Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
Page  393, vol.3

Capitulum vicesimum septimum.

THE grete Alisaundre, whan his fader was deed, gan*. [bygan, Cx.] to regne after his fader in Macedonia, in his tyme*. [tyme] om. β., γ., and Cx.] twentiþe ȝere of elde; he*. [he] and, γ.] regnede*. [age and regned, β. and Cx.] but twelve ȝere and sixe monþes. He was gretter þan his fader boþe in vices and in vertues.*. [vertuwes, γ.] Noþeles þe fader was þe wiser man of counsaille, but þe sone was þe gretter man of herte. Þe fader wolde ofte helie*. [heelye, β.; helye, γ.; kepe se|crete, Cx.] and overcome his owne wrethe. Þe sone used nouȝt to seche love noþer þe manere of wreche; eyþer loved wel wyn, and were boþe goode drynkeres.*. [drinkeris, β.] Þe fader wolde slee but his enemyes, [and]*. [Cx.] þe sone wolde s[l]ee*. [slee, β. and Cx.] boþe his enemyes and his frendes. Þe fader wolde be loved, but þe sone was levere be i-drad, and*. [they, Cx.] were of oon byleve. Þe fader ȝaf hym to skilful largenesse and frenesse*. [and frenesse] om. Cx.; freones, γ.] of ȝiftes, and þe sone ȝaf hym to leccherie.*. [lechery, Cx.]Vincentius, libro 5o. Þe ȝere of Othus kyng of Pers fiftene, of Phelip kyng of Macedonia twelve, and of Nectanabus*. [Nettanabus, γ., semper.] kyng of Egipt seventene, Othus occupiede Egipt, and put out Nectanabus. And*. [And] om. β. and Cx.] [if this Nectana|bus]*. [β. and Cx.]Page  395, vol.3 dredde werre and bataille, he wolde not arraie and gadrede*. [gadre, α., β., and Cx.] his oost, noþer ordeyned*. [ordeyne, α., β., and Cx.] gynnes of werre, but he wolde goo priveleche*. [secretely, Cx.] in to a prive*. [pryuate, Cx.] place, and take wiþ hym a basyn wiþ*. [basine of, Cx.] cleer water, and make schippes and men of wex*. [wax, Cx.] to þe liknesse of a schippe in þe see, so þat it schulde seme þat alle þo mevede*. [meouede, γ.; meoued, Cx.] and were on lyve.*. [alyue, β. and Cx.] Also he wolde take a ȝerde of fir*. [fuyre, β.] holowȝ*. [vyr holouȝ, γ.; fyrre holowe, Cx.] wiþ ynne as a pipe, and [he]*. [Cx. and β.] wolde speke in þe holownesse*. [holouȝnes, γ.] of þat ȝerd and clepe goddes above and byneþe, and so he wolde fonde to drenche*. [founde to drown, Cx.; vonde to drynche, γ.] his schippe of wex*. [waxe, Cx.] in the basyn; and so it schulde byfalle þat by drenchynge of þe wex and of þe taperes*. [tapres, γ. and Cx.] þat were i-tend,*. [ytent, γ.; brennynge, Cx.] his enemyes schulde drenche in þe see. Somtyme herde i-telle*. [He herde telle yn a tyme, α., β., γ. (which reads hurde), and Cx.] þat þe Iewes,*. [Indes, α. and Cx.] Perthes,*. [Parthes, γ.] Medes, Arabes, and oþere naciouns also were*. [had, Cx.] conspired to gidres*. [to gedres] om. Cx.; togodres, γ.] to arise*. [rise, β.; ryse, γ. and Cx.] aȝenst hym, and he brak on a lawhynge,*. [lawȝinȝe, β.; lauȝwyng, γ.; on laughyng, Cx.] and wente to doo his*. [his] om. γ.] craft þat he usede, and he knewe by þat þat he schulde Page  397, vol.3 be overcome, but ȝif fliȝt myȝte helpe hym. Anoon he heet*. [bade, β.] schave his berd and his heed,*. [Anoon . . . heed] om. Cx.] and tooke al þe precious riches þat he hadde, and come in to Macedonia, and seide þat he was an*. [α, Cx.] astronomer. But*. [And, Cx.] Phelip þe kyng was þoo out of contray, and occupied in werre; and Nectanabus by his enchauntement and his fantastik feyninge gat*. [gate, Cx.] suche*. [siche, β.] love of þe quene Olimpias þat he lay by here in liknesse of Iubiter*. [Jupiter, Cx.] i-horned, and gat*. [bygate, Cx.] þe grete Alisaundre. Þanne whanne þe queene was wiþ childe, meny foules fliȝ*. [flye, γ.; flowe, Cx.] aboute Phelip,*. [Philip, Cx.] þat was þo occupied in werre. But among oþere foules an hen*. [henne, Cx.] leide an ey*. [eye, β., et infra; egge, Cx.] in Phelip his lappe, and whanne þe*. [and whanne þe] om. α.] ey*. [that egge, Cx.] was i-smyte of his lappe to þe grounde, a dragoun leep*. [lepte, Cx.] out of the schelle*. [schylle, γ., bis.] and crepe*. [shelle and crept, Cx.] al aboute, and while he wolde have i-crope*. [cropen, Cx.] in*. [ynto, α.; into, β.; into the shelle, Cx.] þe schille þat he come of*. [came oute of, Cx.] he deyde anon. Þanne Antifon,*. [Antiphon, β. and Cx.] a noble dyvynour, was apposed what þis þing schulde mene,*. [was demaunded what that shold signefye, Cx.] and he answerde*. [answherede, γ., et infra.] and seide Page  399, vol.3 þat Phelip schulde have a sone i-bore þat schulde goo aboute al þe world, but he schulde deie or*. [ar, γ.; dye er, Cx.] he came aȝen: ffor a dragoun is a real*. [ryall, Cx.] best, and an ey*. [egge, Cx.] haþ þe schap of þis*. [þe, α., β., and Cx.] world. Afterward, whan Olympias þe quene*. [the quene] om. Cx.] was in tra|vaille*. [trauelyng, Cx.] of childe, were i-herde [and]*. [From β.; yhurd and yseye eorþe . . ., γ.] i-seie erþe shakynge,*. [quakynge, Cx.] lyȝtninge and þondrynge.