Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum vicesimum.

OFFYS*. [offyce, β.; office, Cx.] and dignite beeþ*. [buþ, γ. ut semper.] i-chaunged among þe Romayns, for instede*. [instude, γ. et infra.] of tweie consuls beeþ i-made tribunes of chivalrie*. [cheualrye, Cx.] wiþ þe power of consuls, þo gan þe prophetes*. [profyȝt, α.; profit, β.; profyt, γ.; prouffyte, Cx.] of Rome to encrese*. [tencreace, Cx.]; but þis dignite durede*. [duyrede, γ.] nouȝt longe. [℞.]*. [From α.] Aboute þis tyme Dyogenes, þe philosofre, was in his floures.*. [prospered, Cx.] Jo|hannes,*. [Iosephus, Cx.] in Polichronicon suo, libro 7o, seiþ þat Diogenes was Anaximenes his disciple.*. [Here γ. adds—bote Austyn de civitate, lib. 8o, seiþ þat a was Anaxa|goras hys disciple.] Ieronimus, in*. [in] om. Cx.] libro suo contra Iovinianum seiþ þat he was Antistenes his disciple,*. [his disciple] om. Cx.] þat was Socrates his disciple, and þat I*. [y, β.] trowe soþeliche, ffor Seneca and Valerius telleþ*. [telliþ, β.; seyne, Cx.] þat Diogenes was in þe grete Alisaundre Page  309, vol.3 his tyme, þat regnede longe after Anaxagoras; but ȝif*. [ȝif] om. γ.] þere were meny*. [many, Cx.] Dyogenes in dyvers tymes, as þere were meny*. [many, Cx.] Socrates Ieronimus contra Iovinianum. Dyogenes usede a double mantel for colde, and hadde a scrippe instede of his celerer,*. [celer, Cx.] and a staf for to lyne*. [leny, β.; lenye, α. and γ.] too,*. [lene to, Cx.] and wonede*. [dwellyd, Cx.] in þe*. [þe] om. β. and Cx.] ȝates and out goynge of ȝates and knowleched sooþ in every*. [eueryche, β.; yche, Cx.] side, and took heed of þe lyf of men þat passede by [þe]*. [From α. and Cx.] wey, for meny*. [many, Cx.] maneres of men stank as hym semede. Whan he punsched*. [punysshed, Cx.] hym self in a toun,*. [tonne, Cx. et infra.] ȝit*. [ȝet, α.; yet, Cx.] he hadde game þat his hous meoved. He torned þe mouth of his toun toward þe souþ in colde tyme and toward þe norþ in somer tyme, where evere þe sonne were Dyogenes his hous tornede þiderward.*. [þuderward, γ.]Valerius, libro 4o, capitulo 3o. Alisaundre Macedo come to hym sittinge so in*. [so in] on, γ.] his tonne,*. [trone, β.] and bad hym axe somwhat of hym. "I*. [Ich, γ.] wolde," quod he*. [he] om. β.; sayd this, Cx.] Dyogenes, "þat þou woldest*. [wost, γ.] not lette me*. [me] om. γ. and Cx.] my sonne." Þere*. [thereof, γ. and Cx.] come þat by-sawe þat he*. [he] om. α.; β., γ., and Cx. have that Alysaunder.] myȝte Page  311, vol.3 liȝtloker*. [lyȝtlokur potte, γ.; lyghtlyer, Cx.] putte Darius out of his trone and out of his kyng|dom þan Dyogenes out of þe state of vertue.*. [staat of vertu, γ.] [℞.]*. [Cx.] Seneca, libro 5o, de Beneficiis, seiþ þat Dyogenes was myȝtiere and richere*. [myȝtyur and rychcher, γ.] þan Alisaundre. For þere was more þat he wolde fonge*. [fange, β.] not*. [nouȝt fonge, α.; not receyue, Cx.] þanne Alisaundre [myȝte ȝeve and þo*. [þanne, β.; thenne, Cx.] Alisaun|dre]*. [From α.] was overcome, for he fonde a man to whom he myȝte noȝt ȝeve, and he myȝte byneme*. [bynyme, β. and γ.] hym riȝt nouȝt.*. [take from Dyogenes right nought, Cx.]Seneca, Epistola 94a et Ieronimus 9o.*. [Ieronimus contra . . . . Here is an omission of the next word in β. and Cx.] Dyogenes bare in his scrippe a dische of tree*. [treo, β.] forto drynke*. [dryngke, γ.] of, and sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] a childe drynke of þe pame*. [pawme, β.; paume, γ.; pawne, Cx. et infra.] of his hond and brak*. [braake, Cx.] his dische anon, and seide "How longe schal a fool bere lere fardelles?