Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Incipit Liber Secundus.

Capitulum primum.

AFTER þat places and contrees beeþ [rekened and]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] dis|cryued of þe worlde wyde, þe ordre of þe tale of þe story axeþ þat berynge and dedes of þe worlde be also discreued. But ȝif*. [ȝif] om. Cx.; badly, not per|ceiving the extract from Trevisa to be parenthetical.] every þing is for somwhat and þat is more, (Trevisa. Here is*. [þis, α., Cx.] auctorite of philosophre, and*. [and] om. Cx.] is to mene þat al þing þat is resonabliche*. [resonable, Cx.] and kyndeliche i-ordeyned for anoþer þing as a mene forto come þerto [and forto]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] save it, is i-or|deyned for bettre þing and more noble þan is þat þing þat is i-ordeyned*. [so ordeyned, α.; so ordeyning, Cx.] þerfore: ensaumple,*. [ensaumple] om. Cx.] erynge and sowynge and dongynge of lond is ordeyned for to haue good corne, [and good corne]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] is better þan al þe oþer deel; also medecyne is i-ordeyned for hele, and hele is better þan þe medecyne; also Page  177, vol.2 mete and drynke and oþer þynges beeþ i-ordeyned*. [So Cx. (but with be for beeþ); þat beeþ so i-ordeyned, MS. and α.] for þe lyf, and þe lyf is better and more noble þan mete and drynke and alle oþere*. [þe oþere, α.] þinges þat beeþ so i-ordeyned for þe lyf.) ℞.—þanne, seþþe þat þe more worlde is i-made for þe lasse, as holy writte seiþ, "þe more schal serue þe lasse," and now þe more world is discreued in oure foure sawes in þe firste book, þan it is skilful somdel to descryue þe lasse world also from þe bygynnynge of his forme*. [forne, Cx.] dedes, þat*. [So Cx.; þan, MS.] hit myȝte be knowe what manere þing hit is and how grete, þat is so litel and dooþ so grete dedes in þe more worlde, þat is so grete and so huge. And also þe worchere and þe*. [þe] om. α.] makere of alle þinges þat haþ wiþ him schapliche resouns of al manere resouns and*. [and] om. α.; al maner thynges, Cx.] þinges, whanne he hadde i-made þe more worlde, þan he made þe lasse; and þey he made him lord of þe grete world, ȝit he prynted on hym þe likenesse of þe greet*. [So α. and Cx.; lasse, MS.] world. For a man and þe world beþ liche in þre þynges: in lengþe, in brede, and in dipnesse;*. [and in dipnesse] om. α.] in kyndely dispo|sicioun; and vertues worchynge.*. [Here ys þe proporcyon of mannys body. Note in MS.] And firste þeiȝ þe lengþe of a manis body, þat is from þe sole of þe foot to þe top of þe heed, be*. [So α; ben, MS.] suche sixe as þe brede, þat is from þe oon side of þe ribbes to þat oþer side, and ten so moche as þe depnesse þat is from þe rugge*. [rygge, α.; rigge, Cx.] to þe wombe; noþeles Plinius, libro 7o, capitulo 18o, seiþ þat as moche space as is bytwene cinit, Page  179, vol.2 þat is þe point þat is in þe welken*. [wolkyn, α.; firmament, Cx.] euen aȝenst hem*. [hym, Cx., more correctly.] in þe oþer side of þe erþe, so moche is out of þe est in to þe weste; and so hit is in þe body of a man þat as moche as is from þe sole of þe foot to þe top of þe hede,*. [heued, α.] so moche is bytwene his tweie lengest fyngres endes, and he strecche out his armes and hondes abrood. Also Plinius þere*. [the, Cx.] riȝt, capitulo 7o,*. [17, Cx.] seiþ þat þe stature and þe mesure of a childe whan he is þre ȝere olde is euen half mesure of*. [and, α., Cx.] his stature þat he schal haue whan he is of age, and he lyue*. [alyue, α.] so longe. Þe secounde as we seeþ in þe world so we seeþ in a man, þat þe membres and þe parties helpeþ and stondeþ euerich oþer in stede, and byneneþ*. [So α. and Cx.; bymeneþ, MS.] his woo. For þe ouer lymes gouerneþ and ȝeueþ; þe neþer lymmes bereþ and serueþ; þe myddel fongeþ and deleþ aboute to*. [about the, Cx.] oþer lymes. And in eiþer*. [the eyther, Cx.] world ȝif a lyme is oute of his owne place, and i-entred in to anoþer place þan his*. [in his, Cx.] owne, anon is grete distourbaunce i-made, as whan þe ayer*. [eyer, α.] is closed*. [enclosed, Cx.] wiþ ynne þe erþe, þan þe erþe schakeþ,*. [quaketh, Cx.] and whan with ynne þe cloudes þan is greet þondrynge; also in þe body of a man Page  181, vol.2 whan þe lymes beeþ awreiȝt*. [writhed, Cx.] out of her*. [here, α.] owne places, oþer ȝif þe humours beeþ apaired, þanne is ache, sicknesse, and sorwe. Also whan þe lymes beeþ wel arayed, and as they schulde be in schappe, colour and hewe, manere, quantite, and gretnesse and smalnesse, meuynge and place, þan haþ þe man good þees and quiete, and is in good heele and reste. Þe contrary falleþ,*. [So α. and Cx.; contray failleþ, MS.] and þe lemes*. [lymes, α.] be euel and nouȝt riȝtly [and richeliche]*. [Added from α. Not in Cx.] arrayed; þerfore Plato ȝaf his doom, and seide suche ordenaunce, disposicioun, and schap as a man haþ in his kyndeliche [membres and lymes, suche kyndeliche]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] maneres þey foloweþ in*. [and, α., Cx. The latter varies the sentence.] dedes. Also as it is in þe parties of þe grete world þat þey beeþ so i-ordeyned and i-sette þat þe ouermeste*. [highest, Cx.] of þe neþer kynde touche þe neþermeste*. [lowest, Cx.] of þe ouer*. [high, Cx.] kynde, as oistres and schelle fische, þat beeþ as it were lowest in bestene*. [beestes, Cx.] kynde, passeþ but litel þe perfeccioun of lyf of treen and of herbes, for þey mowe not meue hem but as culpes of þe see waggeþ wiþ þe water, elles þey cleueþ to þe erthe and mowe noþer [see]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] ne hire, ne taste, ne smelle, but onliche fele whan þey beeþ i-touched; and þe*. [at þe, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] laste [of]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þe erþe toucheþ þe lowest of þe water, and þe ouermeste*. [So Cx. (Words are repeated without sense in MS.)] of þe Page  183, vol.2 water toucheþ þe loweste of þe ayer, and so vpward by degrees anon to þe ouermeste hevene: also*. [So MS. α.β.γ.; but probably we should read so.] þe hiȝeste in bodiliche kynde, þat may skilfulliche be i-cleped manis body, kyndeliche and perfitliche disposed arecheþ to þe lowest of þe nexte ouer|kynde; þat is manis soule, þat holdeþ þe lowest degre of spiritis and of gostes þat haueþ knowleche and vnderstondinge, and þerfore he is i-cleped orisoun, as it were þe next marche in kynde bytwene bodily and goostly þinges. By þe soule me goþ vp from*. [and from, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] þe lowest kynde by degrees of knoweleche and of konnynge anon to þe ouermeste knowleche and vnderstondynge, and whan þe soule is al clene wiþ oute erþeliche likynge he recheþ oþerwhile to holy [spirites]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þat beeþ no þyng bodilich. Also man*. [So α. and Cx.; men, MS.] haþ somwhat comyn wiþ þynges þat beeþ parties of þe grete world. For Gregorie in an omelye seiþ þat man haþ beynge wiþ stones, lyuynge wiþ trees and herbes, felynge*. [So α. and Cx.; felynges, MS. (first hand.)] wiþ bestes, knowleche and vnderstondynge wiþ aungels. Also in manis body semeþ erþe in flesche and bones, water in blood and in oþer humours, ayer in þe longen,*. [lungen, α.] fuyre in þe herte; and hatte homo in Latyn and antropos*. [antrapos, α.] in Grewe, þat is as hit were a tree Page  185, vol.2 i-torned vp so doun, and haþ an heed*. [heued, α.] wiþ heer as it were*. [Several words are erronously re|peated in MS., but omitted in α. and Cx.] a roote, and haþ armes and þyghes as it were bowes. Touchynge þe þridde liknesse, þat is vertuous worchynge, we seeþ, as Gregory seiþ in an omelie of þe Aduent, þat þe world was at þe begynnynge þryuynge and strong for to brynge forþ children as it were in ȝowþe, and was ful of hele, and so fresche and grene, and by greet richesse it was fatte. But now it*. [he, α.] is abated, wiþelde, and ait*. [as hit, α., Cx.] were i-dryue toward þe deth wiþ ofte and meny diseses. So in a mannys ȝowþe þe body is þryuynge, þe brest is strong, the nolle is bolde, þe armes beeþ fulle. But in his elde þe stature boweþ and crokeþ and stoupeþ adoun, þe bolde nolle abateþ, þe brest is i-dryue ofte wiþ many sighes and soore, þe breþ schorteþ, in to alle*. [in al, Cx.] þe body myȝt and strengþe abateþ, and ȝif þey*. [and ȝif þeiȝ, α.; and though, Cx. Probably ȝif should be cancelled.] þere were noon oþer siknesse in olde men, for þe more deel hele is sikenesse. Also as we seeþ þat in þe more worlde beeþ tweie contrary meuynges; oon is kyndeliche, by þe whiche þe planetes and þe neyþer wolkons moeueþ out of þe west in to þe est; þat oþer is violent, by þe whiche þey beeþ i-rauisched aȝenward wiþ the meouynge*. [meuynge, α.] of þe ouermeste wolken out of þe est in to þe west: so it fareþ in a man þat the flesche Page  187, vol.2 coueyteþ aȝenst þe spirit, and þe spirit aȝenst þe flesche; for þe neþere knoweleches and wittes fiȝteþ aȝenst [þe]*. [Added from α.] resoun. And ȝit a man haþ comoun worchynge and suffrynge leche*. [soffrynge liche, α.] to many oþere parties of þe more*. [the body more, MS.] world; for he is slow and heuy as þe erþe, and fleteþ away as þe water, and wiþ|draweþ sodeynliche as þe ayer, and heteþ as þe fuyre, chaungeþ as the mone, fiȝteþ and sleeþ*. [So α. and Cx.; fleeþ, MS.] as Mars, coueyteþ as Mercurius, gooþ oute of kynde as Iupiter,*. [So α.; Jubiter, MS.] and is cruel as Saturnus. Also Plinius, libro 7o, capitulo 3o, seieþ þat as þe vtter parties of þe grete worlde welleþ and springeþ ful of myracles, won|dres, and meruailles, as in Ynde, in Ethiopia, Blomen*. [blew men, α.] londe, and in Affrica; so in mankynde, kynde haþ slilyche and craftiliche i-made wonderful werkes and merþe. For first in a mannys face þere*. [Perhaps we should read where. See p. 173.] beeþ ten lymes oþer fewe moo, þer*. [So Cx.; þat, MS.] is so grete diuersite, þat among meny þowsand men vnneþe is oon i-founde in face i-liche to anoþer. In Affrica beeþ meyneys*. [many, Cx.] þat haueþ wycchen*. [wicching, α.; wirchyng, Cx.] tonges, so þat þinges þat þey preiseþ þey schendeþ and sleeþ wiþ hire preisynge. So þat trees þat þey preiseþ waxen drie*. [So Cx. Various words erro|neously repeated in MS. (not α.)] and children Page  189, vol.2 deyetþ.