*. [thonder, Cx.]Quintus Curtius. Al þat day sete tweie egles uppon þe toppe*. [coppe, β. and Cx.; apon þe cop, γ.] of þe hous: þat bodede and tokenede*. [sygnefyed, Cx.] tweie grete emperes, of Europa and of*. [of] om. Cx.] Asia. Vincentius. Þe childe is i-bore, and hatte*. [named, Cx.] Alisaundre, wiþ faire heer*. [heier, Cx.] and faire eyȝen, oon ȝelow,*. [on ȝolouȝ and þat oþer, γ.] anoþer blak. Ieroni|mus, epistola 35.*. [85, α. and Cx.] Alisaundre myȝt nouȝt leve the maneres and þe vices and þe leccherie of his maister Leonides,*. [Leonis, γ., et infra.] in þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] he was infecte while has*. [he was, α., β., and Cx.; a was, γ.] a childe, and used hem whan he was lorde of þe world; and þerfore his fader Phelip dede awey Leonides and made Aristotle [to be]*. [Cx.] Alisaundre his maister. Seneca. Alisaundre putte þe*. [þes, γ.; that, Cx.] Leonides afterward to leouns*. [lyons, γ.] forto ete.*. [lyons to be deuoured, Cx.]Vincentius. Whanne Alisaundre was Page  401, vol.3 twelve*. [twellif, Cx.] ȝere olde he hadde greet lykynge and ioye to be in oostes*. [hooste, Cx.] among men of armes, and to lepe to*. [on, Cx.] hors, and usede him self as*. [right knyghtly. On a . . ., Cx.] it were a knyȝt. In a day whan Phelip was absent, Alisaundre prayed Nectanabus þat he wolde teche hym his craft, and he grauntede; [and whan]*. [γ. and Cx.] þey come in fere*. [y-fere, β.; yfere, γ.] unto*. [to geder to, Cx.] a deep water pitte,*. [deope water put, γ.] Alisaundre þrew the*. [α. has too before wicche.] wicche*. [wychche, γ.; witche, Cx.] in þe same pitte; and whan he was in þat pitte and*. [in that pitte and] om. β. and Cx.] deed*. [deþ, α. and γ.; dede wounded, Cx.] woundede, he axede*. [axide, β.] of Alisaundre why he dede so. "Þy craft," quod*. [sayde, Cx.] Alisaundre, "is to blame, for he*. [it, β. and Cx.] warnede þe not what*. [this chaunge: there . . ., Cx.] schulde byfalle: þere þou liest nevelynge,*. [nyvelyng, β. and γ.; neuelyng, Cx.] and schuldest*. [schost, α.] telle*. [and schuldest telle] and so aronȝ to tel, γ.] after þese*. [þis, β.] þynges of hevene." Þe*. [And he, Cx.] whiche*. [wychche, γ.] answerde and seide, "No man may flee*. [fleo, γ.] his owne destanye."*. [desteny, Cx.]Trevisa. Nectanabus seide þis sawe, [and]*. [From β and γ.] was a wicche,*. [wychche, γ., et infra; witche, Cx.] and þerfore it*. [he, β. and Cx.; α, γ.] is nevere þe bettre to trowynge*. [to be byleuid, Cx.]: but it were a vile*. [fyle, γ.] schame for Page  403, vol.3 a Cristen man to trowe*. [byleue, Cx.] þis false sawe of þis wicche*. [of a wytche, Cx.]; for from every myshap þat man is i-schape in þis worlde to falle ynne, God may hym save ȝif it is*. [be, Cx.] his wille. Þan it foloweþ*. [volweþ, γ.] in þe storie, Nectanabus seide, "I knowe*. [knewe, α.; ych knew, γ.] wel by þis craft þat myn owne sone schulde slee me." "What," quod*. [sayde, Cx.] Alisaundre, "art þow my fader?" And he tolde Alisaundre*. [al added before by in γ.] by ordre al þing as it stood, and deyde anon after. Þan Alisaundre ordeyned hym [a]*. [β. and Cx.] grave, and tolde his moder al*. [of al this. That tyme. . ., Cx.] þe sawes þat he hadde i-herde.