Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum quadragesimum tertium.

WHAN Iulius Cesar was i-slawe,*. [slayn, β. and Cx.] Octovianus of Rome, eyȝtene ȝere olde,*. [of age, Cx.] was i-sent wiþ tweie consuls forto pursue*. [persuwe, γ.] Marcus Antonius, þat was þo i-demed*. [þan demed, β. and Cx.] open enemy to þe comounte,*. [comente, Cx.] ffor he was arise aȝen*. [made insurrection ayenst, Cx.] þe senatoures, and aȝenst hem þat slowȝ Iulius Cesar. Þis Octovanius was a Romayn, Octavianus*. [Octavius, β., γ., and Cx.] þe senatour his sone, and come of Eneas in*. [on, Cx.] his moder side by [the]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] kynrede*. [kynrad, γ.] þat hatte Iulia familia, and was Iulius Cesar his nevewe of his suster i-bore, and his owne sone adoptivus, and Iulius made hym his eyer*. [heyre, Cx.] in his Page  225, vol.4 testament. Marcus was overcome at Mutina, and þe tweyne consuls deyde by þe weye. Þanne Octovianus come to Rome wiþ*. [Octovianus . . . wiþ] had Oc|tovianus, β.] þre grete oostes*. [than had Octavianus the grete hoostes, Cx.] at his heste.*. [commaundemente, Cx.] Octovianus made pees wiþ Marcus Antonius, at þe*. [þe] om. β.] profrynge*. [atte desyre, Cx.] of oon Lipidus,*. [Lepidus, γ.] þat was mayster of þe horsmen to hym. Marcus Antonius was i-flowe.*. [yflowe, γ.; fledde, Cx.] Þanne Octovianus come to Rome in his twentiþe ȝere of his elde,*. [of age, Cx.] and took þe dignyte and made hym self consul by strengþe, and þanne*. [þanne] om. β. and Cx.] afterward [regned]*. [From β. and Cx.] em|perour sixe and fifty ȝere sixe monþes*. [monethes, Cx.] and somwhat of dayes, þat was from þe monþe*. [moneth, Cx.] of Marche to þe firste day of Octobre. In þe whiche tyme he regned twelf ȝere wiþ Octovianus,*. [Antonius, β. and Cx.] and foure and fourty ȝere allone; and so he brouȝte al þe worlde into oon principalte and lordschippe.*. [principate and lordship, Cx.] And as þe kynges of Rome hadde þe name of Iulius Cesar, and were i-cleped Cesares, so þey þat come after þis Octovianus Augustis*. [Augustus, Cx.] hadde þe name of hym, and were i-cleped Augusti. [Hugo, capitulo Augeo.]*. [From β. and Cx.] Þis hadde nouȝt þat name one|liche*. [only, Cx.] of augere, þat is forto eche and*. [for encreace or, Cx.] make more, for he made more and echede þe comoun profiȝt,*. [comune profite, Cx., et infra.] but for he was*. [for a was, γ.]Page  227, vol.4 i-bore in þat monthe*. [moneth, Cx., et infra.] þat hatte*. [þat hatte] om. Cx.] Augustus, oþer for he hadde þe victorie in þat monþe of Antonius and of Cleopatra. Þis Augustus was þe sone of oon Actia, Iulius his*. [his] om. β. This is general in this MS., and will not be noticed in future.] suster douȝter. Eutropius, libro 7o. Þanne Augustus þe firste ȝere*. [ȝere] om. Cx.] of his empere,*. [empyre, Cx.] in wreche of Iulius his deþ, exiled þe sena|toures, and chasede*. [chaced, Cx.] Brutus and Cassius, and took Cithero to Antonius his paleys in hope of acord: Cithero was þoo*. [þan, β. and Cx.] in his sixty and twelfþe ȝere. Augustinus de Civitate [Dei]*. [From Cx.]libro 3o, capitulo 3o. Tullius hadde i-favered and tenderliche*. [tendrely, Cx.] i-kept Octovianus in his ȝowþe*. [yongth, Cx.] aȝenst þe malys of Antonius, in hope þat he schulde helpe moche*. [myche, β.] þe empere*. [thempyre, Cx., et infra.] and þe comyn profite of Rome; noþeles Octovianus leet Antonius sle Tullius Cithero as it were by a manere covenant of acord. Þanne whanne Antonius wolde kutte of Tullius his tonge, for he hadde i-wrete*. [wryten, β. and Cx.] moche*. [myche, β.] aȝenst Antonius in blame of hym, þanne Tullius answerde in metre [and seide]:*. [Added from β., γ., and Cx.] "Nouȝt doost [thou,]*. [From β. and Cx., not γ.] Antony,*. [Antoni, γ.] writynge schal nedes*. [nedus, γ.] abyde. [Eu|tropius]."