Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum tricesimum quintum.

PTHOLOMEUS*. [Tholomeus, Cx., et infra.] Philometor regned in Egipt fyve and þritty ȝere. Petrus, 205. Þat tyme*. [Petrus, 205. þat tyme] om. β. and Cx. (not γ.)] Symon Onias his sone was Page  105, vol.4 preost*. [preest, Cx.] of þe temple and bisshop, and bouȝte þe preosthood*. [presthode, Cx.] of Appolinus duke of Phenicia.*. [duc of Fenicia, Cx.] Seleuchus herde þerof and sente Eliodorus forto undo þat dede, and whanne he was i-entred forto*. [for] om. Cx.] spoyle þe temple tweye ȝongelynges arise*. [aroos, Cx.] out of a prive*. [prevy, Cx.] place and slowȝ hym þere. It semeþ þat Iosephus wil mene*. [meaneth, Cx.] þat þey were aungels in liknes*. [lykenesse, Cx.] of men. Noþeles secundo Machabeorum it is i-write þat a dredful hors|man schovede*. [schewide, β.; shewed him, Cx.] hym forþ, and al totrade hym, but he slowȝ hym nouȝt. Iosephus, libro 2o.*. [12o] γ. and Cx.] Aboute þat tyme Ihesus Sirac his sone*. [Siraks sonne, Cx.] wroot þe book þat hatte*. [book callyd, Cx.] Ecclesiasticus, and cleped it Panarethon.*. [called it panerethon, Cx.] Þe þridde ȝere of Philometor oon Arestobolus,*. [Aristobus, Cx.] a Iewe and philosofre*. [philosofre] om. Cx.] paripateticus, þat is of Aristotel his lore,*. [Aristotles loore, Cx.] wroot to Ptholomeus a declaracioun and an*. [an] om. Cx.] exposicioun of Moyses his bookes. Eutropius, libro 4o. Þat ȝere deide*. [dyed, Cx.] Phelip kyng of Macedonia, and his sone Perseus was rebel aȝenst the Romayns; but Emilius Paulus, consul of Rome, overcome hym in wel stronge bataille, and slowȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] þritty þowsand of Grees,*. [Grekes, Cx.] but he dede*. [dyde, Cx.] hym wor|schippe Page  107, vol.4 as þeyȝ*. [though, Cx.] he were nouȝt overcome. For whanne he wolde falle doun to his feet he wolde nouȝt suffre hym, but he sette hym beside hym uppon his seete, and relesede*. [relesched, β.; relecede, γ.; releesed, Cx.] half þe tribute þat was woned*. [wonte, Cx.] to be payde, and heet*. [promysed, Cx.] þat þe Macedoynes*. [Macedones, Cx.] schulde be free, for it schulde seme þat þe Romayns werrede*. [werriden, β.; warrydde, Cx.] for riȝtwisenesse, and nouȝt for money. Trogus, libro 33o. In þis fiȝtinge oon Menynus,*. [Menninus, Cx.] Caton þe advoket his sone,*. [advocates sone, Cx.] while he fauȝt wonder*. [wonder] om. Cx.] strongliche,*. [mightely, Cx.] fil doun of his hors and fauȝt on his feet, and wolde have i-hitte*. [smiten, Cx.] a grete man, and his swerd fil doun of his honde, he diffended*. [defended, Cx.] hym wiþ his schilde,*. [sheld, Cx.] and gadrede his swerde among þe swerdes of his enemys in sight of boþe [the]*. [From Cx.] oostes,*. [hoostes, Cx.] and hadde many woundes, and torned to his owne side.*. [sidde, Cx.] Oþer men toke ensample of his hardynesse, and fauȝt orpedliche,*. [orpud liche, α.; orpedly, Cx.] and þe hardynesse of hym was cause of þe victorie. Perseus was i-take, and þanne afterward Macedonia fil*. [fyll, Cx.] to þe Romayns. From þe firste Craneus anon to þis Perseus þat lond hadde fyve and þritty kynges, in eiȝte hondred ȝere and foure and twenty. Ysidorus, libro 6o. *. [þis inserted in β.; þes inserted in γ.]Emilius Paulus brouȝt first bookes to Page  109, vol.4 Rome out of Grecia.