Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum tricesimum secundum.*. [Cx. has no division here.]

THOLOMEUS Philadelphus, þe secounde kyng of Egipt, regnede eyȝte and þritty*. [thyrtty, Cx.] ȝere. Me seiþ þat he overcome his owne fader,*. [fadir, β.] and hadde in his oost*. [hoost, Cx.] two hondred þowsand foot men, twenty þowsand [horsmen, two þowsend]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] chariotes, and foure hondred elephauntes.*. [olyfantes, Cx.]Petrus, 300.*. [200, γ. and Cx.] Þese*. [þis, β.; þes, γ.; This, Cx.] dely|vered þe Iewes þat were in Egipt, and lete hym*. [ham, γ.] goo fre, sixe score þowsand by tale, and payde to here lordes for every Page  33, vol.4 pol twenty [dragmes of selver, þat is, fyve and twenty]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] schillynges of oure money, and sente þe vessel*. [vessels, β.; vessaile, Cx.] þat were i-halowed*. [halowide, β.; yhalwed, γ.] by Iewes to Eleaȝarus bisshop of Iewes. Also, by counsaille of Demetrius, þat was wardeyn*. [warden, Cx.] of his bookes, he sente messangers*. [messagers, Cx.] to Eleaȝarus þe bisshop, prayenge*. [praiynge, β.] þat he wolde sende hym wise men of [the]*. [From Cx.] Iewes, þat schulde torne Moyses lawe out of Ebrewe in to Grewe.*. [Gru, γ.; Hebrew into Grue, Cx.] [Than Eleaȝarus sente unto the kyng of every lygnage vi. men, that*. [þat wole be þre score, β.; þat wol be þo, γ.] draweth to thre score and twelve; but the Scripture usith ofte time*. [time] om. β.] to speke not of the litel nombre yf it be*. [ȝif it is, β.] odde over the grete. Thes be*. [þens buþ, γ.] called the seventi, that torned holy Scripture out of Hebrewe into Grue],*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] and enformede Tholomeus þe kyng of þe know|leche of oon God, and of þe governaunce of þe kyngdom, and translated þe lawe, psalmes, and prophecies. In þat transla|cioun, where þey fonde out*. [ouȝt, α., β., and Cx.; oȝt, γ.] of þe Trinite, þei speke*. [spake, Cx.] not þerof, oþer þey translated it in a rebel*. [a redel, α., β., γ., and Cx.] wise, leste we wolde wene þat þey speke*. [spak, Cx.] of þre Goddes. Also in Isay aboute þe Page  35, vol.4 incarnacioun of Crist, þey founde sixe names of God, and sette but oon; þat name*. [name] om. Cx.] is Angelus magni consilii, an aungel*. [angel, Cx.] of greet counsaile, [leste]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] me wolde wene þat þey wolde mene þat mankynde*. [mankunde, γ.] and manhede schulde be [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] kynde*. [kunde, γ.] of God and of*. [of] om. α. and Cx.] godhede. Þey fulfilled*. [Hy folfulde, γ.] þis work in þre score dayes and ten; but it semeþ þat Seint Austyn,*. [Augustyn, Cx.] de Civitate [Dei,]*. [Cx.] libro 18o, capitulo 42o, wil mene þat þis seventy*. [understandeth that these seventy, Cx.] were departed everich*. [every, Cx.] by hym self in a celle,*. [selle, Cx.] and translated þe lawe wiþ oute discorde of wordes*. [or sentence, Cx.] oþer of menynge. Iero|nimus wil mene*. [Ierom holdeth, Cx.] þat þey alle were i-closede in oon hous, oþer þat þey come to gidres þe Saturday, and examyned [and correctede]*. [From α., β., and γ.; and cor|recte, Cx.] here werkes*. [þe work, γ.] of sixe dayes. Augustinus de Civi|tate [Dei],*. [Cx.]libro 18o, capitulo 42o. Seventy olde men of al þe lynages of Israel, everiche*. [every, Cx.] by hym self, at Alexandria in Egipt, tornede holy writt out of Hebrewe in to Grewe,*. [Grue, Cx., et infra.] and descordede not*. [discordide nouȝt, β.] in wordes, in menynge,*. [sentence, Cx.] noþer in settynge of wordes. And þough*. [þey, γ.] þere were oþere in þe tyme of þe newe Page  37, vol.4 testament þat tornede holy writ out of Hebrewe into Grewe; þat were Aquila, Simachus,*. [Symachus, Cx.] Theodocion, and þe fifte transla|cioun þe auctor þerof is not knowen,*. [unknowen, Cx.] þese*. [þeos, γ.] seventy beeþ i-sette to fore*. [be sette byfore, Cx.] alle oþere. In oure tyme oon Ieronimus, a preost, a wise man, and a*. [α] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] konnynge in þre longages, tornede holy writt*. [translated