*. [yhurd, γ.] Þat tyme Phelip cared besiliche*. [toke gret thought, Cx.] who schulde be his heire*. [eyr, β, et infra; eyr, γ.] and kyng after hym; and hadde answere*. [answher, γ.] of Appolyn Delphicus þat who it evere were þat myȝte ride his hors Bucefal*. [Botifal, β., et infra.] wiþ oute hirtynge,*. [who that euer myght ryde his hors withoute falle or hurtynge, Cx.] schulde be his heire and kyng after hym,*. [and kyng after hym] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] and lorde of the worlde. Alisaundre herde*. [hurde, γ., et infra.] telle þat Bucefal þe hors was perilous and evel bitynge, and alle wey*. [telle herof of Philippes hors called Bucyfall, right perillous and bytyng, and alwey, Cx.] i-kepte in cloos, and neyhede*. [neyȝed, β.; neyde, γ.; neyed, Cx.] as it were [in]*. [Cx.] þe rorynge of leons*. [lyons, Cx.]; noþeles Alisaundre took þe hors by þe mane, and lad hym out, and lepe*. [leep, γ.; lept, Cx.] on his bak, and rood hym with oute hurtynge. Phelip herde þerof, Page  405, vol.3 and worschipped Alisaundre as lorde of þe world. Þerfore Alisaundre in his sixtenþe*. [sixteþe, γ.] ȝere fauȝte in chariottes, and hadde þe victorie, and wan þe citee Methona,*. [Mothona, β.; Mathona, Cx.] þat his fader hadde i-loste. And whan he come home aȝen he seigh*. [a syȝ, γ.] messangeres*. [sawe messagers, Cx.] of Pers in his fadres hous chalengede*. [chalenge, β., γ., and Cx.] tribute þat þey were wont*. [wond, γ.] to have for lond and for water. "What," quoþ*. [seid, Cx.] Alisaundre, "chalangeþ þe [kynge of]*. [Cx.] Perses*. [Pers, Cx.] þe elementes, þat beþ comoun*. [buþ comyn, γ.] to alle men and bestes?" Þan he hiȝt Darius leve of and cese of*. [of] om. Cx.] þe unskilful doyng. Giraldus in Topographia. In an homeliche*. [homlych, γ.] and special companye and merþe*. [murþe, γ.] Alisaundre herde a swete harpe, and for*. [forkitte, β.; he, Cx.] kutte þe strenges, and seide, "It is bettre to kutte strynges*. [strengges, γ.] þan hertes." He felte*. [felde, γ.; conceyued, Cx.] þat by þis*. [þe, Cx.] swete melodie his herte schulde be more i-torned to likynge þan to hardynesse, to ese þan to chivalrye, to lecherie þan to vertu, to bestiliche likyng þan to chyvalrie.*. [manhode, β. and Cx.; manhed, γ.] Noþeles stories telleþ*. [historyes saien, Cx.] þat Antygonus brak þe harpe þat Alisaundre took greet heed Page  407, vol.3 too,*. [toke grete entent to, β.; tok gret entent to, γ.] and seide: "It by falleþ*. [grete delyte to here, and saith it befalleth, Cx.] to þyn age now forto*. [for] om. Cx.] regne; be þanne asshamed*. [ashamed, Cx.] to suffre wommen likynge*. [wymmens liking, β.; womens liking, Cx.] to regne in a kynges body." Tullius. While Alisaundre gat favour of men by ȝiftes of money, his fader wroot to hym in þis manere: "What errour haþ brouȝt þe in to þe*. [that, β. and Cx.] hope þat þou trowest to have hem trewe*. [true, Cx.] to þe þat þow hast over|come wiþ money? he þat fongeþ*. [receyueth, Cx.] is þe worse, and also more redy to waite after ȝiftes; þerby he takeþ hede to þe as to a servaunt and a ȝever of ȝiftes, and nouȝt as to a kyng."*. [The two last clauses he þat fongeþ. . . and þerby. . . are transposed in γ.] The fourtenþe*. [fourteþe, α. and γ.] kyng of Pers, Darius Arsanius his sone, gan*. [bigan, β.; began, Cx.] to regne the secounde ȝere of Alisaundre, and regnede sixe ȝere. Trogus, libro 11o. Þan Alisaundre slowȝ his stepdame sone Caranus, and alle his owne kyn þat semed able to þe kyngdom for [that]*. [Cx.] no mater of stryf schulde leve in Macedonia whan he were out of londe. Þo he alleyde*. [alayde, β.] craftiliche*. [Than he alayde craftely, Cx.] many kyngdoms*. [kyngdoms] om. β., γ., and Cx.] stryves þat were bygonne, and wente into Corinthe; he gan*. [began, Cx.] to restore þe werre in Page  409, vol.3 Pers þat his fader hadde bygonne; he made soget*. [suget, γ.; subget, Cx.] þe Lacedemones and þe Athenes*. [Athenens, α., γ., and Cx.] þat were rebel by counseil of Demoscenes.*. [Demostenes, Cx.] Þanne þe Athenens*. [Attenens, Cx.] wiþ the Flemes The|banes ȝaf hem self to Darius kyng of Pers. He delede his heritage*. [erytage, γ.] among his frendes, and trowed*. [byleued, Cx.] þat Asia*. [Asye, γ.] alone*. [Asie aloone, β.] were i-now for hym. And þerfore and þerfore*. [β. and Cx. have not the second and þerfore, nor has γ.] he heet his*. [the, Cx.] knyȝtes spare þe þinges of Asia. He lefte þe duller*. [doller, β. and γ.] men to kepe his kyngdom Macedonia, and hadde wiþ hym þe scharpest*. [sharpest, Cx.] witted*. [wyttet, γ.] men. Oolde men of sixty ȝere þat hadde i-travailled wiþ his fader, he ordeyned*. [made, Cx.] [them]*. [Cx.] maystres and lederes of his oost, for þey*. [hy, γ.] putte hope in brayn [and nouȝt in here*. [here] om. Cx.] feet, and tryste in þe victorye]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and nouȝt in þe fliȝt. In Alisaundre his oost were þre and þritty þowsand foot men, and fyve þowsande horsmen. Þerfor it was doute wheþer it was more wonder þat Alisaundre myȝte wynne þe worlde [with so lytel strengthe, owther that he durste auntre him]*. [Cx.] wiþ so litel strengþe. Page  411, vol.3Petrus, 106.