Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum sextumdecimum.

THE Romayns sente*. [sende messagiers, Cx.] messangeres and prayed men of Athene to sende hem lawes i-write. Þese*. [This, Cx.] were Salon his lawes; þey Page  253, vol.3 sente nouȝt in to Lacedemonia to haue Ligurgus [his] lawes; þey his*. [þouȝ his, β.] lawes were best, for þey hadde hym suspecte as a lyere, for he hadde i-seide þat he hadde i-fonde*. [taken, Cx.; yfong, γ.] lawes of Appolyn. Þe Romayns gadred this*. [þeos, γ.] Salon his lawes into ten tables, and putte afterward [tweye tables þerto. Þerof come afterward]*. [From α.] þat famous lawe of þe twelue tables as it is i-write ff.*. [in folio, Cx.; ff., β. and γ.] de Origene Iuris,*. [lib. added in γ.] ijo, in þe glose. Ysidorus, libro 5o. Moyses ȝaf first lawe to þe Hebrewes, kyng*. [kyng] om. Cx.] Feroneus to þe Grees,*. [Grekes, Cx.] Mercurius Trimogestus to þe Egipcians, Salon to men of Athene, Ligurgus to þe Lacedemonyes,*. [Lacedomones, Cx.] and Numa Pompilius Page  255, vol.3 to the Romayns. Afterward þe peple of Rome myȝte nouȝt, noþer wolde nouȝt, suffre þe stryf of þe maistres and iuges, and ordeyned hem*. [hem] om. Cx.] ten men to write lawes, [and they wryten lawes]*. [Cx.] out of Salon his bookes, and tornede þe lawe of twelue tables out of Grewe*. [Grue, Cx.] into Latyn. Þe firste þat wolde make bookes of lawe was þe grete Pompeus, þe consul; but for drede of euel*. [euyl, Cx.] spekers he [accomplysshed ne]*. [Cx., not β.] fulfilled it nouȝt.*. [nouȝt] om. Cx.] Þan Iulius Cesar bygan*. [Cezar began . . ., Cx.] to make bookes of lawes; but he deide to sone. And so among þe Romayns litel and litel lawes were for|gendred*. [forgendride, β.] forto*. [compyled til C . . ., Cx.; fort, γ.] Constantine the Grete ordeynede*. [ordeygned, Cx.] newe lawes; but Theodocius, iunior,*. [minor, α. β. γ. and Cx.] made a book of lawe, þat is i-cleped Theodocius his code.*. [Theodosius coode, Cx.] And sone afterward*. [after, Cx.] Iustinianus, of wel nygh two þowsand [bookes and þritty hondred*. [hondred] om. Cx.] þowsend]*. [From α. and γ.] vers,*. [versus, Cx.] made and restored þe lawes of digest. Þe power of consulus secede*. [consuls cessed . . . ., Cx.; cee|side, β.; cessede, γ.] in þe citee, and ten*. [thenne, Cx.] men were i-ordeyned rulers instede*. [in stude, γ.] of þe tweie consuls; but þe secounde ȝere after, as Seint Austyn toucheþ, de Civitate Dei, libro primo, capitulo 19o, oon of þese*. [þeos, γ.] ten men þat hiȝte Apius*. [Appius, Cx. and γ.] Claudius hadde Page  257, vol.3 brennynge likynge to a mene knyȝtes douȝter forto lye*. [ligge, β.; lygge, γ.] by hire,*. [grete desire and luste to enduce and meoue a knyghtes doughter to lygge by hir, Cx.] and made falsliche oon of his seruauntes chalange here*. [chalenge hir . . ., Cx.] for his bonde womman, and so sche*. [he, α.; heo, γ.] was i-demed, and her owne*. [so Appius demed and jugged hir and hir owne . . ., Cx.] fader slowȝ hir, and made playnt to þe peple of þat falshede. Þe peple was þoo in þe hil*. [hul, γ.] Algild.*. [Algid, α. and Cx.] Þanne þe ten men were i-putte out of her office, and tribunes and idoles*. [Edilis, α.; Edyles, Cx.; Ediles, β. γ.] i-putte*. [ypot, γ.; were put, Cx.] in here stede.