [mighte holde, Cx.] here wepene, and fliȝ in to here tentes;*. [and fyghte in theyr tentes, Cx.] and whanne it scheverede*. [schyverede, α.; cleered, β.; schuyrede, γ.; clered, Cx.] and was faire weder þey*. [he, α.] wente eft*. [ofte, Cx. bis.] into þe feeld, and eft*. [ofte, Cx. bis.] fil a wel gret tempest,*. [grettre reyn and tempest, γ.] and*. [þat, β.] eft was*. [was] om. β.] compelled*. [that efte compellyd, Cx.] hem for to flee. Eutropius. Þe mene tyme tweyne þat were i-sente to Spayne, eiþer heet*. [hight, Cx., ut semper.] Scipio, overcome Asdrubal;*. [Astrubal, Cx., et infra.] þere þe oost of Affrica loste fyve*. [vyve, α.] and þritty þowsand. Phelip kyng of Macedonia byhoteþ*. [behighte, Cx.] Hanibal help aȝenst þe Romayns; þe ilond Sardinia*. [Sardonia, Cx., et infra.] forsakeþ þe Romayns. Þer|fore dukes and lederes were i-sent in to foure places; into*. [to] om. Cx.] Macedonia aȝenst Philip, into Spayne aȝenst Asdrubal, into*. [into] om. Cx.] Sardinia aȝenst þe Sardes,*. [Sardens, Cx.] and in to Italy aȝenst Hanybal. Page  71, vol.4 Þerfore Lemynus*. [Levinus, α., β., and Cx.; Levy|nus, γ.] consul of Rome makeþ pees wiþ Attalus kyng of Asia, and werreþ in Macedonia, and overcom Phelip þe kyng, and took Sicilia*. [Scicilia, Cx.] and þre score citees also, and he beet*. [beot, γ.] doun sixe and twenty citees, and come in*. [in] om. β. and Cx.] to Rome wiþ greet ioye and worschippe. For drede of hym Hanibal, þat was but foure myle from Rome, fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] into Campania. Also þat ȝere in Spayne eiþer Scipio, þat hadde þe victorie*. [hadde be victor, β.; hadde ybe victors, γ.; had be vyctor, Cx.] longe tyme, was i-slawe of Asdrubal his broþer, but þe oost*. [hooste, Cx.] lefte al hool and sound. Þerfore þe oþer Scipio his sone,*. [Scipioes sone, β.; Scipions sonne, Cx.] [þat heet Publius Cornelius Scipio,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe noblest man wel nyh*. [neiȝ, β.] of al þe Romayns, is sente into Spayne in þe foure and twenty*. [ferþe and twentyþe, γ.] ȝere of his eelde.*. [age, Cx.] Whanne*. [whome, Cx.] þe senatoures and þe Romayns hadde i-take to rede to forsake Italy for drede, þis Scipio drouȝ*. [drewe, Cx.] out his swerd and forbede hem, and seide nouȝt so hardy, and byheet*. [bihet, β.; behighte, Cx.] þat he wolde defende þe citee and þe contray. Þanne Scipio wente forth, and took Cartage in Spayne, þere ynne was grete plente of money and grete array for men of armes. Þanne he ȝalde*. [ȝuld, γ.] up þe plegges*. [pledges, Cx.] of Spayne Page  73, vol.4 to here frendes, and sent Mago, Hanibal his broþer, prisoner to Rome; and a wel fayre mayde was prisoner among oþere, and he as a mylde fader delyvered and took hir*. [hure, γ. bis.] to here*. [hure, γ. bis.] owne spouse to weddynge, and forȝaf hire here raunsoun instede of here*. [foryave hir her raunsomme for her, Cx.] dowere; ffor þe whiche doynge, by assent of þe spouse of his*. [this, Cx.] mayde, wel nygh al Spayne tornede to Scipio. Þe mene tyme Fabius Maximus wan Tarent, and slouȝ Tarta|gilo*. [Cartagilo, α., β., and γ.; Car|tagylo, Cx.] in Italy, and solde fyve and twenty þowsand prisoners. Þanne Hanibal truste nouȝt*. [triste not, Cx.] þat Spayne myȝte lenger be i-holde*. [holden, Cx.] aȝenst Scipio, he sente for his broþer Asdrubal*. [Astrubal, Cx., et infra.] þat he schulde come to hym out of Spayne wiþ al þat he hadde. But þe consuls of Rome sette busshementes*. [buschementis, β.; boyschemen|tes, γ.; enbuschementes, Cx.] for hym, and he defendede hym nobeliche, but þeyȝ slouȝ*. [they slewe, Cx.] hym at þe laste, and eyȝte and fifty þowsand of his oost*. [hoost, Cx., ut semper.] were dede, and fyve þowsand i-take; foure and fourty þowsand burgeys*. [bourgeys, Cx.] of Rome were i-cleped and i-founde to gidres.*. [I founde and I cleped to gideres, α., β., and Cx.] Also Asdrubal his heede was i-þrowe to fore*. [throwen byfore, Cx.] his broþer ȝate. Whan Hanybal sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] þat he made grete sorwe, and fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] into Brucia, and þe grete Scipio was sent after out of Spayne. Iosephus, libro 12o.

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Capitulum tricesimum quartum.

THOLOMEUS Epiphanes, þe fifte [kyng]*. [From β.; inserted by a later hand in γ.] of Egipt, Emperator his sone,*. [Eupators sone, β.; Eupator, γ.; Eupaters sonne, Cx.] regnede foure and twenty ȝere. Trogus, libro 30o.*. [tercio, Cx.] And for he bygan to regne whan he was fyve ȝere olde, messangers*. [messares, β., γ., and Cx.] of Alexandria prayde þe Romayns þat þey wolde take þe warde of þe childe and defende þe kyngdome of Egipt; ffor Phelip kyng of Macedonia, and Antiochus kyng of Siria hadde i-cast*. [hadden cast, β.] as it were by covenant to dele the kyngdom of Egipt bytwene hem tweyne. Þe Romayns were glad of þe*. [that, β. and Cx.] message, and anon sente messangers*. [messagers, Cx.] to þe same kynges, chargynge þat þey schulde holde hem out of Egipt. Iosephus, libro 12o. Þanne Ptholomeus wax*. [wext, Cx.] a strong ȝongelynge, and sente oon Scopa, a duke of his, in to Siria, and made Siria suget*. [subgette, Cx.] to hym; but nouȝt longe after Antyochus overcome Scopa, and was better frende to þe Iewes. Eutropius, libro 3o. After þis þe grete Antiochus bycome Ptholomeus his frend, and wedded his douȝter Cleopatra to wyve,*. [wyf, Cx.] and graunted here instede of dower Siria, Inde, and Phenicia.*. [Fenicia, Cx.] Þerfore eiþer kyng hadde tribut*. [tribut] om. Cx.] of þe Iewes, but Onias, þe riȝtful Symon his Page  77, vol.4 sone, was bisshop, and werned*. [warnid, Cx.] þe tribut, and counsaillede þat non schulde be paide, as it were for love of the lawe, noþeles it was more for covetise, for he wolde nouȝt goo speke wiþ þe king. But his suster sone Iosephus wente to Ptholomeus þe kyng, and hadde grace of þe kyng, and forȝif|nesse*. [foryevenesse, Cx.] of þe tribut of þe sevenþe*. [seven, Cx.] ȝere; and nouȝt onliche*. [not only, Cx.] þat, but he was made ledere of his kyngdom and tresorer of tributes to his lyves ende, two and twenty ȝere. Iosephus, libro 12o, capitulo 4o. Þis Iosephus wolde assaye*. [essaye, Cx.] þe witte of his ȝonger sone Hircanus,*. [Hilcanus, Cx.] þat was twelve ȝere olde, and he*. [he] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] hadde gete hym on his broþer douȝter, and took*. [bytook, α.; bitoke, β.; bytok, γ.; bytoke, Cx.] hym þre hondred ȝokes of oxen forto erye*. [ere, Cx.] and sowe in wilder|nesse from home tweyne*. [tweye, α.; two, Cx.] iorneys and more, and hydde*. [hudde, α.; hidde, Cx.] þe reynes þat þe oxen schulde be teyde*. [tyed, Cx.] by. Whan he come to þe place þere he schulde erye, þe plowȝmen radde þat some of hem schulde wende home to þe fader and fecche*. [fetche, Cx.] þe reynes oþer þe tiels.*. [oþer þe tiels] om. β. and Cx.] Þe childe seyde nay, and*. [but, Cx.] lete slee som of þe oxen, and lete greythe*. [greithe, α.] þe flesche to þe*. [þe] om. β., γ., and Cx.] plowȝ|menis Page  79, vol.4 mete, and kutte*. [to kytte, Cx.] reynes of þe skynnes [to]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] teie*. [teye, Cx.] wiþ oþer oxen. Þe fader wondrede þerof, and sent hym in his owne stede to worschepe þe feste of kyng Ptholomeus,*. [The kynges feste Tholomeus, γ.] for he hadde a ȝong sone neweliche*. [newely, Cx.] i-bore; þe fader profrede to his sone Hircanus greet richesse*. [riches, β. and Cx.] for his cost by þe weie, and forȝifnes*. [for ȝiftes, β.; for yeftes, Cx., rightly.] to ȝeve þe kynges sone. Þe childe seide nay, and seide þat he couþe lyve soberliche, and þat lasse*. [lesse, Cx.] cost wolde doo his nede. "But sendeþ*. [sente, α.; sende, β. and Cx.] lettres," quod*. [sayd, Cx.] þe childe, "to Aryon, procuratour of Alexandria, and praye hym þat he lene me as moche as me byhoveþ." Þe fader hopede þat ten talentes were i-now*. [ynough, Cx.] forto worschepe þe kyng wiþ his sone, and prayed Arion in his lettres þat he wolde take ten*. [the, Cx.] talentes to his sone. Hircanus come wiþ þe lettres to Arion, and Arion axede*. [asked, Cx.] how moche hym byhoved.*. [behoved, Cx.] "A þowsand talentes," quoþ*. [sayd, Cx.] he; but Arion wolde graunte but ten, and Hircanus caste hym in boundes, and Arion his wif wente anon, and pleynede*. [complayned, Cx.] to þe kyng, and þe kyng Page  81, vol.4 axede of Hircanus why he dede*. [dyde, Cx.] so: "For suche servauntes," quod he, "schal be punsched þat conneþ nouȝt*. [kon noȝt, γ.; punysshyd that can not, Cx.] knowe and makeþ non difference*. [ne make difference, Cx.] bytwene þe smale and þe grete." Arion herde þat þe kyng allowede Hircanus his answere and his dede, and took hym*. [delivered to hym, Cx.] a þowsand talentes. [And]*. [From Cx.] anon he bouȝte of chapmen*. [chepmen, γ.; marchauntes, Cx.] an hondred children i-lettred and an hondred maydens, everich for a talent. Whanne þe day of þe feste was i-come, Hircanus, for*. [by cause, Cx.] he was ȝong, was i-sette laste of þe wise men, and þe bare bones þat oþere men lefte were in scorne [i-sette]*. [From α.; sett, β.; ysette, γ.; sette, Cx.] tofore Hircanus. Oon Tryphon, a iapere, sigh*. [japer sawe, Cx.] þis, and seide opounliche tofore þe kyng: "Lo, lordynges,*. [lord kynge, Cx.] how þis childe haþ i-ete þe flesche of so meny bones; so his fader, þat is [thy]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] resceyvour*. [receyver, Cx.] and tre|sorer in Siria, spoyleþ [the]*. [From Cx. (not β. nor γ.)] money of [the]*. [From Cx. (not β. nor γ.)] men of Siria." Þe kyng lowȝ,*. [loughe, Cx.] and axede of þe childe why he hadde so meny bones to fore hym." "Skilfulliche, lord kyng," quod*. [sayd, Cx.] þis*. [þe, α., γ., and Cx.] childe, "for houndes eteþ*. [eten, Cx.] þe bones wiþ þe flesche, as þy gestes doþ today;*. [ghestes done this daye, Cx.] but men þat beeþ Page  83, vol.4 i-norsched*. [norysshed, Cx.] and i-tauȝt spareþ þe bones, as ȝe seeþ þat I spare." Amorwe*. [On the morne, Cx.] Hircanus axede of everiche of þe kynges frendes what and how moche everiche*. [eche, Cx.] of hem wolde ȝeve þe kynges sone; and he þat wolde ȝeve most answerede and seide: "Scarsliche*. [Scarcely, Cx.] ten talentes." Þanne Hircanus feynede hym sory, as þey*. [thoughe, Cx.] he myȝte nouȝt*. [nouȝt] om. Cx.] ȝeve but fyve. But whan þe day of berþe*. [the natyvyte, Cx.] was i-come, Hircanus the childe ȝaf [to]*. [From Cx.; not β. nor γ.] þe kyng an hondred children, and everiche of hem bare a talent in [his]*. [From Cx.; not β. nor γ.] honde, and ȝaf [to]*. [From Cx.; not β. nor γ.] þe queene an hon|dred mayden*. [mayde, Cx.] children, everiche*. [and eche, Cx.] wiþ a talent in hir*. [hir] om. B.; hys, γ. (by mis|take.)] honde. Þanne everiche man preysede hem*. [hym, α. and Cx.] wel. Þerfore the kyng dede hym grete worschepe, and made hym riche, and sente hym to his fader wiþ lettres of commendynge*. [commendacion, Cx.] and of preys|inge; noþeles his fader was wrooþ,*. [wrothe, Cx.] for þe grete ȝiftes þat he hadde i-ȝeve. Also his elder*. [elþer, γ.] breþeren*. [brether, Cx.] hadde grete envie to*. [at, Cx.] hym for þe grete worschippe þat he hadde, so ferforþ þat þey arrerede*. [werred, Cx.] werre aȝenst hym, and tweyne of hem Page  85, vol.4 were dede in fiȝtinge. Trevisa. Take*. [Taak, α.] hede þat a talent is a grete wighte*. [weighte, Cx.] of golde oþer*. [or, Cx., bis.] of silver oþer*. [or, Cx., bis.] of [oþer]*. [From α.] metal; but þere is*. [be, Cx.] thre manere of*. [of] om. Cx.] talentes, þe leste weyeþ fifty pound, þe moste*. [þe myddel, β., γ., rightly; the moost, Cx.] two and seventy pound, and þe myddel*. [þe moste, β., γ., rightly; þe middle, Cx.] sixe score pound. Þan it foloweþ in þe storie. Hircanus passede flom*. [flym, β.; flome, Cx.] Iordan, and gadrede þere þe kynges tribute of straunge naciouns meny ȝere to [gyder, and he bylded there a wonder tour. Oute therof he pursued ofte the Arabyes, men of Arabia, alle the]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] tyme þat Seleuchus regnede in Siria. Whanne Seleuchus was dede, Hircanus dredde þe cruelnesse*. [drad the cruelte, Cx.] of Antiochus Epiphanes, and slowȝ hym self wiþ his owne hond. Aboute þe firste ȝere of þis Ptholomeus,*. [Tholomeus, Cx.] þe grete Scipio, þat*. [whiche, Cx.] hadde nobelliche i-bore hym, and i-doo [meny]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] grete dedes in Spayne, was i-made consul and i-sende into Affrica; and*. [and] om. α.] þere*. [þere] om. Cx.] he made [to him]*. [From Cx.] sogett Aumorus*. [Amnorus, β.; Annorus, γ.; subgett Ammorus duc of thaffres, Cx.] duke of þe Affres and Siphates*. [Syphaces, Cx.] kyng of Numidia. Whanne þat was i-herd, wel nygh al Italy forsook Hanibal. Hanybal, þe seventeþe ȝere of his comynge in to Italy, was hote*. [boden, Cx.] by men of Cartage*. [for] om. Cx.] forto wende*. [retorne, Cx.] [hoom, and so he wende]*. [From α., β., and γ.; retorned, Cx.] out of Italy, wepynge wel sore*. [soore weping, Cx.]; Page  87, vol.4 and whan Hanibal was i-come he destroyede*. [distried, β.] þe pees þat þe Affres*. [thaffres, Cx., et infra.] hadde i-made wiþ Scipio. The condicioun of þe pees was suche, þat þe*. [they, Cx.] Affres schulde have but þritty schippes, and he*. [they, Cx.] schulde ȝeve fyve hondred þowsand pound of silver. Pondo is a pound. He*. [they, Cx.] schulde also sende home al*. [alle, Cx.] þe prisoners and flemed*. [fleme, α., β., and γ.; banysshed, Cx.] men þat þey hadde i-take. Hanibal hadde i-sent þre spies for to aspie Scipio his*. [espye Scipions, Cx.] tentes. Þese spies were i-take, and i-ladde aboute þe tentes, and i-made wel at ese*. [ease, Cx.] wiþ mete and wiþ drynke, and þanne Scipio sente hem home aȝen. Þan was harde fiȝt*. [fyghtynge, Cx.] bytwene tweyne wise dukes,*. [these two dukes, Cx.] but Scipio hadde þe maystrie,*. [vyctorye, Cx.] and Hanibal was nyh i-take. Pees was graunted to men of Cartage, and Scipio tornede aȝen*. [agayne, Cx.] to Rome, and was after þat i-cleped*. [callyd, Cx.] Affri|canus. In þis manere þe secounde bataille Punicum was i-doo and*. [was i-doo and] om α., β., and Cx.] endede in his tyme. Þat ȝere Plautus*. [Plantus, Cx.] deyde at Rome: he gronde at*. [grond atte queorne, γ.; grande atte, Cx.] þe querne wiþ a bakere for huyre, for hunger*. [bakar for hyre for hongre, Cx.] and scarsite of corn, and whanne he myȝte have*. [α, γ.] while he wroot*. [wrote, Cx.] fables and solde*. [sayd, Cx.] hem. Whanne þe secounde batayle Punicum was i-doo, þanne come þe bataille*. [battell, Cx.] Mace|donicum, Page  89, vol.4 þat was aȝenst Phelip þe kynge. Titus Quincius overcome hym, and ladde tweyne*. [twey, Cx.] kynges sones of Macedonia and of Lacedemonia*. [Lacedomonia, Cx.] plegges to fore*. [before, Cx.] his chariot; and ladde home [to]*. [From Cx. (not γ.); inserted in β. above the line.] þe Romayns þat Hanibal hadde i-take and i-solde in Grecia, and leet schave here hedes yn tokene of schavynge away of þe bondage. Þe Romayns werreþ*. [Romaines werrid, Cx.] aȝenst þe grete Antiochus kyng of Siria, for he destroyede þe kyngdoms þat were nyh*. [nyghe, Cx.] aboute hym, and also for he hilde*. [held, Cx.] wiþ hym Hanybal, þat was cause*. [cause] om. α.; cause he, om. β., γ., and Cx.] he wente out of Affrica. Eutropius, libro 4o. Antiochus sigh*. [saw, Cx.] þat Hanibal spak ofte wiþ þe messangers*. [messagers, Cx.] of Rome, and hadde hym suspecte, and forsook to have hym of his counsaille,*. [counsails, α.; in his counseyll, Cx.] and ȝif he cleped hym oþer whiles to counsaile, it was for*. [conseyll that was bycause he, Cx.] he schulde nouȝt wene þat he was suspecte and forsoke,*. [forsake, α. and Cx.] [and]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] nouȝt forto do by*. [by] om. β. and Cx.] his counsaille. But Hanibal counsaillede al way forto werre*. [werry, γ.; warre, Cx.] aȝenst þe Romayns, and nouȝt forto abide, and seide þat Page  91, vol.4 þe Romayns myȝt nouȝt be overcome [but]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] in here owne contray. "Out of here owne contray," quoþ he, "þey mowe nouȝt*. [may not, Cx.] be overcome, but at home þey beeþ*. [ben, Cx., et infra.] brutel and liȝtliche overcome; hit nedeþ more to wrastle wiseliche aȝenst hem þat beeþ*. [ben, Cx., et infra.] overcome, and spekeþ*. [speke, Cx.] nouȝt, þanne aȝenst hem þat openliche wiþstondeþ." But þey*. [though, Cx.] his coun|seille were*. [was, Cx.] ofte good and spedefulle, hit was nouȝt allowed,*. [alowed, Cx., et infra.] for þe kyng hadde hym suspecte, and also for makynge of bakbiters,*. [bagbyters, Cx.] þat wolde nouȝt þat he were allowed*. [alowed, Cx., et infra.] of þe kyng. Þerfore þe kynges oost*. [hoost, Cx.] was overcome boþe in [the]*. [From Cx.] see and in londe. Þo*. [Than, Cx.] Antiochus þe kyng he*. [he] om. Cx.; althouȝte, γ.] þouȝte þat he dede*. [forthought that he dydde, Cx.] nouȝt by Hanybal his counsaille, [and made Hanibal pryve of his counsail].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.]Eutropius, libro 4o. For Phelip kyng of Macedonia halp*. [halpe, Cx.] the Romayns aȝenst Antiochus, [and]*. [From Cx.] his sone Demetrius, þat was prisoner and plegge, was sent home aȝe.*. [hoome ayene, Cx.] Scipio Nasica, þe greet Scipio þat heet*. [hight, Cx.] Affricanus his nevewe, overcom Antiochus and*. [Antiochus and] om. Cx.] Hanibal in bataille, boþe in þe see and in þe londe. Þere*. [þerfor, γ.] he hadde a surname, and was i-cleped Asiagenus of Asia þat was over|come. Þanne Antiochus þe kyng ȝaf*. [yave, Cx.] his ȝonger sone Antiochus Epiphanes to þe Romayns plegge*. [pledge, Cx.] for evermore for his elder*. [elþer, γ.] sone Seleucius,*. [Selencus, Cx.] and hadde pees uppon cove|naunt Page  93, vol.4 þat he schulde leve Europa and þe lasse Asia, and holde hym wiþ ynne þe hille mont*. [mount, Cx.] Taurus, and also he schulde bytake Hanibal to þe Romayns, for he eggede*. [eggyde, Cx.] and coun|saillede*. [counceiled, β.; counseylde, Cx.] to werre aȝenst Rome. Þerfore Hanibal dradde and tornede to Prusia kyng of Bithinia. Trogus, libro 32o. Þe mene tyme, whan Eumenes*. [Emnenes, Cx.] Attalus þe kinge his broþer of Siria schulde overcome Prusia, [than]*. [From Cx.] Hanibal halp*. [helped, Cx.] Prusia by a newe sleiþe*. [sleiȝþe, β.; sleght, Cx.] of bataile; for he hadde dyvers manere addres and serpentes i-closed in erþen stenes, and þrewe hem in to [the]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] schippes of here enemyes in þe myddel of [the]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] bataille. Þanne þe enemyes were aferde and agrysed,*. [and agrysed] om. Cx.] and wiþ drowe hem anon. Þe Romayns herde here of, and sente messangers,*. [messagers, Cx.] and made þe kyng and hem*. [and hem] om. β. and γ.] aton,*. [atoon, γ.; at one, Cx.] and axede þat þey moste have*. [for to have, Cx.] Hanibal into here owne hond; but Hanibal likked venym of his owne ryng, and deide at Nichomedia. Hit is certeyne of hym þat he satte nevere to [þe]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] sopere wiþ oute batailles. He was among meny [wonder]*. [From β. and Cx.] faire maidens, and lefte nevere his chastite; he was nevere betrayed by castinge oþer awaytinge of his Page  95, vol.4 owne*. [bytrayed by ymagynacion of his owne, Cx.] men, noþer*. [nouther, Cx.] of his owne*. [owne] om. α. and Cx.] enemyes. [℞.]*. [From Cx.]Orosius, libro 4o, seiþ þat þe ilond þat hatte*. [called, Cx.] insula Vulcani, þe whiche ilond was nevere to forehonde i-seie,*. [byfore seen, Cx.] sprang up of þe see at Sicilia*. [Scicilia, Cx.] þat ȝere þat Hanibal deyde, and ȝit is þere alway anon*. [unto, Cx.] to þis day. Policratica, libro 6o. Of þis Hanibal it is i-rad*. [redde, Cx.] þat whanne Antiochus þe kyng schewede hym his oost realliche*. [rialich, β.; hoost royally arayed, Cx.] arrayed wiþ gold and wiþ silver, and wiþ oþer riche array,*. [aray, Cx.] and axede hym yf al þat suffisede to þe Romayns; "I trowe," quod*. [sayde, Cx.] Hanibal, "it is i-now, þey*. [ynowgh though, Cx.] þe Romayns be þe moste covetouse men on*. [of, β.] lyve:" but he understood [esiliche, schortliche, and forwardliche, for he understood]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] of þe praye and nouȝt of þe strengþe of þe oost.*. [hoost, Cx.]Plinius, libro 8o, capitulo 8o. Hanibal ofte, whanne he hadde þe maistrie, compellede*. [compellid, Cx.] prisoners of Rome to fiȝte upon þe gravel wiþ stronge bestes, and behiȝt oon*. [promysed one, Cx.] þat he wolde delyvere hym ȝif he þrewe doun an olifaunte; and whan þe beest was acast*. [cast, Cx.] Hanibal sente horsmen to sle þe man anon riȝt þere. Policratica, libro primo. Hanibal seide þat he was nouȝt worþy his lyf þat myȝte be compelled to Page  97, vol.4 fiȝte wiþ bestes; but me troweþ soþeliche*. [sothly, Cx.] þat Hanibal slowȝ þe man for grete envie, for he wolde not þat a Romayn schulde have so grete a name and worschippe of a gretter dede þanne me hadde i-herde of to forehonde,*. [byfore, Cx.] and also for he wolde nouȝt defame*. [diffame, Cx.] þe bestes by þe strengþe by*. [of, Cx.] þe whiche he hadde ofte afered*. [aferde, Cx.] his enemyes. Eutropius, libro 4o. Þat ȝere Scipio Affricanus deide at Amitern, and*. [that, β. and Cx.] hadde be longe exciled*. [exyled, Cx.] out of Rome, þat was an unkynde citee to hym. Valerius, libro 8o.*. [8o] om. Cx.] Whan Scipio was accused of money among þe senatoures, he answered and seide: "Whan I wan al Affrica, and made it suget*. [subgette, Cx.] and under ȝour power, I took no þing þerof, but onliche*. [only, Cx.] the name Affri|canus; also þe riches of Affrica made me nouȝt coveitous, noþer*. [covetous neyther, Cx.] þe riches of Affrica*. [Asia, α., β., and Cx.] made my broþer Scipio coveytous, for eyþer of us was richer of envie þan of money." Salustius. Þis Scipio sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] ones a childe gay|liche arrayed,*. [gayly arayed, Cx.] and seide, "I wondre nouȝt þat he arrayeþ well his childe, for it helpeþ hym more þan doþ his swerd." Valerius. Emila, Scipio his wif,*. [Scipions wyf, Cx.] was so godeliche þat þey*. [goodly that though, Cx.] sche wiste*. [weoste, γ.] þat here housbonde lovede oon of here bonde Page  99, vol.4 women, for sche wolde nouȝt diffame here lord, conquerour of Affrica, by wymmen rees*. [rese, β. and γ.; reese, Cx.] and anger. And sche ab|styned*. [obsteyned, Cx.] hire so from vengeaunce*. [veniaunce, β.] and wreche þat sche made here bonde women*. [woman, β.] free and mariede hem*. [here, α.; hir, β. and Cx.] riȝt wel whan here lord was dede. Policratica. Scipio deyde, and or|deyned suche a writynge on his tombe at þe citee Palus|tres: "Þou unkynde contray, fong þou nouȝt*. [receyve thou not, Cx.] my boones." Augustinus de Civitate [Dei],*. [From Cx.]libro primo. Scipio Nasica tofore*. [byfore, Cx.] þe þridde bataille Punicum fforbeed þe rerynge of þe*. [forbade the settynge up or en|hauncyng of the, Cx.] theatre in þe citee of Rome, þat tweie iuges hadde arrayed forto arere; and Scipio seide þat it is grete enemyte*. [enemye, Cx.] to werriours forto norsche sleuþe and leccherie;*. [norysshe slouthe and lechery, Cx.] and þerfore he pletede*. [pleded, β. and Cx.] so strongly in þe peple þat he made*. [he made] om. Cx.; þat added after made in β.] al þe array þerof was i-solde, and benches, stoles, formes, and all manere stoles*. [sotels, β.; sotles, γ.] were i-do þennes;*. [subtylytees were done thens, Cx.] and so he brouȝte yn þat men schulde stonde and nouȝt sitte forto see pleies and merþe,*. [myrthes, Cx.] forto save here owne manhede. Þat manere was i-used among þe Romayns fyve hondred ȝere and eiȝte and fifty.*. [fourty, α. and Cx.; xlviii., β.] ℞. Auctors telleþ*. [seyn, Cx.] þat theatrum was a place Page  101, vol.4 i-schape*. [shapen, Cx.] as half a cercle, and in þe myddel þerof was a litel hous þat was i-cleped scena. In þat hous poetes and gestoures uppon*. [vp in, Cx.] a pulpet*. [pulput, γ.] rehersede poysees,*. [poysries, β.; poisies, Cx.] gestes, and songes, and withoute were mynstralles*. [mynystrals, Cx.] þat counterfeted*. [confortede, γ.; countrefayted, Cx.] þe doynge and [the]*. [From Cx.] dedes þat þey speke in her gestes and songes, wiþ bendynge and wyndinge and settynge and stynt|ynge of here lemes*. [lymmes, Cx.] and here body. Augustinus, libro primo, capitulo 31o. Þis pleyes þat were i-cleped Ludy*. [called ludi, Cx.] scenici were first i-ordeyned by excitinge of þe devel,*. [devyl, Cx.] for men schulde be excited*. [exyted, Cx.] to such dedes whanne þey myȝte here*. [hure, γ.] in þe theatrum*. [theatre, Cx.] þat goddes hadde i-dco suche manere dedes. Augustinus, libro 4o., capitulo 25o. But in passynge of tyme a cherle þat heet*. [chorle called, Cx.] Titus Latinus was i-warned by his swevenynge*. [dreame, Cx.] þat he schulde telle þe sena|toures þat þey schulde restore and renewe þe pleyȝ*. [pleyȝes, α.; playes, Cx.] þat were i-cleped*. [callyd, Cx.] ludi scenici were first i-ordeyned*. [were first i-ordeyned] om. β., γ., and Cx.] þe pleyes of þe theatre; and for he was i-warned tweies, and dede*. [dyd, Cx., et infra.] nouȝt þerto, he loste his owne sone; and for he was i-warned þe þridde tyme, and dede*. [dyd, Cx., et infra.] nouȝt þerto, he fil*. [felle, Cx.] in Page  103, vol.4 a wel*. [wel] om. Cx.] grevous siknesse forto*. [till, Cx.] he warnede þe senatoures by counsaile*. [by counsaile . . . counsaille of his frendes] om. β. and Cx.] of his frendes, and whanne he hadde i-warned þe senatoures by counsaille of his frendes,*. [by counsaille of his frendes] om. α. and γ.] þanne he was*. [werþe, β.; a werþ, γ.] al*. [al] om. Cx.] hool anon sodenliche.*. [hoole wonder sodenly, β. and Cx.; hool wonder sodeynlych, γ.] Whan þat*. [the, Cx.] wonder was i-seie þe senatoures spended*. [spende, α. and Cx.] suche foure*. [foure suche, Cx.] money as þey were [y-]*. [From α.] woned in suche*. [suche] om. Cx.] pleyes of þe theatre, as it were forto*. [for] om. Cx.] make good for þe cherles*. [churles, Cx.] trespas þat was foure siþes recheles forto warne þe senatoures as he was i-warned. Petrus, 204. Þe greet Seleucus Sother, þe grete Antiochus his sone, regned in Siria and in Asia twelve ȝere; for his fader was i-slawe*. [slayne, Cx.] in Pers in þe temple of god Naneas, and i-þrowe*. [throwen, Cx.] out gobet|mele traytoursliche by preostes*. [traytorly by preestes, Cx.] þat begiled*. [gylede, α.; bygyled, Cx.] hym into*. [yn, α.] þe temple, and byheet*. [promysed, Cx.] hym tresour þat was i-hidde under erþe.