*. [bere superflue fardels . . . Cx.] I woste*. [wyste, Cx.] nouȝt raþer þat kynde hadde craft of drynkynge;" and he alway after drank*. [drang, γ.] water of þe pame of his hond. He bated Page  313, vol.3 nevere*. [nevere abated, α.; neuer abated, β. and Cx.] contenaunce, noþer reddere of his þouȝt*. [reddre of his þouȝt, β.; noþer redyur of his, γ.; neyther his thought, Cx.]; what [euer]*. [Cx.] myshappes hym evere*. [evere] om. Cx.] byfel*. [byful, γ.] he chaunged nevere his*. [his] om. Cx.] sem|blant;*. [semlaunt, γ.] he rouȝt nouȝt of disese,*. [he thought neuer of disease, Cx.] noþer of fortune; he chaunged nevere his purpos for sorwe noþer for meschief; but he seide*. [and sayde, Cx.] it falleþ nouȝt to a philosofre to chaunge his witte for hap and*. [of, Cx.] fortune. His deeth schewed*. [shewide, β.] þat he*. [α, γ. passim.] was*. [After was, γ. adds ryȝtfol.] ver|tuous and contynent; ffor whanne he was olde, he wente to þe tornement of Olympe, he was i-take wiþ a fevere in þe weie, and lay in a den by þe weie, and his frendes wolde have i-caried hym [thens]*. [Cx.] on a beest oþer on a chare, but he wolde nouȝt assente; but wente to the schadewe*. [shadow, Cx.] of a tree, and seide, "I*. [Y, β. passim; y, γ.] pray ȝou gooþ forþ and seeþ,*. [go ye hens and cesse, Cx.] for þis nyȝt I schal assaye*. [essaye, Cx.] wheþer I schal overcome oþer be overcome [ȝif*. [ȝef ich, γ.] y*. [ich, β.] overcome]*. [From α. and Cx.] of*. [of] om α., β., and Cx.] þe fovere I schal come to þe tornement, and ȝif þe fevere overcome me I schal goo doun into helle," and leide adoun*. [leyde downe, Cx.] his heed and nekke, and was þere al nyȝt in*. [and, α.; and schewede, β.; and schowede noȝt onlych, γ.; and shewed, Cx.] schadowe, nouȝt onliche þat he wolde deie, but also þat he wolde putte*. [potte, γ.] of þe fevere*. [ouer the Feure, Cx.] by deeþ, and oon*. [in, β. and Cx.; on, γ.] caas was bigiled by ensaumple and opinion and*. [of, α., β., and Cx.] noble men þat wolde gladliche deie and helpe to here owne deth. I trowe þat he Page  315, vol.3 cleped helle þe state of þe soule after þe deth*. [α. wrongly inserts of þe deþ.] of þe body. Valerius, libro 4o, capitulo 3o. Diogenes wisshe*. [wische, β.; wysch, γ.] wortes in a tyme,*. [weded wortes upon a tyme, Cx.] and oon Aristippus seide to hym, "ȝif þou woldest flatere*. [woldest flatrye, β. and γ.; use flatery, Cx.] wiþ Denys þe kyng, þou schuldest nouȝt wasche þese*. [þeos, γ. et infra.] wortes;"*. [thou ne shulde nede to wede wortes, Cx.] and he answerde*. [answherede, γ.] and seide,*. [and seide] om. Cx.] "ȝif*. [ȝif] þey, γ.] þu woldest [ete of þese wortes, þou woldest]*. [From α.] nouȝt flatere*. [flatrie, β.] wiþ Denys, þou schuldest gete but litel good."*. [þou . . . good] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] Also Dyogenes desputede*. [dispuytede, γ.] in*. [on, Cx.] a tyme of wreþþe,*. [wrath, Cx.] and oon spat in his face, and he seide, "I am nouȝt wrooþ; but I douȝte wheþer I schulde be wroþ or*. [eþer, β.] no." Seneca, de Ira, libro 3o. Diogenes pleted*. [pledide, β.] oones in a*. [α] om. Cx.] cause, and oon Lentulus spat*. [spetted, Cx.] and þrewe fast spotel*. [fat spotel, β. and γ.; ropy spotel, Cx.] in his face, and he wiped his face, and seide, "I schal seie*. [sigge, γ.] after þis þat þey alle beeþ begiled þat seiþ*. [siggiþ, β.; hy alle buþ bygyled þat siggeþ þat þou, γ.] þou hast no mouth." Polichronicon, libro octavo. Oon byhelde*. [byhuld, α. and γ.; behilde, Cx.] Dyogenes and seide, "Þou hast an horlyng*. [hoorlynges, α.; Cx. has right wanton gygly eyen.] his eiȝen." Þerfore*. [wherfor, Cx.] his disciples wolde anon*. [anon] om. Cx.] have i-falle on the man*. [beten the man, Cx.] as*. [β. and γ. insert for after as.] a liere. "Leteþ be, felawes," Page  317, vol.3 quod*. [sayde, Cx.] Dyogenes, "for I*. [ich, γ. bis.] am suche oon by kynde, but I*. [ich, γ. bis.] refreyne*. [refreigne, Cx.] me by vertue." [℞.]