holy Scripture, Cx.] out of þe Hebrew into Latyn. Iewes telleþ*. [say, Cx.] þat his translacioun is trewest; noþeles holy chirche demeþ no man to be i-putte tofore þe auctorite of so meny men. Som men wolde amende þe translacioun of þe seventy by bookes of Hebrew; but þey durste*. [þurste, γ.; dar, Cx.] not wiþ drawe what þe seventy hadde*. [hadden, β. and Cx.] more þan þe Hebrewes; but þere þey made strikes*. [strickes, β.; strikkes, γ.] liche as ounces*. [unces, α., β., γ., and Cx.] beeþ i-write, and beeþ*. [be wrytton, and be, Cx.] also i-cleped oboly,*. [obeli, γ.] to schewe þat þere is more þan is in þe Hebrewes*. [Hebrewe, α., γ., and Cx.; He|brue, β.] bookes. But what the Hebrewes hadde more þan þe seventy þey marked*. [merkede, γ.] wiþ markede wiþ*. [markede wiþ] repeated by error of the scribe.] markes þat hatte*. [be called, Cx.] astarisces, and beeþ i-schape*. [be shapen, Cx.] as sterres, at it were to hiȝte þe defaute. Ysidorus, libro 6o. Me seiþ þat þis Tholomeus hadde seventy þowsand bookes*. [bokes, γ.] in his librarie.*. [lybrary, Cx.]Petrus, libro*. [capitulo, Cx.] 15o. Of dyvers trans|laciouns Page  39, vol.4 it is inow to speke at ones. Tofore*. [Byfore, Cx.] þe Incarna|cioun of oure Lord þre hondred ȝere [and]*. [In Cx.] fourty and oon, þe seventy þat tornede holy writt out of Hebrewe into Grewe were in here floures.*. [in prosperyte, Cx.] Also, after þe Ascencioun of oure Lord sixe score ȝere and foure, in Adrian þe princes tyme, Aquila made a translacioun. Þanne, after þre and fifty ȝere, in Comodus þe princes tyme, Theodocion was in his floures.*. [in his prosperyte, Cx.] Þanne after þritty ȝere, in Severus þe princes tyme, Sima|chus*. [Symachus, Cx.] made his translacioun. Þanne after eiȝte ȝere þe fifte*. [fifþe, β.] translacioun was i-founde*. [founden, β. and Cx.] at Ierusalem, and is i-cleped þe comoun*. [comyn, β. and γ.; comune, Cx.] translacioun, ffor he þat made it is unknowe. Þanne after eiȝtene*. [eyȝtetene, γ.] ȝere, in Alisaundre þe princes tyme, Origenes made a translacioun wiþ signes þat beeþ*. [be, Cx.] i-cleped astarisces*. [astaryches, Cx.] and obelus, and afterward he made anoþer translacioun wiþ*. [wiþ oute such signes, γ., cor|rectly.] signes*. [Here β. and Cx. have siches signes.] and merkes; and alle þese translated out of Hebrewe into Grewe.*. [Gru, γ.; Grue, Cx.] Meny translated out of Grewe*. [Gru, γ.; Grue, Cx.] into Latyn; but at þe laste Ierom translatede out of Hebrewe in to Latyn, and his translacioun is i-holde nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] in every place out take in þe Psawter.*. [Sauter, α., β., γ., and Cx.]Eutropius. Þe Romayns dede þe firste Page  41, vol.4 bataille, þat is i-cleped bellum Punicum, in*. [and, α., β., and Cx.] Cartaginense*. [Cartaginensem, Cx.] aȝenst þe Affres, þat beeþ*. [A caret is placed here in MS. Addit., but no word supplied.] men of Affrica, beeþ*. [beeþ . . . þey] for this β., γ., and Cx. have: Trevisa: Men of Affrica . . .] i-cleped Affrica, and*. [and] om. α.] þey*. [beeþ . . . þey] for this β., γ., and Cx. have: Trevisa: Men of Affrica . . .] beeþ i-cleped Affri, Puny,*. [Primi, Peni, Punici, Cx.] Peny, Puncy,*. [Punici, β. and γ.] Punices, and Cartaginenses; þerfore þe bataille þat is aȝenst hem [is cleped bellum Punicum, and*. [bellum, added here in γ.] Cartaginense also, as it were the bataylle that is ayenst hem that be called]*. [From β. and Cx.] Puny*. [Punici, Cx.] Punices, and Cartaginenses. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie. [Though]*. [From Cx.; þey, γ.] þe Romaynes hadde i-meoved*. [moved, Cx.] noon armour*. [armure, β.; armur, γ.] wiþ oute Italy to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] þat tyme, noþeles forto knowe certen|liche*. [certainly, Cx.] þe somme and noumbre of Romayns þey payede a certayn, and were acounted, and i-founde two hondred þow|sand [foure score þowsand twelf þowsand]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þre hondred and foure and þritty. Þe batailles cesed nouȝt*. [never, β.; nevere seþthe, γ.; batayll cessed never sith, Cx.] siþþe þe citee was first i-bulde. And so þe Romayns