Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum quartumdecimum.

ARTAXERSES, Darius his sone, was þe fifte*. [fyfth, Cx.] kyng of Pers,*. [Perses, Cx.] and regned twenty ȝere. Þis whan*. [wan, γ.; wanne, Cx.] Egipt þat his fader had i-lore and put out Aristid,*. [Arysted, Cx.] and werred fyue ȝere aȝenst Grecia,*. [Grece, Cx.] as his fader hadde bygunne. Iesephus*. [Iosephus, α. and Cx.] seiþ þat Page  235, vol.3 vnder þis Artaxarses,*. [Artarxerses, α. and Cx.] þe seuen*. [seuenth, Cx.] ȝere of his kyngdom, Es|dras wente doun [in to the Iewry, and Neemyas, the butler,*. [botiler, γ.] wente downe]*. [β. γ. and Cx.] þe fyue and twenty ȝere, and restored þe lawes of Ierusalem*. [Iherusalem, Cx.] in space of twelue ȝere. And Esdras hym self seiþ þat he wente doun in Artaxerses his tyme. Trogus. Oon Damarachus was exiled out of Athene, and woned*. [dwellyd, Cx.] wiþ kyng Artaxerses, and loued more his owne lond after þe exilynge*. [thexiling, Cx.] þan þe kyng after þat he hadde doo hym moche good; and wroot al*. [wrote alle, Cx.] þe kynges purpos in tables of tre and wexed*. [waxed, Cx.] þe tables aboue þe writynge, and sente hem*. [sende him, Cx.] by a priue*. [pryffe, γ.] messanger*. [pryuy messagier, Cx.] to þe grete of Athene. Þan þe men of Spartania auised*. [aduysed, Cx.] hem longe what it schulde mene, for þey seigh nouȝt i-write*. [they sawe no wrytyng, Cx.] in þe tables; and at þe laste kyng Leonyda his suster fonde*. [fond, γ.; Leonydas sister fonde, Cx.] out þe menynge*. [conceyte, Cx.] of þe writer, for sche*. [heo, β.] schaued*. [shaued, Cx.] of þe wax, and þanne the lettres were i-seie and rad,*. [seen and redde, Cx.; yrad, γ.] and so þey were i-warned of þe werre, for Artaxerses had i-made redy nyne hondred þowsand [of]*. [Cx.] fyȝtinge men of his owne kyngdom,*. [of his owne kyngdom] om. Cx.] so þat it semede þat þe Page  237, vol.3 oost dryed vp þe ryueres for hem byhoued*. [behoued, Cx.] so moche water. [Orosius, libro 2o.]*. [Cx.] Artaxerses hadde seuene hondred þow|sand fiȝting men of his owne kyngdom and foure hondred þowsand of help of oþer londes, and schippes of werre wiþ yren snowtes, two þowsand and two hondred and þre þowsand of oþer schippes wel arrayed, so þat þe ryueres semed scars [to fynde hem drynke, and þe lond semede skars]*. [Added from α., β. γ.] for hem to goo ynne [and þe see*. [to added in β.] skars for hem to seyle ynne].*. [scars for hem to goo in, and the see semed skars for him to sayle in, Cx.] Þanne þis grete route þat was nouȝt abeliche*. [not habyly, Cx.] arayed to fiȝte noþer fre to goo forþ and to torne,*. [renne, Cx.] noþer redy to flee come bytwene places of Termopolis,*. [Termophyles, Cx.] and foure þowsand of Sparnates fil*. [fell, Cx.] uppon hem and leyde*. [leyden, Cx.] adoun and slouȝ of hem þre dayes to gidres. Valerius, libro 6o. Whanne þe grete route was i-gedred togidres, oon of þe Perses seide, "Þe Grees*. [sayde the Grekes, Cx.] schal nouȝt only be overcome, but þey schulle be aleyde*. [alayed, Cx.; alayde, β.] wiþ the multitude of Perses." And another spak and seide, "Þe kyng schal have non enemyes to kiþe*. [kyþe, β.; kuyþe, γ.] on his strengþe." ȝit anoþer spak and seide, "Þe see is scars for oure schippes, townes beeþ*. [be, Cx.] scars for oure knyȝtes, and feldes for oure [oþer]*. [From α.] men." Þan Damarachus answerde and seide, "Here beeþ*. [be, Cx.]*. [be, Cx.]Page  239, vol.3 so meny men þat þey mowe*. [maye, Cx.] nouȝt be i-ruled,*. [reuled, γ.] ne*. [ne] om. α. and Cx.] may not longe dure." And so it byfel,*. [befelle, Cx.] for meny þat were nouȝt i-ruld*. [not rewled, Cx.] were ouercome of fewe þat were welle i-ruled. Þer|fore whan þe kyng was wel i-sette*. [wel i-sette] om. α. β. γ. and Cx.] ouersette wiþ þre*. [The scribe has omitted hundred.] of þe*. [þe] om. α.] Lacedemonies,*. [them of Lacedomones, Cx.] he seide þat he was begyled,*. [bigiled, β] for he hadde so many men and but fewe konnynge in bataille*. [connyng in batell, Cx.] forto fiȝte. Valerius, libro 3o. In þat fiȝtinge oon of þe Grees*. [one of the Grekes, Cx.] seide to his felawe, "Þe sonne is derked wiþ þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] arwes and schot*. [arowes and shotte, Cx.] of Perses." "Þou seist wel," quod*. [seyd, Cx.] þat oþer, "for we schul*. [shold, Cx.] fiȝte better in schadewe þan in hete of the sonne." Also