Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum duodecimum.

THE name of philosofres hadde byginning of Pictagoras; for þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] olde Grees cleped hem silf*. [Grekes callyd hymself, Cx.] Sophistris, þat is, wyse. But Pictagoras, whan me axede what man he was, he an|swerde and seide þat he was a philosofer; þat is, [a]*. [Cx.] louyer of witte and of wysdom, for to clepe hym self a wise [man]*. [wyseman, Cx.; man added from α.] hit wold seme grete boost of*. [and for of, Cx.] pryde.*. [pruyte, γ.] Afterward oþere philo|sofres Page  215, vol.3 hadde*. [hadden, β.] hire oþer names of here auctors,*. [her names of her auctours, Cx.] and so þey þat helde*. [hy þat huld, γ.] Pictagoras his lore were i-cleped*. [weren cleped, β.] Pictagorici,*. [Pyctagoraci, Cx.] and þey þat helde*. [helden, β.] Plato his lore were i-cleped Platonici. Polichronicon, libro primo. Som*. [somme, Cx.] philosofres hadde names of contrayes,*. [helden, Cx.] and so þey þat helde*. [contrees, Cx.] Pictagoras his lore were i-cleped Italici, for Pictagoras tauȝte a grete contray*. [contre, Cx.] of Italy þat somtyme heet þe greet Grecia; oþere were i-cleped Ionici, and hadde*. [that hadden, Cx.] þat name of þe ȝonder Grees. Here*. [yonder Grece. Theyr, Cx.] auctor and prince was Tales*. [Cx. inserts and after Tales.] Millesius. Ysidorus, libro 8o. Oþere hadde names of stondynge, and comynge togidres, as Stoycy, Achademicy.*. [achademice, peripatetici, Cx.] Stoici hadde þat name of a porche of Athene þat hatte Stoa in [þe longage of]*. [Inserted from α.] Grees,*. [Grece, there in was, Cx.] were*. [þere, α.; þar, γ.] ynne were i-peynt þe grete*. [beryng and dedes, Cx.] beryinge*. [berynde, α.] [and dedes]*. [From α.] of wise men and [of]*. [From Cx.] stronge. Þe firste of hem was ȝouen.*. [ȝeven, α and Cx. It appears from what follows it should be Zenon; Zenon, β. and γ.] He seide*. [Cx. om. he seide.] þat al synne was i-liche grete, so þat he wolde mene*. [and thus he meaned, Cx.] þat it were as grete synne to stele strawe as golde, and to slee a knyȝt*. [kuyte, β. and γ.] as [an]*. [From α.] hors, for þe beest he seiþ*. [saide, Cx.] is nouȝt to Page  217, vol.3 blame, but þe manis wil. Þis [Zenon]*. [Inserted from Cx.] seide, þe*. [þat, γ.] manis soul*. [that mannes soule, Cx.] schal deie wiþ þe body. Trevisa. I wolde*. [yche, α.] a wiseman hadde [y-seie]*. [seen, Cx. and β.; y-seie is added from α.] his water, and i-held*. [powred, Cx.; heldid, β.] it in his þrote þey it were a galoun.*. [galon, Cx.] Þanne it followeþ in þe storie; he and his scoleres seide þat þey schulde*. [schulden, β.] not dure*. [duyre, γ] wiþ oute*. [withouten, Cx.] ende, and noþeles þey desired*. [desireden, β.] lif wiþ outen ende. Achademici*. [Achademicy hadden. . . ., Cx.] hadde þat name of Plato his toun besides*. [bysydes, γ.] Athene þat hiȝte*. [het, γ.] Acha|demia, and was in poynt for to falle. Þere Prelalo*. [Plato, α. γ. and Cx.] was i-woned*. [ywond, γ.; wonte for to. . ., Cx.] to studie. Þese*. [This, Cx.; þis trowide, β.] trowed*. [trouwede, γ.] þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] al