*. [dreyeþ, α.] So in Triballis and in Illyricis*. [Trivallis and in Iliricis, MS.] beeþ men þat sleeþ wiþ hir siȝt what þey beholdeþ and lokeþ on longe, nameliche and þey be greued and wroþ while þey lokeþ so and by|holdeþ, and þese hauen*. [haueþ, α.] in eueriche yȝe*. [ye, α.] tweie blakkes. Also among vs, Varro seiþ, kynde haþ i-gendred and i|brouȝt forþ venym in som mennys eyȝen, so þat non euel is y-founde þat þere nys somwhat i-liche and i-founde in mankynde. So som parties of a manis body beeþ forseynge*. [forbuson, α.; forbyson, Cx.] and bodynge of wondres. So Pyrrhus,*. [Pirus or Pirrus, MS.] kyng of Epirotes, hadde a greet too in his riȝt foot, þe touchynge of þat too was a good medicyne aȝenst venym; and þat too myȝte noȝt be brent [wiþ þe oþer body]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] whan þe oþer bodyes was i-brent,*. [whan the other partyes of his bodye was (sic) brente, Cx.] so auctors telleþ. Also Plinius, libro 7o, capitulo 17o,*. [27, Cx.] seiþ þat som men beeþ i-gete and i-bore wiþ gendrynge stones cleuynge to gidres as it were al oon; som beeþ i-bore wiþ oon boon al*. [al hool, Cx.] in stede of teeþ, and þat boon is hardere and scharpere þan any mannys tooþ. So Prusy, kyng of Bithynia, hade a sone þat hadde a bone in his mouþ instede of his ouer*. [oþere, α., Cx.] teeþ, oon bone al hool, and þat boon was so harde, þat whan þe oþer deel of þe body was i-brend þat bone myȝte nouȝt brenne also. Ibidem, capi|tulo 18o. Som men lyueþ þat*. [and, α., Cx.] eueriche of hem haþ þe bones of his body cleuynge to gidres as hit were al oon boon, al hool and wiþ oute marwe;*. [marouȝ, α.; mary, Cx.] þese men been neuere aferst,*. [So also α.; a thirst, Cx.] also þey sweteþ neuere more. Trevisa. Som men telleþ þat som man Page  191, vol.2 in Irlond haþ oon boon al hool in oon side instede of all his ribbes; and Thomas*. [Thomme, α.; Tom, Cx.] Hayward of Berkeley haþ in þe molde of his heed, pol and forheed, but oon boon al hool; þerfore he may wel suffre grete strokes aboue on his heued,*. [heed without hurt, Cx. (omitting the rest of the sentence.)] and busche aȝenst men and horshedes, and breke strong dores wiþ his heed, and hit*. [hit] om. α.] greueþ hym nouȝt. Also Plinius, libro 7o, capi|tulo 21o, seiþ þat som men hadde in to alle þe body senewes, even i-streiȝt,*. [i-straut, α.; strayght, Cx.] þwart ouer in*. [and, α., Cx.] a crosse wise, and passynge wonderful in strengþe. Som mowe dure to renne wiþ out [werinesse; som be passyng clere of sighte, as a knyghte þat highte Strabo stode in]*. [Added from Cx.] a weytes place, and sigh þe navey of schippes*. [nauyes and shippes, Cx.] of Puni þat were from hem*. [him, Cx.] an hondred and fyue and þritty myle.*. [myles, Cx.]Also Plinius, libro xi., capitulo 44o, seiþ þat Tiberius Cesar sigh more clereliche in derkenesse þan in liȝt, so þat whan he were awaked anyȝt*. [waked in the nyght, Cx.] he myȝt see*. [So Cx.; i-see, MS.] al þing cleerliche aboute hym. Also Plinus, libro 7o, capitulo 27o. Som were wonder myȝty of mynde, as Cyrus kyng of Pers, that to al þe kynȝtes of his oost ȝaf certayne names. And Seneca, libro primo declamationum, seiþ of hym self, þat he was so myȝty of mynde þat he rehersed two þowsand names arewe by herte in þe same ordre as þey were i-seide. And þat he rehersede mo þan two hondred vers þat oþer men hadde i-ȝeue,*. [yeuen, Cx.] and bygan Page  193, vol.2 at þe laste and rehersed anon to þe firste wiþ oute eny faile. Also he seiþ þere þat Cineas, Pyrrhus messanger*. [messager, α.] kyng of Epirotes, þis Cineas þe secounde [day]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þat he come to Rome, he saluted*. [salewed, Cx.] and grette þe senatoures, and spak to eueriche of þe peple þat come aboute hym by his owne name. Anoþer seide þat Cineas hadde*. [hadde made, Cx.] a grete makynge of poyesie, for he rehersed hit at þe firste bygynnynge*. [atte firste herynge, Cx.] more swiftly þan he þat hadde i-made it. Also Plinius, libro 7o, capitulo 21o,*. [27, α., Cx.] seiþ som were more noble and wys of witte, as Iulius Cesar, þat was i-woned to rede and write what me*. [men, Cx. (and so generally.)] seide wiþ good avise|ment al at ones. Also he vsed to write quayers, and endite letters and pisteles al at ones. Also Plinius, libro 7o, capi|tulo 18o, seiþ þat som men haueþ more strengþe in þe riȝt side, and som haueþ more in þe lift*. [left, α.] side, and some beeþ i-liche strong in eiþer side.*. [So α. and Cx. Some words are repeated in MS.] Also men beeþ heuyer þan wommen, and dede men*. [mennes, Cx. (with other slight variations above and below.)] bodyes heuyer þan quykke, and sleping þan wakynge heuyer also. Of dede men kareyns renneþ foule moistures and humours, and þey ligge vpriȝt; and of dede wommen kareyns and þey ligge neuelynge and dounriȝt,*. [þis ys a merveyle. Note in MS.] as þey kynde spared schame. Also libro 7o, capitulo 17o, we redeþ þat oo man lowh*. [louȝ, α.] þat day þat he was i-bore, and Page  195, vol.2 putte awey a manis hond þat groped and handeled hym. Also, Capitulo 20o. Men*. [Me, α., and also Cx. (contrary to his custom.)] spekeþ of som men þat neuere lowh, of som þat wepe neuere, of som þat spat*. [spytte, Cx., and so below.] neuere, of somme þat bolked*. [balked, Cx.] neuere. Trevisa. Rogge*. [Rogger, Cx. (not α.)] Bagge was a ful old man at Wotton vnder hegge, in Glowcetre schire, he spat neuere, he kowhed*. [coughed, α., Cx.] neuere. Also Seneca, ubi prius, capitulo 4o. And as hit is among oþer*. [oþere, α.] bestes, so hit is in mankynde þat somtyme oon of mankynde is boþe man and woman, and such oon is i-cleped hermofrodita, and was somtyme i-cleped androgumus,*. [androgimus, α. Both in Trevisa and in the Harl. translation we should read androgynous.] and acounted among meruayles and wondres; but now among us it is deynte, for it is seelde i-seye. Also we haueþ i-seie and i-herde þat some haueþ i-chaunged*. [chaunge wonderly, Cx.] hir schaþ; for we sighe in Affrica a mayde þe same day þat sche scholde haue be i-wedded, i-chaunged and i-torned into a man, and was i-berded anon, and anoon hadde alle lymes as a man schulde haue, and wedded a wyf with inne a schort tyme after. Also Seynte Austyn de civitate Dei, libro 3o, capitulo 29o, toucheþ þat A. Gellius*. [Agellius, MS., α., and Harl. MS.] [libro] Atticarum*. [atticaruco, MS., α., and Cx. (not Harl. MS.) Several proper names have been tacitly corrected throughout the chapter.] noctium seiþ þat wommen beeþ somtyme i-torned into men: hit is no made*. [magel, Cx.] tale, but hit is sooþ as þe lettre is i-write; Page  197, vol.2 þerfore A. Gellius seiþ, þat in a citee þat het Smyrna he seih*. [syȝe, α.; sawe, Cx. (and so usually.)] a maide i-torned in to a stoon*. [a man, α., Cx.] þe same day þat sche schulde haue be wedded. Also suche oon was i-brouȝt to Rome to þe senatoures in þe tyme of Licinius*. [Lasciuius, MSS.] and Cassius Lon|ginus, consulus*. [consuls, ., Cx.] of Rome, and by heste of dyuynours þat toke hede of þe*. [þe] om. α., Cx.] weder and of chitterynge of briddes it was i-bore into a wild ilond. Also Titus Liuius spekeþ of hennes þat were i-torned into cokkes And Auicenna, libro 8o de animalibus, spekeþ of an hen þat hadde ouercome a cok in fiȝtinge, and after þe fiȝtynge and þe victorie, he*. [she, Cx.] rered vp the tayle as a cok, and had anon i-growe*. [i-crowe, α.] a spore on þe leg and a crest on þe heed as it were a cok. Also capitulo 50o. Trogus seiþ in Egipt beeþ seven children i-boren*. [i-bore, α.; born, Cx. (The latter varies the sentence.)] at oon berþen; but ȝif tweie twynnes beeþ i-bore, it is wel seelde*. [selde, α.] þat þe moder and þe firste childe lyveþ longe after þe burþe, and nameliche ȝif þat oon is a knaue childe and þe oþer a mayde childe. Also capitulo 12o. And somtyme a womman conceyueþ twey children and is but a litel tyme bytwene; and so þe children ben afterward i-bore oon after oþer, and beeþ perfit i-now, as hit was of Hercules and his broþer Iphicles.*. [Hispicle, or Hispicles, MSS.; Hispycle, Cx.] And so it ferde*. [ferde or happend, Cx.] of þat woman þat bare Page  199, vol.2 tweie children oon liche to hire housbonde, and þe oþere to þe copenere,*. [compyner, Cx. (who has other slight variations.)] and of þat woman þat in þe seuenþe monþe aftir hir birþe in þe secounde monþe after sche bare tweie children. Som wommen bereþ alwey mayde children, and some alway knaue children, and som alway chaungeþ and bereþ somtyme a mayde*. [mayden, α.] childe [and]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] somtyme a knaue childe. Som beeþ bareyn and conceyueþ neuere of no man, and som conceyueþ [of som men]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] and [of]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] som men conceyueþ nouȝt. Also, capitulo 13o. Som bereþ children liche to [hem self and some liche to þe fader, and som liche to no man. Some bereþ douȝters liche to þe fader*. [fadris, β.] and sones*. [So β.; some α.] liche to hemself. Some bereþ children liche to]*. [Added from α., which is partly corrected from β. and Cx.] some of*. [some of] om. β.] hire forfadres. Ensample is of*. [of] om. α. and Cx.] Niceus þe*. [þe] So α. β. and Cx.; for, MS.] noble peyntour at Byzantium, þat was i-bore of a faire moder and wente out of kynde and hadde on honde [as]*. [Added from α and Cx.] a blew man. Hugo, capitulo malo. Me seiþ þat wommen kynde*. [So α.; womans kynde, Cx.; kyn|dynde, MS.] is suche þat þey*. [he, α.; she, Cx.] conceyueþ children i-liche to þinges þat þey seeþ i-peynt and i-schape; for þe worchynge of the soule while þe body is in getynge of a childe sendeþ inward liknes and schappes þat þey*. [he, α.; she, Cx.] seeþ wiþ oute, and rauischeþ þe ymages þerof as hit were to his disposicioun. And so þey useþ in Spayne for to brynge Page  201, vol.2 faire hors and gentil, and holdeþ hem to fore þe mares and in hir siȝt while þey conceyueþ. And þey vseþ also to paynte faire coloures*. [coluers, α., Cx., who adds or dowues.] in places þere*. [As in other places this word appears in the MSS. for where.] coluers beeþ i-woned to dwelle. And Quintilianus excuseþ and defendeþ a womman þat wsa accused of spousebreche for sche hadde i-bore a blew man, and he leggeþ*. [leieþ, α.; leyed, Cx. (with other slight variations.)] for hir þat suche an ymage was i-peynt in hir bed chambre whan sche conceyued þat childe. And Ypocras*. [As this form occurs in Chaucer it has been allowed to stand.] wroot of a woman þat schulde be dampned to þe deeþ, for sche*. [he, α.] hadde i-bore a faire childe þat was not liche hir self noþer to þe fader; but Ypocras made men assaie, and it was i-founde þat suche an ymage was i-peynt in þe fader and þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx. (which is better.)] moder bedchambre while þat childe was i-conceyued, and so þe moder was i-saued. Plinius, libro 7o, capitulo 13o. Þerfore in a man beeþ many dyuersitees, for swiftnes of þouȝtes and chaungynge of witte in þe concepcioun preentiþ*. [emprynteth, Cx.] in meny dyuers liknesse and schappes. In oþer bestes wit is as it were not chaungeable, þerfore among hem al þe brood is liche*. [yliche, α.] to þe same kynde.