*. [stude, γ.] [Petrus, 186.]*. [Cx.] Neemyas,*. [Neemia, γ.] a man of Hebrewes, kyng of*. [of] om. α. and Cx.] Artaxerses his boteler,*. [butler, Cx.; botiler, γ.] come by leue of his lorde out of Babiloyne in to þe Iewerye, and ladde þe peple twelue ȝere, so þat þe fifte ȝere he bygan to restore the walles and þe ȝates of Ierusalem, and he ended his work in two ȝere and foure monthes, and hadde so grete lette in þe buldynge þat half þe peple stood i-armed wiþoute þe citee [forto defende þe cite],*. [From α.] and þe workmen*. [work, α. γ.; werke, Cx.] for resynge and stekkynge*. [resing and for slekkynge, Cx.; skekkynge, α.; resinge and shekking, β.; shekkyngs, γ.] of straunge naciouns, and þe oþer deel*. [that other dele, Cx.] of þe peple i-armed bulde þe walles*. [wallis, Cx.] and leide stones wiþ oon hond and helde eueriche his swerd in his oþer hond. Afterward Neemyas took heed Page  259, vol.3 þat þe Iewes hadde no fuyre*. [fyre, Cx., et infra.] from heuene, and clensede a pitt*. [put, γ.] in þe valey of Iosephat, þere*. [where, Cx.] Ieremyas hadde i-hud*. [hid, Cx.] fuyre in þe tyme of takynge into bondage, and fonde þe stokkes of þe auȝter*. [aulter, Cx.; auter, γ.] and brennynge coolis*. [coles, Cx.] and fatte*. [fette, Cx.; and a fette, γ.] water, and he cast of þat water vppon a fagot*. [on a fagotte, Cx.] of woode, and þerof come fuir.*. [fyre, Cx.] Þan*. [þanne, γ.] ȝif þow wilt rekene seuenty wokes*. [wekes, Cx.] of ȝeres, from þe twentiþe*. [twenty, Cx.] ȝere of Artaxerses, whan Neemias wente doun to bulde*. [byulde, Cx.] Ierusalem anon to þe comynge of Crist,*. [unto Criste, Cx.] þat is anon to þe eyȝtenþe*. [unto the eyghten, Cx.] ȝere of Tiberius Cesar.*. [Cezar, Cx.] Þe whiche*. [whuch, γ.] seuenty wokes*. [wekes, Cx., et infra.] of ȝeres from þe twentiþe*. [from þe twentiþe] om. α. and Cx.] Danyel prophe|ciede to be i-schorted*. [shorted, Cx.] vppon Goddes peple þou myȝte fynde seuenty wokes of ȝeres, so þat þou acounte*. [acompte, Cx.] a woke of ȝeres of þe mone, and a ȝere of þe mone is twelue monþes of þe mone; as it was i-used in Moyses his lawe, not þe ȝere of þe sonne, noþer of embolisme. And so seuenty wokes*. [wekys, Cx.] of ȝeres from þis ȝere anon to Crist makeþ foure hondred ȝere*. [ȝeres, α. and Cx.] of þe moone, and foure score and ten wiþ oute þe monthes of embolismes, þat makeþ foure hondred ȝere of þe sonne [and] þre score and fiftene. Trevisa. A ȝeer of the sonne is þe ful*. [fol, γ.] ȝere þat men vseþ now in Engelonde,*. [use nowe in Englond, Cx.] and in*. [in] om. Cx.] oþer londes; but þe ȝere of Page  261, vol.3 þe mone is twelue monþes*. [moneþis, β.] of þe mone, and a monþe of þe mone is from chaunge*. [chaynge (bis), γ.] to chaunge, and so þe ȝere of þe mone is lasse by enlevene dayes*. [dawes, γ.] þan þe fulle*. [folle, γ.] ȝere, and þe monþe of embolisme falleþ whanne þrittene primes falleþ*. [be, Cx.] in oon ȝere. [℞.]*. [From α. and Cx.] The noumbre of wookes*. [nombre of the wikes, Cx.; wekis, β.] and ȝeres may be i-proved*. [preoued, γ.] in þis manere: for Beda, libro de temporibus, seiþ þat þe kyngdom of Pers durede from*. [fram, γ. (semper).] þis twentiþe*. [twenty, Cx.] ȝere of Artaxerses to þe sixte*. [sixth, Cx.] ȝere of Darius, whan Darius was ouercome of Alisaundre,*. [Alysaunder, Cx.] an hondred ȝere and fiftene. And þanne þe kyngdom of Grees*. [Grece, Cx. and β.] usede*. [dured, β.; durede, γ.] anon to Iulius Cesar,*. [dured unto Julius Cezars tyme, Cx.] two hondred ȝere and*. [ȝere and] om. Cx.] foure and twenty*. [foure score and tweyne, α., β. γ., and Cx.] [yeres].