Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum octavum decimum.

ARTARXERSES, þe sone of Darius and of Parasitides, hadde a surname Mennon,*. [Menuon, Cx.] and þe Hebrewes cleped*. [clepiden, β.] hym Assuerus. He was þe elevenþe kyng of Pers, and regned fourty ȝere from Ynde*. [Inde, Cx.] to Ethiopia, over an hondred provinces and seven and twenty. His trone was in þe citee Susus*. [Susis, Cx., β., and γ., et infra.]: þe citee þat here hatte Susus is i-cleped*. [yclepud, γ.] Egbathanis*. [was called Egbatanis, Cx.] in þe book of Iudith, and was þe cheef*. [chyef, Cx.] citee of þe Elemytes. Iosephus seiþ þat Daniel made þere a wonder buriel of*. [for, α., β., γ., and Cx.] kynges, so wonderful þat it semeþ i-made*. [semede made, Cx.] þe same day þat it is i-seie.*. [that is to say, Cx., which makes no sense.] Þe kynges of Medea, of Pers,*. [Perses, Cx.] and of Parthia were woned*. [Perchea were wonte, Cx.] to be buried in þat buriel. Þis*. [þes, γ.] Artarxerses, þat heet*. [otherwyse callyd, Cx.] Assuerus Page  273, vol.3 also, in þe þridde ȝere of his kyngdom, made greet revel and feste to his princes, þat durede an hondred dayes þre score and ten and*. [in, α., β., and Cx.; yn, γ.] þat wonderful paleys*. [palais, Cx.; palys, γ., et infra.] þat me redeþ of in þe storie*. [thistory, Cx.] of Alisaundre; þe pilers of þat paleys*. [pyllers of that palays, Cx.] were of silver,*. [seluer, γ., et infra.] þe helynge liche*. [keueryng like, Cx.] to þe firmament i-chaumbred and having precious stoones of dyvers colours to the liknesse of þe*. [þe] om. γ.] sterres. Afterward*. [after, Cx.] he lay wiþ his peple seven dayes*. [dawes, γ.] in þe orche|ȝerd*. [orchard, β., γ., and Cx.] of likynge; þere was a vyneȝerd, with vynes of silver,*. [seluer, Cx.] wiþ braunches of golde, and cloistres*. [clustres, Cx.; clostres, γ.] of precious stoones,*. [yn stude of grapes, added in γ.] þe pavylouns*. [pauilons, Cx.] were i-peȝt*. [ypiȝte, β.] uppon pilers of silver, of marbel,*. [marbre, γ.] and of yvory,*. [evory, α. and γ.; ivory, Cx.] wiþ roopes of white silk and of reed. Þere Fasty*. [Vasty, Cx. and γ.; Vasti, β.] þe queene was rebel, and wolde nouȝt come to the kyng, þerfore Hester was i-chose queene in her stede. Democritus þe philosofre deide þat tyme. Agellus spekeþ of hym and seiþ þat he putte out his owne eyȝen,*. [eyen, Cx.; yȝene, γ.] and þat for þre skiles*. [skylles, Cx.]: the firste, for his siȝt lette hym of his holy þouȝtes; þe secounde, for he myȝte nouȝt see*. [yse, γ.] wommen Page  275, vol.3 wiþ oute greet temptaciouns*. [temptacioun, α.; temptacion, Cx. and γ.]; þe þridde, for he sawe*. [syȝ, γ.] schrewes*. [shrewes oft mysdo and deden euyl . . . . ., Cx.] ofte mysbere hem and dede*. [diden, β.; do, γ.] evel dedes, and þat he myȝt*. [myȝte he, α.; myghte, Cx.] nouȝt suffre, but it greved hym sore. Tullius, epistola 995.*. [95, Cx. and β.] Democritus was woned to seie*. [wonte to say, Cx.; wond to segge, γ.] þat þe hestes of schrewes and þe noyse*. [noyes, Cx.] of þe wombe beeþ*. [ben, Cx.; buþ, γ.] in oon place. "What have I*. [ich, γ.] to doo þerwiþ," quod*. [sayd, Cx.; quaþ, γ.] he, "wheþer þis noyse sowne upward oþer dounward." Polichronicon, libro 7o. Socrates þe philosofre, four score ȝere olde and nyntene, deyde, and*. [deyde and] om. Cx.] drank venym wiþ stedfast*. [dranke poyson with stydfast, Cx.; stedfast, β.] semblaunt.