fyve ȝere continualliche*. [continually, Cx.] in*. [and, Cx, wrongly.] Sicilia aȝenst Ieron*. [Iheron, β., γ., and Cx.] kyng of Sicilia, and aȝenst þe Affris*. [Affers, Cx.] were victors, and hadde þe maistrie. Þanne þe Romayns ȝaf þe firste bataille in Affrica. Here*. [Her, Cx.] ledere was Markus*. [Marcus, Cx.] Regulus, consul of Rome; and first þey took hir schippes, and drenched hem,*. [drynchede ham, γ.] oþer*. [ether, Cx.] chased hem and her schippes; and at*. [atte, β. and Cx.] þe laste he*. [they, Cx.] took þre dukes of Affrica, and Page  43, vol.4 beet*. [bent, γ.] doun þe oost,*. [hooste, Cx.] and took meny olyphauntes, and sent sevene and twenty [þowsand]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] prisoners to Rome. Among þese*. [þeus, γ.] dedes, at*. [atte, β. and Cx.] þe ryver Bragada he slouȝ*. [they slow, Cx.] a grete serpent, and sente þe skyn þerof to Rome for a greet wonder; ffor þat skyn was sixe score foot*. [fote, β. and Cx.] long. Þanne þe Cartaginenses, men of Affrica, were overcome, and axede pees; and Marcus Regu|lus wolde graunte no*. [none, Cx.] pees but uppon wel harde condiciouns. Þanne þe Affres*. [Affers, Cx., et infra.] gat wiþ hem Ȝanȝippus*. [Zansippus, β., γ., and Cx.] kynge of Lacede|monia, and overcome Marcus Regulus wiþ al his oost*. [hoost, Cx.] at þe laste mescheef,*. [meschef, β.; atte last meschief, Cx.] so þat onliche*. [only, Cx.] tweyne of þe Romayns scapede and fligh,*. [flyȝ, β.; escapede and fledde, Cx.] þritty þowsand were deed i-slawe,*. [dede slayne, Cx.] Mar|cus Regulus and fyve hondred prisoners were i-holde longe in bondes. Afterward þe Romayns overcome þe Affres in werre in see [and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] in lond, so þat þey slouȝ*. [slewe, Cx.] of here ene|myes two hondred þowsand, and six score olyphauntes and ten were i-take; and þe Cartagynenses Affres sente Marcus Regulus to Rome, and prayde þat þey wolde chaunge prisoners. Augustinus de Civitate [Dei],*. [From Cx.]libro primo. Noþeles an oþ was i-swore þat ȝif þat*. [þat] om. Cx., wrongly.] þey axede schulde nouȝt be i-doo, Page  45, vol.4 Regulus schulde torne aȝen to Cartage. He wente forþ, and dede*. [dide, Cx., et infra.] awey his wif from his bed, as þey*. [though, Cx.] he were no Romayn; and in þe counsaille of senatoures i-gadered to gedres,*. [togeder, Cx.] he counsaillede þe contrarie of his owne message, and seide þat it was nouȝt profitable*. [not prouffitable, Cx.] to þe comounte*. [comynte, β. and γ.] of Rome to chaunge so meny noble prisoners for suche an olde man as he was. Þe Romayns dede*. [dide, Cx., et infra.] by his counsaille. Noþe|les he was not compelled for to goo aȝen, but þe Romayns counsaillede*. [counceiliden, β.] hym specialliche forto abide*. [forto abyde specyalych, γ.] at Rome; but for he swoor*. [but bycause he sware, Cx.] at Cartage þat he schulde come aȝen, and*. [yf, Cx.] he myȝt nouȝt have auctorite of an honest*. [onest, γ.; honneste bourges of the, Cx.] burgeys in þis citee of Rome after þat he was prisoner, he chees*. [ches, β.; chese, Cx.] for to goo aȝen, and wente aȝen. Þere þe Affres closed*. [closiden, β.] hym in a streiȝt*. [streyt, γ.; strayte, Cx.] tree þat was þicke*. [þicke] om. γ.; ymked, α. and β.] pikede wiþ ynne wiþ longe and scharpe nayles,*. [that was ful of pykes within forth of sharpe nayles, Cx.] and parede of his*. [þe, α.; þe lydes and made, β; hys ye lydes, γ.; the lyddes of his eyen, Cx.] yȝe liddes, and made hym stonde so þere and wake to his lyves ende. Petrus, 168. Tholomeus fauȝt aȝenst Antiochus Theos kyng of Siria, but afterward þey were confethered to gidres*. [togadris, β.; confedered to|gyder, Cx.]; ffor Antiochus weddede Beronica, Tholomeus his douȝter, and forsook his raþer wif Laodices; but at the laste Laodices hadde grace of here hous|bonde,*. [hir husbond, Cx.]Page  47, vol.4 and come to hym aȝe,*. [agayne, Cx.] and punysshed*. [puysonde, γ.] hym and his sone þat he hadde i-gete*. [begeten, Cx.] on Beronica, and made her owne sone Antiochus Galericus*. [Galericus] om. Cx.] kyng of Siria. A peny of silver is first i-schape*. [shapen, Cx.] in Rome.