Page  203, vol.2

Capitulum secundum.

Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro 16o, capitulo 7o. Off broodes, þat beeþ wonderliche i-schape, me axeþ ȝif þey come of Adam and Noe. Som of hem hatte Cyclopes, and haueþ but oon eyȝe in þe for heed. Some haþ*. [haveþ, α.] eiþer schap of man and of womman, and gendreþ to gidres and geteþ, and conceyueþ and bereþ child,*. [childer, Cx. (with other slight variations.)] as þe cours comeþ aboute. For ones he schal gete a childe, and sche*. [he, α., Cx.] schal eftsones conceyue and goo with childe, euerich in his tyme as hit gooþ aboute. Som wommen conceyueþ at fyue ȝere olde, and lyueþ nouȝt over eiȝte yere. Somme haueþ þighes with oute hammes, and beeþ wonderliche swift, an*. [and, α.] hatte Sciopodes;*. [Cyopodes, MS., &c.] for þei liggeþ neuelinge*. [nyuelynge, α.; neuelynge, β.] and doun riȝt in þe somer tyme, and defendiþ hem self wiþ þe schadewe of here feet from þe hete of þe sonne. Herto*. [Wherto, Cx.] we answereþ and seiþ þat it nedeþ nouȝt to trowe þat þere beeþ so many manere schape men*. [mishappen men, Cx.] as me spekeþ of. Noþeles resoun as it is y-ȝoue of wonder schappe children þat beeþ among vs, suche resoun me may ȝeue of dyuers manere peple þat Page  205, vol.2 beeþ wonderliche i-schape. For God knoweþ where and whanne it needeþ to make eny manere þing, he knoweȝ þe fairenesse of al creatures, and wiþ what liknesse and vnlik|nesse of parties þey beeþ i-medled*. [melled, α.] to gidres. Certeynliche in oure tyme was aman i-bore in þe est þat hadde tweie bodies aboue anon to þe myddel of þe wombe, and byneþe but oon; but ȝit for al þat we schal trowe þat he com*. [come, α., Cx.] of Adam. Þerfore, suche þat beeþ wonderliche i-schape oþer þey beeþ nouȝt; oþer þey beeþ no men; oþer ȝif þey beþ men, wiþ oute doute þey come of Adam his kynde.*. [Text as in α. and Cx.; clauses transposed in MS.] Touch|inge Antipodes þat men spekeþ of and seiþ*. [syngeth, Cx.] þat þey beeþ men in þe oþer side of þe erþe, and here feet toward oure,*. [owres, Cx.] and hire heed ȝonward and tredeþ hiderward, þat may be trowed by no resoun, þere is no storie þat makeþ vs haue knowleche; but onliche by gessynge of mankynde suche a tale is i-founde. Þey þe erþe be rounde al aboute and somdel honginge wiþ ynne þe holownesse of heuene, neuerþeles þe erþe is nouȝt bare in þat side, for he is byclipped and i-closed wiþ ynne Page  207, vol.2 þe water. And þey he were bare*. [baar, α.] and nouȝt so i-closed, ȝit it foloweþ nouȝt that men schulde wonye þere. ℞. But we*. [he, Cx.] wolde mene, as Marcianus seiþ in his Astrologie, þat Capricornus þe goot makeþ somer to þe Antipodes, and þe Crabbe*. [the cancer, the signe, Cx.] makiþ to hem wynter; and þat is acounted byȝonde þe side of Ethiopia, blew men*. [mennes, Cx. (twice.)] londe; þere men torneþ wel nigh here feet towarde men*. [mennes, Cx. (twice.)] feet þat woneþ aboute þe ilond Tyle vnder þe norþ sterre. Trevisa. Here take hed þat þe cercle þat*. [So Cx. (that); of, MS.] þe sonne holdeþ his cours ynne by the ȝere is i-deled in twelue parties, and eueriche partie þerof is i-cleped a signe, and euerich signe haþ his owne name.*. [a propre name, Cx.] Þese beeþ þe names of þe signes: þe Wether, þe Boole, þe Twynnes, þe Crabbe, þe Leon, þe Mayde, þe Balaunce, þe Scorpion, þe Archer, þe Goot, þe Sceen,*. [sceene, α.γ.; scene, β; stewe, Cx. There is very little doubt that scenc (Germ. Schenk) is the true reading. See Glossary.] þe Fisshe. Also twelue monþes ben*. [beþ, α.] in þe ȝere, and eueriche monþe þe sonne entreþ in to a signe,*. [So α.; assigne, MS.] as it falleþ for þe monþe. And so in Marche þey entreþ into þe Weþer; in Averel*. [Aprile, Cx.] in to the Boole; in May in to þe Twynnes; in Iuyn into þe Crabbe; and so forþ arewe by monþes and signes, so þat in Decembre þe sonne is in þe Goot. Þanne Marcianus wil mene whan he seiþ þat þe Goot makeþ somer [to Antipodes, þat whanne þe sonne is in þe Goot þan hit is somer]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] wiþ hem. But in Decembre it is mydwynter monþe; and whanne he seiþ þat þe Crabbe makeþ hem wynter, he meneþ þat whanne þe sonne is in þe Crabbe þan it is wynter wiþ ham, þat is in Iuyn, þat is mydsomer monþe: and so hit is i-clared*. [declared, Cx., α.] what it is to mene, þe Goot makeþ hem somer, and þe Crabbe wynter. Isidorus, Etymolog., libro xj o. Som tyme burþes beeþ i-bore wonderliche and*. [and] om. α.] wonderliche i-schape for to be bodynge Page  209, vol.2 and forto*. [to] om. α.] comynge*. [and to kenning, Cx., who has also various slight alterations.] of wondres þat schal bifalle, but þanne þey lyveþ nouȝt l[o]nge.*. [longe, α.] As in Xerxes*. [Excerses, MS., &c.] kyng of Pers his tyme a mare foled [a fox],*. [Added from α. and Cx.] and boded þat þe kyngdom schulde be vndoo.*. [vndo, α., Cx.] And in þe grete kyng Alisaundres*. [Alisaundre his, α.] tyme was i-brouȝt forþ a beest wonderliche i-schape, [for þe ouer parties of hym were i-schape]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] as þe parties of a man, but þey were dede, and [þe]*. [Added from Cx. (the).] neþer parties were i-schape as þe parties of dyuers manere bestes, and were onlyue,*. [alyue, Cx.] and bode*. [bodede, α.; betokened, Cx.] sodeyn sleynge of þe king,*. [So α. and Cx.; kyngdom, MS.] for þe worse parties lyuede lengere þan þe bettre. Trevisa.*. [Reference added from α.] William Wayte of Berkeley sigh a childe wiþ tweye hedes and tweye nekkes i-bore and i-fulled*. [cristened, Cx.] at Mese in Loreyn, þe ȝere of oure Lord a þowsand þre*. [So. α. and Cx.; sixe, MS.] hondred and sixe and fifty, þat ȝere þe kyng of Fraunce was i-take at þe batayle of Peyters. Þis child hadde tweie armes*. [So Cx.; names, MS., and α.] and tweie legges, as oþer children haueþ, and he hadde þe þridde legge growynge oute aboue þe buttokkes byhynde, and þe þridde arme bytwene þe tweie schuldres. Item Isidorus, libro ij o, capitulo 3o. Somtyme is grisliche and wonderliche chaungynge and schapynge*. [wonderfully chaungyng of schappes, Cx.] of men in to bestes, and is i-doo by wordes oþer by wichecraft. Som haþ and som*. [som] om. α.] fongeþ suche chaungynge by þe same kynde, somme by corrupcioun passeþ and chaungeþ in to oþer kynde, and so of calues Page  211, vol.2 i-rooted comeþ bees, and of hors i-roted comeþ harnettes.*. [cheaffers, α.; chauers, Cx.] Þerfore Ouyde seiþ—

Ȝf þou craft habbe,
Take armes holow*. [holw, α.] for þe crabbe.
Scorpio bryngeþ*. [springaþ, γ. (not α or β.)] haile,
To stynge with croked tayle.