*. [Cx. inserts and dyed at the end of the sentence, not in the middle.] ℞. Leste errour byfalle in þe name of Socrates, take hede þat*. [for, Cx.] þere were þre Socrates: oon was auctor of doynge and of dedes. Cassiodorus, in þe storie þat hatte Tripartita,*. [thistory callyd tripertita, Cx.] preyseþ wel þis Socrates. Silencus*. [Selencus, Cx.; Seleucus, β. and γ.] Theodoricus, and Socrates made þat storie. Anoþer Socrates was of Grees,*. [Grece, Cx.] a greet philosofer and lawiere.*. [lawer, α. and Cx.; laweȝer, γ.] Of hym, libro primo Satur|nalium, is rehersed þat noble sawe, whanne he was prayed of his felawes to putte forþ somwhat of his noble spekynge, he seide, "As þis place axeþ, I spare no speche; and þe speche þat I spare is nouȝt covenable for þis place, noþer for þis tyme." Soche*. [Suche, Cx.; Siche, β.] a tale is i-tolde of Ysocras*. [Ipocras, Cx. and γ.] þe philosofre. The þridde Socrates was Plato his maister,*. [maystrer, Cx.] of hym is oure Page  277, vol.3 speche as*. [at, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þis tyme. Polichronicon, libro 4o, capitulo 6o. Socrates was i-demed*. [reputed, Cx.] þe wisest by answere of Appolyn, and wiþ oute eny wiþ-seyenge*. [wiþsigginge, β.; wiþsiggyng, γ.] he passede þe sevene wise men þat were i-holde wise men among þe Grees,*. [Grekes, Cx.] and was acounted to fore*. [acompted before, Cx.] hem wiþ oute*. [oute] om. γ.] comparisoun, nouȝt onliche in wit and kunnynge, but also in manere of good levynge, þerfore Tullius, libro primo de Tusculanis quæstionibus,*. [Tuscul qō, Cx.] seiþ þat Socrates was prince of philosofie, and [that he]*. [From Cx.] cleped philosofie from hevene into*. [unto, Cx.; into eorþe, γ.] erþe, and stowed*. [stowide, β.] philosofie in citees.*. [stuffed cytees with philosophie, Cx.]Augustinus de Civitate, libro 8o, capitulo 14o. A spirit*. [spyryte, Cx.] folowede Socrates, and tauȝte hym þinges. Apulius, libro suo primo de*. [di, Cx.] deo Socrates,*. [Socratis, α., β., and γ.] reherseþ*. [Cx. inverts these two verbs.] and seiþ*. [Cx. inverts these two verbs.] þat þis spirit usede to warne Socrates to leve of his doynge whanne þe doynge schulde have non good ende. ℞. Þerfore Calcidius super librum Thimei seiþ*. [seiþ] om. Cx.]: [me seiþ]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] þat a spirit folowede and tauȝte Socrates from his firste childhood, nouȝt to com|pelle Page  279, vol.3 [him]*. [From Cx. and β.] to doo ouȝt, but to forbede*. [forbeode, γ.] hym to doo what was nouȝt speedful,*. [doo thynge not spedeful, Cx.] and as in metynges*. [a dremes, Cx.] and swevenes*. [and swevenes] om. Cx.] it*. [hyt, γ.] semeþ a man þat [he]*. [From Cx.] hereþ*. [huyreþ, γ.] many þinges nouȝt by verray voys, but by som tokene þat foloweþ þe office*. [folowed thoffyce, Cx.] of manis vois,*. [foys, γ.] so Socrates his þouȝt while he was wakynge was conforted*. [comforted, Cx.] and i-tauȝt by warnynge of cleer*. [clere, Cx.] token of þe spirit. Tullius de divinatione, libro primo. We haveþ*. [habbeþ yleurned, γ.] i-lerned*. [haue lerned, Cx.] of Socrates, þat was alway tendaunt to a spirit þat was i-cleped*. [yclepud, γ.] demon; but he