*. [β. and Cx. have 196.] Þanne Alisaundre passed þe see Eles|pontes,*. [Elespontus, Cx.] and overcome Darius his dukes and lederes, þat were i-gadered*. [assembled, Cx.] aȝenst hym uppon þe Granicus. Þanne he passed forþ þoruȝ Lydya, þorw Iconia,*. [Lidia thurgh Yconia, Cx.] þoruȝ Pamphilia and took þe citee Sardus*. [Sardes, Cx.] þat is i-sette by twene þe tweie Frigies. Trogus, libro 11o. Alisaundre herde*. [hurde, γ.] of þe comynge of Darius, and dradde þe streiȝtnesse*. [streytnesse, Cx.] of places, and wente up to þe hille mount Taurus, and leide*. [leyde, β.; leyde on, γ.] on fifty forlonges, and hadde þe maistrie, and come to Tarcis ful of swoot*. [swot, β.; Tharsis fol of swot, γ.; Tharses full of swote, Cx.] and of poudre [or dust],*. [Cx.] and þrewe hym self into a water þat renneþ*. [erneþ, β.; eorneþ, γ.; spryngeth, Cx.] þere; þanne his senewes gonne*. [beganne, Cx.] to schrynke*. [schryngke, γ.] so þat he schulde have i-deied anon, but he hadde i-take a drinke*. [drench, β.; dryng, γ.] of Phelip þe*. [α, Cx.] phisician. Noþeles Darius hadde to forehonde*. [bifore, Cx.] i-ȝeve [to]*. [Cx.] Phelippe a greet somme of money forto slee Alisaundre, and Alisaundre hadde lettres þerof, and was i-warned þat he schulde in now*. [noon, β.; non, γ.; no, Cx.] wise take drynke*. [drenche, β.; drynch, γ.]Page  413, vol.3 noþer medicyne of Phelip his hond; [noþeles Alisaundre took tristeliche*. [trustly, Cx.] a drynk*. [drench, γ.] of Phelip his hond,]*. [From α.] but he took hym first þe same lettres to rede. After þe*. [þe] om. γ. and Cx.] foure dayes*. [dawes, γ.] Ali|saundre was hool, and Darius passede þe ryver Eufrates at mount Taurus wiþ foure hondred þowsand of*. [of] om. Cx.] foot men and an hondred þowsand of*. [of] om. Cx.] horsmen, and sette forþ þe [forward and]*. [Cx.] scheltroun.*. [scholtrum, γ.; sheltron, Cx.] Þere is*. [was, Cx.] strong fiȝtynge, and eiþer kyng is*. [was, Cx.] i-wounded. Darius fleeþ*. [fled, Cx.] faste away; foure score þowsand foot men and ten þowsand of horsmen of his ben*. [were, Cx.; beþ, β., et infra; buþ, γ.] i-slayn, and þritty þowsand ben*. [were, Cx.; beþ, β., et infra; buþ, γ.] i-take. His castelles and walled townes beeþ*. [were, Cx.; buþ, γ.] i-bete to grounde. Darius his moder, and his wif, and his tweie sustres beeþ*. [were, Cx.; buþ, γ.] i-take, but hir lif is*. [was, Cx.] i-saved, and þey beeþ*. [and a buþ, γ; be, Cx.] to newe mariage i-take. Þanne Alisaundre gan to lyve in leccherie,*. [gan to lychery, γ.; bigan to lyue lecherously, Cx.] and loved Barsynes þat was i-take, and gat on hire Hercules. Þan he desired to be kyng of þe Est,*. [Eest, Cx.] and wente into Siria. Petrus, 126.*. [146, α. and Cx.] Þan [one]*. [Cx.] Sarabella*. [Saraballa, Cx.] made a sugestioun to þe kyng*. [subgestion to kyng, Cx.] Ali|saundre Page  415, vol.3 þat þe Iewes wolde be the lasse rebel ȝif here power were deled a two; and by leve of þe kyng he*. [they, Cx.; þei, β.] bulde a temple in þe hille mount Garaȝym,*. [Gaȝarim, α., β., and Cx.; hul mont Gaȝirym, γ.] þat durede to þe destructioun þat was i-doo by the Romayns; and ordeyned a bisshop þerynne, Manasses, þat hadde i-wedded his douȝter, and was Iadus þe bisshoppes broþer.*. [broder, Cx.]Trogus, libro 11o. While Alisaundre was in Siria meny kynges of þe Est come aȝenst hym, and lordes wiþ crownes and dyademes. Som of [hem]*. [From α. and Cx.; ham, γ.] he took to his companie, and som [he]*. [From α. and Cx.; a bynaam, γ.] by-nam*. [bename, Cx.] here kyngdoms, and putte newe in here stede,*. [stude, γ., et infra.] and putte adoun*. [down, Cx.] meny gentil men, and putte ungentil men in here stede; among þe whiche he put of gentil men, and made an ungentil man a*. [α] om. Cx.] lorde of þe Sidonies. Þat lorde was woned*. [wont, β.] to forehonde*. [wont bifore to, Cx.] worche for*. [Cx. has for hem and laue up.] his*. [hire, α.; hyre, β. and γ.] liflode,*. [his liflode] om. β., γ., and Cx.] and lave up water of pitts and watere*. [watery, α.; watry, γ.; water, Cx.] orchardes and gardines.