Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum quadragesimum primum.

CLEOPATRA, þe douȝter of Ptholomeus*. [Tholomeus, Cx.] Denys kyng of Egipt, was emperise*. [emperice, β.; empryce, Cx.] of Egipt two and twenty ȝere; [two yere]*. [Cx.] tofore*. [byfore, Cx.] Iulius Cesar, fyve ȝere under Iulius, and fiftene ȝere under*. [after, Cx., wrongly. So also β.] Octovianus*. [Octavianus, Cx.] Augustus. A batayle civile bygan bytwene Iulius and his wifes fader Pompeus in þis manere. Giraldus. For Iulius whan [that]*. [Cx.] he hadde i-travailled ten ȝere, and wonne Gallia, Germania, and Bretayne, he axede þe worschippe þat was due*. [dewe, β. and Cx.] for so grete victories and noble [dedes],*. [Cx.] but Pompeus, Cato, and Marcellus þe consul*. [consuls, Cx.] wiþ seide hym, and heet*. [lete, α.; bade, β. and Cx.] hym leve þe oost*. [hoost, Cx., et infra.] and come aȝen to þe citee. Eutropius, libro 6o. And by auctorite of Marcellus þe consul,*. [wiþ seide . . . oost]. These words out of the previous sentence are here wrongly repeated by the scribe in MS.] þe grete Pompeus was i-sent wiþ heste*. [commandement, Cx.] to þe Page  191, vol.4 legiouns þat were at Lucrecia,*. [Luceria, β., γ., and Cx. The MS. γ. is very much injured in this portion.] and for þat of-puttynge Iulius Cesar wiþ his oost come aȝenst þe contray. Suetus.*. [Suetonius, α., β. and Cx.] Þere were meny manere dignytees in Rome, som*. [somme, Cx.] þerof durede oon ȝere, som two ȝere*. [som two ȝere] om. Cx.]; þe cheef*. [chyef, Cx.] dignite [among alle was þe dictator his dignyte,]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] þat durede fyve ȝere. But first was but oon dictator, but afterward þe comounte*. [comonte, Cx., et infra.] encresede, and were i-made þre dictatoures in Rome, for ȝif þere fil*. [fylle, Cx.] ony discord bytwene the tweyn, þe þridde schulde redresse it. Hit happede þat þese þre were dictatoures in fere,*. [yfere, β.; togeder, Cx.] Pompeus,*. [Pompeius, Cx., et infra.] Iulius, and Marcus Crassus, of þe whiche Pompeus, for he was an olde man, and of þe chivalrie Emerita, lefte at home forto governe þe comynte. Trevisa. In þe fyve and twenty chapi|tre of þe firste book hit is i-write þat somtyme [the]*. [From Cx., not β.] knyȝtes of Rome, after þat þey were sixty ȝere olde, schulde nouȝt be compelled to dedes of armes, but he*. [þei, β.; they, Cx.] schulde be at home and have a*. [α] om. Cx.] certeyn lyflode, and þanne þey were i-clepede*. [callyd, Cx.] knyȝtes ef þe chyvalrie emerita, þat is, i-putte out of dedes of armes. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie. Crassus was i-sent to werre*. [werrye, α. and β.] aȝenst þe Parþes,*. [Parches, Cx.] and was i-take and i-lost by gile Page  193, vol.4 and be tresoun.*. [by trayson, Cx.] Iulius was sent in to þe west londes, and dwelled þere*. [þere] om. α. and Cx.] fyve ȝere, to make þe Galles and the Allo|brogues, þat beeþ Burgoynes, sugette;*. [Allobrogues, men of Burgoyne, subget, Cx.] þan he hilde*. [helde, Cx.] þe dignite oþer fyve ȝere by his owne auctorite, in þe whiche fyve ȝere he werrede*. [warryd, Cx.] aȝenst þe Britouns, and eft aȝenst þe Galles. Þanne in his comynge to Rome ward, whanne he come to Alpes, he sente to Pompeus, whos douȝter he hadde i-wedded, þat he schulde araye for hym triumphum, þat is þe worschippe*. [worship, Cx., et infra.] þat a victor of Rome schulde have in his comynge to Rome after þe victorie. But for Iulius hadde i-holde*. [holden, Cx.] þe dignite by his owne auctorite lenger þan he schulde, Pompeus wernede hym þe worschippe þat hatte*. [was called, Cx.] triumphus, by assent of þe senatoures. Þanne Iulius was wrooþ, and wente to þe citee aȝenst Pompeus. Eutropius, libro 6o. Þo*. [Than, Cx.] Pompeus dradde, wiþ [þe]*. [From α., β. and Cx.] senatoures and consuls, and fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] in to Grecia,*. [Grece, Cx.] and arrayed þere a batayle aȝenst Iulius Cesar. Iulius entrede into þe citee of Rome as it were a voyde citee, and brak in to þe tresourie.