put*. [neuer moeued hym . . ., Cx.] on hym*. [a pot not on him, γ.] nevere to do dedes, but wiþdrowe hym ofte from doynge of dedes, and*. [and . . . schulde] not in Cx., an error of the scribe.] þerfore whanne he schulde, and þerfore whanne he schulde be dampned to deeþ, he ches forto die*. [chees to dye . . ., Cx.] in most riȝtful manere. But þo hadde he no token i-ȝeve hym of his God. Valerius, libro primo, capi|tulo 7o. Socrates in his olde age usede harpynge and glee*. [armonye, Cx.; gle, γ.] of strenges, and seide þat it was bettre to lerne*. [use, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat crafte late þan lerne*. [leurne, γ., et infra.] it nevere; and*. [Cx. omits and and reads he.] wolde [also]*. [From Cx.] take hede to þe craft*. [arte, β., γ., and Cx.] of musik, þat art þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] is ful medeful*. [meedful, α.; nedeful, β., fol neodfol, γ. Cx. reads: That art is right nedeful, sayde he. And so he. . .]; so he helde*. [shield, Cx.] hym self evere pore*. [poure, Cx.] to lerne and riche to teche, and þeigh he were*. [though he was, Cx.] wise and witty evere he seide þat he couþe*. [coude, Cx.]Page  281, vol.3 no good. Þerof come þe comoun*. [comune, Cx.; comyn, β. and γ.] sawe of Socrates, "I can nouȝt but þat I can nouȝt," as Ieromus*. [Jeronimus, Cx. and γ.] rehereseþ, epistola 39a.*. [35a, α. and Cx.]Valerius, libro 8o. Socrates schamed nouȝt to take a reed*. [a rehed, Cx. and β.; a reod, γ.] bytwene his þyes and pleie wiþ his smale children. Polichronicon, libro 8. Hit is homeliche [and necessary]*. [From Cx.] oþerwhile to a wise man*. [a wyseman otherwhile to pley, not to . . ., Cx.] for to pleie, nouȝt forto putte awey þe use of vertues,*. [vertuwes, γ.] but to refresche hym self and to make hym*. [þe inserted in γ.] more strong to dedes of vertues.*. [to doo vertues of vertues, Cx.] Also Socrates was profitable*. [parfyt, γ.] in the*. [the] om. Cx.] vertues þat makeþ men i-liche to God,*. [lyke god, Cx.] for he was a man of good temperure,*. [temprure, Cx. and β.; temprer, γ.] as Agellius*. [agell, Cx.] seiþ, libro 2o, þat wel nyh*. [neiȝ, β.] alle his lyf*. [lyues, Cx.] tyme he lyvede in hele,*. [helth, Cx.] wiþ oute siknesse, and also in þat moreyn*. [moreyne, Cx.] tyme þat destroyed*. [destruyde, γ.] þe citee Athene; þerfore Valerius, libro 2o, seiþ þat Socrates seide þat meny men wil leve*. [wolde lyue, Cx.; wol lybbe, γ.] forto ete and drynke,*. [dryngke, γ., et infra.] and þat þey*. [he, Cx.] wolde ete and drynke and*. [and þat] om. Cx.] [þat]*. [In α. and γ.] forto lyve. Also Page  283, vol.3 he was of greet suffraunce*. [suffrens, γ.]; þerfore Seneca, libro 3o de ira, seiþ þat Socrates walkede in þe citee and*. [walkede . . . and] om. γ.] was evel i-smete on*. [euyl smyten upon, Cx.] þe heed, and he answerde*. [answherede, γ., et infra.] and seide nouȝt elles*. [ellys, Cx.]; but he seide, "It*. [hyt, γ.] is evel for men þat þey weteþ*. [wyteþ, α.; witeþ, β.; a weteþ, γ.; wytte, Cx.] nouȝt whan þey*. [α, γ.] schal*. [shold, Cx.; schul, β.] goo out wiþ basynettes*. [salettes. . ., Cx.; basnettis, β.; basnetes, γ.] on [her]*. [From Cx.] heed, and whan wiþ oute." Also whan a ȝong man spat*. [spytte, Cx.] on his face, while he desputede*. [a dispuytede, γ.] of