*. [Added from β., γ., and Cx.]Page  229, vol.4 Þanne Octovianus wiþ Antonius in Macedonia*. [in Macedonia] om. Cx.] slowȝ hem þat slowȝ Iulius [Cesar],*. [From Cx.] boþ*. [bote, γ.] Brutus and Cas|sius, and greet multitude of oþere; and afterwarde þey delede þe empere hem*. [ham, γ.] bytwene, so þat Augustus schulde holde*. [schulde holde] helde, β.; hielde, Cx.] Spayne, Gallia, and Italy, and Antonius hilde*. [helde, Cx.] þe Est londes. Valerius, libro 4o. Porcia, [the]*. [From γ. and Cx.] grete Caton his douȝter, whan sche*. [heo, α., β., and γ.] hirde þat hir housbonde*. [hosbond, γ.] Brutus was i-slawe,*. [i-slawe] slayne, β.] for sche*. [heo, β.] hadde [noon egge tole],*. [Added from β., γ., and Cx.] sche*. [heo, β.; he, γ.] took brennynge coolys*. [coles, Cx.] in to*. [to] om. Cx.] her mouþe. Som telleþ*. [say, Cx.] þat Ovyde*. [Ovidius, Cx.] Naso, the poete, was i-bore at Peligius.*. [Pelignis, γ.; Pelgius, Cx.] Salustius, þe advokett*. [avoket, γ.; advocate, Cx.] and writere of stories, deyde at Rome. Þis hadde alwey*. [ever, Cx.] envie to Cithero. He wedded Therencia*. [Terencia, Cx.] to wif, þat Cithero hadde by dyvers tyme*. [dyvers tyme] lyvorse, β. and Cx.; deuors, γ.] i-putte from hym and forsake; þerfore Cithero made gestes in blame*. [reprove, Cx.] of Salustius. Ysidorus, libro primo. Þis Salustius was maister of pleyes,*. [playes, Cx.] and put first þis lettre k to Page  231, vol.4 þe Latyn lettres for to have som diversite of soun bytwene c and q. Onliche*. [Only, Cx.] Latyn men useþ*. [usen, Cx.] þe*. t, β. and γ.; þis, Cx.] lettre k. Pe|trus, 10o.*. [decimo septimo, β. and Cx.] Þe principalte*. [principate, γ. and Cx.] of Iewes faillede, and Herodes Ascalanita*. [Ascolonita, Cx.] regnede in þe Iewery*. [Jewry, Cx., et infra.] sixe and þritty ȝere; his fader was Anticipater*. [Antipater, β., γ., and Cx.] of Idumea, and his moder was of Arabia. Whan Hircanus Aristobolus his broþer, and Anti|cipater*. [Antipater, β., γ., and Cx.] þis Herodes [fader],*. [From β. and Cx.] hadde be frendes and hadde grace of Iulius Cesar, as þey hadde i-hadde*. [i-hadde] om. Cx.] to fore honde*. [bifore, Cx.] of Pompeus, Hircanus was confermed in þe kyngdom of Iewes, but so þat he schulde not be i-cleped*. [callyd, Cx.] kyng. And Anticipater*. [Antipater, β. and Cx.] of Idumea was accused to Iulius of greet fals|heed,*. [falsed, γ.] þo*. [þan, β. and Cx.] he schewede opounliche þe wemmes of the sore*. [four, Cx.] woundes þat he hadde i-fonge*. [i-fonge] fang, β.; om. Cx.; γ. adds for Julius after yfonge.] in Egipt; þerfore Iulius made hym procuratour of the Iewerye. Afterward his secounde sone Herodes, þat was afterward i-cleped Ascolonita,*. [Ascalonyta, γ.] for he repayraled*. [reparaylde, γ.; repayred, Cx.] þe citee Ascolon,*. [Ascalon, γ. and Cx.] he was i-made procurator of Galilea.*. [Galilee, Cx.] Whan Anticipater*. [Antipater, β., γ., and Cx.] was i-slawe*. [i-slawe] slayn, β. and Cx.] by malys*. [malyce, Cx.] of Page  233, vol.4 venym, þis Herodes hadde so grete grace of Antonius þat of procuratoures he made hym and his breþeren foure princes. Petrus, 24o.*. [Here is added in the margin: "Thys ys good to knowe."] At þe laste þis Herodes folowede*. [volwede, γ.] Antonius to Rome, and by help of hym he was declared kyng of [þe]*. [From β. and Cx.] Iewerie, and i-crowned in þe Capitoyle in presens*. [presence, Cx.] of þe emperour Augustus. Þanne þis Herodes hadde so grete grace þat he*. [hadde . . . he] om. β., γ., and Cx.] was i-sent wiþ tweie dukes of Rome þat schulde putte*. [put, Cx.] hym in hys kyngdom. But Antigonus, þat occupiede þe kyngdom of þe Iewerye in the mene tyme by helpe of þe*. [þe] om. γ.] Parthes,*. [Perches, Cx.] he woundede so þe*. [þe] om. β. and Cx.] oon of þe dukes of Rome þat Herodes myȝt nouȝt regne to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] þe fourþe*. [bifore þe ferþe, β.] ȝere. But at þe*. [þe] om. β.] laste by help of Antonius, þat was þoo*. [þanne, β. and Cx.] at Athene,*. [Athenes, Cx.] whanne Ierusalem was byseged*. [besieged, Cx.] fyve*. [vyf, γ.] monþes and unneþe i-take, Herodes was i-brouȝte in his kyngdom þe fourþe ȝere of his crownynge; and þerfore it is þat somtyme [mo yeres and somtyme]*. [From β. and γ.] lasse*. [lees, γ.] ȝeres*. [ȝeres] om. γ.] beþ i-radde*. [be redde, Cx.] of Herodes. Petrus.