Capitulum tricesimum quintum.

PTHOLOMEUS*. [Tholomeus, Cx., et infra.] Philometor regned in Egipt fyve and þritty ȝere. Petrus, 205. Þat tyme*. [Petrus, 205. þat tyme] om. β. and Cx. (not γ.)] Symon Onias his sone was Page  105, vol.4 preost*. [preest, Cx.] of þe temple and bisshop, and bouȝte þe preosthood*. [presthode, Cx.] of Appolinus duke of Phenicia.*. [duc of Fenicia, Cx.] Seleuchus herde þerof and sente Eliodorus forto undo þat dede, and whanne he was i-entred forto*. [for] om. Cx.] spoyle þe temple tweye ȝongelynges arise*. [aroos, Cx.] out of a prive*. [prevy, Cx.] place and slowȝ hym þere. It semeþ þat Iosephus wil mene*. [meaneth, Cx.] þat þey were aungels in liknes*. [lykenesse, Cx.] of men. Noþeles secundo Machabeorum it is i-write þat a dredful hors|man schovede*. [schewide, β.; shewed him, Cx.] hym forþ, and al totrade hym, but he slowȝ hym nouȝt. Iosephus, libro 2o.*. [12o] γ. and Cx.] Aboute þat tyme Ihesus Sirac his sone*. [Siraks sonne, Cx.] wroot þe book þat hatte*. [book callyd, Cx.] Ecclesiasticus, and cleped it Panarethon.*. [called it panerethon, Cx.] Þe þridde ȝere of Philometor oon Arestobolus,*. [Aristobus, Cx.] a Iewe and philosofre*. [philosofre] om. Cx.] paripateticus, þat is of Aristotel his lore,*. [Aristotles loore, Cx.] wroot to Ptholomeus a declaracioun and an*. [an] om. Cx.] exposicioun of Moyses his bookes. Eutropius, libro 4o. Þat ȝere deide*. [dyed, Cx.] Phelip kyng of Macedonia, and his sone Perseus was rebel aȝenst the Romayns; but Emilius Paulus, consul of Rome, overcome hym in wel stronge bataille, and slowȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] þritty þowsand of Grees,*. [Grekes, Cx.] but he dede*. [dyde, Cx.] hym wor|schippe Page  107, vol.4 as þeyȝ*. [though, Cx.] he were nouȝt overcome. For whanne he wolde falle doun to his feet he wolde nouȝt suffre hym, but he sette hym beside hym uppon his seete, and relesede*. [relesched, β.; relecede, γ.; releesed, Cx.] half þe tribute þat was woned*. [wonte, Cx.] to be payde, and heet*. [promysed, Cx.] þat þe Macedoynes*. [Macedones, Cx.] schulde be free, for it schulde seme þat þe Romayns werrede*. [werriden, β.; warrydde, Cx.] for riȝtwisenesse, and nouȝt for money. Trogus, libro 33o. In þis fiȝtinge oon Menynus,*. [Menninus, Cx.] Caton þe advoket his sone,*. [advocates sone, Cx.] while he fauȝt wonder*. [wonder] om. Cx.] strongliche,*. [mightely, Cx.] fil doun of his hors and fauȝt on his feet, and wolde have i-hitte*. [smiten, Cx.] a grete man, and his swerd fil doun of his honde, he diffended*. [defended, Cx.] hym wiþ his schilde,*. [sheld, Cx.] and gadrede his swerde among þe swerdes of his enemys in sight of boþe [the]*. [From Cx.] oostes,*. [hoostes, Cx.] and hadde many woundes, and torned to his owne side.*. [sidde, Cx.] Oþer men toke ensample of his hardynesse, and fauȝt orpedliche,*. [orpud liche, α.; orpedly, Cx.] and þe hardynesse of hym was cause of þe victorie. Perseus was i-take, and þanne afterward Macedonia fil*. [fyll, Cx.] to þe Romayns. From þe firste Craneus anon to þis Perseus þat lond hadde fyve and þritty kynges, in eiȝte hondred ȝere and foure and twenty. Ysidorus, libro 6o. *. [þis inserted in β.; þes inserted in γ.]Emilius Paulus brouȝt first bookes to Page  109, vol.4 Rome out of Grecia.*. [Grece, Cx,] Afterward Iulius Cesar chargede*. [Cezar chargith, Cx.] Marcus Farro*. [Varro, β. and Cx.] wiþ þat doynge forto make hym a librarie. And among Cristen men Pamphilius þe martir gadrede a librarie of bookes. Of hym Eusebius writeþ þat he hadde as it were an*. [α, Cx.] þritty þowsand volyms*. [volumes, Cx., et infra.] of bookes in his librarie. Þanne Origenes passede alle þat were tofore*. [byfore, Cx.] hym; Ierom seiþ þat he radde sixe þousand volyms of Origenes his bookes. [But Austyn passede þe travayle of hem alle, for unneþe may oo*. [α, Cx.] man rede alle his bookes.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Antiochus Epiphanes regned enlevene ȝere in Siria and in Asia. Þis is he þat was plegge*. [pledge, Cx.] at Rome for his owne fader, but he herde speke of his broþer nisete,*. [nycete, Cx.] and hopede forto be kyng of Siria,*. [Sciria, Cx.] and went priveliche*. [pryvely, Cx.] from Rome; þeyȝ*. [though, Cx.] somme men telleþ þat he scapede*. [escaped, Cx.] by assent of þe senatoures. First he was goodliche,*. [godely, Cx.] þerfore*. [þerfore] om. Cx.] þe peple ȝaf hym anoþer name, and cleped hym Epiphanes, þat is semeliche and worþy and noble*. [worþy and noble and semeliche, α. and Cx.] above oþere. He regnede for his brother Seleucus, whanne his broþer was dede. Þis ȝaf his suster in gyle to Ptholo|meus*. [Tholomeus, Cx., et infra.] to wife, for he wolde in þat manere occupie Egipt,*. [wolde by that rejoyse Egypte, Cx.]Page  111, vol.4 whan he sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] his tyme. Þan he wente into Egipt in*. [upon, Cx.] a tyme as [though]*. [From Cx.] it were forto see his suster and his nevewes, but he made þat Ptholomeus was i-slawe*. [slaine, Cx.] while he satt at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] mete; but þe Egipcians putte hym away for he schulde nouȝt be kyng over hem. But he come aȝen*. [ayene, Cx.] after two ȝere, and beseged*. [besyeged, Cx.] Alexandria. Trogus, libro 34o. And*. [And] om. Cx.] lo þe messangers*. [messagyers, Cx.] of Rome were i-sent forto*. [for] om. Cx.] delyvere þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Egip|cians, and mette wiþ Antiochus wandrynge on þe see stronde, and dede here*. [dyd her, Cx.] message in þis manere: "Þe senatours and þe peple of Rome hoteþ*. [chargeth, Cx.] and commaundeþ þe þat þou go away from here*. [theyr, Cx.] frendes the Egipcians." Þanne Antiochus axede [respyte]*. [respyte] from Cx.] firste [and]*. [From α., β., and Cx. A word has been erased here in γ.] a day to ȝeve his answere. Þanne Marcus Publicus*. [Publius, Cx.] wiþ a ȝerd made a cercle in þe sond*. [sande, Cx.] aboute Antiochus, and seide: "Þe senatoures and þe peple of Rome hoteþ*. [chargith, Cx.] and comaundeþ*. [commaunde, Cx.] þe þat þou nevere passe þis cercle or*. [er, Cx.] þou have i-geve*. [yeuen, Cx.] þyn answere." "ȝif þe Page  113, vol.4 peple of Rome," quod*. [sayd, Cx.] he [Antiochus],*. [From α.] will have it soo, loo ich*. [yche, α.; I, Cx.] goo." ℞. Þanne he tornede in to þe Iewerye,*. [Jewry, Cx.] and dede meny evel dedes.*. [many evyl tornes, Cx.] Þerfore þe bisshop Onias, Symon his sone, wente into Egipt, and gat frendschipe of þe kyng, and bulde*. [buylde, Cx.] þere a temple at Eleopoleos liche*. [like, Cx.] to þe temple of Iewes, and seide þat in þat dede he fulfilled*. [a folfulde, γ.] Ysay his pro|phecie, þat seide þe auȝter*. [aulter, Cx.] of oure Lord schal be in Egipt, and mynde of hym schal be in þe endes þerof. Þis temple durede so two hondred ȝere and fifty, anon to*. [unto, Cx.] Vaspasian his*. [Vaspasianus, Cx.] tyme, þat destroyede þe*. [þat, α., β., and Cx.] temple and þe citee also. Þanne þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] bisshop Onias deide as it is seide, and his tweie breþeren Ihesus and Iohn*. [Johan, Cx.] stryve to fore*. [stryven byfore, Cx.] Antiochus for þe bisshopriche; and forto plese Antiochus þey tornede to þe usage and doynge of mysbyleved men so ferforþ þat þey took names of mysbileved men; and [soo]*. [From β. and Cx.] Ihesus was i-cleped*. [callad, Cx.] Iason, and Iohn was i-cleped Menolaus.*. [named Menelaus, Cx] By ensample of hem meny of þe Iewes brouȝte yn doynge and dedes and Page  115, vol.4 usages of mysbyleved men, and made in Ierusalem hore houses*. [hous, α.; houre hous, γ.; harlattes howses, Cx.] and place for ȝongelynges to use here nysete ynne and lefte hem uncircumsised,*. [uncircumcided, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and cleped hem self*. [self] om. γ.] Antio|chenes. Antiochus made Iason bisshop, and putte hym oute afterwarde, and made Menelaus bisshop, þat counsaillede*. [counseyled, Cx.] Andronicus to slee his broþer Iason, for he folowede þe kyng into Antiochia to make hym chaunge his purpos,*. [purpoos, Cx.] and so it was i-doo; þerfore þe kyng was wrooþ, and slowȝ Androni|cus. Petrus, 26o capitulo.*. [206o, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Þat tyme þat Antiochus solde Iason þe bisshopriche and preost-hode,*. [prystehode, Cx.] þe fuyre of þe sacre|fise aqueynte,*. [sacryfyce acquenchid, Cx.] þat hadde i-dured to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] honde under water þre score ȝere and ten. Antiochus took Ierusalem by tresoun of þe citeȝeyns, [and took þennes ten þowsand citeseyns],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and compelled þe Iewes to mawmetrie, and slouȝ hem þat wolde nouȝt offre*. [he offreþ, α., β., γ.; he offred, Cx.] swynes flesche; and takeþ*. [toke, Cx.] away þe holy vessel, þe mete borde, and þe stene*. [stone, Cx.] wiþ þe lanternes, and þe temple cloþes, and setteþ Iubiter*. [sette Jupiter, Cx.] Olympicus his ymage evene in þe temple, and forbedeþ*. [forbeodeþ, γ.] þe sacrefise*. [forbade the sacryfyce, Cx.] of Moyses lawe; and in þe toure of Syon he putteþ*. [put, Cx.] men of Macedonia Page  117, vol.4 þat hateþ*. [hated, Cx.] þe Iewes. In þis Antiochus his tyme þe sevene breþeren*. [brether, Cx.] were i-slawe in*. [and, α., β., γ., and Cx.] here owne [moder].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Þat tyme Mathatias preost,*. [preest, Cx.] in þe citee Modyn, by help of his fyve sones, awrekeþ*. [awreked, Cx.] þe lawes of here forefadres. Iudas þat was i-cleped Machabeus for þe prys and the maistrie, he was chevetayn*. [cheventayn, α., γ.; capteyne, Cx.] among hem and ledere. Petrus, 207. Mathatias tauȝte þe Iewes to fiȝte in*. [on, Cx.] þe Saturday, for þe lawe and þe peple schulde not be lost; but he rulede þe peple oo*. [one, Cx.] ȝere, and deide afterward, and made his sone Symon as it were fader and counsaillour,*. [counseylour, Cx.] and Iudas Machabeus kepeþ þe lawes and*. [kepeþ þe lawes and] om. α., β., and Cx.] ledere of þe oost.*. [hoost, Cx.] Ennius þe poete deide in þe evel*. [evyl, Cx.] articularis, and is i-buried in Scipio his tomb.*. [Scipions tombe, Cx.] Iudas Machabeus kepeþ*. [kept, Cx.] þe lawes of forfadres ful þre ȝere, and he slouȝ Appollonus duke of*. [Appolinus duc of Cx.] Samaria, and fauȝt afterward wiþ his swerd. Antiochus wente into Pers, for þe tribute was unpayde, and Iudas Machabeus overcome Antiochus his lederes. Lisia, þat norschede þe ȝonge Antiochus, wente into Pers, ffor þe tribute was unpayde, and Iudas Machabeus Page  119, vol.4 overcome Antiochus his lederes,*. [Lisia . . . lederes] om. α, γ., and Cx. rightly.] Lisia þat norschede*. [norysshed, Cx.] þe ȝong Antiochus, and Ptholomeus*. [Tholomeus, Cx.] Gorgias, and Nichanor*. [Nycanor, Cx.]; and clensede þe temple and renewede it, þere gras, breres, and busshes were i-growe*. [growen, Cx.]; and so þe [þridde]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] halowynge of þe temple was i-doo in Iudas his tyme in þe monþe*. [moneth, Cx.] of De|cembre: þat halowynge is i-clepede Encenia,*. [named Eucennia, Cx.] and durede after|ward. Petrus, 211. Antiochus was schameliche i-chased*. [shamely chaced, Cx.] out of Pers, and herde þat his princes were overcome in þe Iuerie,*. [Jewry, Cx.] and manassed*. [manaced, Cx.] þe Iewes, and anon he was i-take wiþ ancarus,*. [antarus,β.; antarrus, γ. and Cx.] þat is ache and sorwe of his boweles,*. [bowels, Cx.] and fil*. [felle, Cx.] doun of his chaar,*. [chare, Cx.] and was i-hurt ful sore, and wormes come*. [sprang, α., β., γ.; sprange, Cx.] out of his body, and þe stenche of hym greved all þe oost.*. [hooste, Cx.] Þanne he byþouȝt hym, and knowleched þat hym was bifalle þat sorwe for he hadde defoulede*. [defowled, Cx.] þe temple of Ierusalem; þerfore he made his avow þat he wolde be a Iewe, and delyvere*. [delyverd, Cx.] þe Iewes, and make hem pere*. [peer, Cx., et infra.] to þe men of Athene. He seide also þat man schulde be suget*. [subgette, Cx.] to God, and nouȝt make hym self peere and evene to God, and so he Page  121, vol.4 deide in þe mountaigne.*. [mountaynes, α.; monteyns, γ. montaynes, Cx.] Antiochus Eupater, þe forseide*. [forsayd, Cx.] Antiochus Epiphanes his sone, regnede after his fader, and gadrede aȝenst þe Iewes an hondred þowsand [fotemen and twenty þowsand]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] horsmen, and two and þritty olyphauntes, and schewede hem þe juse*. [juys, γ.] of grapes and of buries*. [beryes, γ. and Cx.] forto scharpe hem to þe bataille. Petrus, 230.*. [213o, α., β., γ., and Cx.]