*. [as hit were into a citee þat is voyd, and brak þe comoun tresorye, α., β. and Cx.]Orosius, libro 6o. Iulius took foure þowsand pounde of gold [and]*. [From α., β. and Cx.]Page  195, vol.4 six score and ten of silver; he took foure score [þowsand]*. [From α., β. and Cx.] and ten þowsand [pound],*. [From α., β. and Cx.] and delede to his knyȝtes. Eutro|pius. And in liknesse of pees he occupiede þe dignitees everichon, and wente þan in to Spayne, and þere he destroyede Pompeus his strengest oostes,*. [strengthe hoostes, Cx.] and þre cheventeynes.*. [cheueteynes, β.; capytains, Cx.] Þanne he come into Grecia,*. [Grece, Cx.] and fauȝt wiþ Pompeus. In þe firste batayle Iulius was overcome and i-chased,*. [overcomen and chaced, Cx.] and whan nyȝt come Pompeus wolde nouȝt folwe*. [folowe and pursue, Cx.] and pursewed*. [pursewe, α.; pursue the chace, β.] þe chaas.*. [chace, Cx.] Þerfore Iulius seide þat Pompeus couþe nouȝt take þe victorie, and þat onliche þat day he myȝte have [y]*. [From α.] be overcome. After þat þey fauȝte in Thessalia; þere Pompeus his scheltrum*. [Pompeius sheltron, Cx.] hadde fourty þowsand of*. [of] om. Cx.] foot men, and sixe hondred [hors men]*. [From α., β. and Cx.] in þe lefte wynge, and fyve hondred in þe ryȝt wynge, and al þe helpe of þe est side, wiþ noblete*. [nobley, β. and Cx.] of þe senatoures, pretories, and consuls. Cesar hadde in his scheltrum nouȝt fulliche*. [schetrone, β.; shiltron not fully, Cx.] þritty þowsand horsmen; and at þe laste in þe batayle Pompeus [his]*. [From α.] oost fliȝ,*. [flyȝ, β.; fledde, Cx.] and his tentes were destroyed, and he hymself fleigh*. [flyȝ, β.; fledde, Cx.] to þe ȝonge Ptholo|meus, Page  197, vol.4 kyng of Egipt, and axede help of hym, for he was assigned hym*. [hym] om. Cx.] by þe senatoures to be his tutor and his wardeyn. Noþeles þe kyng folowede more hap and fortune þan frendschipe, and leet slee Pompeus, and sente to Iulius his heed and his ryng. Whan Iulius sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] the heed and þe ryng he weep wel bitter teres,*. [wepte wel better teeris, Cx.] and wente anon*. [forthwith, Cx.] to Alex|andria, and Ptholomeus arrayede*. [Tholomeus araied, Cx.] busshementes*. [boyschementes, γ.]; þan Cesar was oversette wiþ strengþe of his enemyes, and wente into a boot þat was so hevy lade wiþ men þat folowede hym þat it sanke doun and was a-draynt.*. [dreynte, Cx.] Þan Cesar swam þre hondred paas wiþ oon hond, and hilde*. [helde, Cx.] þe chartres*. [chatres, γ.] above þe water in his oþer hond,*. [with that other hande, Cx.] and come to a schippe. Þere he was i-conforted anon, and drenchede oþer took*. [eyther toke, Cx.] al þe kynges navey*. [There are several leaves miss|ing here in MS. α., which goes on again at the end of cap. 4. lib. iv., "And some of hem wolde telle what was to comynge," &c.] in batayle of þe see esiliche*. [easely, Cx.] i-now. But þe Alexandrynes prayede for hir kynges lyf, and Iulius grauntede, and chargede hym þat he schulde [raþer]*. [From β. and Cx.] assaie*. [essay, Cx.] þe frendschipe of [þe]*. [From β. and Cx.] Romayns þan dedes of armes. Noþeles anon as he Page  199, vol.4 was fre he ȝaf Cesar a batayle, but he*. [Cx. inserts and his hoost here, omitting the last four words of the sentence.] was*. [were, Cx.] sone des|troyed,*. [distruyed, β.] he and his oost. Cesar bytook þat kyngdom to a woman þat heet*. [callyd, Cx.] Cleopatra, and dwelled wiþ here two ȝere in leccherie. Hugucio, [capitulo Ianus].