*. [From Cx.] Þanne from þe bygynnynge of Iulius Cesar, þat regnede foure ȝere and seuen monþes, to þe eiȝteþe*. [xviij., Cx.] ȝere of Tyberius Cesar, were*. [was, Cx. and β.] foure score [ȝere]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] and eiȝte; and so alle þese*. [al þeos, γ.] ȝeres i-sommed to gidres makeþ*. [amounte unto the nombre of, Cx.] foure hondred ȝeres of þe sonne foure*. [þre, α., β., and γ.] score and fiftene.*. [lxxv., Cx.]Orosius, libro 3o. Forto*. [Till, Cx.; Fort, γ.] a grete*. [gret del, γ.] deel of þe day was i-passed,*. [apassed, β.] hit semed þat þe nyȝt durede. Also haile*. [haule, β.; hawelstones ful, γ.] stoones fel doun of*. [from Cx.] þe clowdes, and beet*. [beot, γ.] þe erþe Page  263, vol.3 wiþ verrey stoones.*. [veray stones, Cx.]Petrus 188o. Esdras deide in good age and elde, and Neemyas tornede aȝen to Artarxerses þe kyng; but he tornede aȝen*. [bote a turnde aȝe, γ.] to Ierusalem aȝenst his ende day,*. [endynge, Cx.] and chastede*. [chastysed, Cx.; chastiside, β.] hem þat trespassed*. [trespaced, Cx.; trespasside, β.] aȝenst þe lawe, and deide, and is i-buried by þe wal þat he made in Ierusalem. Beda de tem|pore. Hiderto þe ordre*. [thordre, Cx.] of [þe]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] holy storie*. [history, Cx.] is i-take of þe bookes of Hebrewes, þat were i-wrete of dedes and [of]*. [Cx.] doynges of ȝeres; but what dedes and doynges foloweþ*. [folowed, Cx.] after þis beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] i-take of þe bookes of Iosephus Affrican and of*. [of] om. Cx.] þe bookes of Machabeis. Eft consels*. [consuls were . . ., Cx.] ben i-made*. [buþ ymad, γ.] at Rome. Ipocras is in his floures.*. [Ypocras in this tyme flouryssh|ed, Cx.]Ysidorus, libro 4o. Appollo fond first art of fisik*. [phisike, Cx., et infra; phisyk, γ.] among þe Grees.*. [Grekes, Cx., ut semper; Gre|kis, β.] Þanne his sone Escu|lapius made more of þat art,*. [made it moore, Cx.] and was i-smyȝte with liȝt|nynge; and þan þat art was i-left fyve*. [vyf, γ.] hondred ȝere a non to þis*. [þes, γ.] Artarxerses his tyme, kyng of Pers.*. [kyng of Pers] om. Cx.] [And]*. [Inserted from Cx.] in his tyme Ipocras renewede þe art and craft of fisyk in þe ilond*. [ylande, Cx.]Page  265, vol.3 Cheo. But tweie*. [the twey first artes were untrusty, that is to say, Methodyca, Cx.] of þe firste tweie artes beeþ untrusty*. [vntrysti, γ.]; for þe first þat hatte Methodica, [that]*. [Cx. inserts.] takeþ noon hede of tymes noþer*. [noþer] om. Cx.] of causes and*. [of, Cx.] elementes, noþer of ages,*. [age, Cx.] but onliche of yvel,*. [evel, α. and β.; euyl, Cx.; euel, γ.] and useþ telynges*. [tellynges, Cx.] as olde wifes dooþ. Þe secounde hatte Emperica, and axeþ*. [axeseþ, α.] nouȝt but assay.*. [a say, α.; essay, Cx.] The þridde hatte logica, and is allowed*. [alowide, β.] and a proved.*. [appreued, Cx.; alowed and ap|preoued, γ.]