Capitulum tricesimum sextum.

DEMETRIUS Sother, Seleuchus*. [Selencus, Cx., passim.] his sone, went out of þe citee of*. [of] om. α.] Rome, and occupied þe citees by þe see side, and bygan to regne, and regnede in Asia and in Siria twelve ȝere; forto*. [to] om. Cx.] he come to Rome in childehode forto*. [for] om. Cx.] acuse his eme*. [accuse his uncle, Cx.] Antiochus Epiphanes þat hadde i-putte hym oute of his kyngdom. Þer|fore whan he herde þat his eme*. [this uncle, Cx.] was dede, he wente aȝen, and meny feng*. [receyved, Cx.] hym for hir lorde and kyng, so þat þe oost*. [oost, α.; hoost, Cx.]Page  123, vol.4 of Siria wolde slee Lisia*. [Licia, Cx.] and þe ȝonge Antiochus þat was aboute forto*. [for] om. Cx.] regne. Alchimitis*. [Alchimius, α., β., γ., and Cx.] i-made preost of Aaron his*. [made preest of Arons, Cx.] ordre, accusede Iudas*. [Iudas] om. Cx.] Machabeus to þis Demetrius of meny manere þinges and dedes. Þerfore he was i-sent wiþ Bachides to destroye the Iewerie,*. [Jewry, Cx.] but Iudas wiþstood hem so þat þey spedde nouȝt; þerfore Alchimius tornede aȝen to þe kyng. Nichanor was i-sent of þe kyng aȝenst Iudas, and was i-slawe,*. [slayne, Cx.] and his heed and his riȝt hond were i-honged*. [hanged, Cx.] toward Ierusalem, for he hadde proudeliche*. [prowdly, Cx.] i-spoke, and Iudas was underfonge to frendschipe of*. [connexed in frendship with, Cx.] þe Romayns, and þe covenant was i-write*. [wryten, Cx.] in tables of bras. Iudas Machabeus was i-slawe*. [slayne, Cx., et infra.] of Bachides and Alchimius, and his broþer Ionathas aroos*. [roos, Cx.] in his stede, and was ledere of þe Iewes nyn|tene ȝere. While Alchimius bygan to destroye Goddis hous and þe werkes of prophetes, he was i-smyte wiþ a palsy*. [palesie, Cx.] an*. [and, α. and Cx.] deide. Bachides tornede eft to þe kyng, and þanne two ȝere þe lond was in quyet*. [quiete, Cx.] and in pees. Alisaundre, Antio|chus Epiphanes his sone, occupiede Tholomayda and Achon, Page  125, vol.4 confetered*. [confered, α.; and confedred, Cx.] to hym Ionathas, and slouȝ Demetrius þe kyng, and regnede nyne*. [nyȝen, α.] ȝere in Siria and in Asia, and wedded Cleopatra, Tholomeus his douȝter. Demetrius, [Demetrius]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] his sone, þat fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx., et infra.] in to Creta to his moder kyn whan his fader was i-slawe, he come aȝen, and gaderede hym strengþe, and occupiede þe londes by þe see side; and Tholomeus ȝaf hym his douȝter Cleopatra to wife, þe whiche he hadde raþer i-ȝeve*. [byfore yeven, Cx.] to Alisaundre; and so Tholomeus þat traytour esily*. [traytorliche, β.] occupiede þe londes by the see side, and*. [þe . . . and] om. β.] Alisaundres citees, and entrede into Antiochia,*. [traytouresly occupiede Alisaun|dre his citees, entrede into Antiochia, α., γ.; traytrely occupyed Alysanders cytees, entred into Antiochia, Cx.] and took on hym tweyne dea|demes*. [toke on hym twey dyademes, Cx.] of Egipt and of Asia. Alisaundre was overcome of hym, and fliȝ*. [and fliȝ] om. α.] into Arabia [to his moder kyn]*. [From α., β.; wiþ his sone A. to h. m. kyn., γ.; Cx. has, with his sonne Antiochus to his moders cosyns.] and fliȝ. [But þe kyng of Arabia dradde]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Tholomeus his strengþe, and sente hym Alisaundre his heed. Ptholomeus*. [Tholomeus, Cx.] deyde þe þridde day after þat, and Demetrius regnede. Petrus, 219. Ionathas was accused to Demetrius þat he hadde i-wonne þe tour in Ierusalem, but he sente grete ȝiftes to Demetrius, and gat grace of hym, so þat he hadde renewed þe principalte*. [principate, α. β., γ., and Cx.] and þe preosthode.*. [presthode, Cx.] Þanne Detrius*. [Demetrius, β. and Cx.] was assured þat þe londe schulde be in pees in his owne hond. He leet his oost*. [lette his hoost, Cx.] goo home everiche man to his owne place, and hilde*. [heelde, Cx.] wiþ hym a strong ost.*. [a straunge hooste, β. and Cx.; strange, γ.] Þerfore þe peple hadde indignacioun of þe kyng, and Ionathas sente þe kyng þre þowsand of choyse*. [chosen, β. and Cx.; chose, γ.]Page  127, vol.4 men þat chasede*. [chastede, γ.; chacede, Cx.] þe traytours. At þe laste oon Tryphon, þat was somtyme oon of Alisaundres frendes, wente*. [wente] om. Cx. wrongly.] in to Arabia, and brouȝt þennes þe ȝonge*. [thens the yong, Cx.] Antiochus, Alisaundre his sone, and crownede hym kyng, and fauȝte aȝenste De|metrius, and overcome hym, and chasede hym; and Antiochus made frendschipe wiþ Ionathas, and sente hym vessel, pur|pure, and laaces*. [purpre and laces, Cx.] of silk, and made his broþer Symon duke*. [duc, Cx.] and ledere. After þat Ionathas renewede frendschipe wiþ þe Romayns and wiþ þe Sparciates. Eutropius, libro 4o. Þe þridde bataille Punicum aroos. For whanne þe men of Cartage hadde i-doo away hire*. [theyr, Cx.] schippes and here*. [her, Cx.] armoure, hem aþouȝte*. [hem forthought, β. and Cx.] þe dede; and for hem lakkede*. [laked, Cx.] boþe bras and yren, þey made hem armure*. [armour, Cx.] of gold and of silver, and made hem tweye dukes and lederes eiþer heet Asdrubal.*. [Astrubal, Cx.] Þe ȝonge Scipio, þe grete Scipio his nevewe,*. [Scipions nevewe, Cx.] overcome hem boþe, and took þe citee, and destroyed hit wiþ fuyre,*. [fyre, Cx.] so þat it brende*. [brande, γ.] sixtene dayes to giders,*. [togeders, Cx.] so þat stones were i-brend to askes*. [asshes, Cx.] and to powder.*. [pouther, α.; pouþere,] And so Cartage was destroyed aboute a*. [the, Cx.]Page  129, vol.4 sevene hondred ȝere after þat it was first i-bulde.*. [bylde, Cx.] ℞. Þat is sooþ forto acounte*. [forto acounte] om. γ.] from kyng David his*. [David þis, β.] tyme, so wil*. [Danidris tyme, so woll, Cx.] the maister in þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] stories; but loke more hereof in þe firste book, capitulo de Affrica. Orosius, libro 4o. Þanne kyng Asdrubal his wif for manliche*. [manly . . . womanly, Cx.] sorwe and wommanliche*. [manly . . . womanly, Cx.] woodnesse þrewe hir self and here tweie sones in to þe myddel of the fuyre,*. [fyre, Cx.] and so þe laste lady of Cartage hadde riȝt suche a manere ende as Dydo þe firste lady hadde. Augustinus, primo libro, capitulo 29o. Whanne þe þridde bataille Puny|cum was i-ended, Marcus Cato counsaillede*. [þe contrarye and wil nouȝt as|sente. These words are wrongly in|serted in MS. after the first coun|saillede, as well as after the second.] þat it*. [Cartage, α., β., γ., and Cx.] schulde be destroyed; but Scipio Nasica counsaillede*. [counseylled, Cx.] þe contrarie, and wil nouȝt*. [wolde not, Cx.] assente þat it schulde be destroyed. [For he dradde ȝef Cartage were destruyd,]*. [From γ.] þat sikernesse schulde be enemy to þe brutel wittes of Romayns; ffor as a wardeyn and kepere is nedeful to a childe, so is drede nedeful to cite|seyns,*. [cytezeins, Cx.] and þat was i-preved by þe same dede. For whan Cartage was destroyed, þan fil meny myshappes, cruel strif and tresoun, þefte*. [þeeþe, β.; þeofthe, γ.] and robberie, sleynge of citeȝeyns and exilynge, and moche oþer sorwe; so þat þe Romayns loste þe honeste of vertues and of þewes, and suffrede more cruel|nesse Page  131, vol.4 and sorwe of hir*. [theyr, Cx.] owne neiȝeboures and citeseyns*. [cytezeyns, Cx.] þan of straunge enemyes. Þis knewe wel Scipio, and wolde nouȝt assente þat Cartage schulde be destroyed, ffor he wolde þat [the]*. [From Cx. (not γ.)] outtrage schulde be chastised*. [chasted, γ; chasede, Cx.] by drede.

Capitulum tricesimum septimum.

PTHOLOMEUS*. [Tholomeus, Cx.] Euergetes regned in Egipt nyne and twenty ȝere, and þe ȝong Scipio was tweies i-made consul, and over|come þe Numentanes*. [Numantanes, Cx.] and made hem sugett*. [subget, Cx.] in a wel stronge bataille in Spayne, þe Romayns seide þat þey askaped*. [escaped, Cx.] and hadde not þe maistrie. Þanne Scipio axede nouȝt*. [nouȝt] om. β., γ., and Cx.] of a knyȝt þat heet Tyresus,*. [that was called Tiresus, Cx.] why þat citee was somtyme so strong þat it myȝte nouȝt be overcome, and by what cause it was afterward overcome and destroyed. "Acorde," quoþ he, "made hem have þe victorie, and discord and strif of þe citeseyns made the citee destroyed."*. [Acorde . . . destroyed] om. Cx. in error.]Petrus, 22o. Try|phon desirede forto regne, and caste forto slee Antiochus, but he dredde*. [drad, Cx.] Ionathas [as hym þat wolde defende Antiochus, Page  133, vol.4 þerfore he gylede*. [begyled, Cx.] Ionathas]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and slouȝ hym traytoures|liche,*. [traytorly, Cx.] and his tweyne*. [twey, Cx.] sones also; and þan afterward he slowȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] þe ȝong Antiochus, and regnede for hym in Asia. Symon aroos in stede of his broþer Ionathas, and made frend|schipe wiþ Demetrius þe kyng for wreþþe of Triphon*. [wreth of Tryphon, Cx.]; bot*. [But, Cx.] Demetrius passede to þe Medes forto [gete]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] helpe to werre aȝenst Tryphon, but he was i-take and afterward i-slawe*. [slayne, Cx.] of oon Artarxerses,*. [Arsaces, α., β., γ., and Cx.] kyng of Pers. After hym his sone Anti|ochus regnede [nyne ȝere]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] in Siria. He made first frend|schipe wiþ Symon, and þanne he pursuede Tryphon, þat fliȝ*. [flygh, Cx.] by þe see side into Antiochia. But at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] laste he brak covenaunt of frendschipe þat was made bytwene hym and Symon, and made oon Cendebeus duke*. [duc, Cx.] and ledere in þe see side.*. [side] om. Cx.] For he schulde werre in þe Iewerye,*. [Jewry, Cx.] but he was i-bore abak,*. [was put abak, Cx.] and overcome. Symon reneweþ*. [renewyd, Cx.] frendschipe wiþ þe Sparciates, þat beeþ þe Lacedemoynes,*. [ben the Lacedomones, Cx.] and sente þe Romayns a schilde*. [shelde, Cx.] of gold of a þowsand numinasmata,*. [mnas (blank) mna, α.; mnas. Trevisa mna, β., γ., and Cx. rightly.] is Page  135, vol.4 a manere weiȝte*. [weiȝte] om. Cx.] oþer a maner money, and weieþ sixty cicles. Ciclus is a ful unce among þe Hebrewes, and among Grees*. [Grekes, Cx.] and Latyns ciclus is a quarter of an unce; so in holy bookes of Hebrew ciclus is i-take for [an unce, and in heþen menis*. [menus, Cx.] bookes siclus*. [ciclus, Cx.] is i-take for]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] a quarter of an unce. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie. Suche frendschipe was i-made bytwene þe Iewes and the Romayns þat Lucius, consul of Rome, wroot to þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] kyngdoms of [the]*. [From β. and Cx.] Estlondes charginge þat þey schulde nouȝt greve þe Iewes. Attalus kyng of Asya made þe peple of Rome heyer*. [eyres, β.; heyr, γ. and Cx.] of his kyngdom.*. [Blank here as if for a reference, α.; Petrus 225, β., γ., and Cx.] Þat ȝere oon Ptholomeus duke*. [Tholomeus duc, Cx., et infra.] of Iherico, þat hadde i-wedded Symon his douȝter, was i-bede to þe feste, and slow Symon and his tweie sones. But Iohn,*. [Iohan, Cx.] Symon his sone þat overcome þe Hircanes, was i-cleped Hircanus, and herde hereof, and occupied Ierusalem, and pursewed Tholomeus and byseged*. [pursuede . . . besieged, Cx.] hym; and for þo was þe sevenþe ȝere, and*. [and] om. Cx.] Ptholomeus hadde i-sette Iohn*. [Iohannes, Cx.] his moder wiþ tweie sones uppon þe walles of þe citee, and made hem blede to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] Iohn his owne eyȝen,*. [oune yen, γ.; Iohannes eyen, Iohan, Cx.] Iohn lefte þe citee and þe sege, and wente his way. Antiochus Ponti|cus, kyng of Siria, byseged*. [besieged, Cx.] Ierusalem, þerfore Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] Hir|canus Page  137, vol.4 openede tweyne of þe eiȝte tresour places þat stondiþ aboute David*. [Dauiþis, β.; Davithis, Cx.] sepulcre, and took þennes þre þowsand talentes, and ȝaf Antiochus þre hondred talentes for to doo good away*. [forto goo away, α. and Cx.]; and of þe*. [that, β. and Cx.] oþer deel he made places of socour*. [soker, β.] for pore*. [socours for poure, Cx.] men, forto sese*. [ceese, β. and Cx.; cese, γ.] [so]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe peple þat grucched*. [grochgede, γ.; grutchyde, Cx.] for þe oponynge of þe sepulcre. Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] þe bisshop overcome þe Hircanes, and was confedered to þe Romayns. Orosius, libro 5o. Þat tyme was so grete [multitude of greet]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] fliȝes*. [flyes, Cx.] in Affrica þat þey gnowe*. [gnouȝ, β.; agnouȝ, γ.; ete, Cx.] and destroyede corn, gras, and ryndes of trees, þat*. [and, α., β., and γ.] were a-dreynt at þe laste in þe see of Affrica; and afterward were i-þrowe grete hepes*. [huples, γ.; heepis, Cx.] þerof on londe*. [alond, β.] to þe clyves,*. [cleues, γ.; clyffes, Cx.] þat stank so foule and so grevousliche þat þe smyl*. [smel, Cx.] þerof slouȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] boþe bestes and foules. At Munidia*. [Munydia, γ.] were i-slawe foure score þowsand men, at Cartage two hondred þowsand men; at*. [and, α. and Cx.] at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] citee Utica were deed*. [dede, Cx.] þritty þowsand knyȝtes of Rome þat were i-left to keep þe contray. Cartage in Affrica was i-bulde*. [bylde, Cx.] aȝen by heste of þe senatoures Page  139, vol.4 of Rome, twelve ȝere after þat it was destroyed, and þider*. [theder, Cx.] were i-brouȝt burgeis of Rome. Antiochus regnede þre ȝere, and in Asia twelf ȝere. Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] Hircanus destroyeþ*. [destroyed, Cx.] Sa|maria, but Herodes bulde hit afterward and cleped hit Sebasten. A duke of þe Galles wente aȝenst þe Romayns wiþ an hon|dred þowsand [and foure score þowsand]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] of men of armes, and was overcome on the brigge of schippes þat he*. [þei, β.; they, Cx.] hadde i-made over þe water of Rone. Marcus Terencius Farro,*. [Varro, Cx.] þat was boþe philosofre and poete and writere of stories is i-bore at Rome. Orosius, libro 5o, et Augustinus, libro 3o. Þe hil mount Ethna brend*. [brand, β.; brent, Cx.] passynge þat it was i-woned*. [wond, γ.; wonte, Cx.] to doo, so þat it sette þe citee of þe Cathenens on fire,*. [afier, β.] and undede þe bordes*. [burdes, α.] of schippes þat come þere nygh, and brende þe bowels of men þat were þere nygh, and chokede hem with hote ayer.*. [aer, α.; wiþ hote ayr, β.; wiþ hote aer, γ.; eyer, Cx.] Þerfore þe Romayns relesede*. [relesched, β.; relesshed, Cx.] þe Cathenens here*. [her, β.] tribute for ten ȝere.