*. [Cx.] Iuvenal, libro 4o, Satira prima, writeþ þat Diogenes wolde wepe*. [weope, γ.] whanne he wente out openliche*. [oponlych, γ.] among men, ffor he helde þat he say*. [demede þat al þat he siȝ, γ.; demed al that he sawe, Cx.] [was wretchednesse and woo; but Democritus dide the contrary, and lough when he wente openly oute amonge men, for he helde*. [huld, γ.] al that he sawe]*. [β. and Cx.] nysete and folye.*. [nycety and foly, γ.; nyesty and fooly, Cx.]In libro de dictis phi|losophorum. Oon þat was foulest of all men schewede his hous to Dyogenes; þe hous was wonderliche [real and]*. [From α. and β.] faire arrayed,*. [wonderly plesaunt and welbe|sene, Cx.] and [this]*. [Cx.] Dyogenes spatte in þe manis face, and men axede of hym why he dede so, [and]*. [Cx.] he answerede and seide, "For I sigh*. [y syȝ, γ.] non oþer so foule þing in his hous as his owne face."*. [for I saw noo soo foule place in his hows, as his face, Cx.; as ys hys aune face, γ.] Also me axede him*. [it was axed hym, Cx.] somtyme*. [somtyme] om. Cx.] why he usede a berde; "A womman," quod he, "with a berde semeþ a foule þing."*. [sayd he, berded is unsemely syght, Cx.] Also*. [also] om. Cx.] oon tolde hym*. [one sayde to hym, Cx.] þat oon of his frendes hadde i-spoke evel by hym. "I douȝte,"*. [doute, β.] quod*. [quaþ, γ. semper.]Page  319, vol.3 he, "ȝif my frende haþ i-seide*. [yseyd, γ. et infra.] suche wordes by me; but it is openliche i-knowe þat þou hast þat þing i-seide."*. [openly knowen that thou hast that thynge sayde, Cx.]Trevisa. Hit is wonder þat Diogenes *. [α. adds þat before used.]used so lewed sophestrie,*. [lewide sofistrie, β.; sophistry, Cx.] for here he makeþ no difference bytwene þe lyere and hym þat accuseþ þe lyere and warneþ*. [warned, Cx.] men of his lesynges, and reherseþ þe lesynges;*. [and . . . lesynges] om. Cx.] it is nouȝt oon to speke evel by a man and warne hym þat me spekeþ evel by hym and reherse what me seiþ.*. [that a man speke euil of hym, and reherce what euyl was sayd, Cx.] Seint Iohn, in his gospel, seiþ*. [sayde, Cx.] nouȝt þat þe devel was in*. [on, α., β., and γ.] Crist; but Seint Iohn seiþ*. [Seint Iohn seiþ] om. Cx.] þat þe Iewes seide þat þe devel was in*. [on, α., β., and γ.] Crist: and Crist hymself despisede*. [dispiside, β.] not God; but he reherseþ hou me bere hym on honde þat he despisede God: þat*. [þan, α. and Cx., correctly; þanne, β.] it followeþ in the storie.*. [thystory, Cx.] Also oon seide hym þat alle men despisede*. [dispisiden, β.] hym, and he seide, "Witte and wisdom mote*. [mot, β. and γ.; muste, Cx.] be despisede of folie. Whanne evel spekers*. [spekars, γ.] blameþ [and missaye a man]*. [Cx.] þey*. [hy, γ.; it, Cx.] scheweþ þat he is a*. [he is right good that is of hem myssayde, Cx.] victor, and wel good man." Tullius, libro primo de Tusculanis orationibus.*. [de Tusculis questione, Cx.] Diogenes, whanne he schulde deie, heet þat he schulde nouȝt be buried, but i-þrowe and lete ligge in a feeld oþer uppon an hille.*. [veld oþer aþon an hul, γ.] Þanne his frendes seide þat he schulde be i-ete*. [eeten, β,; yȝete, γ.] wiþ bestes and foules. "Nay," quod he, "but leieth*. [lay, β.; leggeþ, γ.] a staf by me þat I mowe*. [may, β. and Cx.] þere wiþ kepe hem*. [ham, γ.] away." "Wherto," quod*. [sayd, Cx.] his frendes, Page  321, vol.3 "þanne*. [for, Cx.] þou schalt not fele." "Þan," quod*. [sayd, Cx.] he, "þe etynge of þe bestes schal not greve me whan I schal not feele."