*. [From β. and Cx.] Þat tyme Iulius amended þe kalender, and fonde þe cause of þe lepe*. [lupe, γ.] ȝere. ℞. Þe Romaynes, as [the]*. [Cx.] Hebrewes, bygonne*. [bygan, Cx.] here ȝeres in Marche anon*. [unto, Cx.] to Numa Pompilius his*. [hys] om. β. and Cx.] tyme, and þis Numa putte Ianiver*. [Januar' β. and Cx.] and Feverer*. [Februar', β. and Cx.] to þe ȝere in an uncerteyn manere, but þe ȝere was not ful*. [fully, γ. and Cx.] amended to fore*. [bifore, β.; byfore, Cx.] Iulius his tyme. Quyntilus,*. [Quintilis, Cx.] þe fifte monþe*. [moneth, Cx., et infra.] after Marche, was after|ward i-cleped*. [callid, Cx.] Iulius in worschippe of Iulius Cesar, for he was i-bore in þat monþe, oþer in þat monþe he dede som*. [dyde somme, Cx.] grete dede and som grete*. [som grete] om. Cx.] victorie; ffor suche a manere skile Sextilis, the sixte monþe after Marche, is i-cleped Augustus in worschippe*. [worship, Cx.] of Augustus Cesar. Eutropius. Cesar tornede Page  201, vol.4 out of*. [remeoved from, Cx.] Egipt, and overcome Farnaces, Metridas his*. [his] om. β. and Cx. This is general in these texts.] sone, in a bayle,*. [batail, β.; batayl, γ.] and leet slee hym, for he hadde Pompeus i-meyntened aȝenst*. [mayntened Pompeus aȝenes, β. and Cx.; Yholpe, P., γ.] Iulius; þennes he wente to Rome, and made hym con|sul þe þridde tyme. Þanne he wente into Affrica, and over|come in batayle þe noble dukes Scipio and Porcius Cato, and Iuba [the]*. [Cx.] kyng of Mauritania, and þeygh*. [hy, γ.] slowh*. [they slough, Cx.] hem self afterward. ℞. Seneca, epistola 26a, and Policratica, libro 7o, capitulo 6o spekeþ,*. [speken, Cx.] of þis Catoun, and telleþ*. [seye, Cx.] þat he drank venym and smoot hym [silf]*. [From β., γ. and Cx.] in to þe brest wiþ a swerde, and so he ȝalde*. [yelde, Cx.] up þe goost, ffor he wolde nouȝt see Cesar regne while he were on lyve.*. [alyve, Cx.] Also Seneca, 2o libro ad Severum: Cato lyvede nouȝt after fredom,*. [freodom, γ. (bis).] noþer*. [nowther, Cx.] fredom*. [freodom, γ. (bis).] after Cato. Also an oþer storie of Rome seiþ þat Cato was nouȝt in þe batayle þat was of Iulius and Pompeus; but he herde of Pompeus his*. [his] om. β. and Cx. This is general in these texts.] deeþ, and radde Plato*. [Platoes, β. and Cx.] his book de Immortalite animæ, and sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] in þat book þat þe soule may noȝt deie,*. [dye, Cx.] and so he wounded hym self, but his frendes counsailled hym forto*. [for] om. Cx.] leve, and seche*. [a leche, β.] dede salve*. [his cure, β. and Cx.; salf, γ.] to his woundes; but whanne þey were agoo he opened his owne*. [owne] om. Cx.] wounde, and so he deyde. Þis doynge is nouȝt excusable in Cato, were he nevere so wel i-lettred and so glorious. Firste for his frendes*. [vrendes, γ.] coun|sailled*. [counseylled, Cx., et infra.] hym þe contrarye, þat were wise men and kynde. Also for he counseilled*. [counseylled, Cx., et infra.] nouȝt his sone forto doo so, but he coun|sailled hym more*. [rather, Cx.] forto*. [for] om. Cx.] lyve under Iulius þe victor. Þe Page  203, vol.4 þridde skile for he slowȝ hym self for*. [by, β. and Cx.] envie, ffor he wolde nouȝt suffre and see Iulius his wreþþe*. [welthe, γ.; welth, Cx.] and his ioye; and so it semeþ þat Cato slouȝ hym self by unstedfastnes and foly, ffor he woulde nouȝt suffre angwische*. [anguyssh, Cx.] and desese, and nouȝt*. [disease and not, Cx.] by honeste, forto*. [for] om. Cx.] voyde and scape*. [escape, Cx.] foule manere of doynge. Here take hede of meny Catouns þat were [in Rome]*. [From Cx.] among þe Romayns: oon was Cato questor, he brouȝt Ennyous*. [Ennius, Cx.] þe poet out of Tarent into Rome; anoþer was Mennius Cato, þat fauȝt wonderliche aȝenst þe Grees*. [Grekis, β. and Cx.] in Paul Emilus*. [Emilius, β. and Cx.] his tyme. Anoþer was Marcus Porcius Cato, þat was i-cleped Uti|sencis,*. [Utisensis, γ.; called Utycensis, Cx.] ffor he slowȝ hym self at a citee þat hatte*. [callyd, Cx.] Utica in Affrica;*. [Affryque, Cx.] of