*. [gardens, Cx.] So he dede for men schulde take hede and trust to be avaunced by here noble dedes, and not by here greet blood. Trogus, libro 18o. Þat tyme Alisaundre filde*. [fulde, γ.; filled, Cx.] þe diches, and took þe citee Tirus, and heng on þe croys*. [yn croyses, γ.] alle þat woned*. [in croyses all that dwellyd, Cx.] þere, out take Strakon and*. [and] om. α., β., and Cx.] his blood. [Trogus, libro 81o.]*. [Cx.] Somtyme were meny cherles in þe*. [chorles in that, Cx.] citee Tirus, and conspired to gidres and slowȝ Page  417, vol.3 her lordes þat were victors longe tyme, and al þe*. [her, Cx.] fre*. [freo, γ., et infra.] men, and occupiede here hous,*. [howses, Cx.] and wedded [her]*. [Cx.] wifes, and get fre children,*. [bygate free childer, Cx.; chyl|dern, γ.] þouȝ þey were noȝt fre hem self.*. [þey hy were noȝt freo ham sylf, γ.; though hymself were bonde, Cx.] Noþeles oon cherle of so meny þowsandes hidde*. [hudde, γ.] his lorde, þat heet Stracon, and saved hym godeliche.*. [goodlych, γ.; goodly, Cx.] Þanne þe cherles come to gidres to chese*. [cheose, γ.] hem a kyng, and were assented þat whiche*. [whoche, γ.] of hem myȝt first aspie*. [espye, Cx.] þe sonne risynge amorwe,*. [on the morow, Cx.] he schulde be here kyng. Þis*. [Þes, γ.] good cherle warneþ*. [warned, Cx.] his lord Stracon of þis doynge, and Stracon counsailleþ*. [counseylled, Cx.] þe cherle þat whanne þe*. [þey, α., β., and Cx.] were al i-come at nyȝt into þe felde*. [feeld, γ.] and loked estward after þe sonne, he schulde loke westwarde, and so he dede, and schewed hem wonderliche*. [wondour erlych, γ.] þe liȝt of þe sonne bemes schynynge on þe hiȝest*. [heyȝeste, γ.] toures of þe citee: but hem semede þat þat manere of*. [of] om. Cx.] doynge come of no cherles witte, and axede faste who was counseillour*. [consailer, γ.] of þat dede, and he knowleched þat [it]*. [Cx.] was his lord; þo*. [Than, Cx.] it was i-knowe how hugeliche*. [gretely, Cx.] witt of lordes passeþ*. [passed, Cx.] wit of cherles. Þanne Page  419, vol.3 þe olde man and his children*. [chyldron, γ.; childer, Cx.] hadde grace, and Stracon was i-chose kyng. Þis manere doynge of cherles comounliche was i-used in every lond anon to Alisaundre his tyme. He took þe citee, and slowȝ al þat was þere ynne, out take Stracon his blood.*. [except Stracones blode, Cx.]Iosephus, libro 11o. Þo*. [Than, Cx.] Alisaundre wroot*. [wrot, γ.] to Iadus prince of prestes*. [preostes, γ.] in Ierusalem,*. [Jherusalem, Cx.] þat he schulde ordeyne for hym vitailles*. [vitails, β.] and tribut*. [trybute, Cx.] þat he was wont to paye to Darius þe kyng. Iadus warneþ*. [weorneþ, γ.] and seiþ*. [warned and sayde, Cx.] nay, and*. [and] om. α., β., and Cx.] for he was i-swore to Darius to paie*. [pay, Cx.] hym þat tribut, þerfore Alisaundre þretteneþ*. [þretneþ and manaseþ, γ.; was displesyd with, Cx.] þe Iewes. Petrus, libro 196o. Þan Alisaundre went forþ and took þe citee*. [citee] om. γ.] Gaza, whanne he hadde byseged it tweie monþes. And [from]*. [Cx.] þennes he wente toward Ierusalem, and Iadus þe bisshop, as he was i-tauȝt in his sleep, arrayed*. [slepe arayed, Cx.] hym in bisshoppes array and wente wiþ oþer preostes aȝenst kyng Alisaundre, and schewed*. [schewide, β.] hym þe prophecie of Daniel, in þe whiche*. [whuch, γ.] prophecie it was i-seide, þat oon of þe Grees*. [Grekes, Cx.] schulde destroye*. [destruye, γ.] þe power of þe Page  421, vol.3 Perses, and þat by Goddes doynge; and so Iadus gat grace of þe kyng, and reles*. [relesch, β.] of þe tribut*. [relesse of the trybute, Cx.] for seven*. [seve, γ.] ȝere. Trogus, libro 11o. Þan he wan Rodes*. [Rhodes, γ.; Roodes, Cx.] and Egipt as it were wiþ oute bataille. Þanne he wente to Iupiter Ammon, to wite*. [wytte, Cx.] of hym reed and counsaille up*. [of, γ. and Cx.] happes þat schulde befalle, and also of his owne birþe*. [burþe, γ., et infra.]; for his moder Olympiada*. [Olimpia, α.; Olimpias, γ. and Cx.] was i-knowe*. [aknowe, β.; beknowen, Cx.] to Phelip þat a greet serpent hadde i-gote*. [geten, Cx.] Alisaundre on hire, and nouȝt Phelip. Þerfore Phelip in þe laste tyme of his lyf tolde openliche*. [oponlych, γ.] þat Alisaundre was not his sone; and þerfore he hated Olympiada,*. [a forsook Olympiada, γ.; for|soke Olympyada, Cx.] and putte hir away from hym. Þanne Alisaundre desirede to gete hym lynage and burþe of godhede,*. [lygnage and byrthe of godheed, Cx.] and also he*. [to, α., β., γ., and Cx.] putte of þe schaundre*. [sclaundre, α. and β.; desclaun|der, γ.; sklander, Cx.] of his moder. Þanne Alisaundre medede*. [gaue mede to the . . ., Cx.] þe bisshoppes, and warned hem what answere he wolde have,*. [answher a wolde habbe, γ.] and wente into Iupiter his temple, and was i-worschipped as it*. [he, Cx.] were goddes sone. And þerfore he wax*. [wexe, Cx.] þe more proude and unesy, and loste þe usage*. [vysage, Cx.] of þewes þat he hadde i-lerned*. [yleorned, γ] in lettres of Grewe.