Augustinus, libro 18o, capitulo 6o. In þe manere of wonder|ful tornynge, chaungynge, and schappinge of men and wommen hit is to holdynge þat fendes and euel men mowe make no kynde, noþer chaunge þat is i-made. Neuerþeles Almyȝti God soffreþ liknesse of þinges dyuersliche forto seme,*. [sene, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] so þat þe fantasie of a man þat gadreþ liknesse of dyuerse þinges in þouȝt, and in sweuenynge*. [dreamyng or sweuenyng, Cx. (who has various slight alterations.) Trevisa's translation is not very in|telligible, and may be a little cor|rupt.] whanne þe wittes beeþ i-lette and takeþ noon hede, makeþ to seme likenesse of bodies þat is nouȝt present, also of ymages and of dyuers liknesse and schappes of þinges þat neuere were i-made; and so men takynge semeþ þat þey seeþ liknesse and schappe of dyuers þinges and of bestes, as men semeþ slepynge and metynge wonderful sweuenes, and semeþ somtyme þat þey bereþ many ful heuy burþenes; [bote and þei ben berþennes]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] fendes bereþ hem, and so God þat demeþ riȝtfulliche suffreþ mankynde be ofte so bigiled. ℞. Of þis matire loke*. [lokeþ, MS. (not α.)] wiþ ynne more pleynliche after þe batayle of Troye.

Page  213, vol.2

Capitulum tertium.

THEY man, as it is i-seide, be liche [and]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] acord to þe world, and to*. [in two, Cx.] þinges þat ben conteyned þerynne; neuerþeles in many poyntes of manis condicioun, of his prerogatif*. [prerogatiue, α.] and his worþynesse, he is dyuerse and vnliche to the world. For þey mannis body*. [body] om. α.] we[re]*. [were, α., Cx.] firste i-made of erþ, neuer|þeles hit was [so]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] couenabliche and so acordynge to þe soule, þat in mannis body was euenness of complexioun, acordynge of*. [of] to, Cx.] lemes, riȝtfullnesse of stature, fairnesse of schappe. And so schulde þe body afterward be buxom to þe soule wiþ oute eny rebelnesse,*. [withouten ony rebellion, Cx.] and brynge forþ children wiþ oute eny synne, and lyue wiþ oute eny defaute of strengþe, and be translated and chaunged in*. [in to, Cx.] þe blisse of heuene wiþ oute deienge and deeþ. Also he schulde gete and conceyue children wiþ oute schame, and a womman schulde bere children wiþ oute sorwe and woo, and haue mete and drynke wiþ oute sweet*. [swoot, α.; swete, Cx.] and trauaille, sterynge and meuynge in lymes wiþ oute eny mysfare. And to al þis paradys was i-ȝeue to*. [to] om. α., Cx.] mankynde forto wonye ynne, Page  215, vol.2 and womman forto be manis [felawe],*. [Added from α. and Cx.] paradys to wonyng place, þe tree of lyf for mete, and al creatures for solace, at*. [and atte, Cx.] þe laste God hem*. [him, α.] self to be manis mede. But allas þat so noble a banyour fil so sone, þat was erliche i-brouȝt and i-putte into*. [in, α.] worschippe: þey*. [he, Cx. (twice.)] knewe nouȝt þat þey*. [he, Cx. (twice.)] schulde be liche to bestes, whan he dede þat was forbode. From þat day forþward þe body þat is corupt by synne greueþ þe soule. Þe flesche coueyteþ aȝenst þe soule, and manis wittes torneþ and assenteþ liȝtliche to euel. A mannes owne meynal wittes beeþ his owne enemyes. So þat al a manis lyf is in temptacioun while he lyueþ here in erþe, and þe dispocisioun of þe soule ruleþ, meyn|teneth, helpeþ, and conforteþ þe body; but aȝenward þe wrecched disposicioun*. [So α. and Cx.; dispensacioun, MS.] of þe body distourbeþ þe soule. Also man*. [So α. and Cx.; men, MS.] is euere faillynge [and] aweyward,*. [and aweyward, α.; and way|ward, Cx.] he may nouȝt stedfastliche abide; he falleþ liȝtliche, but he may nouȝt liȝtliche arise; profit of berþe is sorwe*. [So Cx.; profit is (is of, α.) berþe sorwe, MS. and α.] and care in*. [in hym, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] lyuynge; and man moot nedes deie. Plinius, libro 17o, capi|tulo 13o.*. [Reference transposed in MS.] And þey alle oþere þat beeþ i-made haue schilles,*. [shelles, Cx.]Page  217, vol.2 ryndes, skynnes, wolle, heer, bristles, feþeres,*. [veþeres, α.] wynges, oþer scales, man is i-bore wiþ oute eny helynge,*. [helynge or keueryng, Cx.] naked and bare, and anoon at his berþe he gynneth forto wepe; at þe bygynnynge liche to a beste, but his lymes failleþ hym, and may nouȝht helpe hym self. But he is feblere þan eny oþer beest; he can non helpe, he may nouȝt doo of hym self, bot wepe wiþ alle his myȝt. No beest haþ lyf more brutel and vnsiker. Noon haþ siknesse more grevous, noon more likynge to doo oþer wise þan he schulde. Noon is more cruel. Also oþer bestes loueþ everiche oþer of þe same kynde, and woneþ to gidres, and beeþ not cruel but to bestes of oþer kynde þat beeþ contrarye to hem. But man torneþ þat manere doynge vp so down, and is contrarye to hym self and cruel to oþer men; and*. [and yf, Cx.] he may not reche for to greue oþere, þan he bycomeþ angry and cruel to hym self. [℞.]*. [Added from Cx.] And ȝit to al þis man haþ tweie*. [So α. and Cx.; mystweie happes, MS.] myshappes, and þat riȝtfulliche: oon is of hym selue wiþ ynne hym;*. [hym] om. α., Cx.] so þat he þat þrewe away pees and reste þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] werreþ with ynne hym in his lyuynge, he haþ neiþer*. [noþer, α.] pees ne reste, but werre and stryf wiþ ynne. Anoþer myshap man haþ wiþ oute forþ, so þat he þat wolde not be sogette to God þat is aboue hym, now he feleþ his vnderlynges rebel to him. So þat þe Page  219, vol.2 creatures þat were i-ȝeue man to solas of brutelnesse, to susteynynge of confort, to bere vp febilnesse, to seruise and subiectioun, to merour*. [myrour, Cx.] and schewyge of wondres, now for þe moste deel he*. [þei, β.; α, γ.; they, Cx., rightly; but see p. 237 note.] fleeþ mannys siȝt, and his felawschippe, and his companye, and hateþ his handelynge, and wil nouȝt of his lordschippe, and dredeþ sore to lyue and dwolle*. [So α.; dwelle, Cx.; dye, MS.] wiþ hym.

Capitulum quartum.

ADAM was i-made of erþe in the filde of Damask þe sixte day of þe world, and i-brouȝt in Paradys, and synned þe same day, and was i-putte out after mydday. And he fel out of þe state of innocence and of*. [of þe] MS. (not α.)] welþe in to þe state*. [staat, α.] of wrecchednesse and of woo. Man in his*. [So α. and Cx.; womman in his, MS.] bygynnynge myȝte take wel swete mete in Goddis owne hous, but he desired þat he schulde nouȝt, and he assaied þat was forbode, and fel out of hiȝe in to lowh, out of liȝt in to derknesse and slym, out of his owne londe and contray in to outlawynge, out of hous in to maskynge and wayles*. [So α., β., γ.; into waylyngs and trouble, Cx.; valeyes, MS.] contray and lond, out of fruit into wepynge and woo, out of preisynge in to deel and sorwe, out of merþe in to stryf, oute of loue in to hate, out of ioye and welþe in to peyne and tene, out of helþe and grace in to gilt and synne,*. [So α. and Cx.; sitte, MS.] out of pees in to peyne, Page  221, vol.2 out of homlynesse into offence and wreþþe. Methodius. Þis Adam þe fiftenþe ȝere of his lyf gat*. [bigate, Cx.; and so below sometimes.] Cayn, þat is comounliche i-cleped Caym, and his suster Calmana. Þanne fiftene ȝere afterward, whan Adam was þritty ȝere olde, he gat Abel and his suster Delbora. But Abel was i-slawe, and his fader and moder made [deel and]*. [Added from α. and Cx., who has dole.] sorwe i-now*. [i-now] om. α. and Cx.; which have for him, probably rightly.] an hundred wynter. ℞. As Hebrewes seieþ, Adam gat Seth þe ȝere of his age an hundred and þritty, and lyued after eiȝte hondred ȝere, and so Adam lyued in al nyne hondred ȝere and þrittey. Trevisa. Þere were þre score and ten þat torned Holy Writte out of Hebrew in to Grewe, and þey beeþ i-cleped þe þre score and ten. ℞. Adam deide and was i-buried in Ebron, þat is i-cleped also Cariatharbe, þat is to menynge*. [meane, Cx.] þe cite of foure, þat beþ patriarkes þat beeþ i-buried þere, þat beþ Adam, Abraham, Ysaac, and Iacob. Seth gat Enes whan he was an hondred ȝere olde and fyue, and lyuede afterwarde eiȝte hondred ȝere; but [þe] þre*. [the þre, α. and Cx.; the latter has some omissions below.] skore and ten seith þat Seeþ was two hondred ȝere and fyue whan he gat Enos, and lyued after|ward seuen hondred ȝere and seuene. Enos, foure score ȝere olde and ten, gat Caynan, and lyuede afterward eiȝte hondred Page  223, vol.2 ȝere and fiftene; but þe þre score and ten seiþ þat Enos was nyne score ȝere and ten and gat Caynan, and lyued afterwarde seuen hondred ȝere and fiftene. Me seith specialliche þat Enos cleped fyrst Goddis name, for vppon caas he fonde first wordes of prayenge. Oþere, as Hebrewes telleþ, he fond first ymages to worschippe of God: forto wake þe slouþe of manis mynde into God Almyȝty. Caynan, þre score ȝere olde and ten, gat Malaleel, and lyuede afterwarde eyȝte hondred ȝere and fourty; but þe þre skore and ten putteþ an hondred ȝere to fore þe*. [So α. and Cx.; and, MS.] seuenty, and wiþ draweþ an hondred afterward. Malaleel, fyue and sixty ȝere olde, gat Iareth, and lyuede afterwarde eiȝte hondred ȝere and þritty. But þe seuenty setteþ an hondred to fore fyue and sixty, and wiþ draweþ an hondred aftirward. Iareth, an hondred ȝere olde and two and sixty, gat Enoch,*. [Enoch, MS., but Enoch below. The bar seems here and elsewhere to be only redundant.] and lyuede afterwarde eiȝte hondred ȝere foure score and ten.*. [foure score and ten] om. Cx.] [In]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þis seventy acordeþ wiþ othere. Enoch, fyve and sixty ȝere olde, gat Matusale, and lyued afterward þre hondred ȝere, and helde God Almyȝty his way, and was translated and i-brouȝt in paradys, but þe seuenty setteth a hondred ȝere tofore fyue and sixty. Þis Enoch was fyndere of lettres, and wroot som bookes, so seiþ Seynt Iudas the postle in*. [apostle, α.] his pistle.*. [pistel, α.; epistle, Cx.] Me trowede*. [troweth, Cx.] þat Adam deyde in Page  225, vol.2 þis Enoch his tyme; and as [in]*. [Added from β. γ.] Cayn his children Lamech þe seuenþe from Adam was worst; so in Seþ his children Enoch þe seuenþe from Adam was best. Metusale, an hondred ȝere olde foure skore and seuene, gat Lamech, and lyued afterward seuen hondred ȝere and tweyne, þat was anoon to Noes flood. Lamech, an hondred ȝere olde foure skore and tweyne, gaat Noe, and lyued aftirward fyue hondred ȝere foure score and ten.