hym we spekeþ nouȝt*. [now, β.; speke nowe, Cx.] at þis tyme; and oon*. [in, β. and Cx.] caas þis was Censorius Cato, of hym spekeþ Ieronimus*. [Jerom, β. and Cx.] in Epistola ad Nepotianum, and seiþ þat hym schamed*. [schamede, γ.] nouȝt whan he was an olde man to lerne lettres of Grewe,*. [Gru, γ.; Grece, Cx.] noþer was [put]*. [From Cx.] out of trust and hope*. [hope and trust, Cx.] forto spede: þis was a philosofre of þe secte þat hatte*. [heet, Cx.] secta Stoycorum. Trevisa. Stoyci hadde þat name of a porche of Athene þat heet*. [called, Cx.] Stoa, þere were i-peynt*. [peynted, β. and Cx.] dedes and doynge of wise men and of Page  205, vol.4 stronge; þe firste phílosofre of þat secte heet*. [was named, Cx.] ȝenon. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie: þis Caton made a grete sciens*. [science, Cx.] of vertues*. [vertuwes, γ.] and of þewes,*. [maners, Cx.] þat is i-cleped Ethica Catonis, þerof was þat litel*. [lytle, Cx.] book of metre i-drawe*. [drawen, Cx.] þat hatte*. [þat hatte] om. Cx.] Caton, þat children lerneþ*. [lurneþ, γ.; lerne, Cx.] in scole. Eutropius. After a*. [an, Cx.] ȝere Cesar went eft to Rome, and made hym consul þe fourþe tyme, and wente anon into Spayne, þere*. [and soon after went into Spayne, wher, Cx.] Pompeus his sones hadde arrayed wel*. [right, Cx.] stronge batailles; in þe laste batayle þereof*. [there, Cx.] Cesar was so nyh overcome þat his men fligh,*. [fledde, Cx.] and he was in poynt to sle hym self leste in his elde he schulde falle into children*. [childres, Cx.] hond, afterward*. [after, γ. and Cx.] grete worschip and ioye and grete dedes of chivalrie. Cesar was þoo sixe and fifty ȝere olde.*. [of age, Cx.] At þe laste his men tornede*. [turnede, β.; tourned, Cx.] aȝen and overcome his enemyes, and efte [he]*. [From Cx.] wente to Rome, and made men clepe*. [callyd, Cx.] hym emperour;*. [and þere . . . emperour] om. Cx.] and þere þre ȝere and seven monþes he dede outrageousliche*. [outragely, β.; outragelych, γ.] aȝenst þe customs and*. [and] om. β.] of [þe]*. [From β.] fredom of Rome. [Ysidorus, libro 9o.]*. [From β.] Þis was þe firste of alle þe duke of Rome þat was Page  207, vol.4 i-cleped*. [i-] om. β.] Cesar and emperour. [He was i-cleped emperour]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] for a passynge lordschippe [of]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] oon principate; and was i-cleped*. [callyd, Cx.] Cesar for he was kutte*. [kit, γ.; kytte, Cx.] out of his moder*. [moders, Cx.] wombe whan his moder was dede: cesus in*. [α, γ.] Latyn [is]*. [From Cx.] i-kutte*. [ykut, γ.] in*. [an, β. and γ.] Englisshe. [℞]*. [℞] From β. and γ.; ℞ . . . Englisshe, om. Cx.] His successours were i-cleped emperours and Casars after hym; and þe emperour was i-cleped Augustus for echynge of þe comoun profiȝt: augere in*. [α, γ.] Latyn, eche in*. [an, γ.] Englisshe.*. [℞] From β. and γ.; ℞ . . . Englisshe, om. Cx.]Eutropius. Whanne [Iulius]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] schulde be*. [by, γ. and Cx.] his owne wille doo worschippe*. [worship, Cx.] to þe peple, as the peple dede hym to forehonde,*. [dyde hym byfore, Cx.] he wolde nouȝt*. [nouȝt] om. Cx.] noþer rise*. [arise, β.; arryse, Cx.] aȝenst þe senatoures whan þey come to hym, and dede*. [dyde, Cx.] meny oþer tirauntise*. [tyrauntryes, β.; tiraundys do|yngs, γ.; tyrannyes, Cx.] and doynges aȝenst þe customs*. [costoms, γ.; custommes, Cx.] of Rome. Þanne þre score senatoures and horsmen*. [horsmen and senatours, β. and Cx.] of Rome, and specialliche tweyne, eyþer heet*. [was called, Cx.] Brutus, conspired aȝenst hym, so þat in*. [on, Cx.] a day whanne þe senatours schulde come to gidres*. [togeder, Cx.] Iulius come to þe Capitoil, and was i-stiked*. [stykked thurgh, Cx.] þoruȝ,*. [þurȝ, β.] and hadde þre and twenty woundes, and deyde.