*. [Grece, Cx,] Afterward Iulius Cesar chargede*. [Cezar chargith, Cx.] Marcus Farro*. [Varro, β. and Cx.] wiþ þat doynge forto make hym a librarie. And among Cristen men Pamphilius þe martir gadrede a librarie of bookes. Of hym Eusebius writeþ þat he hadde as it were an*. [α, Cx.] þritty þowsand volyms*. [volumes, Cx., et infra.] of bookes in his librarie. Þanne Origenes passede alle þat were tofore*. [byfore, Cx.] hym; Ierom seiþ þat he radde sixe þousand volyms of Origenes his bookes. [But Austyn passede þe travayle of hem alle, for unneþe may oo*. [α, Cx.] man rede alle his bookes.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Antiochus Epiphanes regned enlevene ȝere in Siria and in Asia. Þis is he þat was plegge*. [pledge, Cx.] at Rome for his owne fader, but he herde speke of his broþer nisete,*. [nycete, Cx.] and hopede forto be kyng of Siria,*. [Sciria, Cx.] and went priveliche*. [pryvely, Cx.] from Rome; þeyȝ*. [though, Cx.] somme men telleþ þat he scapede*. [escaped, Cx.] by assent of þe senatoures. First he was goodliche,*. [godely, Cx.] þerfore*. [þerfore] om. Cx.] þe peple ȝaf hym anoþer name, and cleped hym Epiphanes, þat is semeliche and worþy and noble*. [worþy and noble and semeliche, α. and Cx.] above oþere. He regnede for his brother Seleucus, whanne his broþer was dede. Þis ȝaf his suster in gyle to Ptholo|meus*. [Tholomeus, Cx., et infra.] to wife, for he wolde in þat manere occupie Egipt,*. [wolde by that rejoyse Egypte, Cx.]Page  111, vol.4 whan he sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] his tyme. Þan he wente into Egipt in*. [upon, Cx.] a tyme as [though]*. [From Cx.] it were forto see his suster and his nevewes, but he made þat Ptholomeus was i-slawe*. [slaine, Cx.] while he satt at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] mete; but þe Egipcians putte hym away for he schulde nouȝt be kyng over hem. But he come aȝen*. [ayene, Cx.] after two ȝere, and beseged*. [besyeged, Cx.] Alexandria. Trogus, libro 34o. And*. [And] om. Cx.] lo þe messangers*. [messagyers, Cx.] of Rome were i-sent forto*. [for] om. Cx.] delyvere þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Egip|cians, and mette wiþ Antiochus wandrynge on þe see stronde, and dede here*. [dyd her, Cx.] message in þis manere: "Þe senatours and þe peple of Rome hoteþ*. [chargeth, Cx.] and commaundeþ þe þat þou go away from here*. [theyr, Cx.] frendes the Egipcians." Þanne Antiochus axede [respyte]*. [respyte] from Cx.] firste [and]*. [From α., β., and Cx. A word has been erased here in γ.] a day to ȝeve his answere. Þanne Marcus Publicus*. [Publius, Cx.] wiþ a ȝerd made a cercle in þe sond*. [sande, Cx.] aboute Antiochus, and seide: "Þe senatoures and þe peple of Rome hoteþ*. [chargith, Cx.] and comaundeþ*. [commaunde, Cx.] þe þat þou nevere passe þis cercle or*. [er, Cx.] þou have i-geve*. [yeuen, Cx.] þyn answere." "ȝif þe Page  113, vol.4 peple of Rome," quod*. [sayd, Cx.] he [Antiochus],*. [From α.] will have it soo, loo ich*. [yche, α.; I, Cx.] goo." ℞. Þanne he tornede in to þe Iewerye,*. [Jewry, Cx.] and dede meny evel dedes.