þing was vncerten|liche i-made. Archelaus brouȝte vp þat secte, but Demo|critus*. [Domocritus, Cx.] made it more; but it mote*. [must, Cx.] be graunted þat meny þinges be*. [beþ, γ.] unknowne*. [ben unknowen, β.] and i-hud*. [hydde, Cx.] from manis knowleche, so God wole*. [wyll, Cx.] þat meny þinges passe þe knoweleche of man, and also meny þinges beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] þat mowe*. [maye, Cx.] be knowe by manis kynde*. [kyndly, β.] wytt.*. [mannes kyndly wytte, Cx.] Paripatetici*. [Peripateticy have. . . ., Cx.] haueþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] þat name of wanderynge and of walkynge. For Aristotil*. [Arystotle, Cx.] was here auctor and was i-woned*. [ywond, γ.] to despute*. [wonte to dyspute, Cx.] wandrynge and walkynge. Augustinus de Civi|tate, libro 8o. Þere beeþ þre manere of philosofres*. [filosofris, β.] of kynde Page  219, vol.3 and takeþ hede of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] kynde of þinges; suche was*. [were, Cx.] Tales Millesius, Pictagoras, and þey þat helde*. [hulde, γ.] here lore. And som Ethici þat takeþ*. [toke, Cx.] hede and techeþ*. [taught, Cx.] þe knoweleche and kon|nynge of good*. [god, β.] lyuynge and of the*. [the] om. α. β. γ. and Cx.] þewes, suche*. [sich, β.] was Socrates and þei þat helde*. [huld, γ.] his lore, and suche was*. [suche was] om. Cx.] Plato specialliche and þey þat helde*. [hult, γ.] his lore; þerfore among alle he is i-preysed for a parfite*. [parfyght, Cx.] techere*. [techare, γ.] of philosofie. Ysidorus, libro octavo, capitulo 6o. Þerfore he is a verrey philosofre*. [veray phylosophre, Cx.] þat haþ know|leche of þinges þat longeþ to God and to man and holdeþ all manere wey of riȝtful*. [ryȝtfol, γ.] lyuynge; but among*. [of, Cx.] all manere of philosofres þey þat were i-cleped deuynes*. [dyvynes, β.] bere þe prys,*. [called dyuynes were reputed for moost excellent, Cx.] for þei treted of God þat is alle myȝhty. Noþeles meny of hem*. [ham, γ.] errede in tretynge of God and of þe world, and meny come to þe knoweleche of God; noþeles*. [α, inserted in γ.] worschipped hym nouȝt as God, but vansched*. [vanysshed, Cx.; vanischiden, β.] away in here þouȝtes and seide þat þey*. [hy, γ.] were [wise, and þey*. [α, γ.] were]*. [From α.] y-made fooles. Þe errours of hem Page  221, vol.3 brouȝte yn afterward meny errours in holy chirche. Suche a false errour is þat dede men schal*. [schulen, β.] nouȝt aryse at þe*. [atte, β.] day of dome, and þat eny mater*. [matire, γ.] is euene and peere*. [euery martir is even and pere, Cx.] to God. Au|gustinus de Civitate, libro 8o, capitulo 10o. Þey þat hadde riȝt knowleche of God profited*. [profitiden, β.] moche to þe knowleche of soþnesse*. [truth, Cx.] of truþe, and suche was Plato, þat seide þat in God is cause of beynge, resoun, and*. [and] om. γ. and Cx.] of vnderstondynge, and ordre of good lyuynge, and þerfore God is to vs bygynnynge of kynde, soþeness of lore and grace, and grace*. [and grace] om. α. β. and Cx. The repetition is an error of the scribe.] of lyf. Also þere were philosofres þat trauaillede here wittes for*. [for] om. Cx.] to fynde and knowe cause of þinges and manere of lyuynge; noþeles þey were most i-preised þat knewe God and where he is [and þat he*. [α, γ.] is cause]*. [From α. β. γ. and Cx.] of al þing*. [thynges, Cx.] þat is i-wrought,*. [ywroȝt, γ.] and liȝt of sooþnesse, and of trowþe,*. [trouthe, α.; truthe, Cx.] and welle of grace þat we schal drynke.