werre,*. [wreþþe, α., β., and γ.; wrath, Cx.] he answerde and seide, "I am nouȝt wroþ, but I doute where*. [whether, Cx. and γ.] I schulde be wroþ or no." Also somtyme he was wrooþ wiþ a schrewed servaunt þat he hadde, and seide, "I*. [ich, β. and γ.] wolde bete*. [ete, α.; bete, Cx.] þe, and I*. [ich, β. and γ.] were nouȝt wrooþ." Also he hadde a wyf þat*. [lyght of hir body as who sayth comyne. . ., Cx.] was an hore, and children þat were rebel and horlynges,*. [horelinges, Cx.; horlingis, β.] and more liche to þe moder þan to þe fader, and [a]*. [Cx. and γ.] servaunt þat was alwey a schrewe, alway wrooþ and grucchinge;*. [grutchyng, Cx.; gruchching, γ.] noþeles Socrates suffred al way and was pacient. Þerfore Seneca, epistola 197a, seiþ þat Socrates was wel nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] alway in batayle, oþer in tyrauntise,*. [owther in tyrannyse, Cx.; ty|raundys, γ.] oþer in fredom, hardiere*. [harder, Cx. and β.] þan bataille oþer tiraundise. Þerfore Ieromus contra Iovinianum,*. [Jeronimus contra Jonium, Cx.] and Page  285, vol.3 also epistola 33, seiþ þat Socrates hadde tweie schrewed*. [shrewde, Cx.] wifes þat wolde alway chide and stryve, and hadde ofte stryf*. [Cx. and β. insert for hym here, and omit for Socrates at the end.] by twene hem for Socrates. Þe wifes hiȝte Zamphes*. [Zantippa, Cx.; Zantipes, β. and γ.] and Altipias, and in*. [on a tyme he. . ., Cx.] a tyme he*. [he] om. α.; Socrates, γ.] blamed hem for*. [bycause, Cx.] þey stryve for hym þat was but a foul*. [fowle, Cx.] þing, and seide, "ȝe stryveþ for aman wiþ snatted nose, wiþ a balled fortop, whiþ hery schuldres,*. [with heery shulders, Cx.] and wiþ croked þiȝes;"*. [thyes, Cx.] and at þe laste boþe [the]*. [Cx.] wifes torned*. [torneden, β.] aȝenst hym, and chidde*. [chidden, β.] wiþ oon assent,*. [chidden him alto scarthes by one assent, Cx.] and after greet chidynge and dispitous*. [dispytous, Cx.] wordes, þey þrewe on his heed wommen*. [theyr pisse of foure nyghtes pis|synge out of a soler. . . ., Cx.] pisse out of a chambre*. [soler, α., β., and γ.]; and he answered*. [answherede and seyde, γ.] nouȝt elles,*. [ellys, Cx.] but wyped his heved,*. [heede, Cx.; heed, γ.] and seide, "I*. [ich, β.] wiste*. [woste, α.; ich wusted, γ.; wyste, Cx.] wel þat it schulde regne*. [rayne, Cx.; ryne, γ.] of*. [after, γ.] þonderynge of wordes." Agellius,*. [Agellus, Cx.]libro 2o, et Polichronicon, libro primo.*. [5o, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Oon axede of Socrates why he chastede*. [chastide, β.] nouȝt*. [chastysed not, Cx.] his wif Page  287, vol.3 Zamphes,*. [Zantippa, Cx.; Zantipes, β. and γ.] þat was so ful of chidynge and of anger; oþer*. [or els why he pute hir not away from hyme and he sayde, Cx.] elles why he dede*. [a dude, γ.] hir nouȝt from hym out of his hous; and he seide, "I suffre suche oon at home forto*. [for] om. Cx.] have*. [habbe, γ.] use and custom,*. [customme, Cx.; costum, γ.] þat I may þe more paciently suffre wronges of oþere men." Seneca de ira, libro 3o. Token of wreþþe*. [wrath, Cx.] in Socrates was lowe speche and liȝt.