Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
Page  75, vol.4

Capitulum tricesimum quartum.

THOLOMEUS Epiphanes, þe fifte [kyng]*. [From β.; inserted by a later hand in γ.] of Egipt, Emperator his sone,*. [Eupators sone, β.; Eupator, γ.; Eupaters sonne, Cx.] regnede foure and twenty ȝere. Trogus, libro 30o.*. [tercio, Cx.] And for he bygan to regne whan he was fyve ȝere olde, messangers*. [messares, β., γ., and Cx.] of Alexandria prayde þe Romayns þat þey wolde take þe warde of þe childe and defende þe kyngdome of Egipt; ffor Phelip kyng of Macedonia, and Antiochus kyng of Siria hadde i-cast*. [hadden cast, β.] as it were by covenant to dele the kyngdom of Egipt bytwene hem tweyne. Þe Romayns were glad of þe*. [that, β. and Cx.] message, and anon sente messangers*. [messagers, Cx.] to þe same kynges, chargynge þat þey schulde holde hem out of Egipt. Iosephus, libro 12o. Þanne Ptholomeus wax*. [wext, Cx.] a strong ȝongelynge, and sente oon Scopa, a duke of his, in to Siria, and made Siria suget*. [subgette, Cx.] to hym; but nouȝt longe after Antyochus overcome Scopa, and was better frende to þe Iewes. Eutropius, libro 3o. After þis þe grete Antiochus bycome Ptholomeus his frend, and wedded his douȝter Cleopatra to wyve,*. [wyf, Cx.] and graunted here instede of dower Siria, Inde, and Phenicia.*. [Fenicia, Cx.] Þerfore eiþer kyng hadde tribut*. [tribut] om. Cx.] of þe Iewes, but Onias, þe riȝtful Symon his Page  77, vol.4 sone, was bisshop, and werned*. [warnid, Cx.] þe tribut, and counsaillede þat non schulde be paide, as it were for love of the lawe, noþeles it was more for covetise, for he wolde nouȝt goo speke wiþ þe king. But his suster sone Iosephus wente to Ptholomeus þe kyng, and hadde grace of þe kyng, and forȝif|nesse*. [foryevenesse, Cx.] of þe tribut of þe sevenþe*. [seven, Cx.] ȝere; and nouȝt onliche*. [not only, Cx.] þat, but he was made ledere of his kyngdom and tresorer of tributes to his lyves ende, two and twenty ȝere. Iosephus, libro 12o, capitulo 4o. Þis Iosephus wolde assaye*. [essaye, Cx.] þe witte of his ȝonger sone Hircanus,*. [Hilcanus, Cx.] þat was twelve ȝere olde, and he*. [he] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] hadde gete hym on his broþer douȝter, and took*. [bytook, α.; bitoke, β.; bytok, γ.; bytoke, Cx.] hym þre hondred ȝokes of oxen forto erye*. [ere, Cx.] and sowe in wilder|nesse from home tweyne*. [tweye, α.; two, Cx.] iorneys and more, and hydde*. [hudde, α.; hidde, Cx.] þe reynes þat þe oxen schulde be teyde*. [tyed, Cx.] by. Whan he come to þe place þere he schulde erye, þe plowȝmen radde þat some of hem schulde wende home to þe fader and fecche*. [fetche, Cx.] þe reynes oþer þe tiels.*. [oþer þe tiels] om. β. and Cx.] Þe childe seyde nay, and*. [but, Cx.] lete slee som of þe oxen, and lete greythe*. [greithe, α.] þe flesche to þe*. [þe] om. β., γ., and Cx.] plowȝ|menis Page  79, vol.4 mete, and kutte*. [to kytte, Cx.] reynes of þe skynnes [to]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] teie*. [teye, Cx.] wiþ oþer oxen. Þe fader wondrede þerof, and sent hym in his owne stede to worschepe þe feste of kyng Ptholomeus,*. [The kynges feste Tholomeus, γ.] for he hadde a ȝong