me axede in grete despise*. [despyte, Cx.; dispite, β.] of oon þat haltede why he come*. [came, Cx.] in to þe bataile; and he answerede and seide, "It is my purpos*. [purpoos, Cx.] to abide and not for*. [for] om. Cx.] to flee, and þat byfalleþ*. [befalleth, Cx.] wel for an halt man." Trogus, libro 2o. At þe laste Leonida, kyng of Athene, come*. [Athenes came . . . ., Cx.] wiþ foure þowsand, and beet doun a greet deel*. [parte, Cx.] of þe oost of Perses, and fil*. [came, Cx.] vppon the oþer Page  241, vol.3 deel anyȝt*. [remenaunt by nyghte, Cx.] whanne þey were a-slepe, and slowȝ of hem, and chased*. [chaced, Cx.] hem, and [brake and]*. [Cx.] to schad hem euerich oon*. [oon] not in γ.] from oþer.*. [skayled the hoost every fro other, Cx.] Artaxerses myshapped twyes, for he was ouer|come in bataille in*. [bateylle on . . . . ., Cx.] þe londe, and wolde assaie þe*. [essaye his . . ., Cx.] fortune and happe of þe see,*. [upon the see, Cx.] and þere his men were i-bete, and to schad eueriche from oþer,*. [beten and shad and skayled euery from other, Cx.] and he þat hadde raþer i-heled*. [hiled, β.] and i-sprad*. [hilled and be spradde, Cx.] þe see wiþ þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] grete schippes and huge,*. [and huge] om. Cx.; huyge, γ.] was aferde and glad forto flee, and scapede awey vnneþe in a fischeres [boot].*. [disconfyte and for fere gladde to flee and unnethe escaped away in a fysshers bote, Cx.; boot from α. β. and γ.] Also þere deide wonder meny men for hunger, and meny dede careyns lay in þe fildes, and afterward [ther]*. [Cx.] come a moreyn vppon þe oost, so þat bestes and foules folowede þe oost by [the]*. [Cx.] smel*. [smyl, α.] of dede*. [deed, β.] of*. [of] om. α. β. γ. and Cx.] careyns. Herodotus, þe wrytere of stories,*. [historyes, Cx.] Eurypedes, Basilides,*. [Basilides] om. γ.] Dia|goras, and Sophocles, þe writere of gestes,*. [geestis, β,; geestes, γ.] were þat tyme in her floures. [℞.]*. [Cx.] Ieronimus, in epistola ad Nepocianum, spekeþ of þis Sophonias,*. [Sophocles, α. β. γ. and Cx.] and seiþ þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] whanne he toke but litel hede of meyny and of [his]*. [Cx.] houshold for his grete elde Page  243, vol.3 his*. [oune added in γ.] sones accused*. [accusiden, β.] hym of woodnesse.*. [wodenesse, Cx.] Þan tofore þe iuges*. [bifore the Iugges, Cx.] he rehersed and seide þe fable and gest þat he hadde i-write of Edippus, and now in his grete age of witte and of wisdom þat he schulde torne þe cruelte of iuges into fauour of þe teatre.*. [theatere, α. γ.; theatre, Cx. and β.] Þat tyme Socrates, þe philosofer, was i-bore, and a ston i-schape as a goot fil adoun*. [felle downe, Cx.] from heuene in þe see Egeus. Archabaus,*. [Artabanus, Cx.] Artaxerses the kyng his styward, caste forto be*. [steward purposed to be . . . ., Cx.] kyng of Pers, and come yn an eventyde*. [aventyde, α.; euentyde, Cx.; euetyde, γ.] wiþ his seuene sones into Artarxerses þe kynges*. [þe kynges] om. Cx.] chambre, and slouȝ the king and meny oþere. And þe kyng hadde twey sones, þat oon*. [þe toon, α.; that one, Cx.] heet Darius, and þe*. [that, Cx. and β.] oþer Artarxerses, and Archa|banus*. [Artabanus, Cx. et infra.] excited hym*. [hym] om. α. β. γ. and Cx.] Artarxerses, to slee his broþer Darius, and saide þat Darius hadde i-slawe his owne*. [owne] om. γ.] fader. But oon Vagabyns*. [Vagabaxus, α. and Cx.] knewe hou þe kyng was i-slawe, and tolde Artar|xerses how it stood, and how Archabanus hadde i-slawe his fader, and anon Artarxerses heet gadre*. [gadred, Cx.] the peple to gedres, and make*. [made, Cx.] hem come i-armed to fore*. [bifore, Cx. et infra.] hym, as þey*. [þeyȝ a, γ.] he wolde knowe þe nombre of his knyȝtes. Þan whan Archabanus stood to fore hym i-armed among oþer men, þe kyng seide þat his owne*. [owne] om. Cx.] haburgoun*. [haberion, β. γ. Cx., et infra.] was to*. [to to, Cx.] schort and heet*. [bade, Cx.] Arche|banus doo of his habergoun and chaunge wiþ hym, and whan Archebanus hadde vnarmyd hym and was naked þe kyng Page  245, vol.3 anon heet*. [commanded, Cx.] [his]*. [Cx.] men falle on hym, and slee hym*. [men to sle him, Cx.] and his sones; and so Artarxerses took wreche of his fader deth, and saued his fader trone and his broþer lyf, and hym self from gile and traysoun.*. [tresone, β.] [Marianus.]*. [Cx.]