*. [grue, Cx.] Þanne he tornede into Egipt, Page  423, vol.3 and bulde þere þe citee Alexandrina;*. [Allexandria, β. and Cx.] and passed forþ and werred uppon þe citee of Samaritanes, and wan hit, and ȝaf it to þe Macedones to wonye ynne.*. [Macedoyns to dwelle in, Cx.] For the Samarites hadde i-slawe oon Andromachus þat Alisaundre hadde*. [he lefte, Cx.] i-left to kepe þe contre.*. [countray, Cx.]Augustinus de Civitate [Dei],*. [Cx.]libro 4o, capitulo 5o,*. [4to, α.]et Policratica, libro 3o. Þat tyme Alisaundre axede of oon Dyonides,*. [Dyonydes, Cx., et infra; α. adds þat after Dyonides.] a þeef*. [þeof, γ., et infra.] of þe see, þat was i-take, why he robbed þe see, and he answerde*. [answherede studefastlych and seyde, γ.] and seide stedfastliche,*. [stydfastly, Cx.] "For þe same skile*. [skyl, Cx.] þat þou robbest al þe worlde wyde; but for I doo wiþ a litel schippe, þerfore I am i-cleped*. [yclepud, γ., et infra.] a þef; and for þou dost it wiþ [a]*. [Cx.] grete navey,*. [nauy, Cx.] þou art i-cleped an emperour; touching þe cause þerof is no differens bytwene us, boþe*. [bote, γ.] in fortune and in hap, out take þat he is þe worse*. [but unfortune and unhap, oute take that he is the werst, Cx.] þeef*. [þeef] om. Cx.] þat steleþ most. Were Alisaundre i-take allone he schulde be*. [cleped, added in α. and β.; clepud, γ.] a þeef i-cleped;*. [i-cleped] om. α., β., and Cx.] and [yf]*. [Cx.] þe peple were redy to Dionides his heste,*. [commaundemente, Cx.] þan Dionydes were an emperour. Þe lawes þat I flee*. [Ich fleo, γ.] þou nempnest*. [thou impugnest, β. and Cx.; ynpugnest, γ.] and wiþ-seist hem. Lite fortune and*. [and] om. Cx.] povert and scarste of riches*. [scarsite of ryches, Cx.] makeþ me a þeef; greet pride*. [pruyde, γ.] and covetise þat may nouȝt be fulfilled*. [fulfuld, γ.] makeþ [the]*. [Cx. and γ.; þee, β.] a þeef. On caas ȝif myn*. [my, Cx.] fortune and richesse*. [ryches, Cx.] were*. [were] om. γ.] wiþ drawe, I schulde be bettre þan I am now; and þouȝ*. [thou, Cx.] þe more fortune and richesse*. [ryches, Cx.] þat þow hast, þe worse þou schalt be." Alisaundre wondrede of his stedfastnes,*. [studfastnes, γ.; stydfastnesse, Cx.]Page  425, vol.3 and saide, "I schal assaie*. [essay, Cx.] ȝif þou wilt be [the]*. [β., γ., and Cx.] bettre ȝif [thy]*. [Cx.] fortune is i-chaunged,*. [be chaunged, Cx.] soo þat after þis þou schalt wite it þyn owne maneres, and noȝt fortune, what þu trespassest and dost amys.*. [doost amysse, Cx.]" Iustinus, libro 6o. Whanne Siria was overcome, Alisaundre and Darius come eft to gidres in bataille forto fiȝte, Darius sente lettres to Alisaundre in þis manere: "Darius, kyng of kynges and cosyn to*. [of, α. and Cx.] goddes, sendeþ to his servaunt Alisaundre. I*. [Ych, β.; Y, γ., et infra.] hote and comaunde þe þat þou torne aȝen*. [chargyng and commandyng the that thou retorne, Cx.] to myn servauntes þyn fornfadres*. [forfadris, β.; forfaders, γ. and Cx.]; þat ȝet liest*. [liste, β.; ȝut lyst in þe, γ.] in þyn moder lappe, I*. [ich, β.] hote þat þou lerne*. [leurne, γ.] manis office; and forto come þerto*. [and til thou come therto, Cx.] I sende to þe a scourge,*. [skourge, γ.] a bal,*. [ball, Cx.] and a purs*. [pors, β. and γ.] wiþ gold. Þe scourge meoneþ*. [meneþ, β.; bitokeneth, Cx.] þe to take hede to þy lore, þe bal acordeþ to þe pleyeng*. [plaiyng, β.] of þyn age, and þe money may releve þe in þyn*. [þe, γ.; thy, Cx.] wey. And but þou be entendaunt*. [obeyssaunt, Cx.] and buxum*. [and buxum] om. Cx.; buxom, γ.] to myn*. [my, Cx.] com|maundements and hestes, and doo as I*. [ich, β.] commaunde þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] and hote,*. [charge, Cx.] I schal sende men þat schal scourge þe and bynde [the],*. [Cx.] and bringe*. [bryngge, γ.] þe i-bounde to fore myn*. [bifore my, Cx.] lord|schipe Page  427, vol.3 and mageste." Þese*. [Þeos, γ., et