sone neweliche*. [newely, Cx.] i-bore; þe fader profrede to his sone Hircanus greet richesse*. [riches, β. and Cx.] for his cost by þe weie, and forȝifnes*. [for ȝiftes, β.; for yeftes, Cx., rightly.] to ȝeve þe kynges sone. Þe childe seide nay, and seide þat he couþe lyve soberliche, and þat lasse*. [lesse, Cx.] cost wolde doo his nede. "But sendeþ*. [sente, α.; sende, β. and Cx.] lettres," quod*. [sayd, Cx.] þe childe, "to Aryon, procuratour of Alexandria, and praye hym þat he lene me as moche as me byhoveþ." Þe fader hopede þat ten talentes were i-now*. [ynough, Cx.] forto worschepe þe kyng wiþ his sone, and prayed Arion in his lettres þat he wolde take ten*. [the, Cx.] talentes to his sone. Hircanus come wiþ þe lettres to Arion, and Arion axede*. [asked, Cx.] how moche hym byhoved.*. [behoved, Cx.] "A þowsand talentes," quoþ*. [sayd, Cx.] he; but Arion wolde graunte but ten, and Hircanus caste hym in boundes, and Arion his wif wente anon, and pleynede*. [complayned, Cx.] to þe kyng, and þe kyng Page  81, vol.4 axede of Hircanus why he dede*. [dyde, Cx.] so: "For suche servauntes," quod he, "schal be punsched þat conneþ nouȝt*. [kon noȝt, γ.; punysshyd that can not, Cx.] knowe and makeþ non difference*. [ne make difference, Cx.] bytwene þe smale and þe grete." Arion herde þat þe kyng allowede Hircanus his answere and his dede, and took hym*. [delivered to hym, Cx.] a þowsand talentes. [And]*. [From Cx.] anon he bouȝte of chapmen*. [chepmen, γ.; marchauntes, Cx.] an hondred children i-lettred and an hondred maydens, everich for a talent. Whanne þe day of þe feste was i-come, Hircanus, for*. [by cause, Cx.] he was ȝong, was i-sette laste of þe wise men, and þe bare bones þat oþere men lefte were in scorne [i-sette]*. [From α.; sett, β.; ysette, γ.; sette, Cx.] tofore Hircanus. Oon Tryphon, a iapere, sigh*. [japer sawe, Cx.] þis, and seide opounliche tofore þe kyng: "Lo, lordynges,*. [lord kynge, Cx.] how þis childe haþ i-ete þe flesche of so meny bones; so his fader, þat is [thy]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] resceyvour*. [receyver, Cx.] and tre|sorer in Siria, spoyleþ [the]*. [From Cx. (not β. nor γ.)] money of [the]*. [From Cx. (not β. nor γ.)] men of Siria." Þe kyng lowȝ,*. [loughe, Cx.] and axede of þe childe why he hadde so meny bones to fore hym." "Skilfulliche, lord kyng," quod*. [sayd, Cx.] þis*. [þe, α., γ., and Cx.] childe, "for houndes eteþ*. [eten, Cx.] þe bones wiþ þe flesche, as þy gestes doþ today;*. [ghestes done this daye, Cx.] but men þat beeþ Page  83, vol.4 i-norsched*. [norysshed, Cx.] and i-tauȝt spareþ þe bones, as ȝe seeþ þat I spare." Amorwe*. [On the morne, Cx.] Hircanus axede of everiche of þe kynges frendes what and how moche everiche*. [eche, Cx.] of hem wolde ȝeve þe kynges sone; and he þat wolde ȝeve most answerede and seide: "Scarsliche*. [Scarcely, Cx.] ten talentes." Þanne Hircanus feynede hym sory, as þey*. [thoughe, Cx.] he myȝte nouȝt*. [nouȝt] om. Cx.] ȝeve but fyve. But whan þe day of berþe*. [the natyvyte, Cx.] was i-come, Hircanus the childe ȝaf [to]*. [From Cx.; not β. nor γ.] þe kyng an hondred children, and everiche of hem bare a talent in [his]*. [From Cx.; not β. nor γ.] honde, and