*. [many evyl tornes, Cx.] Þerfore þe bisshop Onias, Symon his sone, wente into Egipt, and gat frendschipe of þe kyng, and bulde*. [buylde, Cx.] þere a temple at Eleopoleos liche*. [like, Cx.] to þe temple of Iewes, and seide þat in þat dede he fulfilled*. [a folfulde, γ.] Ysay his pro|phecie, þat seide þe auȝter*. [aulter, Cx.] of oure Lord schal be in Egipt, and mynde of hym schal be in þe endes þerof. Þis temple durede so two hondred ȝere and fifty, anon to*. [unto, Cx.] Vaspasian his*. [Vaspasianus, Cx.] tyme, þat destroyede þe*. [þat, α., β., and Cx.] temple and þe citee also. Þanne þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] bisshop Onias deide as it is seide, and his tweie breþeren Ihesus and Iohn*. [Johan, Cx.] stryve to fore*. [stryven byfore, Cx.] Antiochus for þe bisshopriche; and forto plese Antiochus þey tornede to þe usage and doynge of mysbyleved men so ferforþ þat þey took names of mysbileved men; and [soo]*. [From β. and Cx.] Ihesus was i-cleped*. [callad, Cx.] Iason, and Iohn was i-cleped Menolaus.*. [named Menelaus, Cx] By ensample of hem meny of þe Iewes brouȝte yn doynge and dedes and Page  115, vol.4 usages of mysbyleved men, and made in Ierusalem hore houses*. [hous, α.; houre hous, γ.; harlattes howses, Cx.] and place for ȝongelynges to use here nysete ynne and lefte hem uncircumsised,*. [uncircumcided, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and cleped hem self*. [self] om. γ.] Antio|chenes. Antiochus made Iason bisshop, and putte hym oute afterwarde, and made Menelaus bisshop, þat counsaillede*. [counseyled, Cx.] Andronicus to slee his broþer Iason, for he folowede þe kyng into Antiochia to make hym chaunge his purpos,*. [purpoos, Cx.] and so it was i-doo; þerfore þe kyng was wrooþ, and slowȝ Androni|cus. Petrus, 26o capitulo.*. [206o, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Þat tyme þat Antiochus solde Iason þe bisshopriche and preost-hode,*. [prystehode, Cx.] þe fuyre of þe sacre|fise aqueynte,*. [sacryfyce acquenchid, Cx.] þat hadde i-dured to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] honde under water þre score ȝere and ten. Antiochus took Ierusalem by tresoun of þe citeȝeyns, [and took þennes ten þowsand citeseyns],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and compelled þe Iewes to mawmetrie, and slouȝ hem þat wolde nouȝt offre*. [he offreþ, α., β., γ.; he offred, Cx.] swynes flesche; and takeþ*. [toke, Cx.] away þe holy vessel, þe mete borde, and þe stene*. [stone, Cx.] wiþ þe lanternes, and þe temple cloþes, and setteþ Iubiter*. [sette Jupiter, Cx.] Olympicus his ymage evene in þe temple, and forbedeþ*. [forbeodeþ, γ.] þe sacrefise*. [forbade the sacryfyce, Cx.] of Moyses lawe; and in þe toure of Syon he putteþ*. [put, Cx.] men of Macedonia Page  117, vol.4 þat hateþ*. [hated, Cx.] þe Iewes. In þis Antiochus his tyme þe sevene breþeren*. [brether, Cx.] were i-slawe in*. [and, α., β., γ., and Cx.] here owne [moder].