Capitulum tricesimum octavum.

PTHOLOMEUS*. [Tholomeus, Cx.] [Sother, the sonne of Cleopatra,]*. [From β. and Cx.] regnede in Egipt seventene ȝere. Marcus Tullius Cithero is i-bore Page  141, vol.4 of*. [in, Cx.] [þe]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] Vulcene kynde. Valerius. He kepte bestes in his ȝouþe, and rulede þe empere*. [empyre, Cx.] of Rome in his elde; it is wonder þat he despisede lettres, and was hym self a plentevous*. [plentuos, γ.] welle of lettres. Þat*. [This, β. and Cx.] was a noble spekere in all manere tonges of witt*. [wytte, Cx.] and of wisdom, and cheef*. [chyef, Cx.] spekere wiþ tonge. He assoillede alle doutes cleerliche*. [clerely, Cx.] at wille, and clensed and hiȝte*. [enorned, Cx.] al rethorike. Me axede hym somtyme how he come to þe faire*. [fayre, α.; fair, γ.; fayr, Cx.] spekynge þat he hadde. "Noble facounde," quod*. [facunde, sayd, Cx.] he, "is a gret ȝifte of God almyȝty. Who þat knewe how, he schulde have faire manere of spekynge." He wroot alle þe gestes of Troye sotelliche,*. [subtylly, Cx.] as it myȝte be closed in a note schale.*. [shale, Cx.]Policratica, libro 5o, capitulo 6o. Cithero wolde somtyme bigge*. [bye, β. and Cx.; bugge, γ.] an hous in the paleys,*. [palys, β.; palays, Cx.] and hadde no money, and borwede of oon Silla,*. [Sillareus, γ.; Scilla, Cx.] but he was bewryed*. [ywryed, α.; wryed, β. and Cx.] or*. [er, Cx.] þe bar|gayn was i-made. Þan Cithero was i-meoved, and denyed Page  143, vol.4 al þat he hadde i-fonge,*. [receyved, Cx.] and seide þat he wolde bygge*. [bye, Cx., et infra.] non hous. "And ȝif I bigge an hous," quod*. [sayd, Cx., et infra.] he, "I schal know|leche þe soþe of þat ȝe putteþ*. [putte, Cx.] to me." And afterward whanne he hadde i-bouȝt þe hous it was i-putte aȝenst hym. "ȝe beeþ*. [be, Cx.] unwys," quod he, "ȝif ȝe knoweþ nouȝt þat biggers forsakeþ ȝif þey willeþ ouȝt bigge, and makeþ*. [knowe not that byers forsake yf they wole ought bye and make, Cx.] it as þouȝ þey wolde nouȝt*. [no thinge, Cx.] þerof to have þe bettre chepe;" and so what he myȝte nouȝt denye he wolde torne*. [teurne, γ.] hit to bourde and [to]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] lawȝhynge, and nouȝt to blame and to trespas." He hadde alway þat manere of*. [of] om. Cx.] doynge, þat as ofte as eny*. [ony, Cx.] foule dede was put aȝenst hym, þat he myȝte nouȝt denye, he wolde putte it of wiþ a mery answere. Ieronimus ad Nepocianum. Me seide som|tyme of oon to Tullius in þis manere: "Demostenes*. [Demostenes] om. α. It is written twice over in the MS.] bynam þe þat þou nere nat*. [nouȝt, α.; not, Cx.] first pledere, and þou hast bynome*. [bynom, Cx.] hym þat he is nouȝt pledere allone." Þis Tullius made meny bookes, as he telleþ*. [sayth, Cx.] hym self,*. [hym self] om. Cx.] libro 2o de divinatione. Liber Hortensibus, foure Achademicis,*. [Archademicis, Cx.] fyve Tusculanus,*. [Tusculanis, γ. and Cx.] sixe Annunciandi, De divinatione, de Senectute, de Amicicia, de Rethorica, de Officiis, de Republica. Titus. Sexe*. [Sixe, β. and γ.; Six, Cx.] hondred Page  145, vol.4 ȝere and fyve and fourty after þe buldynge*. [byldyng, Cx.] of Rome, was a batayle bytwene Sertorius and Pompeus. In þat bataille were deed sixe hondred knyȝtes in þe*. [that, β. and Cx.] oon side, and sixe hondred in þe*. [that, β. and Cx.] oþer side. Þe firste bataille durede*. [endured, Cx.] fourtene nyȝt.*. [fourtenyȝt, α; fort nyȝt, γ.; unto nyght, Cx.] A morwe a knyȝt of Pompeus his side*. [his side] om. Cx.] come among þe dede bodyes þat schulde be buried, and parceyved*. [perceyved, Cx.] þat he hadde i-slawe*. [slayne, Cx.] his owne broþer, and despised þe ba|taille, and slowȝ hymself for sorwe of þat dede, [and fylle*. [fil, β.] downe dede]*. [From β. and Cx.] uppon his broþer body. Petrus, capitulo 13o.*. [3o, α. and Cx.] Iohn*. [Johan, Cx.] Hircanus deyde after þre and þritty ȝere of his duche|rie, and lefte after hym his wif, þat was a noble spekere, and fyve sones to rule þe Iewerye.*. [Jewry, Cx.] Þe eldest heet*. [was called, Cx.] Aristobolus, and*. [that, β. and Cx.] myȝt nouȝt suffre his moder to regne over hym. Þerfore he prisoned his moder and his þre ȝonger*. [yong, Cx.] breþeren, and slowȝ hem wiþ honger. Þerfore he lyvede afterward but oo*. [one, Cx.] ȝere kyng and bisshop, and made his broþer Antigonus, þat he lovede, secounde in þe kyngdom.*. [þat . . . kyngdom] om. Cx. wrongly.] But he lete slee hym whan he come in armes out of þe Iewerie,*. [Jewry, Cx.] and þat made his Page  147, vol.4 owne*. [owne] om. β. and Cx.] suster, ffor he wolde nouȝt ligge*. [lye, Cx.] by here. And so þe kyngdom of Iuda was restored aȝen, þat hadde be wiþdrawe from Sedechias his tyme anon*. [unto, Cx.] to þis*. [the, Cx.] Aristobolus, foure hon|dred ȝere þre score and fiftene. Petrus, capitulo 5o. Whan þis Aristobolus was dede, his wif þat hadde no childe by hym took*. [toke, Cx.] his eldere*. [elþer, γ.] broþer Alisaundre Ianuneus*. [Iammeus, β. and Cx.; Iam|neus, γ.] out of bondes,*. [bandes, Cx.] and made hym kyng. Þis was a wel evel*. [ful evil, β. and Cx.] man, and slowȝ his owne secounde broþer, and kepte þe þridde broþer to lyve priveliche.*. [pryvely, Cx.] In*. [In] β. has the and the full stop after ȝere.] space of fyve ȝere he slowȝ fifty þowsand of olde men, for they wiþseide his vices and his*. [his] om. Cx.] evel*. [evyl, Cx.] doynge. He axede in*. [on, Cx.] a tyme how he schulde plese the Iewes, and was i-answered þat he schulde plese hem and þey*. [and he, β.; yf he, Cx.] were dede. Þanne he henge foure score wedded men, and here wyfes and here*. [here] om. Cx.] children.*. [childre, Cx.] Iosephus seiþ þat he deide at þe laste, þe sevene and twenty ȝere of his kyngdom, and lefte tweie sones on*. [α, β. and Cx.] lyve, Hircanus and Aristobolus, and wiste*. [weste, γ.] þat þey were odious to the Iewes, and made his wif Alexandria Page  149, vol.4 lady of þe Iewes. Sche*. [heo, β.] hadde ofte to forehonde i-wonne*. [bifore wonne, Cx.] love of þe peple, for sche*. [heo, β.] abated ofte þe malys*. [malyce, Cx.] and þe ty|rauntise*. [tyrannye, Cx.] of here housebonde while he was on*. [α, β. and Cx.] lyve. Marius, duke*. [duc, Cx.] of Rome, and sixe siþes consul, after þat he hadde overcome Iugurta [in]*. [From γ.] Numidia,*. [Munidia, γ. and Cx.] he slowȝ*. [slew, Cx.] two hondred þowsand of Cumbres*. [Cimbres, β. and Cx.] þat come aȝenst þe Romayns, and he took foure score þowsand prisoners, and eft wiþ oon Catalus*. [Catulus, Cx.] were dede of hem*. [of hem] om, Cx.] seven score þowsand. Ptholomeus*. [Tholomeus, Cx., et infra.] Alexander regned in Egipt ten ȝere; for Ptholomeus*. [Tholomeus, Cx., et infra.] Sother was put out by his moder Cleopatra, and i-chased*. [chasid, Cx.] in to Cipres.*. [Ciprys, β.; Cyprys, Cx.] Lucrecius þe poete is i-bore,*. [yborn, Cx.] þat drank afterward love drynkes and worþe*. [werþ, α., β., γ., and Cx.] wood.*. [wode, Cx.] Noþeles he wroot som bokes bytwene þe reses of his woodnesse,*. [wodenese, Cx.] and slowȝ hym self wiþ his owne hond þe ȝere of his lif foure and fourty, and Cithero*. [Cythero, Cx.] amendede his bookes. Eutropius, libro 5o. Þe kyngdom of Siria faillede,*. [faylyd, Cx.] and fel*. [fil, β.; ful γ.] to þe lordschipe*. [fyl to the lordship, Cx.] of þe Romayns. Þe bataille þat was i-cleped Sociale bellum bygan in Italy, for the Pycens, Marces,*. [Marses, β. and Cx.] Pelignes werrede strong|liche Page  151, vol.4 foure ȝere aȝenst þe Romayns. In þat werre*. [were, Cx.] deyde tweye consuls and Porcius Cato, but þey*. [he, α.] were overcome at the laste of Silla*. [Scylla, Cx.] and of Marius Pompeus.*. [Pompeius, Cx.]

Capitulum tricesimum nonum.

PTHOLOMEUS*. [Tholomeus, Cx., et infra.] Sother þat was put out by his owne moder, rekeverede*. [recuerede, γ.; rekeverd, Cx.] þe kyngdom of Egipt whan his moder was i-slawe*. [slayn, Cx.] by Ptholemeus*. [Tholomeus, Cx., et infra.] Alexander, and regned in Egipt eiȝte ȝere, ffor citeseyns*. [cyteȝeyns, Cx.] hadde i-putte out Ptholomeus*. [Tholomeus, Cx., et infra.] Alexander for the slauȝter of his moder. Salustius Crispus, writer of stories, is i-bore in Sabyn, of hym is ȝit moche þing i-wrete.*. [wryte, Cx.] Þat tyme were i-seie*. [seen, Cx. et infra.] meny grete wondres harde and dredful,*. [dredfol, γ.] ffor under þe arisynge of þe sonne was i-seie a dredful cluster*. [closter, α.; clouster, γ.; clustre, Cx.] of fuyre.*. [fyre, Cx.] And in a feste among þe Ar|tynes*. [Aretines, β.; Aritines, Cx.] blood ran out of þe looves,*. [loves, β., γ., and Cx.] as it were out of newe woundes; and þe erþe was i-bete sevene dayes to giders*. [togyder, Cx.] wiþ grete hayle*. [hawl, β.; hawel, γ.] stones i-medled*. [ymelled, γ.] with scherdes. Among þe Page  153, vol.4 Sampnites and Beneventanes þe eorþe*. [erth, Cx.] oponede and leye*. [ley, β. and γ.; leyhe, Cx.] of fuyre*. [fire, α.] was i-seie*. [seen, Cx., et infra.] breke oute and strecche up in to hevene. Also bestes þat were i-woned*. [wonte, Cx.] to lyve among men forsoke stable and lesewe,*. [liswe, γ.] and fliȝ*. [stabels and lesow and fledde, Cx.] to hilles and mountayns, low|ynge and bletynge. Also houndes forsook*. [forsoke, Cx.] companye of man|kynde. Orosius, libro 5o. In a pleyn*. [playne, Cx.] of Campanya were i-seie*. [seen, Cx., et infra.] as it were scheltroms and oostes*. [shiltrons and hoostes, Cx.] of fiȝtynge men meny dayes to giders,*. [togeder, Cx.] and noyse and hurtlynge*. [hurlyng, Cx.] to gidre*. [togedres, α.; togeder, Cx.] of armure*. [armour, Cx.] was i-herd, and þere were afterward i-sene foores*. [forows, Cx.] and steppes of men and of hors;*. [horses, Cx.] and nouȝt longe afterward,*. [afterward] om. Cx.] after the bataille þat heet*. [called, Cx.] bellum [Sociale, bygan þe batayle þat is ycleped bellum]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Civile. Tweie breþeren germans*. [germains, Cx.] bygunne þat bataille, eiþer of hem heet*. [was named, Cx.] Graccus.*. [Agractus, γ.] Þe bataille was bygonne for þe lawe þat hatte agraria.*. [lawe called agaria, Cx.] In þat lawe it was of olde tyme þat þe senatoures schulde entremete of no dede man his feeldes*. [mennes feldes, Cx.] þat he hadde while he was on lyve,*. [lyvynge, Cx.] but þe feeldes wiþ oute eny*. [ony, Cx.] plee Page  155, vol.4 schulde falle to þe nexte of þe blood; but þe gentil*. [jantil, γ.] men dede*. [dyde, Cx.] oþerwise, and helde and occupied feeldes of meny men. Þerfore oon Graccus*. [Gractus, γ.] in*. [on, Cx.] a day of prayers, whanne alle þing schulde be axsed*. [axed, Cx.] þat schulde be restored, axede openliche*. [axed openly, Cx.] þat þe feeldes þat were so i-holde schulde be delyvered and restored aȝen to þe peple. Þerfore þe gentil*. [jentyl, α.; jantil, γ.] men were i-meoved*. [moeved, Cx.] and wrooþ, and slowȝ two hondred of þe peple wiþ feet and gobouns*. [gobettis, β.] of chayers,*. [gobuns, γ.; gobettes of chayres, Cx.] of formes,*. [fourmes, Cx.] and of stooles, and þrewe hem in to Tyber; and Graccus was i-slawe,*. [slayne, Cx.] and unburied longe tyme. Also Silla þe consul wente into Cam|pania aȝenst Metridas, and was in Campania*. [13-13 aȝenst . . . Campania] om. Cx.] forto destroye al þe relif*. [releef, α. and Cx.; relef, β.] of þe bataille þat heet*. [called, Cx.] [bellum]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] sociale. Þanne Marius, þat hadde be consul sixe siþes, desired now for to be consul þe sevenþe tyme, and profrede*. [profered, β. and Cx.] hym forto*. [for] om. Cx.] undertake þe bataille aȝenst Metridas. Whan Silla wiste*. [woste, α.; wuste, γ.; wyste, Cx.] þerof he tornede*. [tourned, Cx.] aȝen to þe citee wiþ foure legiouns,*. [legyons, Cx.] and entrede into the citee, and slouȝ Marius his messanger,*. [messager, Cx.] and Page  157, vol.4 axede brondes forto sette the citee on*. [α, α. and Cx.] fuyre,*. [fyre, Cx.] and byseged*. [besieged, Cx.] Marius wiþ ynne þe Capitoyl. Þe mene tyme Marius foundede an idel*. [ydel, β.; fondede an ydel, γ.] forto meove*. [meve, β.; atte last Marius ymagyned to fynde a mean to meove, Cx.] þe comounte*. [comonte, Cx.] of horsmen, to helpe hym at þat tyme. [And]*. [Cx., not β. or γ.] at þe laste he egged bonde men to dedes of armes for hope of pray and of fredom, but þey durste*. [þurste, α. and γ.] nouȝt wiþ stonde. Þanne Marius went up in to þe Capitoyle, and hadde meny of his men*. [men] om. α.] i-slawe, and scapede wel unneþe.*. [slayne and unneth escaped hym self, Cx.] Þanne Marius fliȝ, and tornede in*. [in] om. α.] to maryse*. [marreys, β.; mareys, γ.] and into*. [to, α.] watery*. [fled and tourned to marreys and to wattry, Cx.] places; þere herdes*. [herodes, Cx.] fond hym among mory flagges and sprayes, and sente hym to Silla; and Silla sent hym to þe Combres,*. [Cunbres, Cx., et infra.] þat were þe worste enemyes þat he hadde, and þey prisoned*. [emprisoned, Cx.] hym. Þere it semed þat godes*. [goddes, β. and Cx.] come to hym, and were wiþ hym þere, and liȝt schoon*. [lyghte shone, Cx.] in þe prisoun whan [that]*. [From Cx., not β.] þe tormentor was i-sent for*. [in, Cx.] to slee hym, þe tormentoures hond faillede and schoke*. [fayled and shoke, Cx.] for drede, and a voys was i-herde in þe ayer;*. [eyer, Cx.] and whanne þat voys was i-herde*. [and . . . i-herde] wherwith, Cx.] þe Combres were astonyed for drede, and fil*. [felle, Cx.] doun*. [doun] om. Cx.] to þe grounde, and leet*. [letten, Cx.] Marius Page  159, vol.4 goo his way. ℞. Lucanus spekeþ of þis hap, libro 2o. Marius [was]*. [Cx.] flemed,*. [fleme, γ.] and i-hidde*. [y-hyd, α.; hidde, Cx.] in þe busshes of þe fenny more. Titus. Þis Marcius*. [Marius, β.] was so delyvered by help of þe goddes*. [godas, α.; goddesse, Cx.] Marica, þat was i-worschipped*. [worshiped, Cx.] þere; he hadde i-putte hym self to hire*. [hir, Cx.] by his avow.*. [afouz, γ.] He took wiþ hym his felawe Cinna, and grevede þe Romayns in meny manere wise, and gat the office*. [thoffyce, Cx.] of consul, and occupiede it in*. [in] om. α., γ., and Cx.] þe sevenþe tyme; but he occupiede þat offyse but þrittene*. [thyrten, Cx.] dayes at þat tyme, from þe firste day of Ianyver,*. [Ianuar, Cx.] whan consuls fongeþ here solempne consul array,*. [receiven the aray fyrst of consul, Cx.] to þe þrittenþe day of the same monþe.*. [moneth, Cx.] Marius, after þat he come out of prisoun, passede into Affrica, and gadrede help in*. [on, Cx.] every side, and come aȝen to destroye þe comounte*. [comonte, Cx.] of Rome, and deled his cost*. [made his hoost, Cx.] in foure partyes. Oon partie, þat is*. [was, Cx.] þre legiouns, he took to*. [to] om. Cx.] hym self. Carbo hadde þe secounde party. Ser|torius [þe þridde, and Sinna*. [Cinna, Cx.] þe fourþe. Sertorius]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] fauȝt strongliche with Pompeus. Marius and Cinna entrede in to*. [into] om. Cx.] þe citee, and slouȝ meny of þe consuls and of þe senatoures. Augustinus de Civitate. Also Marius made Octavius þe con|sul Page  161, vol.4 his heed i-smyte*. [be smyten, Cx.] of, and leet sette þe heed in Prorostris, þat is þe comoun*. [comune, Cx.] place of Rome, þere þinges beeþ i-sette*. [be sette up, Cx.] in siȝt of*. [for, α. and Cx.] men to loke, byholde, and wondre þeron.*. [þeron] on, Cx.] Þere burgeys were i-woned*. [bourgeys were wonte, Cx.] to stonde and loke aboute and telle here mery*. [there myry, Cx.] tales. ℞. Lucanus seiþ [that]*. [Cx.] in þe feelde þat hatte*. [called, Cx.] Marcius, at þe grete feste, i-made*. [he made, β. and Cx.] sette þe hedes of gentil men*. [jantil, γ., et infra.] þat were i-slawe*. [slayne, Cx.] in stede of messes uppon þe mete bordes. Titus. Marius was so cruel þat meny men hadde levere slee hem self þan come in Marius his honde. Þerfore Catulus þe consul drank venym, and Merula, Iupiter his*. [Jupiters, Cx.] owne bisshop, kutte*. [kytte, Cx.] his owne*. [owne] om. Cx.] veynes, and bledde*. [bled, Cx.] anon to*. [anon to] om. Cx.] deþe.*. [deth, Cx.] Also Marius heet*. [bade, Cx.] þat no man schulde be spared þey*. [though, Cx.] he axede mercy in his owne presens,*. [presence, Cx.] but ȝif he hym self putte forþ the riȝt honde in tokene of mercy. Þerfore þe senatoures þat lefte and gentil men*. [gentelmen, Cx.] of Rome passede into Grees and prayede*. [Grece and prayd, Cx.] Silla the consul to helpe þe comounte*. [comynte, Cx.] of Rome þat was nyh i-lost. [Eutropius.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.]Page  163, vol.4 Þat tyme Silla at Athene hadde overcome oon*. [one, Cx.] Archelaus, Metridas his*. [his] om. Cx.] duke, and i-slawe*. [slayn, Cx.] an hondred þowsand [of]*. [From α. and γ.] men; so þat Archelaus hidde hym self naked þre dayes in deep watery*. [wattry, Cx.] mores. Whanne þis was i-knowe,*. [knowen, β. and Cx.] Metridas prayeþ*. [prayd, Cx.] [for]*. [Cx., not β.] pees, and Silla assenteþ*. [assented and graunted, Cx.] and graunteþ, for to have þe lasse peril behynde*. [lesse perylle byhynde, Cx.] hym, and forto go þe save|loker*. [savelokr, γ.; more savely, Cx.] and þe sikerer*. [sycurere, α.; sicurer, β.; surer,] to cruel*. [þe civel, α.; the civile, Cx.] bataille aȝenst Marius. Þanne Silla come aȝen to Rome, and slouȝ and exciled*. [exyled, Cx.] so many þowsandes of men, þat Quyntus*. [Quintus, Cx.] Catulus seide to hym opounliche,*. [openly, Cx.] "Wiþ whom schulle*. [shal, Cx.] we lyve, ȝif we sleeþ*. [slee, Cx.] armed men in bataylle and unarmed men in pees?" Augus|tinus, libro 3o, capitulo 24o. For Silla þoo*. [than, β. and Cx.] ȝaf leve in þat stryf to his men forto*. [for] om. Cx.] slee whom þat þey wolde, þe way was [y-]*. [From α. and γ.] opened forto*. [for] om. Cx.] take wreche of al olde wreþþe.*. [wrath, Cx.] Þerfore Silla his riȝt in punschynge*. [in punschynge] om. Cx.] was worse to the comynte*. [comonte, Cx.] of Rome þan Marius his wickednesse þouȝ þeyȝ*. [they, Cx.] were unpunsched;*. [unpunysshed, Cx.] ffor by boþe were moo men i-slawe þanne by þat oon. Eutropius. Þis civile batayle durede Page  165, vol.4 ten ȝere, and destroyede moo þan an hondred þowsand of*. [of] om. Cx.] men and fifty þowsand, wiþoute senatoures, consuls, pre|tories, and edelynes,*. [Edelicies, α., β., and γ.; Edyli|cies, Cx.] men of dignyte. ℞. Þerfore here take hede of sixe batailles þat were among the Romayns, and everiche þerof was i-clepede*. [and every batayll was called, Cx.] bellum civile. In þe firste bataille Marius fauȝt aȝenst the citee. In þe secounde ba|taille Silla fauȝt aȝenst Marius and aȝenst his fautoures.*. [fauctours, Cx.] In þe þridde bataille Sertorius fauȝt aȝenst Pompeus. In þe fourþe bataile Catilina*. [Catilini, γ.; Catelina, Cx.] fauȝt aȝenst þe comounte.*. [comente, Cx.] In þe fifte bataile Lepidus fauȝt aȝenst Catulus. Þe*. [Here Cx. inserts a.] sixe*. [sixth, Cx.] batayle was bytwene Iulius and Pompeus. Eutropius. After þis Silla tornede aȝen, and hadde worschipfulliche*. [worschipliche, α. and β.; wor|shipfully, Cx.] þe maistrie of Metridas. Trogus, libro 37o. Metridas, [Metridas]*. [From α., β., and Cx.; Metridas þat was Metridas heys sone, γ.] his sone, kyng of Pontus, was rebel*. [rebell, Cx.] to þe Romayns sixe and fourty ȝere, so þat ȝif it semede somtyme þat he was over|come, he wolde arise aȝen wiþ more myȝt and strengþe. Þis was delyvered by his kynnes*. [kyn his, α.; kyn hys, γ.] men out of þe awaytes*. [aweytes, β. and γ.] of his owne moder, þat hadde i-slawe*. [slayne, Cx.] here owne fyve sones; and Page  167, vol.4 þis ȝongelyng was i-take*. [taken, Cx.] to wardeyns to kepe, þat sette hym uppon a wylde hors, and compelled hym to pleye*. [play, Cx.] and to ryde, and while he rulede þe hors over myȝt to his elde, his wardeynes arayede*. [made, γ.] venym forto ȝeve him to drynke. Þe wise childe dradde þerof, and drank of þe*. [of þe] ofte, β.] medecynes of triacle,*. [ofte medycynes, γ.; ofte medy|cynes of treacle, Cx.] by þe whiche remedyes he put of þe peril of venym in his ȝouþe,*. [yougth, Cx.] so þat he myȝte nouȝt deie by venym whan he wolde have deide [by venym]*. [From β. and Cx.] in his elde. Þanne after venym he dradde yre, and feyned hym þat he wolde wende*. [goo, Cx.] an hont|ynge, so þat in sevene ȝere he come nevere in citee noþer*. [ne, Cx.] in smal toun; so þat al þat tyme he hadde nevere hous over heed, but walkede and lay by nyghte in hilles and in moun|taynes,*. [montaynes, Cx.] and þere ofte he travaylede*. [α., β., and Cx. omit the first ofte, and insert it here.] wylde bestes, and took hem wiþ swifte rennynge,*. [eornyng, γ.] and fauȝt wiþ hem som|tyme forto make his body stedefast*. [stidefast, β.; studefast, γ. stydfast, Cx.] by use in traylle*. [travayle, α.; travayl, Cx.] forto dure.*. [tendure, Cx.] Also whan he come to rulynge of þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] kyngdom he chastede þe Schytes,*. [chastysed the Scites, Cx.] þat myȝte nouȝt be overcome tofore|honde*. [byfore, Cx.] by sleyþe*. [sleyght, Cx.] of witte. He occupiede Pontus and Mace|donia. Page  169, vol.4 Also he wente priveliche*. [pryvely, Cx.] out of his kyngdom, and took wiþ hym som of his frendes, and passed into Asia, and wente aboute in Asia, and aspyed*. [espyed, Cx.] þe places and contrayes*. [countrees, Cx.] of þat lond, and come aȝen þanne in to his owne kyngdom, and fonde a litel sone þat Laodice, þat was boþe his wif and his owne suster, hadde [y-]*. [From α.] brouȝt forþ by a copener*. [copyner, β. and Cx.; copener, γ.] while he was absent in oþer londes. Þerfore þe wif ordeyneþ*. [ordeygned, Cx.] venym for Metridas whanne he come home. But he was i-warned by a wenche þat served his wyf, and took wreche of þe doeres of þat false dede. Þanne whan wynter was i-come*. [comen, β. and Cx.] he wolde nouȝt be in festes, but in þe feeld, stryvynge on*. [wiþ, γ.] his hors in rennynge,*. [eornynge, γ.] oþer*. [or, β. and Cx.] in grete dedes of strengþe, and made his oost use*. [hoost to use, Cx.] suche travayle and dedes forto make hem konnynge*. [connynge, Cx.] by use, stalworþe, and stedefast*. [studefast, γ.; stydfaste, Cx.] efte sones whan þey schulde fiȝte. Þanne he werred in Galacia, and despisede þe manas*. [despysed the manase, Cx.] of þe Romayns. Metridas his secounde wyf schaar hir heed for love of here housbonde,*. [husband, Cx., et infra.] and usede hir forto ride, forto helpe what sche*. [heo, β.] myȝte ȝif hire housebonde fille*. [ful, γ.] in eny peril,*. [husband fell in ony peryll, Cx.] and forto be wiþ hym alway. Here*. [hir, β.] housebonde was overcome Page  171, vol.4 of Pompeus, and fliȝ,*. [fledde, Cx.] and sche*. [heo, β.] sewed hym alway among [wel]*. [From α.; ful, β. and Cx.] cruel naciouns. Giraldus. As ofte as þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] hyȝeste consuls, Silla*. [Sylla, Cx.] and Pompeus, overcome Metridas, so ofte he semed þe more myȝty and strong, ffor he occupiede Babi|lonia*. [Babyloyne, Cx.] [and Asia,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and pesede*. [peesed, β.] þe Schytes,*. [pleased the Scites, Cx.] and wan Asia,*. [and wan Asia] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] and made sugett*. [subgett, Cx.] Capadocia and Armenia; and made his owne kyngdom strecche streiȝt anon*. [stretche streyht unto, Cx.] to Ynde and come to Ephesius;*. [Ephesus, β.] and slowȝ al þe Romayns in oon day þat were in Asia. Tho*. [þoo α.; Than, Cx.] he sente Archelaus, [that was]*. [Cx., not γ.] þe duke to fore*. [due byfore, Cx.] hym into Grecia*. [Grece, Cx., et infra.] wiþ an hondred þowsand of*. [of] om. Cx.] fiȝt|ynge men, þat gat hym al Grecia. Att þe laste he was i-holde of his owne sone Farnaces, and drank venym by his good wille, ffor he wolde deye,*. [have dyed, Cx.] but it greved hym nouȝt. Þerfore a knyȝt of þe Galles þat he hadde i-greved was i-prayde for to slee hym, and slowȝ hym anoon. After his deeth Pompeus made Tigranes kyng of Siria, and brende wiþ fuyre*. [brente with fyre, Cx.] þe temple of Ierusalem.