ȝaf [to]*. [From Cx.; not β. nor γ.] þe queene an hon|dred mayden*. [mayde, Cx.] children, everiche*. [and eche, Cx.] wiþ a talent in hir*. [hir] om. B.; hys, γ. (by mis|take.)] honde. Þanne everiche man preysede hem*. [hym, α. and Cx.] wel. Þerfore the kyng dede hym grete worschepe, and made hym riche, and sente hym to his fader wiþ lettres of commendynge*. [commendacion, Cx.] and of preys|inge; noþeles his fader was wrooþ,*. [wrothe, Cx.] for þe grete ȝiftes þat he hadde i-ȝeve. Also his elder*. [elþer, γ.] breþeren*. [brether, Cx.] hadde grete envie to*. [at, Cx.] hym for þe grete worschippe þat he hadde, so ferforþ þat þey arrerede*. [werred, Cx.] werre aȝenst hym, and tweyne of hem Page  85, vol.4 were dede in fiȝtinge. Trevisa. Take*. [Taak, α.] hede þat a talent is a grete wighte*. [weighte, Cx.] of golde oþer*. [or, Cx., bis.] of silver oþer*. [or, Cx., bis.] of [oþer]*. [From α.] metal; but þere is*. [be, Cx.] thre manere of*. [of] om. Cx.] talentes, þe leste weyeþ fifty pound, þe moste*. [þe myddel, β., γ., rightly; the moost, Cx.] two and seventy pound, and þe myddel*. [þe moste, β., γ., rightly; þe middle, Cx.] sixe score pound. Þan it foloweþ in þe storie. Hircanus passede flom*. [flym, β.; flome, Cx.] Iordan, and gadrede þere þe kynges tribute of straunge naciouns meny ȝere to [gyder, and he bylded there a wonder tour. Oute therof he pursued ofte the Arabyes, men of Arabia, alle the]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] tyme þat Seleuchus regnede in Siria. Whanne Seleuchus was dede, Hircanus dredde þe cruelnesse*. [drad the cruelte, Cx.] of Antiochus Epiphanes, and slowȝ hym self wiþ his owne hond. Aboute þe firste ȝere of þis Ptholomeus,*. [Tholomeus, Cx.] þe grete Scipio, þat*. [whiche, Cx.] hadde nobelliche i-bore hym, and i-doo [meny]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] grete dedes in Spayne, was i-made consul and i-sende into Affrica; and*. [and] om. α.] þere*. [þere] om. Cx.] he made [to him]*. [From Cx.] sogett Aumorus*. [Amnorus, β.; Annorus, γ.; subgett Ammorus duc of thaffres, Cx.] duke of þe Affres and Siphates*. [Syphaces, Cx.] kyng of Numidia. Whanne þat was i-herd, wel nygh al Italy forsook Hanibal. Hanybal, þe seventeþe ȝere of his comynge in to Italy, was hote*. [boden, Cx.] by men of Cartage*. [for] om. Cx.] forto wende*. [retorne, Cx.] [hoom, and so he wende]*. [From α., β., and γ.; retorned, Cx.] out of Italy, wepynge wel sore*. [soore weping, Cx.]; Page  87, vol.4 and whan Hanibal was i-come he destroyede*. [distried, β.] þe pees þat þe Affres*. [thaffres, Cx., et infra.] hadde i-made wiþ Scipio. The condicioun of þe pees was suche, þat þe*. [they, Cx.] Affres schulde have but þritty schippes, and he*. [they, Cx.] schulde ȝeve fyve hondred þowsand pound of silver. Pondo is a pound. He*. [they, Cx.] schulde also sende home al*. [alle, Cx.] þe prisoners and flemed*. [fleme, α., β., and γ.; banysshed, Cx.] men þat þey hadde i-take. Hanibal hadde i-sent þre spies for to aspie Scipio his*. [espye Scipions, Cx.] tentes. Þese spies were i-take, and i-ladde aboute þe tentes, and i-made wel at ese*. [ease, Cx.] wiþ mete and wiþ drynke, and þanne Scipio sente hem home aȝen. Þan was harde