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Þat tyme Mathatias preost,*. [preest, Cx.] in þe citee Modyn, by help of his fyve sones, awrekeþ*. [awreked, Cx.] þe lawes of here forefadres. Iudas þat was i-cleped Machabeus for þe prys and the maistrie, he was chevetayn*. [cheventayn, α., γ.; capteyne, Cx.] among hem and ledere. Petrus, 207. Mathatias tauȝte þe Iewes to fiȝte in*. [on, Cx.] þe Saturday, for þe lawe and þe peple schulde not be lost; but he rulede þe peple oo*. [one, Cx.] ȝere, and deide afterward, and made his sone Symon as it were fader and counsaillour,*. [counseylour, Cx.] and Iudas Machabeus kepeþ þe lawes and*. [kepeþ þe lawes and] om. α., β., and Cx.] ledere of þe oost.*. [hoost, Cx.] Ennius þe poete deide in þe evel*. [evyl, Cx.] articularis, and is i-buried in Scipio his tomb.*. [Scipions tombe, Cx.] Iudas Machabeus kepeþ*. [kept, Cx.] þe lawes of forfadres ful þre ȝere, and he slouȝ Appollonus duke of*. [Appolinus duc of Cx.] Samaria, and fauȝt afterward wiþ his swerd. Antiochus wente into Pers, for þe tribute was unpayde, and Iudas Machabeus overcome Antiochus his lederes. Lisia, þat norschede þe ȝonge Antiochus, wente into Pers, ffor þe tribute was unpayde, and Iudas Machabeus Page  119, vol.4 overcome Antiochus his lederes,*. [Lisia . . . lederes] om. α, γ., and Cx. rightly.] Lisia þat norschede*. [norysshed, Cx.] þe ȝong Antiochus, and Ptholomeus*. [Tholomeus, Cx.] Gorgias, and Nichanor*. [Nycanor, Cx.]; and clensede þe temple and renewede it, þere gras, breres, and busshes were i-growe*. [growen, Cx.]; and so þe [þridde]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] halowynge of þe temple was i-doo in Iudas his tyme in þe monþe*. [moneth, Cx.] of De|cembre: þat halowynge is i-clepede Encenia,*. [named Eucennia, Cx.] and durede after|ward. Petrus, 211. Antiochus was schameliche i-chased*. [shamely chaced, Cx.] out of Pers, and herde þat his princes were overcome in þe Iuerie,*. [Jewry, Cx.] and manassed*. [manaced, Cx.] þe Iewes, and anon he was i-take wiþ ancarus,*. [antarus,β.; antarrus, γ. and Cx.] þat is ache and sorwe of his boweles,*. [bowels, Cx.] and fil*. [felle, Cx.] doun of his chaar,*. [chare, Cx.] and was i-hurt ful sore, and wormes come*. [sprang, α., β., γ.; sprange, Cx.] out of his body, and þe stenche of hym greved all þe oost.*. [hooste, Cx.] Þanne he byþouȝt hym, and knowleched þat hym was bifalle þat sorwe for he hadde defoulede*. [defowled, Cx.] þe temple of Ierusalem; þerfore he made his avow þat he wolde be a Iewe, and delyvere*. [delyverd, Cx.] þe Iewes, and make hem pere*. [peer, Cx., et infra.] to þe men of Athene. He seide also þat man schulde be suget*. [subgette, Cx.] to God, and nouȝt make hym self peere and evene to God, and so he Page  121, vol.4 deide in þe mountaigne.*. [mountaynes, α.; monteyns, γ. montaynes, Cx.] Antiochus Eupater, þe forseide*. [forsayd, Cx.] Antiochus Epiphanes his sone, regnede after his fader, and gadrede aȝenst þe Iewes an hondred þowsand [fotemen and twenty þowsand]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] horsmen, and two and þritty olyphauntes, and schewede hem þe juse*. [juys, γ.] of grapes and of buries*. [beryes, γ. and Cx.] forto scharpe hem to þe bataille. Petrus, 230.*. [213o, α., β., γ., and Cx.]