Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum vicesimum octavum.

AFTER þis Alisaundre took þe cloþinge and þe dyademe of þe kyng of Pers, as þey*. [thaugh, Cx.] he wolde passe in to þe manere Page  439, vol.3 and usage of [ham þat were overcome, aȝenes the manere and usage of]*. [From γ.] Macedonia. And for it schulde not seme þat alone he trespased in þat doynge, he heet*. [bade, Cx.] his frendes also use longe cloþes of gold; also he deled þe tymes and the stempnes of þe myȝtes*. [nyȝtes, α., γ., and Cx.; nyȝtis, β.] among companyes*. [companye, Cx.] of strom|pettes, and putte to noble*. [nobel, γ.] mete and drynke, leste fastynge destroyede*. [destruyde, γ.] leccherie. He hiȝteþ his meles*. [highted his meels, Cx.] wiþ dyvers plaies, and haþ*. [hadde, Cx.] no mynde þat grete richesse is lost by suche*. [sich, β.] manere doynge, and nouȝt i-gete and i-wonne.*. [not gete ne wonne, Cx.] Þerfore al*. [al] om. Cx.] men gonne*. [began, Cx.] to have indignacioun of hym, for he forsook þe usage and þe maneres of his forfadres. He lete his*. [his] om. Cx.] knyȝtes wedde wommen þat were i-take prisoners, for þey schulde take and suffre*. [suffry, γ.] þe liȝtloker*. [more easily, Cx.] þe travaille of chyvalrie*. [chevalry, γ.] and þenke þe lasse of her owne contrey. He hilde*. [helde, Cx.] þat Macedonia schulde be þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] strengere ȝif ȝonge kniȝtes come after elde*. [olde, β. and γ.; old, Cx.] fadres and usede dedes of knyȝtes wiþ ynne þe boundes of here owne berþe, and schulde be þe more stalworþe*. [stalward, γ.] afterward ȝif þey piȝte here tentes as it were in here owne cradeles. Also Page  441, vol.3 Alisaundre ordeyned fedynge for children,*. [childre, Cx.] hors and armour*. [armur, γ.] for ȝongelynge,*. [þe ȝongelynges, α. and Cx.] hire*. [huyre, γ.] and wages for þe fadres; and ȝif þe fadres deide þe sones schulde fonge*. [receyue, Cx.] þe wages of þe fader,*. [faders, Cx.] and so hir childhode schulde by as it were knyȝthode and chivalrie.*. [cheualrye, Cx.] Þanne whanne þe Parthies*. [Partyes, Cx.] were i-chased Alisaundre wax cruel*. [cruwel, γ.] among his owne men, and hatede most ȝif eny of his men wiþseide hym of eny manere dede. Þere he slouȝ oon*. [þar a slouȝ on, γ.] Permenion, an olde man þat was next þe kyng, and Per|menion his sone Phileta also, for þey tolde hym þat he over|tornede and destroyede*. [distruyed, β.; destruyde, γ] þe maneres and þe usages of the con|tray and of his formfadres.*. [forfadres, γ.; fornfaders, Cx.] Þanne Alisaundre dradde*. [drad, β.] leste tyþinges*. [tydynges, Cx., et infra.] of þat dede schulde come into Macedonia; he made hit as þey*. [þey] om. Cx.] he wolde sende to*. [to] om. α., β., and Cx.] some of his frendes into Macedonia to telle þere tiþinges*. [tydynges, Cx., et infra.] of þe victories, and of þe grete dedes þat he hadde i-doo, and heet*. [bade, Cx.] þat men schulde write lettres alle þat wolde tiþynges*. [tydynges, Cx., et infra.] sende, and made þe messangers*. [messageris, β.; messagers, Cx.] brynge hym þe lettres priveliche,*. [pryuately, Cx.] for he wolde knowe all menis wille*. [al men wyl, γ.] þat wolde lettres sende, oþer for he wolde rewarde hem þat were trewe,*. [truwe, γ.] oþer sende hem þat were false in to fer*. [ferre, Cx.] londes. Policratica,*. [Cx. has merely Pol.]libro.