fiȝt*. [fyghtynge, Cx.] bytwene tweyne wise dukes,*. [these two dukes, Cx.] but Scipio hadde þe maystrie,*. [vyctorye, Cx.] and Hanibal was nyh i-take. Pees was graunted to men of Cartage, and Scipio tornede aȝen*. [agayne, Cx.] to Rome, and was after þat i-cleped*. [callyd, Cx.] Affri|canus. In þis manere þe secounde bataille Punicum was i-doo and*. [was i-doo and] om α., β., and Cx.] endede in his tyme. Þat ȝere Plautus*. [Plantus, Cx.] deyde at Rome: he gronde at*. [grond atte queorne, γ.; grande atte, Cx.] þe querne wiþ a bakere for huyre, for hunger*. [bakar for hyre for hongre, Cx.] and scarsite of corn, and whanne he myȝte have*. [α, γ.] while he wroot*. [wrote, Cx.] fables and solde*. [sayd, Cx.] hem. Whanne þe secounde batayle Punicum was i-doo, þanne come þe bataille*. [battell, Cx.] Mace|donicum, Page  89, vol.4 þat was aȝenst Phelip þe kynge. Titus Quincius overcome hym, and ladde tweyne*. [twey, Cx.] kynges sones of Macedonia and of Lacedemonia*. [Lacedomonia, Cx.] plegges to fore*. [before, Cx.] his chariot; and ladde home [to]*. [From Cx. (not γ.); inserted in β. above the line.] þe Romayns þat Hanibal hadde i-take and i-solde in Grecia, and leet schave here hedes yn tokene of schavynge away of þe bondage. Þe Romayns werreþ*. [Romaines werrid, Cx.] aȝenst þe grete Antiochus kyng of Siria, for he destroyede þe kyngdoms þat were nyh*. [nyghe, Cx.] aboute hym, and also for he hilde*. [held, Cx.] wiþ hym Hanybal, þat was cause*. [cause] om. α.; cause he, om. β., γ., and Cx.] he wente out of Affrica. Eutropius, libro 4o. Antiochus sigh*. [saw, Cx.] þat Hanibal spak ofte wiþ þe messangers*. [messagers, Cx.] of Rome, and hadde hym suspecte, and forsook to have hym of his counsaille,*. [counsails, α.; in his counseyll, Cx.] and ȝif he cleped hym oþer whiles to counsaile, it was for*. [conseyll that was bycause he, Cx.] he schulde nouȝt wene þat he was suspecte and forsoke,*. [forsake, α. and Cx.] [and]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] nouȝt forto do by*. [by] om. β. and Cx.] his counsaille. But Hanibal counsaillede al way forto werre*. [werry, γ.; warre, Cx.] aȝenst þe Romayns, and nouȝt forto abide, and seide þat Page  91, vol.4 þe Romayns myȝt nouȝt be overcome [but]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] in here owne contray. "Out of here owne contray," quoþ he, "þey mowe nouȝt*. [may not, Cx.] be overcome, but at home þey beeþ*. [ben, Cx., et infra.] brutel and liȝtliche overcome; hit nedeþ more to wrastle wiseliche aȝenst hem þat beeþ*. [ben, Cx., et infra.] overcome, and spekeþ*. [speke, Cx.] nouȝt, þanne aȝenst hem þat openliche wiþstondeþ." But þey*. [though, Cx.] his coun|seille were*. [was, Cx.] ofte good and spedefulle, hit was nouȝt allowed,*. [alowed, Cx., et infra.] for þe kyng hadde hym suspecte, and also for makynge of bakbiters,*. [bagbyters, Cx.] þat wolde nouȝt þat he were allowed*. [alowed, Cx., et infra.] of þe kyng. Þerfore þe kynges oost*. [hoost, Cx.] was overcome boþe in [the]*. [From Cx.] see and in londe. Þo*. [Than, Cx.] Antiochus þe kyng he*. [he] om. Cx.; althouȝte, γ.] þouȝte þat he dede*. [forthought that he dydde, Cx.] nouȝt by Hanybal his counsaille, [and made Hanibal pryve of his counsail].