infra.] sawes*. [saynges, Cx.] made þe lordes þat were wiþ Alisaundre sore abasshed and aferde. Þan Ali|saundre answered hem and seide, "Why be ȝe abasshed of þese wordes, þat haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] more of brag and [of]*. [Cx.] boost þan of trust and of truþe? hit is þe manere of þe feblest houndes for*. [for] om. Cx.] to berke most, and evere þe lasse myȝt þey haveþ þey*. [hy habbeþ hy, γ.] berkeþ þe fastere." Þanne Alisaundre wroot to Darius in þis manere: "Alisaundre, kyng of kynges and lorde of lordes, and cosyn of goddes, sendeþ gretynge to Darius. Þou hast sent*. [send, γ.] me a scourge, a bal, and a purs wiþ gold;*. [ball and money of gold, γ. and Cx.] þerby I knowleche*. [y knowe, γ.] þat þou hast covenableliche*. [couenablye, Cx.] i-graunted me al þing: for it behoveþ þat I*. [ych, γ.] use a scourge among myn sugettes*. [my subgettis, Cx.]; þe bal for þe roundenesse þerof tokeneþ*. [the roundenesse of the balle signe|fieth, Cx.] þat I schal be lord and emperour of al þe worlde wyde; þe money of*. [money of] om. Cx.] gold þat þou hast sent [me]*. [Cx.] by-hoteþ me lord|schipe of [al]*. [From α. and Cx.] þy richesse and tresour.*. [tresorye, α. and γ.; tresour, Cx.] Þe greet boost þat þou makest of richesse makeþ us [to]*. [Cx.] have þe gretter wille to werre aȝenst þe." Trogus, libro 11o. At þe laste Page  429, vol.3 Darius was overcome, and fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] in to Babilonia, and prayede Alisaundre by lettres þat he moste ransome*. [most raunson, β.; a moste raun|sene, γ.; myght raunson, Cx.] his men þat were i-take prisoners: but Alisaundre chalangeþ*. [chalenged, Cx.] not onliche money [but]*. [From α. and Cx.; bote, γ.] al the hole kyngdom. Efte Darius profreþ*. [proferd, Cx.] Alisaundre his*. [hise, β.] doȝter, wiþ a greet deel*. [and a grete parte, Cx.] of his kyngdom [with her].*. [Cx.] But Alisaundre hoteþ*. [β. adds hym after hoteþ.] delyvere hym*. [charged him to deliuer to hym, Cx.] his owne; and comaundeþ*. [commanded, Cx.] Darius to come mekeliche and fonge*. [receyue, Cx.] as þe victor will*. [wole, β.; wolde, γ.] ordeyne. Þan Darius hadde no hope of pees,*. [pes, γ.; peas, Cx.] and come aȝenst Alisaundre wiþ þre hondred þowsand foot men and an hondred þowsand horsmen; noþeles it was i-tolde [hym]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] by þe weie þat his wif was deed of*. [in, β., γ., and Cx.] travaille of childe in Alisaundre his warde, and þat Alisaundre hadde i-buried here wiþ grete worschepe. Noþeles Alisaundre dede it nouȝt for love, but for manhede of hym self. Þerfore Darius writeþ*. [wrote, Cx.] to hym þe þridde tyme [for]*. [for] added from α., not in Cx. or β.] þonkynge hym þat he*. [α, γ., ut sæpe.] was corteys to alle his, and dede hym none ene|myte.*. [no despyte ne enuye, Cx.] Þanne he*. [For thanne he, Cx. has and.] profreþ hym þe more deel*. [parte, Cx.] of his Page  431, vol.3 kyngdom anon to the ryver Eufrates wiþ his douȝter, and*. [with xxx. M. talentes, Cx.] profreþ hym þritty þowsand talentis for þe oþer deel of his men þat were i-take prisoners. Alisaundre answerde and seide:*. [and seide] om. Cx.] "Þonkinge of enemyes is but vanite; hit nedeth*. [neodeþ, γ.] nouȝt," quoþ*. [said, Cx.] he, "to*. [to] om. Cx.] flatere*. [flaterie, β.; flatry, γ.] among reses of werre." Þanne he hoteth hym to arraie his scheltrum*. [scheltroun, β.; scholtrum, γ.] oþer aȝilde*. [he promysed hym araye his sheltron owther yelde, Cx.] hym and his, nameliche while þat lond may nouȝt suffise*. [suffre, Cx.] tweie*. [to twey, γ.] kynges þat beeþ i-liche greet. Vincentius.*. [Vincentius] om. Cx.] Þanne Alisaundre wente priveliche in to Darius his tentes, and mette happeliche*. [happiliche, β.; happelych, γ.] wiþ Darius, and seide: "I am Alisaundre his messanger,*. [messager, Cx.] and I telle ȝow þese tidinges:*. [tyþinges, α.] I holde hym no kyng þat hiȝeþ*. [hyeth, β. and Cx.] [hym]*. [Cx.] slowliche to þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] ba|taille." "Where*. [whether thou be, β. and Cx.; wher þou, γ.] ȝe*. [þ u, α.] be Alisaundre," quod*. [said, Cx.] Darius, "þat spekeþ*. [spekist, β.; spekest, Cx.] so boldeliche to me."*. [to me] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] "Nay," quod*. [said, Cx.] Alisaundre, "but I am his messanger."