Capitulum quintum.

CAYM, Adams firste sone, gat Enoch, he gat Irad, he gat Mauaiel,*. [So α.; Manuel, MS.] he gat Matusale, he gat Lamech. Þis Lamech Page  227, vol.2 took tweie wifes, Ada and Sella, and gat tweie sones, on Ada Iabel, þat was fader of hem þat wonede in tentes and in pauylouns. And Tubal þat was fadre of organistres and of harpores. And Lamech gat on Sella Tubalcan, þat was a smyth worchynge wiþ hamer; and his suster Noema, sche was first fyndere of*. [was first fyndere of] fonde first, Cx.] weuynge craft. Iosephus. Caym gadered richesse violentliche by strengþe, and made men be lecchoures and þeues, and tornede symple lyuynge [of]*. [Added from α.] men to fyndynge of mesures and of wyȝtes; he ordeyned merkes [and]*. [Added from α.] boundes of fildes and of londes, and bulde a citee and walled hit, for he dredde*. [drad, Cx.] ful sore hem þat he hadde i-greued. Isidorus, libro 15o, capitulo 2o. Men were first naked and vn|armed, nouȝt siker aȝenst bestes, noþer aȝenst men, and hadde no place to fonge hem, and to kepe hem fro*. [for, α.] colde and for hete; þan by besynesse of kynde witte þey beþouȝt hem of buldynge, þerfore þey bulde hem smale cootes and cabans, and waf ham and heled hem wiþ smale*. [cabans amd keuerd hem with smale, Cx.] twigges and wiþ reed, þat hire lyf myȝte be þe more saaf. Petrus, capitulo 27o. Lamech, þe seuenþe from Adam and most schrewe, was þe firste þat brouȝte yn bygamye, and so spousebreche aȝenst þe lawe of God and of kynde, and aȝenst Goddis owne dome.*. [doom, α.]Iosephus. Iabel ordeynede first flokkes of bestes, and mer|kis to knowe oon from anoþer, and departide kydes from Page  229, vol.2 lambren,*. [lambryn, α.; lambes, Cx.] and ȝonge from olde. Petrus. Tubalcain fonde first smythes craft*. [smythcraft, α.] and grauynge, and whan Tubalcain wrouȝte*. [So α. β. γ.; Tubal gan worke, MS.; Cx. has omissions here.] in his smeþes*. [smyth, α.] craft, Tubal hadde grete likynge to hire þe hameres sowne,*. [soun, α.] and he fonde proporciouns and acorde of melodye by wyȝte in*. [in] of, Cx.] þe hameres, and so þey vsed hym moche in þe acorde of melodye, but he was nouȝt fyndere of þe instrumentis of musik, ffor þey were i-founde longe after|ward. ℞. Here wise men telleþ þat þey Tubal vsede first musyk for to releue hym self*. [for his plesir, Cx.] while he was an herde, and kepte bestes, ffor all þat he was nouȝt þe firste þat fonde þe resoun of acorde in musyk by wiȝtes, but Pittagoras fonde þat; þerof loke wiþ ynne, in þe þridde book, of Pittagoras. Petrus, 27o. Lamech, an archer but somdel blynde, hadde a ȝongelynge þat ladde hym while he honted for pley and likynge, oþer for loue*. [one, Cx.] of bestes skynnes, ffor men ete no flesche to fore Noes flood. And hit happe*. [happede, α.] þat he slow Caym, þat loted*. [loyterd, Cx.] among þe busshes, and wende þat it were a wylde beste; and for his ledere warned hym noȝt, he slow hym also. And þerfore siþþe þat Caym his synne was i-punsched seuen|fold, Page  231, vol.2 þat is in þe seuenþe generacioun; for Lamech*. [Adam Lameth, α.] was þe seuenþe from Adam in þat lyne; Lamech his synne was i-punsched seuene and seuenty folde; ffor seuen and seuenty children þat come of hym were dede in Noes floode. Oþere for so many generaciouns were bytwene Lamech and Crist, þat payed a payne for vs alle.*. [payed rawnsome, Cx., who omits for vs alle.]Iosephus. No man schal trowe þat it is false, þat is i-rad of so longe lyuynge of men þat were somtyme, for þey lyuede faire lyf, and hadde couenable and clene mete and drynke, and also for blisful vertues þat þey vsede, and made hem besy aboute astrologie and gemetrie, þat þey myȝte neuere lerne but ȝif þey lyuede sixe hondred ȝere at þe leste; for in so longe tyme is þe grete ȝere of [þe]*. [Added from α.] sterres fulfilled. Petrus. Seth his children were good men anon to þe seuenþe generacioun; bot afterward men mys vsede men, and women [mysusede women].*. [So Cx. and α.]Genesis. Godes sones took men douȝtres, þat is to menynge, Seth his sones took Caym his douȝtres, and gete geantis. Petrus 29. And hit myȝhte be þat Incubus,*. [Incuby, α. γ.; Incubi, β., Cx., a preferable reading; but possibly Incubus may be meant for an (English) plural.] suche fendes as lieþ*. [liggeþ, α.] by wommen in liknesse of men, made geantes be i-gete, in þe whiche geantes gretnesse of herte answereþ and acordeþ to þe hugenesse of body. But after Noes flood Page  233, vol.2 were oþere geantes i-bore in Ebron, and afterward were oþere in Than, a citee of Egipte, and þilke geantes were i-cleped Tithanes; of hem com Enachym, his children woned in Ebron; of hem come Golias. Iosephus. Þat tyme men wiste, as Adam hadde i-seide, þat þey schulde be destroyed by fuyr, oþer*. [or ellys, Cx.] by water, þerfore bookes þat þey hadde i-made by grete trauaille and studie þey closede hem in twcie greet pileres i-made of marbyl and of brend tyle. In a piler of marbyl for water, and in a pyler of tyle for fuyre; ffor hit schulde be i-saued in*. [in] by, Cx.] þat manere to helpe [of]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] mankynde. Me seiþ þat þe piler of stoon scaped þe flood and is ȝit in Siria. Genesis. Þanne whan Noe was fyue hondred ȝere*. [ȝere he, MS. (not α.)] olde he gat Sem, Cham, and Iapheth; þat is to menynge,*. [to seyne, Cx.] whan he was so olde, he hadde þese þre sones i-gete, and he made þe schippe an hondred ȝere afterward of tymber, i-planed wel smethe,*. [smoth, Cx.] and was i-glewed with ynne.*. [within and without, Cx.] Þe schippe was þre hondred cubite long, and fifty cubite brood, and þritty cubite high from þe cule*. [kele, α. and Cx.] to þe hacches vnder þe cabans and housynge. Noe made a wyndow in his schippe, and a dore on Page  235, vol.2 þe side dounward, and housynge and cabans wiþ dyuers flo|rynge: þe wyndow was a cubyt highe. Trevisa. Here me*. [men, Cx.] may wondre how þe wyndowe was i-made byneþe in þe side of the schippe for comynge [yn]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] of water. Doctor de Lyra meueþ þis doute, and [sayth]*. [Added from Cx.] þat þere we haueþ fenestra, þat is a fenestre and a wyndow, þe lettre of hebrew hatte*. [haþ, α. β. γ. and Cx., which seems right.] lucerna, þat is a lanterne; and som men seiþ þat þat lanterne was a car|buncle oþer som oþer precious stoon, þat schoon and ȝaf liȝt clere i-now þere it was i-sette. Bot som oþer seiþ þat þat wyndowe was an hool*. [al hool of, α. and Cx.] cristal stoon, and feng yn liȝt*. [by whiche light entred, Cx.] and hilde out water. Meny oþer wyndowes were in þe schippe, and so it nedede, for [þe]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] schippe was ful grete and huge, and had yn ful many bestes. Petrus, 30. Þis schip was i-made somdel to þe liknesse of manis body, in þe whiche þe lengþe from þe sole of þe foot in to þe top of þe heued*. [heed, Cx.] is suche sixe as þe brede, þat is from þe myddel of þe side ribbes in þe oþer side. Also*. [Also in, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] þe lengþe is suche ten as þe depnesse þat streccheþ from þe ribbe*. [rigge, Cx.] to þe wombe. Trevisa. Yf þe man is*. [be of, Cx.] ful schape as he schulde be, noþer to greet noþer*. [ne, α.] to smal. Hugo de Arca.*. [Arm, MS.] Þis schippe myȝte nouȝt fonge so meny bestes and oþer þinges and so grete, but þe cubites were cubites of gemetrie.*. [geometry, Cx.] For þe comoun cubite þat me vseþ conteyneþ but a foot and an half, þat is sixe spannes. A spanne streccheþ from þe ende of þe þombe to þe ende of þe myddel fynger, whan þe honde is i-strauȝt. But a cubite of gemetrie conteyneþ sixe comoun cubites, þat wil be nyne foot long. Genesis. Þanne whan the Page  237, vol.2 schippe was i-made, Noe, in þe ȝere of his lyf sex hondred, en|trede and ȝede in to [þat]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] schippe þe firste day of þe seconde monþe, þat is May.*. [of Maii, Cx.] And in eiȝte dayes he brouȝte in to þe schippe al þat he was i-hote yn for to brynge,*. [al that he was warned to brynge in, Cx.] or*. [ar, α.; er, Cx.] oure Lorde sent reyne vppon*. [here vppon, α., Cx.] erþe. And so þe flood was i-made, and occupied þe erþe wel nyh al a ȝere. Þe water of þe flood passede fiftene cubites aboue þe hiȝest hilles. For the workes of mankynde defouled þe ayer so hiȝe, as me troweþ, by worschippynge of fuyre þat smokede and spranclede*. [sprynkeld, Cx.] vp so hiȝe. Þis ȝere endeþ*. [ended, Cx.] the firste age of þe world from Adam to Noe his flood vnder ten generaciouns þat we speke of raþer. And Iosephus, libro primo, capitulo quarto, And also the Hebrewes seiþ þat þis firste age of þe world conteyneþ two þowsand ȝere seuen hondred*. [hondred ȝere, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] and sixe and fifty; but þe seuenty torneres and Isidre also, libro quinto, seiþ two þowsand ȝere seuen hondred and two and fourty. But Ierom seiþ not fulliche two þowsand. And Methodius seiþ two þowsand, for here he leueþ þe odde ȝeres þat beeþ ouer þe þowsandes.*. [So α. and Cx.; þowsand, MS.] For þey*. [he, β. γ. and Cx., which is right, but the strange use of the pronouns has been noticed before both in MS. and α.] calcleþ and acounteþ þe ages of þe world by þowsendes, and leet þat oþer deel abyde.*. [(Diagrams of the ark as in Higden's text.)]