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.]Eutropius, libro 4o. For Phelip kyng of Macedonia halp*. [halpe, Cx.] the Romayns aȝenst Antiochus, [and]*. [From Cx.] his sone Demetrius, þat was prisoner and plegge, was sent home aȝe.*. [hoome ayene, Cx.] Scipio Nasica, þe greet Scipio þat heet*. [hight, Cx.] Affricanus his nevewe, overcom Antiochus and*. [Antiochus and] om. Cx.] Hanibal in bataille, boþe in þe see and in þe londe. Þere*. [þerfor, γ.] he hadde a surname, and was i-cleped Asiagenus of Asia þat was over|come. Þanne Antiochus þe kyng ȝaf*. [yave, Cx.] his ȝonger sone Antiochus Epiphanes to þe Romayns plegge*. [pledge, Cx.] for evermore for his elder*. [elþer, γ.] sone Seleucius,*. [Selencus, Cx.] and hadde pees uppon cove|naunt Page  93, vol.4 þat he schulde leve Europa and þe lasse Asia, and holde hym wiþ ynne þe hille mont*. [mount, Cx.] Taurus, and also he schulde bytake Hanibal to þe Romayns, for he eggede*. [eggyde, Cx.] and coun|saillede*. [counceiled, β.; counseylde, Cx.] to werre aȝenst Rome. Þerfore Hanibal dradde and tornede to Prusia kyng of Bithinia. Trogus, libro 32o. Þe mene tyme, whan Eumenes*. [Emnenes, Cx.] Attalus þe kinge his broþer of Siria schulde overcome Prusia, [than]*. [From Cx.] Hanibal halp*. [helped, Cx.] Prusia by a newe sleiþe*. [sleiȝþe, β.; sleght, Cx.] of bataile; for he hadde dyvers manere addres and serpentes i-closed in erþen stenes, and þrewe hem in to [the]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] schippes of here enemyes in þe myddel of [the]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] bataille. Þanne þe enemyes were aferde and agrysed,*. [and agrysed] om. Cx.] and wiþ drowe hem anon. Þe Romayns herde here of, and sente messangers,*. [messagers, Cx.] and made þe kyng and hem*. [and hem] om. β. and γ.] aton,*. [atoon, γ.; at one, Cx.] and axede þat þey moste have*. [for to have, Cx.] Hanibal into here owne hond; but Hanibal likked venym of his owne ryng, and deide at Nichomedia. Hit is certeyne of hym þat he satte nevere to [þe]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] sopere wiþ oute batailles. He was among meny [wonder]*. [From β. and Cx.] faire maidens, and lefte nevere his chastite; he was nevere betrayed by castinge oþer awaytinge of his Page  95, vol.4 owne*. [bytrayed by ymagynacion of his owne, Cx.] men, noþer*. [nouther, Cx.] of his owne*. [owne] om. α. and Cx.] enemyes. [℞.]*. [From Cx.]Orosius, libro 4o, seiþ þat þe ilond þat hatte*. [called, Cx.] insula Vulcani, þe whiche ilond was nevere to forehonde i-seie,*. [byfore seen, Cx.] sprang up of þe see at Sicilia*. [Scicilia, Cx.] þat ȝere þat Hanibal deyde, and ȝit is þere alway anon*. [unto, Cx.] to þis day. Policratica, libro 6o. Of þis Hanibal it is i-rad*. [redde, Cx.] þat whanne Antiochus þe kyng schewede hym his oost realliche*. [rialich, β.; hoost royally arayed, Cx.] arrayed wiþ gold and wiþ silver, and wiþ oþer riche array,*. [aray, Cx.] and axede hym yf al þat suffisede to þe Romayns; "I trowe," quod*. [sayde, Cx.] Hanibal, "it is i-now, þey*. [ynowgh though, Cx.] þe Romayns be þe moste covetouse men on*. [of, β.] lyve:" but he understood [esiliche, schortliche, and forwardliche, for he understood]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] of þe praye and nouȝt of þe strengþe of þe oost.