Page  173, vol.4

Capitulum quadragesimum.

THOLOMEUS*. [Ptholomeus, Cx.] Denys regnede þritty ȝere in Egipt. In his tyme Plautus Latinus, þe grete Pompeus his*. [his] om. β.] enditour and faire speker,*. [rethoricien, Cx.] Libertus þe doctour, florischeþ*. [was in prosperyte, Cx.] at Rome. Silla*. [Sylla, Cx.] þe consul deyde at Rome after þat he hadde þe victorie of Metridas. Nichomedes, kyng of Bithinia, made peple of Rome his heires whan he deyde. Whan he was dede, Metri|das braak þe pees,*. [brake the peas, Cx.] and werrede in Bythinia and in litel Asia. Tweye consuls of Rome were i-sent aȝenst hym. He over|come þat oon of hem, and was overcome of þat oþer, þat come byhynde, and folowede after hym, and slowȝ of his an hon|dred þowsand fyȝtinge men. In Italy bygan a newe bataylle of foure and seventy [of]*. [From α. and β.] comoun writers*. [fyȝters, α. and γ,; fizters, β.; fyghters, Cx.] and cokkers, þat [robbede],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] brende, and slow, and dede spousebreche*. [spousbruche, γ.] and oþer leccherie,*. [brake spousage and dide lechery, Cx.] and overcome þe consuls of Rome, and gadrede hem sixty þowsand men of armes. But after þre ȝere, Marcus þe consul overcome hem in Apuleya*. [Apulia, α.; Apulea, Cx.] [Naples].*. [Added in Cx., and above the line in β.] Alexan|dria,*. [Alexandra, Cx.]Page  175, vol.4 þat heet*. [otherwyse called, Cx.] Sabina also, Alisaundre his wif, regnede nyne ȝere among þe Iewes, and slowȝ and outlawede meny Iewes by counsaille of þe Pharisees:*. [counseyll of the Phareseys, Cx.] þe secte of hem bygan at þat tyme. Eutropius, libro 6o. Virgil Marro is i-bore nyh to Mantua.*. [Mantina, β.] Skumers,*. [Scymmers, β.; skumors and se þeoves, γ.; Scomers, Cx.] and see þeeves [grevede and robbede al þe see],*. [From α., β., and Cx.] so þat þe Romayns, þat were victoris of alle þe world aboute, hadde no siker seillynge*. [non syker, γ.; sure saylyng, Cx.] wiþ oute oþer socour. But Pompeus þe consul chastede*. [chastysed, Cx.] þese skumers*. [skumeres, α.; þeeves, β.; skumors, γ.; theves, Cx.] at þe laste. Þanne Pompeus toke a bataille aȝenst Metridas, and aȝenst Tygranes kyng of Armenye, ffor he hadde i-socoured and i-favored Mitridas þat was aȝenst þe Romayns, and i-fonge*. [received, Cx.] hym, and saved*. [seued, β.] hym in his fliȝt*. [in his fliȝt] om. Cx.] whan he fleyȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] from*. [from] om. Cx.] þe Romayns. Þerfore Pompeus overcome Mitridas in bataille by myȝte,*. [nyȝte, α. and β.; nyghte, Cx.] and destroyede his castelles*. [castels, Cx.] and his tentes, and slowȝ fourty [thousand]*. [From β. and Cx.] of his men, and made Tygranes to ȝilde hym self, and by nam*. [toke from him, Cx.] boþe Armenye and Asia, and made hym bere a*. [α] om. Cx.] tribute of sixe þowsand talentes of silver, ffor he hadde i-meoved werre wiþ oute cause aȝenst þe Romayns. Trevisa.*. [Trevisa . . . storie] om. β. and Cx.] As I have i-seide to fore honde, þe leste talent weyeþ fifty pounde, the myddel weyeþ þre score pounde and twelve, and þe moste weyeþ sixe score pounde. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie.*. [Trevisa . . . storie] om. β. and Cx.] [Therfor Pompeus ouercome Page  177, vol.4 Metridas. Than]*. [From Cx.; not in β. nor γ.] Mitridas fleyȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] wiþ his wif, and nouȝt longe afterward was wel*. [wel] om. Cx.] cruel to his owne men, and slowȝ his tweie sones. Þanne Farnaces þe*. [his, Cx.] þridde sone took en|sample of his breþeren, and was aferde*. [soore ferd, Cx.] wel*. [ful, γ.] sore, and made þe oost*. [hoost, Cx.] torne to hym þat was i-sent forto*. [for] om. Cx.] pursewe hym, and bysege*. [besieged, Cx.] his owne fader at Bosforum*. [Gofforn, Cx.]; the fader cryeþ*. [cryed, α. and Cx.] mercy, but þe sone wolde nouȝt here.*. [huyre, γ., et infra.] Þan [this]*. [Cx., not β.] Metridas prayde his goddes þat his sone Farnaces moste*. [myghte, Cx.] somtyme here*. [huyre, γ., et infra.] þe same vois*. [foys, γ.] of his owne sones. Þanne he ȝaf his wif and his douȝtres venym to drynke, and slowȝ hem in þat manere. For he myȝt nouȝt deie*. [not dye, Cx.] by venym, he prayede a knyȝt of Galles to slee hym, and he slowȝ hym anon, and [soo]*. [From β. and Cx.] Metridas deide þe ȝere of his age þre score and ten, and þe ȝere of his kyngdom þre score evene. After þat Pom|peus overcom þe Albans, and þe men of Hiberia, of Siria, and of Arabia. Mar., libro primo. Þe ȝere of Ptholomeus six|tene, Oracius þe poete satiricus and liricus was i-bore*. [were born, Cx.] at Page  179, vol.4 Venasia,*. [Venusia, γ.; Venacia, Cx.] a citee of Italy. Trevisa. Here take hede þat som*. [α, α. and γ.] poete is i-clepede liricus, and som poete is i-cleped satiricus, and haþ þat name of satis, þat is inow, for þe matire*. [matier, Cx.] þat he spekeþ of he toucheþ at þe fulle; and þre poetes beeþ specialliche i-cleped*. [be specially called, Cx.] satirici, Oracius, Persius,*. [Percius, Cx.] and Iuve|nalis. Petrus. Whanne [that]*. [Cx., not β.] Alexandra*. [Alexandre, Cx.] was dede, þat ordeynede her eldest sone Hircanus to be kyng and bisshop afterward, þe tweie sones [þat]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] were on lyve, Hircanus and Aristobolus, stryved*. [stryve, α.; stryven, Cx.] for þe empere,*. [thempire, Cx.] and ȝaf þe Romayns occasioun to werre*. [werry, γ.] in Iudea, þat is þe Iewerie.*. [Jewry, Cx.] Þerfore Pompeus*. [Pompeius, Cx., et infra.] come and took Ierusalem unneþe þe þridde monþe,*. [moneth, Cx.] and slowȝ þrittene þowsand of*. [of] om. Cx.] Iewes, and toke þe oþere uppon here fay,*. [feye, β.; fey, γ.; theyr othes, Cx.] and þrewe doun þe walles of Ierusalem evene wiþ þe grounde, and ȝaf Hircanus þe preost|hood,*. [prysthode, Cx.] and ladde Aristobolus i-bounde, and his tweye sones wiþ hym into Rome, and lefte Staurus*. [Scaurus, γ.] lorde of Siria. Pompeus hadde i-be to forehonde*. [had be byfore, Cx.] strengest in batayles, but [for]*. [for, added from β.] he hadde i-stabled his hors*. [stabuled his horses, Cx.] in þe porches and in*. [in] om. Cx.] oþer places of þe temple he hadde never grace afterward wel to speke,*. [spede, α., γ., and Cx.] and so he fauȝt nevere afterward*. [ward] om. Cx.] but he were*. [was, Cx.] overcome. Eutro|pius, Page  181, vol.4 libro 2 o.*. [sexto, Cx.] Whanne al þis was i-doo, after [that]*. [Cx.] Pompeus hadde i-fouȝte realliche*. [realich, β.; realych, γ.; fough|ten ryally, Cx.] wiþ two and twenty kynges, he wente into Asia, and made an ende of þe olde batayle of þe Est londes. Metridas his sones wente to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] þe*. [his, α. and Cx.; his chaar, β.] chare, and Tygranes his sones also. Oracius Flaccus*. [Flactus, Cx.] is i-bore at Venusee.*. [Venusye, Cx.] Sergius Catilina,*. [Catelina, Cx.] a noble man of blood, but evel and schrewed*. [scherewed, γ.; shrewde, Cx.] of witte and of wil, conspired wiþ som greet men and*. [and] om. Cx.] stalworþe forto*. [right stronge to, Cx.] destroye þe con|tray. And þey Iulius Gaius pletede for hym, and defended his party, noþeles in Tullius Cithero*. [Cythero, Cx.] þe consul his tyme, Marcus Caton pletede aȝenst hym, and so [he]*. [Cx.] was i-putte oute of þe citee, and sone after i-slawe*. [afterward slayne, Cx.] in [a]*. [From α.] batayle. Also his felawes were i-take of oon Antonius, anoþer consul, and i-prisoned to her lyves ende. Salustius made a book of hem. Þe book hatte*. [is named, Cx.] þe book of Catilin his conspiracie.*. [Catelinus conspyracy, Cx.] Titus Livius,*. [Libius, β. and γ.] þe writere of stories, is i-bore, and Virgil lerneþ at Gremoria.*. [Cremona, Cx.] Gaius Iulius Cesar is i-made consul, and Gallia was iuged*. [jugged, β. and Cx.] to hym and Iliricus, þat is Grees,*. [Grece, Cx.] wiþ ten legiouns. Iulius fauȝt ten ȝere aȝenst þe Germanes and Page  183, vol.4 Galles in meny harde batailles in every side.*. [in every side] om. α., β., γ. and Cx.]Trevisa. Here Galles beeþ i-cleped men of Gallia. Gallia is i-closed wiþ þre noble watres, wiþ þe Ryne and þe Roone*. [Rine . . . Rone, Cx.] and þe see of occean. Þeyȝ Gallia and Fraunce be ofte i-counted*. [acompted, Cx.] alle oon londe and contray, noþeles as we spekeþ comounliche*. [speke comonly, Cx.] of Fraunce*. [From be ofte . . . Fraunce is, in error, written twice over in the MS.] and now here of Gallia; Gallia conteyneþ*. [conteyned, Cx.] al þe reame*. [reme, γ.] of Fraunce and meny oþer contrayes*. [countrees, Cx.] and londes anone*. [unto, Cx.] to þe Ryne norþward, to þe Roon*. [Rone, Cx.] estward, to þe see of Bri|tayne and of Engelonde westward. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie: Iulius nyne ȝere made harde batailles aȝenst þe Ger|mayns and þe Galles, and destroyed foure hondred þowsand and fourty þowsand of Germanes*. [Germaynes, Cx.] þat passed þe Ryn*. [Ryne, Cx.] forto wynne Gallia. Þanne he made a brigge*. [brugge, γ.] and passede þe Ryne forto wynne*. [and wan, α. and β.; and wanne, Cx.] Swevia; þan he wan alle Gallia, and took plegges*. [pledges, Cx.] of [the]*. [From β. and Cx.] Britouns, and made hem tributarie. Among alle his grete dedes he fauȝt evel but þries, and no moo. Beda acounteþ þis ȝere sixty tofore*. [byfore, Cx.] þe Incarnacioun. Þis ȝere Iulius Cesar come forto wynne*. [cam J. C. to wynne, Cx.] Britayne in þis manere: while Iulius þe consul werrede aȝenst þe Germayns and þe Galles, þat beeþ*. [be, Cx.] to-deled onliche*. [only, Cx.] by þe ryver of*. [of] om. Cx.] Ryne, he come to [the]*. [Cx.] Morians, and ordeyned hym an hondred schippes and þritty, wiþ seilles*. [sayles, Cx.] and wiþ oores, and seillede*. [sayled, Cx.]Page  185, vol.4 into Britayne. Þere he was first a*. [α] om. Cx.] sette wiþ wel*. [right, Cx.] hard fyȝtinge; and afterward in harde*. [a grete, Cx.] tempest þat fil aȝenst hym he loste*. [aloste, α.] meny schippes and horsmen, and tornede into Gallia, and sente certeyn legiouns of knyȝtes into Irlond, and arrayede eft his schippes, and hadde fourty schippes i-broke in grete tempest, while he wente aȝenst þe Britouns, and was overcome at þe firste batayle, and Labienus þe consul was wounded and deyde riȝt þere. Unneþe at þe secounde batayle Iulius chasede*. [chaced, Cx.] þe Britouns, for þe Britouns hadde i-piȝt*. [pyghte, Cx.] scharpe stakes in þe ryver of Tempse,*. [Temse, β. and γ.; Thamys, Cx.] þere Iulius hadde i-londede; þe stakes were grete, i-schape as a manis þigh,*. [þeiȝ, β.; þyȝ, γ.] and i-ȝote*. [sette, Cx.] aboute wiþ leed as it is [ȝit]*. [From α., β., and Cx.; ȝut, γ.] i-sene. Whanne þe Romayns were ware*. [war, Cx.] of þis gyle, forto scape þat peril þey took þe citee [of]*. [Cx.] Trinouantum by sleyȝþe*. [sleyght, Cx.] of oon Andra|gius, and fenge*. [receyved, Cx.] fourty plegges, and wente þennes and occu|pied þe citee Cassibala, a strong citee and a riche, i-sette among watres. Þan Cesar wente into Gallia, and was a*. [α] om. Cx.] sette wiþ harde batailles on*. [in, α.] every side. Lud, kyng of Britouns, is deed; he cleped Trinouantum Caerlud by his Page  187, vol.4 owne name, and bulde þere þe west ȝate, and cleped*. [called, Cx.] hit after his owne name Ludgate. His broþer Cassibelanus regned after hym, for Lud lefte [after hym]*. [From Cx., not β.] tweie sones on lyve, Andragius and Tenuancius,*. [Andragius and Teamnicius, Cx.] and were to ȝonge to rule*. [governe the royamme, Cx.] þe rewme.*. [reume, α.] But whan þey come to age, Cassibelanus ȝaf to Androgius þe citee Trinouantum wiþ þe ducherie of Kent, and he ȝaf Tenuancius*. [Tenuacius, MS.; Temancius, Cx.] þe ducherie of Cornwayle. Þat tyme Iulius Cesar seyled into Bretayne, and was twyes i-putte of; but while þe kyng and Andragius were at grete stryf for Andragius his*. [his] om. Cx.] nevew in wrastelynge, Andragius sente for Iulius Cesar, and he com and wan þe londe, and made kyng Cassibelanus [tributarye]*. [From α. and Cx.]; and Cassibelanus lyvede sevene ȝere after þat Iulius was a goo.*. [ago, β.] Crassus, Pompeus*. [Pompeius, Cx., et infra.] his felowe and consul, after Gabinius his deeþ*. [Gabynus deth, Cx.] was sente to be rulere of Siria, forto chaste þe Parthes*. [chastsey the Parches, Cx.] þat were i-worþe rebel.*. [waxen rebelle, Cx.] Forto spede þat iornay*. [journeye, Cx.] Crassus took two þowsand talentes out of þe temple of Ierusalem, þe whiche Pompeus sparede. Þerfore Crassus fiȝtynge aȝenst þe Parthes*. [Perches, Cx.] [was overcome and i-take. Þe Parthes]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] melted*. [melt, β. and Cx.] golde, and helde*. [powred, Cx.] it*. [it] om. β.] in his þrote, and despised hym, and seide, "Þou Page  189, vol.4 Romayn, þou art*. [art] om. α.] aferst after*. [thou Romayne art a thyrste, β. and Cx.] gold, now drynke gold at þe fulle." Cleopatra.*. [Cleopatra] om. β. and Cx.]