*. [dryngke, γ.] To þis knowleche þey come in þis manere:— þeyȝ*. [þeyȝ] om. Cx. and β.] þey trauaillede here wittes to fynde the beste of alle, þat is God, þey knewe þat þat is no body, for a body may be for|doo*. [fordone, Cx.; fordo, γ.] and corrupted,*. [corrumped, γ.] for hit is i-made of contrarie þinges. Page  223, vol.3 Also þey took heede þat God is no liknesse þat may be chaunged,*. [chaungide, β.] þerfore þey*. [he, Cx. and β.] passed alle bodies and alle liknesse.*. [lykenesses, Cx.; in maner added after lyknes in γ.] Þe body is i-seie*. [seen, Cx.] wiþoute, þe liknesse of þe body is in þouȝt wiþ ynne, [and that þat is in thought within]*. [Cx.; so γ.] is no body, but*. [bote, γ.] þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] liknesse of a body, þan þe liknesse is i-knowe by a þing þat is noþer þis*. [neyther the, Cx.] liknes noþer þe body. And þat [þat]*. [From α.] þis*. [is, Cx.] liknesse is by i-seie*. [is seen, Cx.] and i-demed wheþer it be faire oþer foule is better*. [betre, γ.] þan þe þing þat is so i-demed. Þere is no faire|nesse of body wheþer it be in state*. [staat, γ.] of body as in schap of lengþe and brede, oþer in meouynge*. [moeuyng, Cx.] as in song, but suche*. [sich, β.] as þe inwitte of [man]*. [Cx.; not in γ.] deemeþ; and þat myȝte nouȝt be but þere were a bettre liknesse in þe inwitte wiþ oute swellynge of body and crienge*. [cryeng, Cx.] [of manis voys]*. [From α.; man hys foys, γ.] wiþ oute lengþe [or]*. [Cx.; not γ.] space of [the]*. [Cx.; not β. and γ.] place and of tyme; but þat is a manis þouȝt and kynde inwit*. [yn wyt, α.; in wytte, Cx.] of manis soule, and þat is no body, seþþe*. [syth, Cx.] þat þe liknesse þat is knowe þerby is no body. But ȝif*. [and, Cx.] oure inwitte is no body, schulde God þat made oure inwitte*. [God make þat our inwytte, Cx.] be a body? Also oure inwitt is chaungeable and meuable,*. [meouable, γ.] elles schulde no manis inwitte*. [wytte, β. and Cx.; wyt, γ.] knowe and deme*. [and deme] om. Cx.] bettre þat*. [than, β. γ. and Cx.]Page  225, vol.3 oþere of þat he feleþ and knoweþ, noþer he þat is wittier*. [wyttyour, γ.] better þan he þat is duller, and ȝit þe same witte amendeþ and profiteþ*. [proufiteth, Cx.] and demeþ better after þan to forehonde;*. [before, Cx.] but what [that]*. [Cx.] is amended and apeyred*. [ypeyred, γ.] is chaungeable [wiþ oute drede. Þanne þat may nouȝt be þe firste soþnes for hit is chaungeable].*. [From α. γ., but not in Cx.] Þanne philosofres and dyuynes knewe wel þat no þing þat is chaungeable may be but by hym þat is alwey*. [is stedfast and, Cx.] by oon and nouȝt chaungeable. To hym is non oþer beynge þan*. [þan, from α. β. and Cx.; þat, MS.] levynge, noon oþer beynge þan vnderstondynge, noon oþer beynge þan be wel. Eutropius [and Marianus].*. [From α. and Cx.]