*. [hoost, Cx.]Plinius, libro 8o, capitulo 8o. Hanibal ofte, whanne he hadde þe maistrie, compellede*. [compellid, Cx.] prisoners of Rome to fiȝte upon þe gravel wiþ stronge bestes, and behiȝt oon*. [promysed one, Cx.] þat he wolde delyvere hym ȝif he þrewe doun an olifaunte; and whan þe beest was acast*. [cast, Cx.] Hanibal sente horsmen to sle þe man anon riȝt þere. Policratica, libro primo. Hanibal seide þat he was nouȝt worþy his lyf þat myȝte be compelled to Page  97, vol.4 fiȝte wiþ bestes; but me troweþ soþeliche*. [sothly, Cx.] þat Hanibal slowȝ þe man for grete envie, for he wolde not þat a Romayn schulde have so grete a name and worschippe of a gretter dede þanne me hadde i-herde of to forehonde,*. [byfore, Cx.] and also for he wolde nouȝt defame*. [diffame, Cx.] þe bestes by þe strengþe by*. [of, Cx.] þe whiche he hadde ofte afered*. [aferde, Cx.] his enemyes. Eutropius, libro 4o. Þat ȝere Scipio Affricanus deide at Amitern, and*. [that, β. and Cx.] hadde be longe exciled*. [exyled, Cx.] out of Rome, þat was an unkynde citee to hym. Valerius, libro 8o.*. [8o] om. Cx.] Whan Scipio was accused of money among þe senatoures, he answered and seide: "Whan I wan al Affrica, and made it suget*. [subgette, Cx.] and under ȝour power, I took no þing þerof, but onliche*. [only, Cx.] the name Affri|canus; also þe riches of Affrica made me nouȝt coveitous, noþer*. [covetous neyther, Cx.] þe riches of Affrica*. [Asia, α., β., and Cx.] made my broþer Scipio coveytous, for eyþer of us was richer of envie þan of money." Salustius. Þis Scipio sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] ones a childe gay|liche arrayed,*. [gayly arayed, Cx.] and seide, "I wondre nouȝt þat he arrayeþ well his childe, for it helpeþ hym more þan doþ his swerd." Valerius. Emila, Scipio his wif,*. [Scipions wyf, Cx.] was so godeliche þat þey*. [goodly that though, Cx.] sche wiste*. [weoste, γ.] þat here housbonde lovede oon of here bonde Page  99, vol.4 women, for sche wolde nouȝt diffame here lord, conquerour of Affrica, by wymmen rees*. [rese, β. and γ.; reese, Cx.] and anger. And sche ab|styned*. [obsteyned, Cx.] hire so from vengeaunce*. [veniaunce, β.] and wreche þat sche made here bonde women*. [woman, β.] free and mariede hem*. [here, α.; hir, β. and Cx.] riȝt wel whan here lord was dede. Policratica. Scipio deyde, and or|deyned suche a writynge on his tombe at þe citee Palus|tres: "Þou unkynde contray, fong þou nouȝt*. [receyve thou not, Cx.] my boones." Augustinus de Civitate [Dei],*. [From Cx.]libro primo. Scipio Nasica tofore*. [byfore, Cx.] þe þridde bataille Punicum fforbeed þe rerynge of þe*. [forbade the settynge up or en|hauncyng of the, Cx.] theatre in þe citee of Rome, þat tweie iuges hadde arrayed forto arere; and Scipio seide þat it is grete enemyte*. [enemye, Cx.] to werriours forto norsche sleuþe and leccherie;*. [norysshe slouthe and lechery, Cx.] and þerfore he pletede*. [pleded, β. and Cx.] so strongly in þe peple þat he made*. [he made] om. Cx.; þat added after made in β.] al þe array þerof was i-solde, and benches, stoles, formes, and all manere stoles*. [sotels, β.; sotles, γ.] were i-do þennes;*. [subtylytees were done thens, Cx.] and so he brouȝte yn þat men schulde stonde and nouȝt sitte forto see pleies and merþe,*. [myrthes, Cx.] forto save here owne manhede. Þat manere was i-used among þe Romayns fyve hondred ȝere and eiȝte and fifty.