Capitulum quadragesimum primum.

CLEOPATRA, þe douȝter of Ptholomeus*. [Tholomeus, Cx.] Denys kyng of Egipt, was emperise*. [emperice, β.; empryce, Cx.] of Egipt two and twenty ȝere; [two yere]*. [Cx.] tofore*. [byfore, Cx.] Iulius Cesar, fyve ȝere under Iulius, and fiftene ȝere under*. [after, Cx., wrongly. So also β.] Octovianus*. [Octavianus, Cx.] Augustus. A batayle civile bygan bytwene Iulius and his wifes fader Pompeus in þis manere. Giraldus. For Iulius whan [that]*. [Cx.] he hadde i-travailled ten ȝere, and wonne Gallia, Germania, and Bretayne, he axede þe worschippe þat was due*. [dewe, β. and Cx.] for so grete victories and noble [dedes],*. [Cx.] but Pompeus, Cato, and Marcellus þe consul*. [consuls, Cx.] wiþ seide hym, and heet*. [lete, α.; bade, β. and Cx.] hym leve þe oost*. [hoost, Cx., et infra.] and come aȝen to þe citee. Eutropius, libro 6o. And by auctorite of Marcellus þe consul,*. [wiþ seide . . . oost]. These words out of the previous sentence are here wrongly repeated by the scribe in MS.] þe grete Pompeus was i-sent wiþ heste*. [commandement, Cx.] to þe Page  191, vol.4 legiouns þat were at Lucrecia,*. [Luceria, β., γ., and Cx. The MS. γ. is very much injured in this portion.] and for þat of-puttynge Iulius Cesar wiþ his oost come aȝenst þe contray. Suetus.*. [Suetonius, α., β. and Cx.] Þere were meny manere dignytees in Rome, som*. [somme, Cx.] þerof durede oon ȝere, som two ȝere*. [som two ȝere] om. Cx.]; þe cheef*. [chyef, Cx.] dignite [among alle was þe dictator his dignyte,]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] þat durede fyve ȝere. But first was but oon dictator, but afterward þe comounte*. [comonte, Cx., et infra.] encresede, and were i-made þre dictatoures in Rome, for ȝif þere fil*. [fylle, Cx.] ony discord bytwene the tweyn, þe þridde schulde redresse it. Hit happede þat þese þre were dictatoures in fere,*. [yfere, β.; togeder, Cx.] Pompeus,*. [Pompeius, Cx., et infra.] Iulius, and Marcus Crassus, of þe whiche Pompeus, for he was an olde man, and of þe chivalrie Emerita, lefte at home forto governe þe comynte. Trevisa. In þe fyve and twenty chapi|tre of þe firste book hit is i-write þat somtyme [the]*. [From Cx., not β.] knyȝtes of Rome, after þat þey were sixty ȝere olde, schulde nouȝt be compelled to dedes of armes, but he*. [þei, β.; they, Cx.] schulde be at home and have a*. [α] om. Cx.] certeyn lyflode, and þanne þey were i-clepede*. [callyd, Cx.] knyȝtes ef þe chyvalrie emerita, þat is, i-putte out of dedes of armes. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie. Crassus was i-sent to werre*. [werrye, α. and β.] aȝenst þe Parþes,*. [Parches, Cx.] and was i-take and i-lost by gile Page  193, vol.4 and be tresoun.*. [by trayson, Cx.] Iulius was sent in to þe west londes, and dwelled þere*. [þere] om. α. and Cx.] fyve ȝere, to make þe Galles and the Allo|brogues, þat beeþ Burgoynes, sugette;*. [Allobrogues, men of Burgoyne, subget, Cx.] þan he hilde*. [helde, Cx.] þe dignite oþer fyve ȝere by his owne auctorite, in þe whiche fyve ȝere he werrede*. [warryd, Cx.] aȝenst þe Britouns, and eft aȝenst þe Galles. Þanne in his comynge to Rome ward, whanne he come to Alpes, he sente to Pompeus, whos douȝter he hadde i-wedded, þat he schulde araye for hym triumphum, þat is þe worschippe*. [worship, Cx., et infra.] þat a victor of Rome schulde have in his comynge to Rome after þe victorie. But for Iulius hadde i-holde*. [holden, Cx.] þe dignite by his owne auctorite lenger þan he schulde, Pompeus wernede hym þe worschippe þat hatte*. [was called, Cx.] triumphus, by assent of þe senatoures. Þanne Iulius was wrooþ, and wente to þe citee aȝenst Pompeus. Eutropius, libro 6o. Þo*. [Than, Cx.] Pompeus dradde, wiþ [þe]*. [From α., β. and Cx.] senatoures and consuls, and fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] in to Grecia,*. [Grece, Cx.] and arrayed þere a batayle aȝenst Iulius Cesar. Iulius entrede into þe citee of Rome as it were a voyde citee, and brak in to þe tresourie.*. [as hit were into a citee þat is voyd, and brak þe comoun tresorye, α., β. and Cx.]Orosius, libro 6o. Iulius took foure þowsand pounde of gold [and]*. [From α., β. and Cx.]Page  195, vol.4 six score and ten of silver; he took foure score [þowsand]*. [From α., β. and Cx.] and ten þowsand [pound],*. [From α., β. and Cx.] and delede to his knyȝtes. Eutro|pius. And in liknesse of pees he occupiede þe dignitees everichon, and wente þan in to Spayne, and þere he destroyede Pompeus his strengest oostes,*. [strengthe hoostes, Cx.] and þre cheventeynes.*. [cheueteynes, β.; capytains, Cx.] Þanne he come into Grecia,*. [Grece, Cx.] and fauȝt wiþ Pompeus. In þe firste batayle Iulius was overcome and i-chased,*. [overcomen and chaced, Cx.] and whan nyȝt come Pompeus wolde nouȝt folwe*. [folowe and pursue, Cx.] and pursewed*. [pursewe, α.; pursue the chace, β.] þe chaas.*. [chace, Cx.] Þerfore Iulius seide þat Pompeus couþe nouȝt take þe victorie, and þat onliche þat day he myȝte have [y]*. [From α.] be overcome. After þat þey fauȝte in Thessalia; þere Pompeus his scheltrum*. [Pompeius sheltron, Cx.] hadde fourty þowsand of*. [of] om. Cx.] foot men, and sixe hondred [hors men]*. [From α., β. and Cx.] in þe lefte wynge, and fyve hondred in þe ryȝt wynge, and al þe helpe of þe est side, wiþ noblete*. [nobley, β. and Cx.] of þe senatoures, pretories, and consuls. Cesar hadde in his scheltrum nouȝt fulliche*. [schetrone, β.; shiltron not fully, Cx.] þritty þowsand horsmen; and at þe laste in þe batayle Pompeus [his]*. [From α.] oost fliȝ,*. [flyȝ, β.; fledde, Cx.] and his tentes were destroyed, and he hymself fleigh*. [flyȝ, β.; fledde, Cx.] to þe ȝonge Ptholo|meus, Page  197, vol.4 kyng of Egipt, and axede help of hym, for he was assigned hym*. [hym] om. Cx.] by þe senatoures to be his tutor and his wardeyn. Noþeles þe kyng folowede more hap and fortune þan frendschipe, and leet slee Pompeus, and sente to Iulius his heed and his ryng. Whan Iulius sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] the heed and þe ryng he weep wel bitter teres,*. [wepte wel better teeris, Cx.] and wente anon*. [forthwith, Cx.] to Alex|andria, and Ptholomeus arrayede*. [Tholomeus araied, Cx.] busshementes*. [boyschementes, γ.]; þan Cesar was oversette wiþ strengþe of his enemyes, and wente into a boot þat was so hevy lade wiþ men þat folowede hym þat it sanke doun and was a-draynt.*. [dreynte, Cx.] Þan Cesar swam þre hondred paas wiþ oon hond, and hilde*. [helde, Cx.] þe chartres*. [chatres, γ.] above þe water in his oþer hond,*. [with that other hande, Cx.] and come to a schippe. Þere he was i-conforted anon, and drenchede oþer took*. [eyther toke, Cx.] al þe kynges navey*. [There are several leaves miss|ing here in MS. α., which goes on again at the end of cap. 4. lib. iv., "And some of hem wolde telle what was to comynge," &c.] in batayle of þe see esiliche*. [easely, Cx.] i-now. But þe Alexandrynes prayede for hir kynges lyf, and Iulius grauntede, and chargede hym þat he schulde [raþer]*. [From β. and Cx.] assaie*. [essay, Cx.] þe frendschipe of [þe]*. [From β. and Cx.] Romayns þan dedes of armes. Noþeles anon as he Page  199, vol.4 was fre he ȝaf Cesar a batayle, but he*. [Cx. inserts and his hoost here, omitting the last four words of the sentence.] was*. [were, Cx.] sone des|troyed,*. [distruyed, β.] he and his oost. Cesar bytook þat kyngdom to a woman þat heet*. [callyd, Cx.] Cleopatra, and dwelled wiþ here two ȝere in leccherie. Hugucio, [capitulo Ianus].*. [From β. and Cx.] Þat tyme Iulius amended þe kalender, and fonde þe cause of þe lepe*. [lupe, γ.] ȝere. ℞. Þe Romaynes, as [the]*. [Cx.] Hebrewes, bygonne*. [bygan, Cx.] here ȝeres in Marche anon*. [unto, Cx.] to Numa Pompilius his*. [hys] om. β. and Cx.] tyme, and þis Numa putte Ianiver*. [Januar' β. and Cx.] and Feverer*. [Februar', β. and Cx.] to þe ȝere in an uncerteyn manere, but þe ȝere was not ful*. [fully, γ. and Cx.] amended to fore*. [bifore, β.; byfore, Cx.] Iulius his tyme. Quyntilus,*. [Quintilis, Cx.] þe fifte monþe*. [moneth, Cx., et infra.] after Marche, was after|ward i-cleped*. [callid, Cx.] Iulius in worschippe of Iulius Cesar, for he was i-bore in þat monþe, oþer in þat monþe he dede som*. [dyde somme, Cx.] grete dede and som grete*. [som grete] om. Cx.] victorie; ffor suche a manere skile Sextilis, the sixte monþe after Marche, is i-cleped Augustus in worschippe*. [worship, Cx.] of Augustus Cesar. Eutropius. Cesar tornede Page  201, vol.4 out of*. [remeoved from, Cx.] Egipt, and overcome Farnaces, Metridas his*. [his] om. β. and Cx. This is general in these texts.] sone, in a bayle,*. [batail, β.; batayl, γ.] and leet slee hym, for he hadde Pompeus i-meyntened aȝenst*. [mayntened Pompeus aȝenes, β. and Cx.; Yholpe, P., γ.] Iulius; þennes he wente to Rome, and made hym con|sul þe þridde tyme. Þanne he wente into Affrica, and over|come in batayle þe noble dukes Scipio and Porcius Cato, and Iuba [the]*. [Cx.] kyng of Mauritania, and þeygh*. [hy, γ.] slowh*. [they slough, Cx.] hem self afterward. ℞. Seneca, epistola 26a, and Policratica, libro 7o, capitulo 6o spekeþ,*. [speken, Cx.] of þis Catoun, and telleþ*. [seye, Cx.] þat he drank venym and smoot hym [silf]*. [From β., γ. and Cx.] in to þe brest wiþ a swerde, and so he ȝalde*. [yelde, Cx.] up þe goost, ffor he wolde nouȝt see Cesar regne while he were on lyve.*. [alyve, Cx.] Also Seneca, 2o libro ad Severum: Cato lyvede nouȝt after fredom,*. [freodom, γ. (bis).] noþer*. [nowther, Cx.] fredom*. [freodom, γ. (bis).] after Cato. Also an oþer storie of Rome seiþ þat Cato was nouȝt in þe batayle þat was of Iulius and Pompeus; but he herde of Pompeus his*. [his] om. β. and Cx. This is general in these texts.] deeþ, and radde Plato*. [Platoes, β. and Cx.] his book de Immortalite animæ, and sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] in þat book þat þe soule may noȝt deie,*. [dye, Cx.] and so he wounded hym self, but his frendes counsailled hym forto*. [for] om. Cx.] leve, and seche*. [a leche, β.] dede salve*. [his cure, β. and Cx.; salf, γ.] to his woundes; but whanne þey were agoo he opened his owne*. [owne] om. Cx.] wounde, and so he deyde. Þis doynge is nouȝt excusable in Cato, were he nevere so wel i-lettred and so glorious. Firste for his frendes*. [vrendes, γ.] coun|sailled*. [counseylled, Cx., et infra.] hym þe contrarye, þat were wise men and kynde. Also for he counseilled*. [counseylled, Cx., et infra.] nouȝt his sone forto doo so, but he coun|sailled hym more*. [rather, Cx.] forto*. [for] om. Cx.] lyve under Iulius þe victor. Þe Page  203, vol.4 þridde skile for he slowȝ hym self for*. [by, β. and Cx.] envie, ffor he wolde nouȝt suffre and see Iulius his wreþþe*. [welthe, γ.; welth, Cx.] and his ioye; and so it semeþ þat Cato slouȝ hym self by unstedfastnes and foly, ffor he woulde nouȝt suffre angwische*. [anguyssh, Cx.] and desese, and nouȝt*. [disease and not, Cx.] by honeste, forto*. [for] om. Cx.] voyde and scape*. [escape, Cx.] foule manere of doynge. Here take hede of meny Catouns þat were [in Rome]*. [From Cx.] among þe Romayns: oon was Cato questor, he brouȝt Ennyous*. [Ennius, Cx.] þe poet out of Tarent into Rome; anoþer was Mennius Cato, þat fauȝt wonderliche aȝenst þe Grees*. [Grekis, β. and Cx.] in Paul Emilus*. [Emilius, β. and Cx.] his tyme. Anoþer was Marcus Porcius Cato, þat was i-cleped Uti|sencis,*. [Utisensis, γ.; called Utycensis, Cx.] ffor he slowȝ hym self at a citee þat hatte*. [callyd, Cx.] Utica in Affrica;*. [Affryque, Cx.] of hym we spekeþ nouȝt*. [now, β.; speke nowe, Cx.] at þis tyme; and oon*. [in, β. and Cx.] caas þis was Censorius Cato, of hym spekeþ Ieronimus*. [Jerom, β. and Cx.] in Epistola ad Nepotianum, and seiþ þat hym schamed*. [schamede, γ.] nouȝt whan he was an olde man to lerne lettres of Grewe,*. [Gru, γ.; Grece, Cx.] noþer was [put]*. [From Cx.] out of trust and hope*. [hope and trust, Cx.] forto spede: þis was a philosofre of þe secte þat hatte*. [heet, Cx.] secta Stoycorum. Trevisa. Stoyci hadde þat name of a porche of Athene þat heet*. [called, Cx.] Stoa, þere were i-peynt*. [peynted, β. and Cx.] dedes and doynge of wise men and of Page  205, vol.4 stronge; þe firste phílosofre of þat secte heet*. [was named, Cx.] ȝenon. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie: þis Caton made a grete sciens*. [science, Cx.] of vertues*. [vertuwes, γ.] and of þewes,*. [maners, Cx.] þat is i-cleped Ethica Catonis, þerof was þat litel*. [lytle, Cx.] book of metre i-drawe*. [drawen, Cx.] þat hatte*. [þat hatte] om. Cx.] Caton, þat children lerneþ*. [lurneþ, γ.; lerne, Cx.] in scole. Eutropius. After a*. [an, Cx.] ȝere Cesar went eft to Rome, and made hym consul þe fourþe tyme, and wente anon into Spayne, þere*. [and soon after went into Spayne, wher, Cx.] Pompeus his sones hadde arrayed wel*. [right, Cx.] stronge batailles; in þe laste batayle þereof*. [there, Cx.] Cesar was so nyh overcome þat his men fligh,*. [fledde, Cx.] and he was in poynt to sle hym self leste in his elde he schulde falle into children*. [childres, Cx.] hond, afterward*. [after, γ. and Cx.] grete worschip and ioye and grete dedes of chivalrie. Cesar was þoo sixe and fifty ȝere olde.*. [of age, Cx.] At þe laste his men tornede*. [turnede, β.; tourned, Cx.] aȝen and overcome his enemyes, and efte [he]*. [From Cx.] wente to Rome, and made men clepe*. [callyd, Cx.] hym emperour;*. [and þere . . . emperour] om. Cx.] and þere þre ȝere and seven monþes he dede outrageousliche*. [outragely, β.; outragelych, γ.] aȝenst þe customs and*. [and] om. β.] of [þe]*. [From β.] fredom of Rome. [Ysidorus, libro 9o.]*. [From β.] Þis was þe firste of alle þe duke of Rome þat was Page  207, vol.4 i-cleped*. [i-] om. β.] Cesar and emperour. [He was i-cleped emperour]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] for a passynge lordschippe [of]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] oon principate; and was i-cleped*. [callyd, Cx.] Cesar for he was kutte*. [kit, γ.; kytte, Cx.] out of his moder*. [moders, Cx.] wombe whan his moder was dede: cesus in*. [α, γ.] Latyn [is]*. [From Cx.] i-kutte*. [ykut, γ.] in*. [an, β. and γ.] Englisshe. [℞]*. [℞] From β. and γ.; ℞ . . . Englisshe, om. Cx.] His successours were i-cleped emperours and Casars after hym; and þe emperour was i-cleped Augustus for echynge of þe comoun profiȝt: augere in*. [α, γ.] Latyn, eche in*. [an, γ.] Englisshe.*. [℞] From β. and γ.; ℞ . . . Englisshe, om. Cx.]Eutropius. Whanne [Iulius]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] schulde be*. [by, γ. and Cx.] his owne wille doo worschippe*. [worship, Cx.] to þe peple, as the peple dede hym to forehonde,*. [dyde hym byfore, Cx.] he wolde nouȝt*. [nouȝt] om. Cx.] noþer rise*. [arise, β.; arryse, Cx.] aȝenst þe senatoures whan þey come to hym, and dede*. [dyde, Cx.] meny oþer tirauntise*. [tyrauntryes, β.; tiraundys do|yngs, γ.; tyrannyes, Cx.] and doynges aȝenst þe customs*. [costoms, γ.; custommes, Cx.] of Rome. Þanne þre score senatoures and horsmen*. [horsmen and senatours, β. and Cx.] of Rome, and specialliche tweyne, eyþer heet*. [was called, Cx.] Brutus, conspired aȝenst hym, so þat in*. [on, Cx.] a day whanne þe senatours schulde come to gidres*. [togeder, Cx.] Iulius come to þe Capitoil, and was i-stiked*. [stykked thurgh, Cx.] þoruȝ,*. [þurȝ, β.] and hadde þre and twenty woundes, and deyde.