Page  239, vol.2

Capitulum sextum.

AT þe laste whanne þe water of þe flood was wiþdrawe*. [flode withdrewe, α. and Cx.] and*. [and] om. Cx.] Noe went out of þe schippe þe seuen and twenty day of þe secounde monþe, þat is, May; þan oure Lorde byhete Noe þat no suche flood schulde be after þat; and in tokenynge*. [tokyn, α. Cx.] of þe*. [þat, α.] couenant he sette his bowe in þe clowdes, þat is, þe reyn|bowe. Petrus, 32o. Þe reynbowe is tokenynge*. [tokyn, α.] of tweye domes, of þe dome þat was i-doo by water; for me schulde nouȝt drede hit; and of þe doome þat schal be by fuyre, for me schulde drede hit. Þerfore þe bowe haþ tweie coloures, þe vtter is watery, for þe dome of water is apassed; þe ynnere is fury, for þe dome of fuyre schal be. And holy seyntes telleþ þat þe reynbowe schal nouȝt be seie fourty ȝere to fore þe day of dome. Also þei telle þat it roon neuere from Adam to Noes flood. Also noon reynbowe was i-seie at þat tyme, noþer flesche ne fische i-ete, noþer wyn i-dronke. For þat tyme was as hit were springing tyme, and þoo was i-now and plente of al*. [Text as in α. and Cx.; some words repeated without sense in MS.] heleful*. [helthful, Cx.] þinges, þat was afterward i-chaunged þorw synne. Page  241, vol.2 Bot after þe flood mankynde hadde leue forto ete fische and flesche,*. [flesch and fische, α.] þat raþer ete herbes and rootes. Noe lyuede after þe flood þre hondred ȝere and fifty, and he leuede in alle nyne hon|dred wynter*. [yere, Cx.] and fifty, and so deyde, and lefte þre sones [on lyue]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Sem, Cam, and Iapheth, of þe whiche þre com al manere of mankynde. Genesis. Þanne two ȝere after þe flood Sem was an hondred ȝere old, and gat Arphaxath, and lyuede afterward fyue hondred ȝere. Arphaxath was fader of Caldeys, and gate Sale whan he was an hondred ȝere olde and fyue and þritty, as Ierom seiþ; but Isidre, libro sexto and þe*. [þe] om. α.] Hebrewes seiþ fyue and þritty ȝere. He gat Caynan,*. [He gat Caynan] om. α. and Cx.] and lyued afterward þre hondred ȝere and þre;*. [So α. and Cx.; þritty, MS.] [but þe seventy, and Luc also þat folweþ hem: Arphaxat whanne he was an hondred ȝere and fyue and þritty, he gat Caynan, and lyuede afterward þre hondred ȝere and þritty.]*. [Added from α. and Cx. (the latter has also foloweth.)] Caynan, an hondred ȝere olde and þritty, gat Sale; of hym come þe olde Samaritans and the Iudees, and lyuede afterward foure hon|dred and eiȝte and þritty ȝere,*. [ȝere] transposed in α.] so*. [so þat, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] þe seuenty telleþ. Page  243, vol.2 Hebrewes seiþ þat Sale, whan he was þritty ȝere olde, gat Heber. Of þis Heber þey were i-cleped Hebrewes. And Sale lyuede after he hadde i-gete Heber foure hondred ȝere, but þe seuenty and Isidre acounteþ*. [accompted, Cx.] þe hondred ȝere afore*. [tofore, α.; bifor, Cx.] þe þritty, and þre hondred ȝere after þe þritty. Of [Heber]*. [Added from Cx.] Hebrewes had*. [haue, Cx.] þe name. Þe Hebrewes seiþ þat Heber foure and þritty ȝere olde gat Phalech, and lyuede afterward foure hondred ȝere and þritty; but þe seuenty putteþ þe hondred tofore þe foure and þritty. Hebrewes seiþ þat Phalech þritty ȝere olde gat Reu, þat hatte Ragau also, and lyuede afterward two hon|dred ȝere and nyne; but þe seuenty and Ysidre putteþ þe hon|dred tofore þe þritty, and afterwarde two hundred and nyne. Þis hatte*. [heet, Cx.] Phalech riȝtfulliche, for Phalech is to menynge*. [to say, Cx.]departynge; for longage was departed in his tyme, þat raþer was al oon in þe buldynge of þe tour Babel. And so men were departed in to dyuers londes. Ragau, two and þritty ȝere olde, gat Sarug, and lyuede afterward two hondred yere and seuene; so seiþ Hebrewes. But þe seuenty and Isidre seiþ an hondred tofore two and þritty, and afterwarde two hon|dred and seuene. Hebrewes seiþ þat Sarug þritty ȝere olde gat Page  245, vol.2 Nachor, and lyued afterward two hondred ȝere and tweyne; but the seuenty and Ysidre putteþ an hondred ȝere to fore þritty,*. [the thrytty, Cx.] and two hondred after.*. [afterward, Cx.] Hebrewes seiþ þat Nachor nyne and twenty ȝere olde gat Thare, and lyued afterward an hondrede ȝere and nyne; but þe seuenty putteþ an hondred ȝere to fore nyne and twenty; and Isidre seiþ þat Nachor was seuenty ȝere and nyne, whan he gat Thare. [Þe Hebrewes and Isidre seiþ þat]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Thaare seuenty ȝere olde gat Abraham, Naachor, and Aram,*. [Aaron, MS.; Aran, Cx.] and lyued afterward an hondred ȝere and þritty, but the seuenty putteþ the hondred to fore þe seuenty ȝeres.*. [yere, Cx.]Trevisa. Ȝit take hede rediliche of þe seuenty: I haue i-seide to fore þat þey were þre score and ten, þat tornede Holy Writte out of Ebrew in to Grewe: hem I clepe þe Seuenty, and so þey beþ i-cleped in þis book and of meny holy doctoures; and þey beeþ specialliche i-cleped þe Seuenty tourneris,*. [turneres, α.] for þey torned Holy Writte out of Ebrew in to Grewe.*. [Cx. omits the extract from Tre|visa.]Petrus, tricesimo octavo. And so the secounde age of þe world is i-ended, from Noes flood to Habrahams burþe; and conteyneþ ten generaciouns, and two hondred ȝere foure*. [So α. and Cx.; and þritty foure, MS.] score and twelue, so seiþ the Hebrewes, Ioseph, and Ierom. But þe seuenty, as*. [and, α. and Cx.] Seynt Austyn, acounteþ a þow|sand ȝere and two and seuenty, and eleuene*. [enleuene, α. and Cx.] generaciouns. But Isidre acounteþ nyne hondred ȝere, and two and fourty; Page  247, vol.2 and Met[h]odius a þowsand. Þe caas of þis dyuersite*. [dyuercete, α.] is, for þe seuenty, and Seynt Austyn*. [Augustyn, Cx.] also, putteþ to eueriche fader his age from Arphaxath to Nachor an hondred ȝere. Beda. As Noe was þe tenþe from Adam, so Abraham was þe tenþe from Noe. Noþeles Luke followeþ þe seuenty in his genelogie, whan he seiþ, "Qui fuit Sale," þat is to menynge, "þat was Sale his sone" and so forþ, "þat was Caynan his sone, þat was Arphaxath his sone." Þere Luke foloweþ þe seuenty, þat putteþ on generacioun moo þan þe Hebrewes putteþ. Augus|tinus de Civitate, libro quintodecimo, capitulo tertiodecimo. Whanne in meny translaciouns is dyuersite i-founde, þat may nouþt stonde; þanne þe firste longage, þat þe tornynge and translacioun is i-made of, schal be most i-trowed.*. [bileued, Cx.]Beda. Þe tornynge and translacioun of þe seuenty was first nouȝt ful rediliche i-torned, oþer it was afterward apayred by mysbe|leued men. Eusebius. From Adam to Abraham is no storie i-founde in Grewe, noþer in straunge langage. Methodius. Noe hadde a sone i-bore two þowsand ȝere and an hondred after þe begynnynge of þe worlde; þat sone heet Ionicus; Noe ȝaf hym lordschip anoon to þe see Eliochora. To hym God Almyȝty ȝaf witte and wisdom þat he schulde fynde Page  249, vol.2 science of astronomye, and he couþe*. [kouþ, α.] telle to forehonde*. [bifore, Cx.] what schulde byfalle*. [So α. and Cx.; byfalleþ, MS.] and come afterward; and specialliche of þe bygynnynge and endynge of þe foure cheef kyngdoms. And so þey knewe [þat]*. [Added from α. and Cx.; knew|ethe, MS.] firste of Cham þe Assires schulde regne; of Cham com Belus. Afterward of Sem þe Medes, þe Þerses, and Grees.*. [the Grees, Cx., which is better.] Þan of Iapheth þe Romayns. Ionichus schewed al þis to his disciple [Nemproth, þerfore]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Nemproth had greet desire to reigne, and reigned in Babiloyne amonge Cham his children. Þey get and hild Assiria and Egipt, forto Nynus regned in Assiria vppon þe Assires. Iosephus, libro primo, capitulo quinto. After þat Noe was deed in Phalech his tyme, whan*. [than, Cx.] al þe men of þe worlde hadde oon longage and tonge, Noe his children by ledynge and by techynge of Nemproth trowed þat good happes and good speede is nouȝt of God Almyȝty, but by manis owne vertues and dedes. Also þey wende þat God Almyȝty wolde departe hem by enuye, þat he myȝte þe more liȝtliche make hem suget. Also þey dradde þat anoþer flood schulde come, and bulde a wel hiȝe place*. [tour, α.] of brent tyle and glewe instede of morter in þe feeld þat hatte Sennaar; þere Babiloyne was afterward i-bulde, but God Almyȝty departed Page  251, vol.2 hem for þey schulde not make discencioun and stryf among hem self. Þis Nemprot was Chus his sone; Chus was Cham his sone; and Cham was Noe his [sone].*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Þat place is i-cleped Babel, þat is to menynge schedynge; for þere at God Almyȝte his heste þe longages and tonges of þe bulders were i-schad and to schift.*. [skaterd, Cx.] Heber was i-holde gilteles of conspiracioun in þe buldinge of þe toure, and þerfore he was i-spared as gilteles in þe schedynge of tonges. Petrus, tricesimo quinto. Þanne Nemprot, a stronge huntere of men, þat is, a tyraunt vppon men, he putte Assur out of þat londe, and byganne to reigne among Cham his children*. [childer, Cx.] in þe citee of Babiloyne þat he bulde. Noþeles Semiramis þe queene afterward made þis citee wel more. Afterward Nemprot wente to þe men of Pers and tauȝte hem to worschippe þe fuyre, and foundede þere þe citee of*. [of] om. α.] Nyneue. Afterward Ninus and Semiramis*. [Semyramys, MS. (Semyramis, above.)] made þat citee more.