*. [fourty, α. and Cx.; xlviii., β.] ℞. Auctors telleþ*. [seyn, Cx.] þat theatrum was a place Page  101, vol.4 i-schape*. [shapen, Cx.] as half a cercle, and in þe myddel þerof was a litel hous þat was i-cleped scena. In þat hous poetes and gestoures uppon*. [vp in, Cx.] a pulpet*. [pulput, γ.] rehersede poysees,*. [poysries, β.; poisies, Cx.] gestes, and songes, and withoute were mynstralles*. [mynystrals, Cx.] þat counterfeted*. [confortede, γ.; countrefayted, Cx.] þe doynge and [the]*. [From Cx.] dedes þat þey speke in her gestes and songes, wiþ bendynge and wyndinge and settynge and stynt|ynge of here lemes*. [lymmes, Cx.] and here body. Augustinus, libro primo, capitulo 31o. Þis pleyes þat were i-cleped Ludy*. [called ludi, Cx.] scenici were first i-ordeyned by excitinge of þe devel,*. [devyl, Cx.] for men schulde be excited*. [exyted, Cx.] to such dedes whanne þey myȝte here*. [hure, γ.] in þe theatrum*. [theatre, Cx.] þat goddes hadde i-dco suche manere dedes. Augustinus, libro 4o., capitulo 25o. But in passynge of tyme a cherle þat heet*. [chorle called, Cx.] Titus Latinus was i-warned by his swevenynge*. [dreame, Cx.] þat he schulde telle þe sena|toures þat þey schulde restore and renewe þe pleyȝ*. [pleyȝes, α.; playes, Cx.] þat were i-cleped*. [callyd, Cx.] ludi scenici were first i-ordeyned*. [were first i-ordeyned] om. β., γ., and Cx.] þe pleyes of þe theatre; and for he was i-warned tweies, and dede*. [dyd, Cx., et infra.] nouȝt þerto, he loste his owne sone; and for he was i-warned þe þridde tyme, and dede*. [dyd, Cx., et infra.] nouȝt þerto, he fil*. [felle, Cx.] in Page  103, vol.4 a wel*. [wel] om. Cx.] grevous siknesse forto*. [till, Cx.] he warnede þe senatoures by counsaile*. [by counsaile . . . counsaille of his frendes] om. β. and Cx.] of his frendes, and whanne he hadde i-warned þe senatoures by counsaille of his frendes,*. [by counsaille of his frendes] om. α. and γ.] þanne he was*. [werþe, β.; a werþ, γ.] al*. [al] om. Cx.] hool anon sodenliche.*. [hoole wonder sodenly, β. and Cx.; hool wonder sodeynlych, γ.] Whan þat*. [the, Cx.] wonder was i-seie þe senatoures spended*. [spende, α. and Cx.] suche foure*. [foure suche, Cx.] money as þey were [y-]*. [From α.] woned in suche*. [suche] om. Cx.] pleyes of þe theatre, as it were forto*. [for] om. Cx.] make good for þe cherles*. [churles, Cx.] trespas þat was foure siþes recheles forto warne þe senatoures as he was i-warned. Petrus, 204. Þe greet Seleucus Sother, þe grete Antiochus his sone, regned in Siria and in Asia twelve ȝere; for his fader was i-slawe*. [slayne, Cx.] in Pers in þe temple of god Naneas, and i-þrowe*. [throwen, Cx.] out gobet|mele traytoursliche by preostes*. [traytorly by preestes, Cx.] þat begiled*. [gylede, α.; bygyled, Cx.] hym into*. [yn, α.] þe temple, and byheet*. [promysed, Cx.] hym tresour þat was i-hidde under erþe.