Page  209, vol.4

Capitulum quadragesimum secundum.

Iulius wente to ward þe Capitoil, and fenge*. [receyved, Cx.] lettres þat were iuges*. [juggis, Cx. A common error of the versions, from reading iu|dices instead of indices.] of his deþ. Þe messanger*. [messager, Cx.] þat brouȝt þe lettres seide þat he schulde be deed ȝif he come þat day among þe gardeyns*. [gaderyng, β.; gadryng, γ. and Cx.] of þe peple. "I schal now," quod*. [sayde, Cx., et infra.] Iulius, "speke wiþ an astromyer,*. [astronomer, Cx.] and afterward I schal see þe gaderynge*. [gadrynge, Cx.] and þe lettres." Þan he cleped*. [callyd, Cx.] to hym an astronomer, þat seide þat Iulius schulde deie in þe kalendas. "To*. [this, Cx.] day," quod Iulius, "beeþ*. [be, Cx.] þe kalendas, and ȝit I*. [Ich, β. and γ.] am on lyve." "To day beeþ þe kalendas," quod*. [sayde, Cx., et infra.] þe astronomer, "but þey beeþ nouȝt apassed;*. [α] om. Cx.] and I*. [Ich, β.] wolde þat I*. [y, β.] were i-founde a lier." Þanne Iulius wente to þe Capitoyle, and was i-slawe*. [slayn, Cx.] with swerdes*. [sweordes, γ.; alles, Cx.] of comoun contakkours,*. [comyn contakeurs, γ.; comune contekkers or brawlers, Cx.] þe firste day of Marche. But þere semed no wounde in his body, but þe lettres were i-founde Page  211, vol.4 in his hond after his deeþ. Petrus. An hondred*. [hondreth, Cx.] dayes to fore*. [bifore, Cx.] Iulius his deth fil*. [fylle, Cx.] a liȝtnynge uppon Iulius his ymage in þe chepynge*. [clepyng, γ.] place, and took away þis*. [the, Cx.] lettre C of þis name Cesar. Also þe nyȝt to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] his deth his chambre wyndowes were so griseliche*. [gryslye, Cx.] and so sterneliche i-oponed,*. [sternly opened, Cx.] þat Iulius resede oute of his bedde, and wende þat þe hous hadde i-falle uppon hym. Al*. [Also, β., γ., and Cx.] þe day afore*. [after, β., γ., and Cx.] his deeth þere semede þre sonnes in þe Est, þat went [a]*. [From Cx.] litel and litel to giders al in to oon sonne,*. [togeder alle in oon sonne, Cx.] þat bytokened þat þe lordschippes*. [lordschip, γ.] of [þe]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] þre parties of þe worlde schulde al come*. [come alle, Cx.] in to oon princes lord|schipe. Oþere*. [Owther, Cx.] more verrayliche*. [verreylych, γ.; verely, Cx.] it bytokened þat al þe worlde schulde knowe þe Trinite, þre persones and oon God. Also an oxe spak to a plowȝ*. [plowe, Cx.] man in þe subarbes of Rome, and seide þat he was i-priked and i-dryve*. [prykked and dryven, Cx.] in*. [in] om. γ.] idel, "For in a schort tyme," quod*. [sayd, Cx.] he, "men schal fayle more þan oxen oþer whete." Also [in]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Iulius his piler, þat now pyl|gryms clepeþ*. [calle, Cx.] Seynt Petres nedle,*. [neld, γ.; nylde, Cx.] þere þe askes*. [asshes, Cx.] were of Page  213, vol.4 Iulius his body þat was i-brend,*. [ybarnd, γ.] hit was i-write*. [writen, Cx.] in metre in þis manere:

"Þou were grete, Cesar, [as]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] al þe world is at ene,*. [eve, Cx.]
And art now sette þere i-closed in a litel stene."

℞. Also meny men write meny þinges and*. [in, β., γ., and Cx.] preysinge of Iulius Cesar, ffor Eutropius, libro 6o, seiþ þat no man was pun|sched þat day*. [punysshed this daye, Cx.] þat he entrede in to þe citee. Also he made his knyȝtes have costelewe*. [costlew, Cx.] armure, for þey schulde defende hem þe manloker*. [manlyker, γ.; more manly, Cx.] for drede of so greet lost.*. [grete losse, Cx.] Þere was nevere man more noble þan he in batayle: by his ledynge [there]*. [From Cx.] were i-slawe enlevene*. [elleven, β.] hondred þowsand foure score þowsand and twelve þowsand of [his]*. [From Cx.] enemyes, al*. [al] om. Cx.] wiþ oute þe batayles þat were i-cleped bella civilia, for he wolde noȝt write þe nombre of hem þat were i-slawe*. [slayn, β.] in civile batayle.*. [batails, β.; bataylis, Cx.]Trevisa. Bellum civile is a batayle bytwene þe Romayns hem self, and*. [whanne, β.] some of Rome fiȝteþ and ȝeveþ batayle aȝenst oþere of Rome.*. [and some . . . oþere of Rome] om. Cx.] Þan it folweþ in þe storie. Iulius fauȝt in*. [in] om. β. and Cx.] fyfty siþe*. [siþes, β. and Cx.] wiþ baner desplayed. Also no man wroot swifter þan he; no man radde*. [redde, Cx.] swifter þan he. Also he usede for*. [for] om. Cx.] to endite foure manere pisteles*. [pystles, Cx.] and lettres at ones; and whom he made suget by armour*. [subget by armes, Cx.] he Page  215, vol.4 overcome hem more by myldenesse. Also þere was no day in al his hard werres and batayles þat he ne wolde*. [nolde, β.; nold, Cx.] write, rede, oþer endite. [Plinius.]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Iulius Cesar his hond was [as]*. [From Cx.] able to þe penne as to þe swerd; but no man governede þe comounte bettre þan he. In alle his grete lordschip he heet*. [bade, β. and Cx.] nevere slee man but oon, Domicius, to whom he hadde i-ȝeve*. [ȝeven, β. and Cx.] his lif to forehonde.*. [byfore, Cx.] He took hym ones in a civile batayle, and ȝaf hym his lif, and made hym forswere armes, and sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] hym afterward fiȝte aȝenst hym in a batayle; þanne he seide to his knyȝtes, "Hit is inow*. [ynowh, Cx.] to me to ȝeve an unkynde man ones his lyf." He was nevere so wroþ wiþ man þat he ne wolde*. [nolde, β.; nold, Cx.] forȝeve ȝif he seigh*. [sawe, Cx.] skilful*. [skylfol, γ.] occa|sioun. Also Iulius was of grete sufferaunce,*. [suffrans, γ.] ffor in his worschippe*. [worship, Cx., et infra.] in his comynge to Rome after a greet victorie, knyȝtes of Rome seide in his owne herynge,*. [hyryng, γ.] and he was nevere þe wroþere, "Loo Cesar took*. [takiþ, β.; takeþ, γ.; taketh, Cx.] worschippe as a victor, for he [haþ]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] overcome þe Galles; why haþ Nychomedes kyng of Bythinia non worschippe [as a victor, for he overcome Cesar;" ffor me seide þat he hadde to grete frenschip wiþ hym].*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Þerefore me seiþ þat Tullius seide to Iulius, "Hayle, kyng and quene;" [and eft, "Hayl quene]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] of Bithinia; þou were somtyme womman of alle men, and now þou art made man of alle wommen." Plinius.*. [Pol, libro iii o, β. and Cx.] Iulius Cesar was sore Page  217, vol.4 a greved of his ballednesse, and heer faillede on his moolde*. [molde, γ. and Cx.] and on his fortop; he wolde bende*. [beende, γ.] his heer from þe pol*. [polle, Cx.] toward þe foreheed; and a knyȝt of Rome þat was repreved*. [ypreved, γ.] of kowardyse to fore*. [reproved of cowardyse byfore, Cx.] Iulius, seide to Iulius: "Iulius," quod*. [sayd, Cx.] he, "hit were liȝtere*. [lyghter, Cx.] to make þe nouȝt ballede þanne it were to make me doo eny þing cowardly in þe oost of Rome." Also þere were famous bookes of mery*. [mury, γ. and Cx.] gestes i-made and cunned opounliche*. [knowen openly, Cx.] in despite of hym, and he suffred it pacientliche inow.*. [paciently ynowh, Cx.] Also oon despisede hym and his moder kyn,*. [kynne, Cx.] and cleped hym bakere*. [called hym bakar, Cx.]; he lowȝ,*. [he louȝ] om. Cx.] and [he]*. [From Cx.; γ. has and.] rouȝte nouȝt*. [nothynge, Cx.] þerof. Þerfore Cithero in preysinge of hym seiþ, "Iulius couþe not forȝete but onliche in merþe*. [mirie, β.; injury, γ.; only in|jurie, Cx.] and wrong." [Plinius.]*. [From β. and Cx.] Cesar come in*. [on, Cx.] a tyme into Tullius his scole, and Tullius aroos aȝenst hym, and Iulius forbeed*. [forbeod, γ.; forbade, Cx.] hym, and seide, "Arise nouȝt aȝenst me, ffor wit and wisdom is bettre þan myȝte or*. [and, β. and Cx.] strengþe." "Schal nouȝt I*. [Ich not, β.; Shal I not, Cx.] arise," quod*. [sayd, Cx.] Tullius, "aȝenst þe victor of þe worlde?" "Þou haste i-wonne," quod Cesar,*. [quod Cesar] om. Cx.] "a more worschipful*. [connyng, γ.] crowne and prise þat*. [þan, β., γ., and Cx.] it were to strecche out*. [streche out of, Cx.] [þe boundes]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] of þe empere*. [empyre, Cx.] of Rome." And by cause of þat worde Iulius ordeyned a lawe þat he þat radde oþer hilde*. [hulde, γ.; redde owther helde, Cx.] a book schulde [not]*. [From Cx.] aryse aȝenst no man. Valerius.Page  219, vol.4 Acius þe poete aroos nouȝt aȝenst Iulius Cesar, whan Iulius come in to þe colage*. [collage, γ.; college, Cx.] of poetes, and me axed hym why he sat stille in þe comynge of so greet a lorde. "Þe lasse," quod he, "schal aryse*. [rise, β.] aȝenst þe more,*. [gretter, β. and γ.; greter, Cx.] and peere schal come to his pere, but witte and wisdom passeþ al;" and Iulius alowede lawe.*. [þis sawe, β. and γ.; his sayenge, Cx.] [℞.]*. [From β. and Cx.] A knave*. [man, Cx.] childe and a mayde childe were i-brouȝt to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] Iulius, þat were most liche*. [lyke, Cx.] hym*. [hym] om. γ.] of any children on lyve;*. [alyve, β. and Cx.] and Iulius byhelde hem in*. [on, Cx.] a tyme, and ȝaf hem greet ȝiftes, and sente hem aȝen wiþ suche vers.*. [versus, β. and Cx.]

"Scheweþ al oon cleerliche,*. [cher' lich, β.; on chere lyche, γ.; chere lyke, Cx.] and peeres gooþ*. [gon, Cx.] I-fere.*. [yfere, γ.]
Let no myskissynge*. [myskussyng, γ.] have prise of ȝoure boþe lyvynge.
Noon yuy sprayse, no noyse of do*. [douen, β.; douene, γ.; douves, Cx.] none layes
ȝereliche*. [ȝe liche, β.; ȝe-lyche yfere, γ.; ye lyke, Cx.] [of chere]*. [From Cx., not in γ.] I-fere*. [beþ yfere, γ.] wiþ oute eny gile."

Apuleius. Þe conspiracie of Catelyn come out in*. [by, Cx.] Cithero þe beste consul his tyme, and was i-dampned; þere noþer for noblete*. [nobley, β. and Cx.] of þe persone þat hadde agult,*. [ygilt, β.; gilt, Cx.] noþer real*. [nowther roialle, Cx.] spekynge of Iulius Cesar, þat was his patroun and his vorie,*. [avowrye, β. and Cx.; avowery, γ.] and pleted*. [pleded, β.] for hym for*. [by, Cx.] myldenesse and pitee at Page  221, vol.4 þat tyme ȝif he myȝte hym helpe,*. [gif . . . helpe] myȝht noȝt hym helpe, γ.] ffor Marcus Cato pletede aȝenst hym, and preved hym gulty.*. [preved him gilty, Cx.]Salustius. Þere were tweie noble men, Marcus Cato and Gaius Iulius, wel nyh*. [nighe, Cx.] of [one]*. [From γ. and Cx.] worþynesse of blood, of age, and of noble and real*. [roiall, Cx.] speche, and i-liche greet of herte, but þey were of dyvers ioye and worschippe.*. [worship, Cx., et infra.] Cato was greet in clennes of lyf, and Iulius*. [and Iulius] om. Cx.] in largenesse of ȝiftes and in mildenesse. Þat oon hadde worschippe by cruelnesse, and þe*. [that, Cx.] oþer by fredom of ȝiftes. Cesar by ȝiftes, Cato by ȝevynge of*. [ȝevynge of] om. γ.] none ȝiftes is i-preysed. In Cesar socour and refute of wrecches and of nedy*. [neody, γ.] men. In Catoun, punschynge*. [punisshynge, Cx.] of evel doers.*. [dedes, γ.] In Cesar, wakynge and travayle for gendrynge of his owne, no þing werne þat he myȝte do arraye*. [araye, Cx.] newe batailles, desire triumphis and worschippe*. [desirous triumphous and wor|ship, Cx.] as a victor of Rome, al þis was likynge to Cesar. Catoun loved besynesse of sober|nesse, of stedfastnesse, of sturnesse;*. [sternesse, Gx.] he stroof nouȝt*. [strofe not, Cx.] wiþ richesse aȝenst þe riche, nouȝt with tresoun*. [trayson, Cx.] aȝenst þe tray|tour; but wiþ strengþe aȝenst þe stronge, wiþ honeste aȝenst þe sobre man; he desirede more to be good þanne [to]*. [From β. and Cx.] seme good; so þat þe lasse he desired good*. [good] om. β., γ., and Cx.] worschippe þe more worschippe he hadde. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Whanne Cas|sibelanus Page  223, vol.4 was dede in Bretayne, and i-buryed at ȝork, his nevewe Tenuancius*. [Tenancius, β. and Cx.] [was kyng after hym. Tenancius]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] was duke*. [duc, Cx.] of Cornewayle, and kyng Lud his sone, and Andragius his broþer. Andragius was i-went*. [was i-went] wente, Cx.; i-, om. β.; a-went, γ.] with Iulyus Cesar to Romee.*. [Rome, β.]

Capitulum quadragesimum tertium.