*. [libro] om. β. and γ.] Alisaundre was ofte dronke,*. [dronken, Cx.] and þanne he was cruel among his meyne,*. [meyny, γ. and Cx.]Page  443, vol.3 and so it happed in*. [on, Cx.] a tyme þat he ȝaf dome aȝenst oon þe grettest of þe paleys*. [palys, β.; his palays, Cx.] þat his heed schulde of, and he ap|pelede anon riȝt; but for me usede to appele from þe lasse to þe more. Þe tyraunt þat was wyn dronken*. [wyndronke, γ.; wyne dronken, Cx.] tornede in to more woodnesse,*. [wodenesse, Cx.] and seide, "From whom*. [wham, γ. (bis).] [and to whom]*. [Added from γ. and Cx.] appelest*. [appellyst, Cx.] þou?" "I appele," quod he, "from Alisaundre þe dronke to Alisaundre þe sobre."*. [sober, Cx.] By þat answere Ali|saundre abated his wreþe,*. [wreþthe, γ.] and put of þe sentence and þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] dome, and forȝaf hym þe trespas at þe fulle.*. [atte folle, γ.; fully foryaue hym the trespas, Cx.]Trogus. Þanne he stood wiþ*. [suduweþ, β.; sodeuweþ, γ.] þe peple þat woneþ at þe foot*. [he subdued the peple that dwellyd atte fote, Cx.] of þe hille mont*. [mont] om. Cx.] Caucasus, and buldeþ*. [bylde, Cx.] þe citee Alexandria uppon þe ryver Thanays. ℞. Here take hede þat Alisaundre bulde*. [bilde, β.] twelve*. [twelf, γ.] citees, everich of hem heet Alexandria, in dyvers kyngdoms and londes: at the ryver Thanays, Pontus, Schicia,*. [Shicia (sic), Cx.] Mesagetes, Egipt, Troada, at Tigris, and at Staurus, and made write in þe walles of þe citees in lettres of Grew,*. [Gru, γ.; Grue, Cx.]Page  445, vol.3 "Alisaundre Iubiter his*. [Jupiters, β.] kyn."*. [Jupiters cosyn, Cx.]Trogus, libro 12o. Þe men þat beeþ i-closed wiþ ynne þe watres þat hatte palludes Mcotides*. [Meotydes, Cx.] sente a lettre to Alisaundre in þis manere: "Ȝif goddes wolde þat þe having of þy body were evene to þe covetise*. [coueitese, Cx.] of þy soule, þe worlde myȝte nouȝt fonge*. [not receyue, Cx.] þe. Where*. [Whether, β. and Cx.] þou knowe nouȝt þe*. [þat, β.] treen*. [noȝt þat tren, γ.] þat groweþ long tyme*. [that trees that growe a longe tyme, Cx.] beeþ i-roted up in a litel while, þanne take hede and bewar*. [be waar, γ.] þat þou falle nouȝt wiþ the tree,*. [treo, γ.] while þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] þow takest to þe þe bowes.*. [buwes, γ.] Ofte þe leon*. [lion, Cx.] is mete to smale*. [smalleste, γ.] bestes and to fouls, and roust destroyeþ iren*. [rust destroyed yren, Cx.]; þere is no þing so strong and stedefast*. [studefast, γ.; stydfast, Cx.] þat may nouȝt be brouȝt in [to]*. [Cx.] peril,*. [peryll, Cx.] and þat by a febil*. [feble, Cx.] þing and wel litel worþ. What eyleþ þe at us? we come*. [cam, Cx.] nevere in þy lond, we mowe*. [mow servy, γ.; may, Cx.] serve no man, and we kepeþ nouȝt regne,*. [kepe not to regne, Cx.] and þou hast ioye to pursewe þeoves,*. [pursue theues, Cx.] and þou art everich naciouns*. [α. inserts his before þeef.] þeef.*. [þeof, γ.] What nede*. [neode, γ.] hast þou*. [hastow, Cx.] to riches, Page  447, vol.3 þat makeþ þe [þe]*. [From α. and Cx.] more nedy*. [neody, γ.] to desire more richesse.