*. [messager, Cx.] Þan Darius brouȝt hym into soper, þere*. [where, Cx.] Alisaundre of every vessel þat þat*. [β has not that twice over, nor γ., nor Cx.] was profred Page  433, vol.3 hym to drinke*. [dryngke, γ.] he drank*. [drang, γ.] of þe wyn, and putte þe vessel in his bosom. Whan Darius was warned þerof by his servauntes he was wrooþ, and reproved*. [repreouede, γ.] Alisaundre as a þeef. "Þis manere," quod*. [said, Cx.] Alisaundre, "is i-used in Alisaundre his court, and þerfore I wende*. [ich wente, γ.] þat þe manere were i-used*. [it be soo used, Cx.] here;" and so þe kyng was apaied and [the]*. [Cx.] noyse i-sesed; but oon þat was at the feste þat*. [þat] om. α., β., and Cx.] knewe Alisaundre, and þerof Alisaundre was sone war,*. [waar, γ.] and fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] anon, and slowȝ a childe of Pers þat hilde his hors at þe ȝate, and passed þe ryver and come to his men. Darius foloweþ*. [folowed, Cx.] Alisaundre, but Alisaundre hoteþ*. [charged, Cx.] þat non of his men schulde passe þe ryver, and hoteþ*. [hoteþ] om. Cx.] þat his men schulde ȝeve wey, and lete þe Perses passe. Trogus, libro 11o. Þere was strong fiȝtynge, and at þe laste Darius gan to flee, and Alisaundre his knyȝtes pursueþ*. [porseweþ, γ.] and takeþ*. [pursued and toke, Cx.] grete prayes ful þritty dayes. Þanne þat riche citee Persipolis, þat was þe chief*. [chef, β.] citee of Pers, was i-take; but Darius fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] wiþ many Page  435, vol.3 sore woundes, and his owne cosyns putte hym in boundes of gold, but at þe laste Darius deide,*. [deyede, β.] and Alisaundre buriede hym wiþ grete solempnite and worschip. Trogus, libro 12o. Þe mene*. [meane, Cx.] tyme messangers*. [messagers, Cx.] wiþ lettres comeþ*. [came, Cx.] out of Macedonia, and telleþ*. [tolde, Cx.] þat Antipater, þe wardayn and kepere of þe contray, hadde overcome Eacides, king of Spartania, þat is Lacedemonia, and also Alisaundre kyng of Epires,*. [Epirus, γ.] þat is Tracia; bot Antipater also was foule i-bore doun.*. [fowle born downe, Cx.] Also Zephiron, Alisaundre his styward,*. [stuard, Cx.] wiþ þritty þowsand fauȝt aȝenst þe Schites,*. [Shytes, Cx.] and was al overcome and*. [overcome and] om. α. and γ.] destroyed.*. [and were al destroyed, Cx.; destruyd, γ.] Whan Alisaundre had i-herd þese tidynges, he made þre dayes greet mone and sorwe.*. [moone and sorowe, Cx. and γ.] Þan his knyȝtes trowede þat he wolde torne aȝen into*. [turne aȝeyn to, γ.; retorne to, Cx.] his owne contray, but*. [Netheles, Cx.] Alisaundre comforteþ*. [comforted, Cx.] his knyȝtes*. [his knyȝtes] om. γ.] to travaille and to*. [to] om. Cx.] wynne þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] straunge*. [strange, β.] landes of þe Est,*. [Eest, Cx.] and seiþ*. [sayd, Cx.] þat he souȝt nouȝt Darius his body, but his kyngdom and his londe. Sone after[ward]*. [From α.; after, Cx.] he wan þe Mardes and þe Hircanes. Also Page  437, vol.3 þere Thalestres,*. [Talestris, β. and Cx.] þe quene of þe*. [þe] om. γ. and Cx.] Amazones, wiþ þre hondred wommen*. [wymmen, γ.] mette wiþ Alisaundre, and come fyve and þritty iorneys among wel*. [right, Cx.] cruel men forto have children*. [childer, Cx.] by kyng Alisaundre: þe siȝt and þe comynge of hir was wonderful*. [wonderfol, γ., et infra.] to alle manere of*. [of] om. α., β., and Cx.] men, and specialliche for þe message þat sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] brouȝt was wonderful and nouȝt i-used. Þanne sche*. [heo, β.] leved þere thrittene dayes in flescheliche likyng, and hadde her wombeful,*. [and . . . . wombeful] om. Cx.] and went hir wey. [℞.]*. [Cx.] Noþeles Ali|saundre [his story telleþ þat Alisaundre]*. [From α.] axede tribut of þe queene of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Amaȝones, and sche wroot to hym in this manere: "Of þy witte is wonder*. [Of þy wytt is wyt hath wondur, γ.] þat þou woldest fiȝt wiþ wommen; for ȝif it happeþ þat fortune favere*. [fauour, Cx.] us, and þou be overcome, þan þou hast schame and schendschipe*. [schendes, α.; schenship, β.; schendnes, γ.] for evermore,*. [art shamed for euermore, Cx.] whan þou art overcome of wommen;*. [whan . . . wommen] om. Cx.] and ȝif þou overcomest*. [ouercome, Cx.] us, þou getest but litel worschepe of victorie of wommen." Trogus, libro 12.