Capitulum septimum.

Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro octavodecimo, capitulo primo. Whanne men were departed and to schift*. [to schufte or skatred, Cx.] in to dyuers londes, and euerich folowed his owne likynge and wille, while Page  253, vol.2 [þat]*. [Added from α. β. γ. and Cx.] it semede þat what þat*. [Possibly þat should be cancelled; it is found however in α. β. γ., as well as in MS.] was desired was i-now to no man. Mankynde was departed aȝenst hym self, and þe strenger party bare doun þat [oþer],*. [Added from α. and Cx.] and tolde more prys of fredom þan of sauacioun and of hele; so þat it was greet wonder of hem, þat hadde leuere be lost and i-spilde þan be vnderlynges and servy.*. [seruauntes, Cx.] And ȝit be*. [by, α. and Cx.] lore of kynde, bettre is to*. [to] om. α. and Cx.] be vnderlynge and seruaunt þan be put out of lyf. Þerfore by Goddes ordenaunce hit is doo þat som men beeþ kynges and lordes and some beeþ sugettis and seruauntes. Isidorus, libro octavo, capitulo tertio. Þan men þat come of Sem, Noe his [firste]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] sone, hadde þe souþlond from þe rysynge of þe sonne anon to þe Fenices, men þat so hatte. [Þese men, þat so hatte,]*. [Added from α. and (partly) Cx.] þat come of Sem, occupied foure hondred contrees and sixe vnder seuene and twenty longages. Þey þat come of Cham helde þe londe by þe souþ occean anoon to þe see Gaditan, þre hondred contrayes*. [contrayes and sixe] MS. (first hand.)] foure score and fourtene vnder þritty longages and tonges. Augustinus, libro sexto. Þey that come of Iapheth helde þe lond from þe hil þat hatte mons Taurus in Cilicia norþward toward þe norþ occean, þe haluendel*. [to half dele, Cx.] of Asia, and al Europa anon to þe Brittische see,*. [occean, α.] þat is þe Englische see, þre hundred contrayes vnder fiftene longages and tonges, and lefte eche lond and Page  255, vol.2 puple his name; of the whiche meny beeþ now i-changed oþer of kynges of londes, oþer of the same londes, oþer of maneres*. [So α. and Cx.; manere, MS.] of men of londes. Oþer thinges stondeþ, as it were;*. [stande as they were, Cx.] so þat ȝit it is sene of whom þey come; as þe Assures come of Assur, and the Hebrewes come of Heber. Of som is no resoun i-knowe, as þat þat me seieþ þat þe Egipcians perteyneþ to Mesraim and Ethiopes to Chus. Iosephus, libro primo, capitulo quinto. Of Chus forto now þe Ethiopes beeþ i-cleped Cusey*. [Chusei, α.] and þe Egipcians Mesrei. And so, when men were to schift into dyuers londes, som chaungede names as hem likede, as the Grees, oþer for fairenesse of wrytinge, oþer for likynge of rederes, oþer forto make her owne [selfe the]*. [Added from Cx.] noblete of hir forfadres. Hugo, capitulo Frigia.*. [Frisia, MS. and α.] Ofte names beeþ i-sette for a manere of doynge.*. [Dyverce namys after dyverce con|dycyouns in margin of MS. and α.] As whan we wole mene þat þe*. [So α. and Cx.; þei, MS.] Troians beeþ feerful, we cleped hem Frigios; and ȝif we wole mene þat þey beþ gentil and noble, we clepeþ hem Dardans; ȝif we wil mene þat þey beeþ stronge, we clepeþ hem Troians; ȝif hardy, we clepeþ hem Hectores.*. [So α. and Cx.; Ector, MS.]Isidorus, libro 14o, capitulo secundo. Men of the est sowneþ her Page  257, vol.2 wordes in þe þrote as Hebrewes and Siries;*. [Syres, α.] men of myddel londes in þe roof of þe mouþ, as Grees and Asyans; men of þe west brekeþ here words bytwene þe teeþ, as Spaynardes*. [Spaynols, Cx.] and Romayns. Augustinus de Civitate, libro sextodecimo, capitulo octavodecimo.*. [Cx. prints octodecimo (at length, and so below.)] But siþe þat men were first to schift*. [firste skatred, Cx.] into dyuerse londes, þey þe kyngdoms of Assiries*. [Assyriens, Cx.] in þe est, of Egipcians in þe souþ, and of Sithes*. [Schytes, α.; Shites, Cx.] in þe norþ, þat is in þe*. [þe] om. α.] Grees, begunne as it were at ones: Augustinus, libro octavodecimo, capitulo primo:—noþeles the kyngdoms [of]*. [Added from α.] Assiries, of Medes, þat is of Perses, of Grees, of Romayns, folowede eche after oþer, and were principal among oþere. Noþeles þe firste and þe laste were more noble, and durede lengere.*. [lengere þan, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] Oþer kyngdoms [and kynges longede to þese kyng|doms].*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Also berynge and dedes of men of Athenys beeþ gretter in loos and in fame þan þey beþ in dede; so seiþ Salustius and Varro*. [Farro, MS. and α.] also. And þat is for*. [for that, Cx.] writers and philo|sofres of Athenes were solempne of witt, and preysede þe dedes hugeliche and ouermesure. ℞. And for þe tretysis*. [tretys is, MSS. and Cx.] ful and general of þe forsaide foure cheef kyngdoms, from þe begynnynge of þe kyngdom of Assiries to þe ende of þe kyngdom of Romayns, axeþ longe writyne and proces; þerfore Page  259, vol.2 of þre þe*. [þre þe] So MS., α. β. γ.] firste kyngdoms, as it were of þe same age wiþ þe kyngdom of Assiries, firste we schal write.

Capitulum octavum.