*. [riches, Cx.] To þe victorie is cause of bataille. No man suffre*. [suffreþ, α. and Cx.] glad|liche an alien lord. And ȝif þou art god, þou schuldest ȝeve men benefice and ȝiftes, and byneme*. [bynyme, β.; bynymme, γ.; take from no, Cx.] no man his owne; ȝif þou art*. [be, Cx.] a man, þynke what þou art. Þou myȝt have frendes of hem þat þou hast nouȝt i-greved wiþ werre*. [wiþ werre] om. Cx.]; and hem þat þou hast overcome þow myȝte euere have hem [in]*. [Cx. (not γ.)] suspecte. Bytwene a bonde*. [boond, β.] man and his lorde is no manere frendschipe þouȝ þey be in pees."*. [pese, γ.; peas, Cx.] In a day*. [One day, Cx.] at a feste among Alisaundre his trusty*. [tristy, β.] frendes was speche of þe dedes of Phelip þe kynges fader. Þere Alisaundre gan to boste*. [bosty, γ.; booste, Cx.] and make him self more worþy þan his fader, and a greet deel of hem*. [of hem] om. Cx.] þat were at þe feste hilde*. [huld, γ.] up þe kynges oyl.*. [helde up Alisandres oyle, Cx.] But Clitus,*. [Olitus, Cx.] an olde man and a wise man,*. [old man and wyse, β., γ., and Cx.] truste in þe kynges frendeschepe, and preisede þe fader; and anon Alisaundre slowȝ hym for þat [grete]*. [Cx. (not γ.)] prey|synge. But afterward [whanne]*. [From α. and Cx.] þe kynges woodnes*. [wodnes, γ.] was i-cesed,*. [wodenesse was cessed, Cx.] he beþouȝt hym of þe persone þat was Page  449, vol.3 i-slawe,*. [slayn, Cx.] of þe cause of þe*. [his, Cx.] deth, and of the feste tyme, and made so grete doel*. [deol, β. and γ.] and*. [doel and] om. Cx.] sorwe*. [sorowe, Cx.] þat he desired forto*. [for] om. Cx.] die. Þe teeres brak*. [breke, γ.] out*. [brake oute, Cx.] of his eiȝen,*. [yen, γ.; eyen, Cx.] and he weep*. [weope, β.] ful sore.*. [fol sore weop þe kyng, γ.; wepte ful soore, Cx.] Þanne he byclipped þe deed body,*. [corps, Cx.] and gropeþ the woundes,*. [wondes, γ.] and draweþ out þe schaft,*. [scheft, γ.; drewe oute the shafte, Cx.] and profreþ to stike*. [stycke, Cx.] hym self þerwiþ; for þis Clitus his suster*. [Clitus sister, Cx.] was Alisaundre his norise.*. [norse, β. and Cx.; norce, γ.] Þis sorwe durede foure daies,*. [dawes, γ., ut semper.] and oon Calistenes,*. [Calystenes, Cx.] Alisaundre scolefere*. [scolevere, γ.] under Aristotil, aleyde*. [alayed, Cx.] þis sorwe, unneþe wiþ grete besynesse. Trogus, libro 12o. But nouȝt longe afterward, for þis Calistenes þe philosofre wolde not use þe manere and þe array of Pers, Alisaundre bare hym an*. [on, α., γ., and Cx.] honde þat he was a false aspie,*. [espye, Cx.] and heet smyte of his lemes,*. [lymes, γ.; lymmes, Cx.] and þrewe þe stok of his*. [stoke of the, Cx.] body into a pitte, and an hound*. [hand, Cx.] wiþ hym. But oon Lisimachus,*. [Lysimachus, et infra, Cx.] a gentil man and a noble, made hym drynke venym for þe remedye of his sorwe. Þan Alisaundre Page  451, vol.3 was wrooþ for þatte dede, and put þis Lisimachus to a leon to be ete*. [lyon to be eten, Cx.]; but he wrapped a cloþ aboute his hond, and schove it*. [and schove it] om. α.; þruste hys hond into þe leon hys, γ.; and put it into the lyons, Cx.] in [to]*. [From α.] þe leon his mowþe, whan þe leon resede, and rasede*. [lyon resed and rased, β. and Cx.; resede he rasede, γ.] of þe tonge and slowȝ þe leon. Ali|saundre siȝ*. [sawe, Cx.] þat, and loved hym þe more afterward. Salustius.