*. [Here is added in the margin: "Take hede of herodes ys chyl."] The last word evidently for chyldren, having had its termination clipped off in the binding.]Page  235, vol.4 Þis more Herodes hadde nyne wifes, and putte hem away, and wedded oon Maryamnes,*. [Mariammes, Cx.] þat was Hircanus his neece,*. [nece, Cx.] and circumsided hir*. [hym, β. and γ.] self for here love, and tornede to þe secte*. [cite, γ.] of þe Iewes, and gat*. [bygate, Cx., et infra.] on hire Alisaundre and Aristo|bolus, and oon Dosydes he gat Antipater. Oon Methata*. [Matheta, γ.; On Metheta, Cx.] he gat Archelaus; on Cleopatra he gat Phelip and Herodes Antipas, þat was afterward [called]*. [From Cx.] tretraarcha,*. [tetrarcha, Cx.] oon of þe foure princes. But þis Aristobolus, þat was Herodes his sone i-gete*. [bygoten on Beronica, Cx.] on Beronka*. [Beronica, β.] the dowȝter of his [owne]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] aunte þat het Salonia,*. [called Saloma, Cx., et infra.] he gat þe grete Agrippa, Aristobolus, and Herodes þat was i-smyte of þe aungel as it is i-rad*. [redde, Cx.] in Actibus Apostolorum. Also on*. [in, γ.] þe forsaide Beronica he gat*. [gate, Cx.] tweie douȝtres, Mariamnes*. [Mariammes, Cx.] and Herodias, þat was afterwarde Phelip*. [Philippes, Cx.] his wif, þat was Aristobolus his eme and unkel,*. [eame and uncle, Cx.] noþeles lyvynge þis Phelip Herodias [bicam þis Herodes]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] his wif þat was þis*. [þis] om. Cx.] Phelip his broþer. At þe laste þere fil*. [fylle, Cx.] strif bytwene Mariamnes þe more Herodes his [wyf]*. [From β. and Cx.] and Sa|lonia Herodes his suster;*. [sister, Cx., et infra.] and Herodes by counsaile of his Page  237, vol.4 suster slowȝ first Hircanus þe bisshop, and afterward he slowȝ Ionathas þe broþer of Mariamnes, þat he hadde i-made bisshop aȝenst Goddes lawe, in his seventeþe*. [xvii., β.; seventen, Cx.] ȝere of his elde.*. [of age, Cx.] And þan he slowȝ his wif Maryamnes, and þe housbonde*. [hosbond, γ.; husbande, Cx.] of his suster Salonia, and bare hem on*. [an, β.] honde þat þey hadde i-leie*. [i-leie] leyn, β.; layne, Cx.] by his [suster]*. [From β. and Cx.] Salonia. But afterward Herodes for þe deth of Mariamnes fil into woodnesse,*. [wodnes, γ.; fell into wodenesse, Cx.] as a man þat was ofte lunaticus,*. [lunatick, β.; lunatik, Cx.] þat is mad in certayne tymes of þe mone, and cleped aȝen*. [toke agayne, Cx.] his wyf Dosides, and here*. [hir, Cx.] sone Anti|pater, and sende*. [sent, β.; sente, γ.] Alisaundre and Aristobolus, þe sones of Mariamnes, to Rome forto lerne,*. [leorne, γ.] but he slowȝ hem afterward. Also Herodes lefte after hym meny of his [wyse]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] workes, for he hiȝte*. [honoured, Cx.] þe temple and reparaylede*. [reparayled, Cx.] Samaria, and cleped hit*. [called it, Cx.] Sebasten in worschip*. [worship, Cx.] of Cesar. He bulde a temple and bouȝt*. [and bouȝt] about, β. and Cx.] þe welle of Iordan. He fulfilled*. [fulfulde, γ.] þe buldynge of Cesaria in Palestina, in worschippe*. [worship, Cx.] of Cesar. He sette an egel*. [egle, β. and Cx.] of gold þat was grete and hevy uppon þe Page  239, vol.4 ȝate of þe temple þat heet*. [was callyd, Cx.] speciosa in worschippe of þe Romayns, but þe Iewes bare þat ful hevy, and took it at*. [an, β.; in, Cx.] evel.*. [evyl, Cx.]