*. [and fewe wordes, Cx.; litel, β.] He was trew and trusty*. [trysty, γ.] in counsaille,*. [counseylle, Cx., et infra; con|sail, γ.] as Valerius, libro 8o, seiþ þat a ȝong man axede counsaile of Socrates where*. [wheþer, α., γ., and Cx.] he schulde wedde awif oþer no. "Wheþer*. [Whether so thou do of thes tweyn seith he . . ., Cx.] ever," quod he, "þou doo of þese tweie, þou shalt forþinke*. [aþinke, α.; aþenkke, γ.] ful sore. For ȝif þou wedde*. [weddest, α.] no wif þou schalt have þese*. [this, Cx.; þeos, γ., et infra.] disadvauntages*. [desauauntages, γ.]; þou schalt be allone, þou schalt have noon children,*. [no child, Cx.] a straunge man schal be þyn heire:*. [heyr, Cx.] and yf þou weddest*. [wedde, Cx.] a wif þou schalt have grete besynesse alwey, meny manere pleyntes, plee of dowynge,*. [doyng, Cx. and γ.] despisynge, chidynge, and strif of þy wife's dame,*. [damme, γ.] and unsikernes*. [unsekernesse, Cx.] [and drede]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] of þy children*. [childers, Cx.] ende." Also Seneca,*. [And, Cx.] epistola 30a, et Polichronicon, libro 7o, oon axede of Socrates why pilgremages stood hym to no profit?*. [prouffyte, Cx.] "What wonder," quod*. [sayth, Cx.; quaþ, γ.] Socrates, "whyle þou berest þy self alway aboute wiþ þe. Þe same cause þat greveþ þe maketh þe goo from home. What profiȝteþ*. [profyteth, Cx.; profitiþ, β.] newe*. [nuwe, γ.] lond þere þe fliȝt fleeþ nouȝt [the].*. [Added from β. and Cx] Þe disese of Page  289, vol.3 þouȝt mowe*. [must, Cx.; mot, β. and γ.] be putte away, elles*. [els, Cx.] schal no place þe plese. Also, Polichronicon, libro 5o, capitulo 6o, oon axede of hym, who schulde gete hym best name*. [fame, α., β., γ., and Cx.]? "Who þat dooþ best," quod*. [sayd, Cx.; quaþ, γ.] he, "and spekeþ litel.*. [lyte, α. and γ.; lytel, Cx.] Also Polichronicon, libro 7o. Plato his scoleres hadde envie to Plato, [in Socrates his tyme,*. [scole, β. and γ.]]*. [From α.; Cx. has in Socrates scole.] and [Plato axede of]*. [From α. and Cx.] Socrates how*. [houȝ a, γ.] he myȝte skape*. [escape, Cx.; ascape, β.] þe envie of envious men. "Be most wrecche," quod*. [sayd, Cx.; quaþ, γ.] he, "and þanne no man schal haue*. [haue] om. Cx.] envie to*. [to] om. Cx.] þe. No þing is wiþ oute envie but wrecchednesse allone." Ysidorus, Ethimologia, libro 2o, capitulo xiiijo. Þis*. [þes, γ.] Socrates ordeyned first moral philosofie, for rulynge of good lyvynge and*. [and] om. Cx.] [of] riȝtwisnesse, stalworþynesse*. [stalworthynesse] om. Cx.] and temperure,*. [temprure, Cx.] vertues and redynesse.*. [In γ. the sentence is—of good lyuung and of þewes and delede hyt in foure vertues, redynes, ryȝtwysnes, stalworþnes, and temprure.]Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro 8o. Þis Socrates tornede first all manere [of]*. [Cx.] philosophie to help of good lyvynge and of riȝtwisnesse*. [good maners, Cx.] stalworþynesse and*. [þewis, β.; þewes, γ.] tempe|rure;*. [stalworþynesse and temperure] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] but I knowe nouȝt wheþer he dede, for þat*. [þat for, α. and Cx.] he was overcome wiþ*. [of greef of hardnesse, Cx.] noye and hardynesse*. [nuy of hardnes, γ.] of derk and [of]*. [Cx.] un|certyn Page  291, vol.3 þinges, to fynde som certeyn manere*. [maner, Cx.] of doynge, by the whiche*. [whoche, γ.] þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] lyf of man myȝte be þe bettre, oþer for manis soule schulde bee