*. [Solinus, β., γ., and Cx.] After þis Alisaundre come to þe hilles of Caspie,*. [Caspy, Cx.] þere þe children*. [childern, γ.; childer, Cx.] of bondage of þe ten lynages*. [lygnages, Cx.] of Israel were i-closed, and praieden*. [prayed leve, α.; prayd for ly|cence to, Cx.] of Alisaundre to goo out of þe*. [þat, α. and Cx.] closynge. And whanne Alisaundre had i-lerned*. [had yleurned, γ.; understande, Cx.] þat þey were þere i-closed [there]*. [Cx.] for here synne, and þat it was i-prophecied of hem þat þey schulde nouȝt goo þennes,*. [thens, Cx.] Alisaundre closede hem fastere, and stopped here oute goynge fastere wiþ stones and glew*. [glu, γ.; glue, Cx.]: and he seigh*. [sawe, Cx.] þat manis witte was nouȝt suffisaunt to doo þat dede, and prayed God of Israel þat he wolde fulfille*. [folfulle, γ.] þat werk and dede; þan þe coppes of þe hilles wente and closede to gidres, and so þe place was i-closede þat no man myȝte come þerto. [℞.]*. [From α.] But þey schulleþ*. [a scholleþ go, γ.; shal, Cx.] goo out at þe Page  453, vol.3 worldes ende [and slee many men],*. [β., γ., and Cx.] so seiþ Iosephus. After þis Alisaundre, aboute þe tenþe ȝere of his kyng|dom, wente in*. [in] om. Cx.] to Ynde, and heled*. [heeled, β.; helede, γ.] þe armure*. [keuered the armour, Cx.] of his knyȝtes wiþ silver, and wente up into þe noble citee Nisa.*. [Nysa, Cx.] Þennes he lad*. [a ladde, γ.] his oost*. [Thens he ledde his hooste, Cx.] toward þe holy hille, þere men heleþ her prive herneys*. [pryvey harneys, γ.] wiþ þynne*. [yvy, α., β., and γ.] leves*. [where men hele ther preuy har|nays with yuy leues, Cx.]; þere wiþ a sodeyn doynge of þe hille, his oost was i-meoved forto*. [for] om. Cx.] crie to God Almyȝti wiþ holy cries. Þanne he wente to þe hilles þat hatte montes Dedaly, þat beeþ in þe kyngdom of þe queene Cleofilis, and for he*. [heo, β. γ., et infra; she, Cx.] myȝte nouȝt wiþstonde hym wiþ armure*. [armour, Cx.] in fiȝtinge, sche*. [heo, γ.] lete the kynge ligge*. [lye, Cx.] by here, and so*. [so] om. Cx.] sche raunsouned hir*. [heore, γ.; the, Cx.] kyngdom. Þe sone þat sche hadde by Alisaundre was i-cleped*. [yclepud, γ.] Alisaundre, and was emperour of Inde after his moder. But þe queene Page  455, vol.3 was i-cleped þe kynges hoore*. [harlatte, Cx.] while sche was on lyve.*. [a lyue, Cx.] Þanne Alisaundre come to astoon of a wonder schapnesse*. [scharpnesse, β.; scharpnes, γ.; sharpnesse, Cx.]; moche*. [miche, β.] folk*. [peple, Cx.] was i-flowe þider*. [þuder, γ.; were fledde theder, Cx.] for socour. At þat stoon Hercules was forbode þere*. [forþere, α.; forboden forther, Cx.] passage, for he schulde passe non forþer. But Alisaundre wolde passe Hercules his dedes, and gat þat place with greet travaille and peril, and made þe peple ȝelde hem to his mageste.*. [maieste, γ.] After þat Alisaundre fauȝt wiþ Porus,*. [Porrus, β. and Cx.] kynge of Inde, he slouȝ Alisaundre his hors þat heet Bucefal*. [Botifal, β.; Bucyfall, Cx.]; noþeles Porus*. [Porrus, β. and Cx.] was i-wounded al aboute and i-take prisoner, and Alisaundre restorede hym aȝen to his kyngdom: noþeles [this]*. [Cx. (not γ.)] Porus*. [Porrus, Cx.] was i-wounded so sore*. [sory, α.] þat he was*. [was so sory that he was, Cx.] overcome þat he wolde nouȝt ete noþer suffre hele*. [ne suffre men hele, Cx.] his woundes.