WHAN Iulius Cesar was i-slawe,*. [slayn, β. and Cx.] Octovianus of Rome, eyȝtene ȝere olde,*. [of age, Cx.] was i-sent wiþ tweie consuls forto pursue*. [persuwe, γ.] Marcus Antonius, þat was þo i-demed*. [þan demed, β. and Cx.] open enemy to þe comounte,*. [comente, Cx.] ffor he was arise aȝen*. [made insurrection ayenst, Cx.] þe senatoures, and aȝenst hem þat slowȝ Iulius Cesar. Þis Octovanius was a Romayn, Octavianus*. [Octavius, β., γ., and Cx.] þe senatour his sone, and come of Eneas in*. [on, Cx.] his moder side by [the]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] kynrede*. [kynrad, γ.] þat hatte Iulia familia, and was Iulius Cesar his nevewe of his suster i-bore, and his owne sone adoptivus, and Iulius made hym his eyer*. [heyre, Cx.] in his Page  225, vol.4 testament. Marcus was overcome at Mutina, and þe tweyne consuls deyde by þe weye. Þanne Octovianus come to Rome wiþ*. [Octovianus . . . wiþ] had Oc|tovianus, β.] þre grete oostes*. [than had Octavianus the grete hoostes, Cx.] at his heste.*. [commaundemente, Cx.] Octovianus made pees wiþ Marcus Antonius, at þe*. [þe] om. β.] profrynge*. [atte desyre, Cx.] of oon Lipidus,*. [Lepidus, γ.] þat was mayster of þe horsmen to hym. Marcus Antonius was i-flowe.*. [yflowe, γ.; fledde, Cx.] Þanne Octovianus come to Rome in his twentiþe ȝere of his elde,*. [of age, Cx.] and took þe dignyte and made hym self consul by strengþe, and þanne*. [þanne] om. β. and Cx.] afterward [regned]*. [From β. and Cx.] em|perour sixe and fifty ȝere sixe monþes*. [monethes, Cx.] and somwhat of dayes, þat was from þe monþe*. [moneth, Cx.] of Marche to þe firste day of Octobre. In þe whiche tyme he regned twelf ȝere wiþ Octovianus,*. [Antonius, β. and Cx.] and foure and fourty ȝere allone; and so he brouȝte al þe worlde into oon principalte and lordschippe.*. [principate and lordship, Cx.] And as þe kynges of Rome hadde þe name of Iulius Cesar, and were i-cleped Cesares, so þey þat come after þis Octovianus Augustis*. [Augustus, Cx.] hadde þe name of hym, and were i-cleped Augusti. [Hugo, capitulo Augeo.]*. [From β. and Cx.] Þis hadde nouȝt þat name one|liche*. [only, Cx.] of augere, þat is forto eche and*. [for encreace or, Cx.] make more, for he made more and echede þe comoun profiȝt,*. [comune profite, Cx., et infra.] but for he was*. [for a was, γ.]Page  227, vol.4 i-bore in þat monthe*. [moneth, Cx., et infra.] þat hatte*. [þat hatte] om. Cx.] Augustus, oþer for he hadde þe victorie in þat monþe of Antonius and of Cleopatra. Þis Augustus was þe sone of oon Actia, Iulius his*. [his] om. β. This is general in this MS., and will not be noticed in future.] suster douȝter. Eutropius, libro 7o. Þanne Augustus þe firste ȝere*. [ȝere] om. Cx.] of his empere,*. [empyre, Cx.] in wreche of Iulius his deþ, exiled þe sena|toures, and chasede*. [chaced, Cx.] Brutus and Cassius, and took Cithero to Antonius his paleys in hope of acord: Cithero was þoo*. [þan, β. and Cx.] in his sixty and twelfþe ȝere. Augustinus de Civitate [Dei]*. [From Cx.]libro 3o, capitulo 3o. Tullius hadde i-favered and tenderliche*. [tendrely, Cx.] i-kept Octovianus in his ȝowþe*. [yongth, Cx.] aȝenst þe malys of Antonius, in hope þat he schulde helpe moche*. [myche, β.] þe empere*. [thempyre, Cx., et infra.] and þe comyn profite of Rome; noþeles Octovianus leet Antonius sle Tullius Cithero as it were by a manere covenant of acord. Þanne whanne Antonius wolde kutte of Tullius his tonge, for he hadde i-wrete*. [wryten, β. and Cx.] moche*. [myche, β.] aȝenst Antonius in blame of hym, þanne Tullius answerde in metre [and seide]:*. [Added from β., γ., and Cx.] "Nouȝt doost [thou,]*. [From β. and Cx., not γ.] Antony,*. [Antoni, γ.] writynge schal nedes*. [nedus, γ.] abyde. [Eu|tropius]."*. [Added from β., γ., and Cx.]Page  229, vol.4 Þanne Octovianus wiþ Antonius in Macedonia*. [in Macedonia] om. Cx.] slowȝ hem þat slowȝ Iulius [Cesar],*. [From Cx.] boþ*. [bote, γ.] Brutus and Cas|sius, and greet multitude of oþere; and afterwarde þey delede þe empere hem*. [ham, γ.] bytwene, so þat Augustus schulde holde*. [schulde holde] helde, β.; hielde, Cx.] Spayne, Gallia, and Italy, and Antonius hilde*. [helde, Cx.] þe Est londes. Valerius, libro 4o. Porcia, [the]*. [From γ. and Cx.] grete Caton his douȝter, whan sche*. [heo, α., β., and γ.] hirde þat hir housbonde*. [hosbond, γ.] Brutus was i-slawe,*. [i-slawe] slayne, β.] for sche*. [heo, β.] hadde [noon egge tole],*. [Added from β., γ., and Cx.] sche*. [heo, β.; he, γ.] took brennynge coolys*. [coles, Cx.] in to*. [to] om. Cx.] her mouþe. Som telleþ*. [say, Cx.] þat Ovyde*. [Ovidius, Cx.] Naso, the poete, was i-bore at Peligius.*. [Pelignis, γ.; Pelgius, Cx.] Salustius, þe advokett*. [avoket, γ.; advocate, Cx.] and writere of stories, deyde at Rome. Þis hadde alwey*. [ever, Cx.] envie to Cithero. He wedded Therencia*. [Terencia, Cx.] to wif, þat Cithero hadde by dyvers tyme*. [dyvers tyme] lyvorse, β. and Cx.; deuors, γ.] i-putte from hym and forsake; þerfore Cithero made gestes in blame*. [reprove, Cx.] of Salustius. Ysidorus, libro primo. Þis Salustius was maister of pleyes,*. [playes, Cx.] and put first þis lettre k to Page  231, vol.4 þe Latyn lettres for to have som diversite of soun bytwene c and q. Onliche*. [Only, Cx.] Latyn men useþ*. [usen, Cx.] þe*. t, β. and γ.; þis, Cx.] lettre k. Pe|trus, 10o.*. [decimo septimo, β. and Cx.] Þe principalte*. [principate, γ. and Cx.] of Iewes faillede, and Herodes Ascalanita*. [Ascolonita, Cx.] regnede in þe Iewery*. [Jewry, Cx., et infra.] sixe and þritty ȝere; his fader was Anticipater*. [Antipater, β., γ., and Cx.] of Idumea, and his moder was of Arabia. Whan Hircanus Aristobolus his broþer, and Anti|cipater*. [Antipater, β., γ., and Cx.] þis Herodes [fader],*. [From β. and Cx.] hadde be frendes and hadde grace of Iulius Cesar, as þey hadde i-hadde*. [i-hadde] om. Cx.] to fore honde*. [bifore, Cx.] of Pompeus, Hircanus was confermed in þe kyngdom of Iewes, but so þat he schulde not be i-cleped*. [callyd, Cx.] kyng. And Anticipater*. [Antipater, β. and Cx.] of Idumea was accused to Iulius of greet fals|heed,*. [falsed, γ.] þo*. [þan, β. and Cx.] he schewede opounliche þe wemmes of the sore*. [four, Cx.] woundes þat he hadde i-fonge*. [i-fonge] fang, β.; om. Cx.; γ. adds for Julius after yfonge.] in Egipt; þerfore Iulius made hym procuratour of the Iewerye. Afterward his secounde sone Herodes, þat was afterward i-cleped Ascolonita,*. [Ascalonyta, γ.] for he repayraled*. [reparaylde, γ.; repayred, Cx.] þe citee Ascolon,*. [Ascalon, γ. and Cx.] he was i-made procurator of Galilea.*. [Galilee, Cx.] Whan Anticipater*. [Antipater, β., γ., and Cx.] was i-slawe*. [i-slawe] slayn, β. and Cx.] by malys*. [malyce, Cx.] of Page  233, vol.4 venym, þis Herodes hadde so grete grace of Antonius þat of procuratoures he made hym and his breþeren foure princes. Petrus, 24o.*. [Here is added in the margin: "Thys ys good to knowe."] At þe laste þis Herodes folowede*. [volwede, γ.] Antonius to Rome, and by help of hym he was declared kyng of [þe]*. [From β. and Cx.] Iewerie, and i-crowned in þe Capitoyle in presens*. [presence, Cx.] of þe emperour Augustus. Þanne þis Herodes hadde so grete grace þat he*. [hadde . . . he] om. β., γ., and Cx.] was i-sent wiþ tweie dukes of Rome þat schulde putte*. [put, Cx.] hym in hys kyngdom. But Antigonus, þat occupiede þe kyngdom of þe Iewerye in the mene tyme by helpe of þe*. [þe] om. γ.] Parthes,*. [Perches, Cx.] he woundede so þe*. [þe] om. β. and Cx.] oon of þe dukes of Rome þat Herodes myȝt nouȝt regne to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] þe fourþe*. [bifore þe ferþe, β.] ȝere. But at þe*. [þe] om. β.] laste by help of Antonius, þat was þoo*. [þanne, β. and Cx.] at Athene,*. [Athenes, Cx.] whanne Ierusalem was byseged*. [besieged, Cx.] fyve*. [vyf, γ.] monþes and unneþe i-take, Herodes was i-brouȝte in his kyngdom þe fourþe ȝere of his crownynge; and þerfore it is þat somtyme [mo yeres and somtyme]*. [From β. and γ.] lasse*. [lees, γ.] ȝeres*. [ȝeres] om. γ.] beþ i-radde*. [be redde, Cx.] of Herodes. Petrus.*. [Here is added in the margin: "Take hede of herodes ys chyl."] The last word evidently for chyldren, having had its termination clipped off in the binding.]Page  235, vol.4 Þis more Herodes hadde nyne wifes, and putte hem away, and wedded oon Maryamnes,*. [Mariammes, Cx.] þat was Hircanus his neece,*. [nece, Cx.] and circumsided hir*. [hym, β. and γ.] self for here love, and tornede to þe secte*. [cite, γ.] of þe Iewes, and gat*. [bygate, Cx., et infra.] on hire Alisaundre and Aristo|bolus, and oon Dosydes he gat Antipater. Oon Methata*. [Matheta, γ.; On Metheta, Cx.] he gat Archelaus; on Cleopatra he gat Phelip and Herodes Antipas, þat was afterward [called]*. [From Cx.] tretraarcha,*. [tetrarcha, Cx.] oon of þe foure princes. But þis Aristobolus, þat was Herodes his sone i-gete*. [bygoten on Beronica, Cx.] on Beronka*. [Beronica, β.] the dowȝter of his [owne]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] aunte þat het Salonia,*. [called Saloma, Cx., et infra.] he gat þe grete Agrippa, Aristobolus, and Herodes þat was i-smyte of þe aungel as it is i-rad*. [redde, Cx.] in Actibus Apostolorum. Also on*. [in, γ.] þe forsaide Beronica he gat*. [gate, Cx.] tweie douȝtres, Mariamnes*. [Mariammes, Cx.] and Herodias, þat was afterwarde Phelip*. [Philippes, Cx.] his wif, þat was Aristobolus his eme and unkel,*. [eame and uncle, Cx.] noþeles lyvynge þis Phelip Herodias [bicam þis Herodes]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] his wif þat was þis*. [þis] om. Cx.] Phelip his broþer. At þe laste þere fil*. [fylle, Cx.] strif bytwene Mariamnes þe more Herodes his [wyf]*. [From β. and Cx.] and Sa|lonia Herodes his suster;*. [sister, Cx., et infra.] and Herodes by counsaile of his Page  237, vol.4 suster slowȝ first Hircanus þe bisshop, and afterward he slowȝ Ionathas þe broþer of Mariamnes, þat he hadde i-made bisshop aȝenst Goddes lawe, in his seventeþe*. [xvii., β.; seventen, Cx.] ȝere of his elde.*. [of age, Cx.] And þan he slowȝ his wif Maryamnes, and þe housbonde*. [hosbond, γ.; husbande, Cx.] of his suster Salonia, and bare hem on*. [an, β.] honde þat þey hadde i-leie*. [i-leie] leyn, β.; layne, Cx.] by his [suster]*. [From β. and Cx.] Salonia. But afterward Herodes for þe deth of Mariamnes fil into woodnesse,*. [wodnes, γ.; fell into wodenesse, Cx.] as a man þat was ofte lunaticus,*. [lunatick, β.; lunatik, Cx.] þat is mad in certayne tymes of þe mone, and cleped aȝen*. [toke agayne, Cx.] his wyf Dosides, and here*. [hir, Cx.] sone Anti|pater, and sende*. [sent, β.; sente, γ.] Alisaundre and Aristobolus, þe sones of Mariamnes, to Rome forto lerne,*. [leorne, γ.] but he slowȝ hem afterward. Also Herodes lefte after hym meny of his [wyse]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] workes, for he hiȝte*. [honoured, Cx.] þe temple and reparaylede*. [reparayled, Cx.] Samaria, and cleped hit*. [called it, Cx.] Sebasten in worschip*. [worship, Cx.] of Cesar. He bulde a temple and bouȝt*. [and bouȝt] about, β. and Cx.] þe welle of Iordan. He fulfilled*. [fulfulde, γ.] þe buldynge of Cesaria in Palestina, in worschippe*. [worship, Cx.] of Cesar. He sette an egel*. [egle, β. and Cx.] of gold þat was grete and hevy uppon þe Page  239, vol.4 ȝate of þe temple þat heet*. [was callyd, Cx.] speciosa in worschippe of þe Romayns, but þe Iewes bare þat ful hevy, and took it at*. [an, β.; in, Cx.] evel.*. [evyl, Cx.]

Capitulum quadragesimum quartum.

ANTONIUS putte from hym his wif Cleopatra, Cesar his sus|ter, and wedded þe quene of Egipt, and ȝaf hire Arabia. By covetise þat wommen haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.; have she, Cx.] sche*. [heo, β.] desirede to regne in Rome, and by hir counsaile and confort Antonius meovede a civile bataille aȝenst Octovianus, and was overcome at Actium*. [Actia, Cx.] in Grecia.*. [Grece, β. and Cx.] [Petrus, vicesimo octavo.]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Herodes was nouȝt at þe*. [þat, β., γ., and Cx.] batayle, for þat tyme Antonius hadde i-sent hym aȝen þe kyng of Arabia of þe*. [þe] om. β.] prayenge*. [atte prayer, Cx.] of Cleopatra, so þat sche*. [heo, β.; he, Cx.] schulde have his kyngdom þat were overcome, wheþer it evere were. Eutropius, libro 7o. Antonius whan he was overcome at Actium, he fligh*. [fledde, Cx.] into Egipt; þere he slouȝ hym Page  241, vol.4 self, for he hadde noon hope of help noþer*. [ne, Cx.] of socour. Cleopatra mad here*. [hir, Cx.] gay, and mette wiþ Augustis*. [Augustus, Cx.] ȝif sche*. [heo, β.] myȝte*. [meoue, γ.] meve hym*. [entendynge to meove him, Cx.] to leccherye, but sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] myȝte nouȝt spede, and was i-putte in warde, and scapede*. [ascaped, β.; escaped, Cx.] awey, and leyde hir self in a*. [þe, γ.; the, Cx.] grave by here housbonde Antonius, and deyde by þe venym of an addre*. [a naddre, Cx.] þat sche*. [heo, β.] took wiþ here.*. [heore, γ.] After|ward Egipt fil*. [ful to, γ.; fell, Cx.] into þe empere of Rome. Petrus, 7, 8o.*. [78o, β. and Cx.] After þis Augustus echede*. [enlarged, Cx.] Herodes his kyngdom, for he hadde wyseliche arayed*. [wytly provided, Cx.] for hym what hym nedede*. [neodede, γ.] while he was toward Egipt. [℞.]*. [From β. and Cx.] Som acounteþ*. [acompte, Cx.] þe firste ȝere of Augustus his hole kyngdom from þis place forþ,*. [fore, β.; for, γ. and Cx.] afterward he regned a loon.*. [lon, γ.] Beda super Danielem seiþ so as it semeþ. Þat tyme Marcus Torentius*. [Terentius, β., γ., and Cx.] Farro*. [Varro, β., γ., and Cx.] deyde, þat was foure score ȝere olde and ten. Virgilius Narro,*. [Marro, β., γ., and Cx.] þe poete of Mantua, deyde at Brundusium whan he was aboute an*. [an] om. Cx.] fifty winter olde, and was i-buried at*. [in, Cx.] Naples wiþ suche a writynge Page  243, vol.4 on*. [uppon, β.; upon, Cx.] his tombe, þat he made whan he deyde, oþer*. [owther, Cx.] Ovidius afterward, as som men*. [men] om. γ.] wol mene.*. [say, Cx.] "Mantua brouȝt me forth; Calabres ravesched*. [rauesede, γ.; ravessed, Cx.] me; holdeþ now Pertinope.*. [Percinope, Cx.] I made lese fildes*. [made leese feldes, Cx.] and lederes." ℞. Þis was wys at þe comynge*. [at þe comynge] and kunnyng, β.; and connynge, Cx.] of philosofie and used nouȝt*. [ofte, β. and Cx.] nygromancye. Þerfore Alisaundre de naturis rerum telleþ wonderliche of hym, and seiþ þat Naples was greved wiþ a pestilence by blood*. [blode, Cx.] soukers, and Virgill*. [Virgyl, Cx.] þrewe a goldene blood soukere in to þe botme*. [bottom, Cx.] of a pitte. And many ȝere after þis goldene blood soukere was i-take up oute of þe pytte, and þus sone*. [þissoone, γ.; anone, Cx.] þe citee were*. [werþ, γ.; was, Cx.] ful of blood soukers wiþ oute remedye or*. [er, β.; ar, γ.; til, Cx.] þe goldene blood soukere was i-doo in*. [into, β.; put into, Cx.] þe pytte aȝen.*. [þe put age, γ.] Hit is also i-tolde*. [i-tolde and] om. Cx.] and i-seide þere þat oon Marcellus of Naples myȝt nouȝt kepe flesche longe wiþ oute apeyringe.*. [appayryng, Cx.] But Virgil by his witte ordeyned remedye aȝenst þat meschief, and closed flesche i-savered*. [savered, Cx.] i-not by what vertu of herbes, so þat fyve hondred ȝere þe flesche was i-founde fresche and of good savour. Also Page  245, vol.4 þere it is i-seide þat Virgil closed his orcherd*. [orchard, γ.] [al]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] aboute wiþ ayer*. [aer, γ.] instede of a wal; and he made also a brugge*. [brygge, Cx.] of ayer,*. [aer, γ.] and used to goo over þat brugge*. [brydge, Cx.] whan and whyder hym likede. Þere it is i-seide also þat he bulde þat noble paleys at Rome in þe whiche were i-sette all þe ymages of provinces and of londes. Hugucio*. [Hugo, Cx.] seiþ þe same, and putteþ more þerto of Colloseus,*. [collosens, Cx.] þat ymage of þe sonne oþer*. [owther, Cx.] of Rome. Loke more þerof*. [herof, Cx.] in þe firste book, in þe chapitre of Rome. [Policratica, libro primo.]*. [From β. and γ.] Me seiþ þat þe poete of Mantua, þat is Virgil,*. [Vyrgyl, Cx.] axede of Marcellus of Naples, þe nevew of Augustus, for*. [wherfore, Cx.] he slowȝ meny bryddes, [and]*. [From Cx., not γ.] where*. [wheþer, β., γ., and Cx.] hym were levere be i-schape*. [shapen, Cx.] to a brydde forto*. [for] om. Cx. (bis.)] make*. [take, β., γ., and Cx.] briddes i-take*. [i-take] om. β., γ., and Cx.] oþer to a flyȝe*. [flye, γ. and Cx.] forto take and slee flyȝes. He tolde þis to his grauntsire Augustus, and by coun|saile*. [counseylle, Cx.] of hym he chees*. [chesse, Cx.] forto*. [for] om. Cx.] be made a fliȝe, þat he myȝte dryve al þe flyȝes oute of Naples. Hereby it semeþ þat þe comoun profiȝt*. [profyt, Cx.] schulde be putte bifore eny*. [every werk, Cx.] singuler per|sones Page  247, vol.4 profiȝt. Varrus and Tucta, Virgil his felowes, by heste*. [felawes by commaundement, Cx.] of Augustus amendede Virgil his book Eneydos, noþeles uppon suche a condicioun þat þey schulde putte no þing more þerto. Þis ȝere Seynte Marye*. [Mari, γ.] Cristes*. [Crystys, Cx.] moder is i-bore: here*. [hir, Cx.] fader was Ioachym of þe lynage*. [lygnage, Cx., et infra.] of Iuda; and hir moder was Anna, Isachar his douȝter, of þe lynage of Levi. [℞.]*. [From γ. and Cx.] Here take hede, as Ierom seiþ, þat Anna and Emeria*. [Emerea, Cx.] weren*. [were, β. and Cx.; wer, γ.] tweie sustres. Of Emeria come*. [cam, Cx.] Elizabeth, Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] Baptist his moder. Also Anna was first i-wedded to Ioachym, and hadde by hym Mare*. [Marie, β. and γ.; Marge, Cx.] Cristes moder; and sche*. [heo, β.; she, Cx.] was afterward i-wedded to Cleophas, and hadde by hym Marie Cleophe, þat was i-wedded to Alpheus, and of hem come Iacobus Mynor, þe lasse Iames, þat heet*. [was called, Cx.] Alpheus also,*. [also] om. Cx.; γ. has Alpheus also of ham com Symon Chananeus.] [and]*. [From β.] Symon Cananeus, Iudas Taddeus,*. [Thaddeus, Cx.] and Ioseph þat hatte*. [otherwise callyd, Cx.] Barsabas. But in Historia Ecclesiastica, Eusebius, libro 2o, capitulo 2o, seiþ þat Iacobus minor, þe lasse Iames, was i-cleped oure Lordes Page  249, vol.4 broþer for he was [the]*. [From Cx. and γ., which latter omits he was.] sone of Iosep þe spouse of Marye. But þat is nouȝt comounliche i-holde.*. [comynly holden, Cx.] Also Anna was i-wedded to Salome, and hadde by hym Marye Salome, þat was i-wedded to Zebedeus, and hadde by hym þe more Iames and Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Evaungeliste. Þe firste Marye, þat was Cristes moder, was i-wedded to Ioseph þe forsaide Cleophas his broþer. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Kynbelinus, Tenuancius*. [Tenancius, Cx.] his sone, regnede in Bretayne, and gat tweie sones, Gwyderius*. [Guiderius, Cx.] and Arveragus.*. [Arvyragus, Cx.] Oracius Flaccus,*. [Flactus, Cx.] poet and*. [poet and] om. Cx.] satiricus, sevene and fifty ȝere olde, deyeþ*. [dyed, Cx.] at Rome þe sixe*. [sixte, γ.] and þritty ȝere of þe [emperour Augustus. And the xiii.*. [fourtiþe, γ.] yere of]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] empere*. [empere] om β., γ., and Cx.] Augustus, Marcus Porcius Latro*. [Cato, Cx.] Latinus, þat was decla|mator, a grete ditour,*. [doctor, Cx.] and Seneca þe philosofre his felowe, slowȝ hym self for noye*. [nuy, γ.] and sorwe of a double quarteyn.*. [of a double quarteyn] bis in MS.]Martius,*. [Marianus, β., γ., and Cx.]libro 2o. In þe oon and fourty ȝere of Augustus, in þe sevenþe monþe,*. [moneth, Cx.] þat is Septembre, in þe enlevenþe day of Page  251, vol.4 the monþe*. [mone, Cx.] þe foure and twenty day of Septembre, in*. [on, Cx.] a Þorsday, Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx., et infra.] þe*. [þe] om. β. and Cx.] Baptiste was conceyved; and þere after two hondred dayes þre score and fiftene, in*. [on, Cx.] a Fryday, he was i-bore; and so he went, to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] Crist in his conceyvynge, in his burþe, in his fullynge,*. [follyng, γ.; baptisinge, Cx.] in his prechynge, and in his doynge;*. [dyynge, β.; dyeng, Cx.] but he moste wanye*. [must wane, Cx.] and Criste moste wexe*. [must waxe, Cx.] and encrese; ffor a womman gooþ wiþ childe from þe concepcioun to þe burþe*. [byrth, Cx.] two hondred dayes þre score and fiftene,*. [sixtene, β., γ., and Cx.] so meny dayes Crist hadde in his moder wombe, þeyȝ nouȝt*. [not, Cx.] alle wommen goo so longe wiþ childe, as Seynt Austyn wole mene,*. [meaneth, Cx.] de Civitate [Dei],*. [From Cx.] libro 4o, capitulo 5o; but Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx., et infra.] hadde tweie dayes lasse*. [lees, γ.] in his moder wombe.*. [þeyȝ nouȝt alle, is inserted here again in MS. by a slip of the copy|ist.] Also Iohn was i-bore whan þe day bygan to wanye,*. [shorten or wane, Cx.] and Crist whan þe day bygan to wexe [long].*. [From Cx.] Also Iohn was i-buried wiþ oute heed, and in Crist was no boon*. [bon, γ.] i-broke.*. [broken, Cx.]

Explicit Liber Tertius.