þe bettre, and*. [þe bettre and] om. γ.] descharged of unskilful levynge*. [likynge, α. and β.; lykynge, Cx. and γ.]; and be bore*. [and be borne, Cx.] up by kynde strengþes*. [strengthe, Cx. and γ.] to knowe þinges þat evere schale*. [schulen. β.] laste, for þe soule may not knowe þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] cheef causes of þinges, but whan he*. [it, Cx.] is pured and i-made al cleene. Þis Socrates whan he deide left many disciples on lyve,*. [alyve, α., γ., and Cx.] þat desputede*. [disputed, Cx.; despuytede, γ.] in many manere*. [wyse, Cx.] of oure laste ende, and of hym þat is [the]*. [Cx.] best; but of alle his scolers Plato was cheef.*. [chyef, Cx.] Seneca, epistola 107a, spekeþ of þe cause and manere of þis*. [þis] om. Cx.; þes, γ.] Socrates his deeþ: For Socrates, he seiþ, was levere*. [sayd he was more lyef, Cx.] [to]*. [Cx.] swere*. [swerye, α. and γ., et infra.] by creatures þan by goddes, me putte aȝenst*. [it was leyde ayenst, Cx.] hym þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] he dede aȝenst þe lawe, and þat he apayred þe children,*. [appeyred childer, Cx.] and þerfore he was i-dampned to prisoun, þere he schulde use venym þat me clepeþ Farma|cum.*. [where he shold ete venym called fermacum, Cx.]Augustinus de vera religione, capitulo primo. Socrates was hardyer*. [hardur, γ.] þan oþer in swerynge, for me seiþ þat he wolde Page  293, vol.3 swere*. [swerye, α.] by [hondes and stones, and al þat he wolde swere by]*. [From α. and γ.] þat*. [þat] om. α., γ., and Cx.] he hadde redy in mynde. I trow þat he understood þat al þe workes of kynde þat God ordeyneþ*. [ordeyned, Cx.] to be wrouȝt by worchynge of God, beþ wel bettre þan eny*. [ony crafty mannes werkes, Cx. and β.; eny craftesmen workes, γ.] craftes men workeþ,*. [workes, α.; workis, β.] and þerfore [it is]*. [Cx.] more worþy to take worschippes þat longeþ to God þan mawmettes þat were i-worschipped in temples. [℞.]*. [From α. and Cx.] Þerfore an expositour uppon*. [apon, γ.] Boys*. [Boece,] de Discipulis,*. [Boece de disciplina, Cx.] capitulo 4o, seiþ þat oon of Socrates his disciples accused hym for he hadde i-made a book of oon God, and nouȝt of meny goddes; þerfore he was compelled to drinke*. [dryngke, γ., et infra.] a vene|mous*. [vememys, γ.] herbe in þat Goddes name, and he*. [he] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] drank and deide nouȝt; and eft he was compelled to drynke in þe*. [þe] om. Cx. and β.] name of meny goddes, and drank and diede. Þerfore Tullius telleþ*. [seiþ, γ.] þat after þat he was i-dampned þe men of Athene were sory, and punsched*. [punysshed, Cx.; punyschide, β.] hem sore þat hadde accusyd hym, and made of*. [of] om. α. γ.; of hym, om. Cx.] hym an ymage of gold, [resemblyng and remembraunce of Socrates,]*. [Cx.] and sette it in þe*. [theyr, Cx.] temple. Also the commentor, Page  295, vol.3 Eth., 5o, [seyth]*. [Cx. and γ.] þat Socrates, whan he was accused, seide, "Men of Athene mowe*. [maye, Cx.; bote a mowe, γ.] dampne Socrates, but þey mowe*. [maye, Cx.; bote a mowe, γ.] not make him unriȝtful." Þo*. [Than, Cx.; þanne, β.] þe Athenes bygonne*. [began, Cx.] to use foure and twenty lettres, and usede to fore honde*. [bifore, Cx.] but*. [but] om. Cx.] sixtene. Eutropius et Gaufridus.