THE kyngdom of Sithes*. [Schytes, α.] in þe north by cause of age and of tyme axeþ þe secounde place in ordre, and is sette after þe kyngdom of Assiries, and bygan in Sarug his tyme vnder Thanaus þe firste kyng þat*. [þer, α.] was þere. Sarug was Abraham his fader graunsire. Hit semeþ þat þe ryver Thanays haþ þe name of þis kyng Thanaus; þe whiche ryuer in þe norþside of þe world departeþ betwene Asya and Europa. Þis kyng|dom was neuere ouercome, but þries he conquerede Asia and ouercome Darius, kyng of Perses, and slowh Cyrus þe kyng, and dede awey Zephiron, þat was þe grete Alisaundre his ledere. Petrus, capitulo sexagesimo. Also anoþer kyngdom was in þe west, and was þe kyngdom of Scicions,*. [Either for Sicyon or Sicyonians.] þat is of Arcadia, a partie of Grees in Europa, and durede vnder Agilaus first nyne hondred ȝere þre score and enlevene. Agilaus is a lorde, as it were a kyng oþer an emperoure. Afterwarde Page  261, vol.2 þis kyngdom durede, vnder oon and pritty kings,*. [So α. and Cx.; kyngdoms, MS.] from þe foure and twenty ȝere of Nachor Abraham his graunsire anon to Zeuxippus,*. [Zeusippus, MSS. and Cx.] þat reignede þe ȝere of Hely þe preost seuen|tene. Þerfore oon kyngdom in Arcadia somtyme heet Agealea. Noþeles afterward hit heet Peloponnensis; þere was oon of þe kyngdom of Grees. [℞.]*. [Reference added from α. and Cx.] Noþeles Denys seiþ þat þe kyndom of Scicions bygan þe ȝere of Thare fifty; þat was twenty ȝere or Abraham was i-bore; Thare was Abraham his fader. In þis kyngdom þe firste kyng was Cecrops,*. [Cicropos, MS.; Cicrops, α.] and reignede fyue and fifty ȝere. Anoþer kyngdom as hit were in þe same age with þe*. [þese, α. Cx.] forseide kyngdoms was*. [þat was, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] þe kyngdom of Egipt in þe souþ, and bygan in Nachor his tyme, Abraham*. [Abrahams, α.] his grauntsire. Þis kyngdom hadde fiftene grete lordeschippes, and cleped hem Dynastias, from þe firste Mineus, oþer Zones,*. [sonnes, Cx.] to Abrahams tyme. After|ward Thebei, men of Thebes, hylde sixtene*. [sexten, Cx.] grete lord|schippes, and cleped hem Dynastias.*. [Damastias, MS., and similarly below.] Þan Diapolitani, þat were i-cleped Pharaones, þat were kynges of Egipt, hylde eiȝtetene grete lordschippes and cleped hem Dynastias. Dynastia is grete lordschippe, and power durynge in a pro|uince to chese*. [that chose, Cx.] kyng oþer emperoure. And so þis kyngdom of Egipt durede anon to þe tyme of Cambys[es]*. [Cambis, MS. and α.] þat was Page  263, vol.2 Cyrus his sone. Cyrus was kyng of Pers, and ȝaf while he lyuede þe kyngdom of Assyria þat was þoo i-torned to þe Medes to his sone Cambys[es], and cleped him Nabugo|donosor also, and his prince Olofernes,*. [So α.; Olofernus, MS.] and sodued Egipt. And Egipt was vnder seuene kynges of Perse, and after wente from the Perses, and hadde ten kynges of her owne forto Ochus, þat heet Artaxerxes*. [Arthaexerses, MS.; Artharexer|ses, α.] also, þe twelfþe kyng of Perses, put out Nactanabo,*. [So α. and Cx., Nactabono, MS.] the leste kyng of Egipt, anon to Ethiopia, and wan þe kyngdom of Egipt. After|ward þe kyngdom durede vnder þre kynges*. [So Cx.; þre kyndoms, α.; þe kyng Donis, MS.] anoon to the seuenþe ȝere of þe grete Alisaundre,*. [Alexander, α.] after [þat]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þe kyngdoms of Egipt and of Perse was*. [So MS., α. β. γ.; were Cx. Per|haps his own correction.] vnder þe Grees þre hondred ȝere vnder þrittene kynges, þat were i-cleped Lagides and Ptholomeus*. [Tholomeus, Cx. (i.e. Ptolemies.)] anoon to Iulius Cesar his tyme; oþer, as som mem meneþ, anon to þe fiftenþe ȝere of Augustus Cesar that ouercome Cleopatra,*. [Cleopatram, α.] Denys his doȝhter. Denys was Ptholomeus and last Lagid. Egipt from that*. [So Cx.; the, MS.] tyme fel to*. [So α. and Cx.; in to, MS.] Romanys,*. [þe Romayns, α.] and so al þe kynges of Egipt from the firste begynnynge anon to Alisaundre were foure score and eleuene. Þe kynges of Egipt were first i-cleped Page  265, vol.2 Dyastenes, and þan Pharaones, and at þe last Lagides and Ptholomeus.*. [Ptolomees, α.]Iosephus, libro octavo, capitulo tertio. Þe kynges of Egipt hadde in her childhode oþer names, but whanne they were i-made kynges þey were i-cleped Pharaones. For a kyng is i-cleped Pharao in þe longage of Egipt. Þe kynges of Alexandria were i-cleped Ptholomeies, when þey were i-maked*. [made, α.] kynges; and þe kynges of Romaynes were i-cleped Cesars. Salomon wedded a kynges douȝter of Egipt; [I rede of no kyng after hym of Egipt]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þat was cleped Pharao. Augustinus, libro sextodecimo, capitulo octavo|decimo. Þe fourþe kyngdom, but þe eldest of tyme, is þe kyngdom of Assiries; and bygan in þe est vnder Belus Nemproth þe fyue and twenty*. [So α. and Cx.; þritty, MS.] ȝere of Sarug þat was Abra|hams fader*. [ffader, α.] grauntsire. Þis kyngdom had lordschippe of al Asia outake Inde. Petrus sexagesimo. And it durede a þowsand ȝere þre hundred and tweyne, vnder seuene and þritty kynges anon to þe [last]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Sardanapallus þe kyng, þat dyede in*. [in] om. α. and Cx.] þe seuenþe ȝere of Ozias, kyng of Iuda. Þan Arbaces, þat heet Abbacus*. [Abaccus, α.] also, þe kynges styward and his traytour, for he slowh hym and tornede þe kyngdom of Assiries to þe Medes, þat is to vndirstondynge in hope and nouȝt in dede. [℞.]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] For after Sardanapallus from þe Page  267, vol.2 seuenþe ȝere of Ozias kyng of Iuda to Manasses kyng of Iuda, aboute an hondred ȝere and twelue, the Assiries hadde seuen myȝty kynges, þey [he]*. [Added from α.] hadde nouȝt þe kyng|dom al hool, of þe whiche þese beeþ þe names: Arbaces, Phull, Teglafalasar, Salmanasar, Senacheryb, Assaradon, Sargon. Noþeles som wil mene þat after Sardanapallus his deþ, from þe seuenþe ȝere of Ozias þe kyng to þe ȝere of*. [of þe, α.] transmygracioun of Iewes oon and þritty, þe hoole kyngdom of þe est stood with þe Medes two hondred ȝere and þritty vnder eyȝte kynges, from þe firste Arbaces anon to Astyages þat was Darius em*. [eem, α.; vncle, Cx., and so be|low.] and Cyrus his grauntsire. Cyrus ouertorned þis Astyages, and tornede þe kyngdom of Medes to þe hool kyngdom of Perses, and lefte þe kyngdom of Hircans to Astyages. Noþeles in Senacheryb kyng of Assiries his tyme, and in Ezechias his tyme kyng of Iuda, com vppe þe*. [to þe, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] grete kyngdom of þe Babileyns and Caldeys, and durede vnder seuene kynges,*. [So Cx.; kyngdoms, MS. and α.] þat beeþ Meredak,*. [Here and below the orthography of the proper names has been left unaltered.] þat hatte Baladak also; Nabugodonosor, Euilmederok,*. [Euilmerodoc, α.] Rugusar,*. [Regusar, α.] Labofardok,*. [Labofardak, α.] Balthasar, þat heet Nabar also. Hym slowh Cyrus i-socied to his eme*. [eem, α.; vncle, Cx., and so be|low.] Darius, Page  269, vol.2 and tornede his kyngdom [to þe kyngdom]*. [Added from α.] of Perse and of Medes þe ȝere of þe transmygracioun of Iewes oon and þritty. And so passede two hondred ȝere and sixty from þe seuenþe ȝere of Ezechias*. [So Trevisa for Ozias.] kyng of Iuda. In þe whiche ȝere bygan to faille þe hole kyngdom of Assiries anon to þe ȝere of þe transmygracioun oon and þritty. Þoo bygan þe hool kyng|dom of Pers.*. [Peerse, α. (Peers, above.)] [Þan þe hole kyngdom of Perse,]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] from þe ȝere of þe transmygracioun oon and þritty anon to þe seuenþe ȝere of þe grete Alexandre, þat was from þe firste Cyrus to þe laste Darius Arsanius his sone, durede two hondred ȝere and fyue and þritty vnder þrittene kynges; þat was Cyrus þe firste, Cambyses þe seconde. His fader Cyrus ȝaf hym anoþer name, and cleped hym Nabugodonosor, and ȝaf hym Nynyve wiþ þe kyngdom of Assiries, whyle he was hym self alyve.*. [anlyue, α.] Vnder hym byfel þe storie of Iudith. Þe þridde Ermeudes Magus; þe ferþe Darius Tapsis his sone; þe fifte Excerses; þe sixte Athar Excerses,*. [Artarexerses, α.] þat heet Longimanus*. [Logimanus, α.; Longinianus, Harl. MS.] also. Vnder hym were Esdras and Nee|myas. Þe seuenþe Excerces; the eiȝþe Fogodian; þe nynþe Darius Nothus. Nothus is a bastard, or he þat is i-gete of a worþy fader and i-bore of an vnworþy moder. Þe tenþe Page  271, vol.2 Artharexcerses, þat heet Assuerus also; vnder hym was Hester. Þe enleuenþe Ochus; þe twelfþe Arsanius; þe þrit|tenþe Darius Arsanius his sone. Þe grete Alexandre ouer|come hym, and tornede þe kyngdom of Perses to þe hole kyng|dom of Macedonyes*. [Macedons, α.] and*. [at þe Grees, α.] of Grees. Noþeles þis*. [So α. and Cx. Noþeles þere were oþer kyngdoms, but þis, MS.] kyngdom of Macedons bygan raþer vnder þe firste Cranaus þe fourtenþe ȝere of Ozias kyng of Iuda, and so durede sexe hondred ȝere and sixe and þritty anon to þe laste Persius. Þe Romayns slowh hym þe nynþe ȝere of Onias þe bisshop, þat heet Me|nelaus also. Noþeles þere were oþer kyngdoms in Grees, eueriche after oþer i-ordeyned; of þe whiche þe firste was in Arcadia at þe Scicions, þat peple, and was i-torned þens to þe Peloponenses, as it is i-seide tofore. Anoþer kyngdom of Grees was among þe Argyues, and was i-torned þennes to þe Macens.*. [Mecens, α. and Cx.] Anoþer was at Athenys, þat citee; anoþer among þe Lacedemons, þese were þe Sportans. Anoþer at Epirus, þat is T[h]racia. Anoþer at Macedonia. Þe kyngdom*. [kyng, Cx.] of Rome swolowede vp alle þese kyngdoms [as he dede oþere kyngdoms]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] of londes, and made hem [alle]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] longe to þe kyngdom of Rome. In þis manere þe kyngdom of Rome*. [Text as in Cx.: words errone|ously repeated in MS.]Page  273, vol.2 bygan vnder Ianus þe firste kyng of Italy, and durede anon to þe seuenþe ȝere of Darius Arsanius his sone, kyng of Perses. Hym slowh þe grete Alexander. And so þe grete*. [grete] om. α.] kyngdom of Rome durede at þat cours eiȝte hondred ȝere and foure score, vnder seuen*. [eiȝte, MS. and α. (not Cx).] and twenty kynges. [Of þe whiche seuen and twenty*. [tweny, α.] kynges]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] sixe þe firste*. [The same order of words in α. and Cx.] were Latyns. Þe fourtene*. [So Cx.; fourtenþe, MS.] þat were*. [came, Cx.] after were Albans. Þe oþere seuene þat come after þat þe citee was i-bulde were Romayns, of þe whiche Romulus was þe firste and Tarquinius þe proude was þe laste. Afterward kynges were i-put*. [put, α] out of þe citee, and were from ȝere to ȝere tweie consulles i-chose. After consuls tribunes plebis*. [plebes, MS., Cx.] and dictatores*. [doctores, MS. α. and Cx.] rulede the comounte anon to Iulius Cesar his tyme, foure hondred ȝere þre score and foure. Afterward he*. [they, Cx.] lift of þe name of kynges, and cleped here cheef lordes Cesares, emperours, and Augustes; of þe whiche Iulius Cesar was þe firste of a consul and dictatour i-made empe|rour; his successour and ne was Octauianus*. [So Cx.; Octianus, α.; Occeanus, MS.] Augustus, and brouȝte alle þe kyngdoms of þe world in to oon kyngdom al hool. Þanne Philippe þe eiȝte and twentyþe emperour was þe firste emperour þat was Cristene.*. [cristened, Cx.] Þanne þe grete Page  275, vol.2 Constantyn made Constantynople*. [Constantynnoble, MS., α. β. γ., here and below. (not Cx.)] þe chief citee of þe empere, and lefte Rome forto be chief see of þe pope to Seint Petre his successours. Whanne þe empere was trans|lated and i-torned to þe grete Charles, kyng of Fraunce, Pipinus þe kynges sone, þanne þe name of þe emperour [was] lefte*. [lifte after þanne in MS. (not α. or Cx.) The verb is wanting in all, and in β. and γ.] allone at Constantynople.

Capitulum nonum.

Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro octavodecimo. In Sarug his tyme Belus, Nemproth his sonne, kyng of Babi|loyne, wente into Assyria, and wan it afterward wiþ ynne a schort tyme; and whan he hadde i-reigned fiue and sixty ȝere þanne he deide. And his sone Nynus regnede after hym, and bygan to reigne þe ȝere of Thare Abrahams fader euene þritty, and was kyng wel nygh of al Asia outake Inde þre and fifty ȝere. In þe ȝere of his kyngdom þre and fourty Abraham was i-bore, to fore þe buldinge of þe citee of Rome nyh a þowsand ȝere and þre hondred. Orosius, libro primo. Þe ȝere to fore þe buldynge of þe citee of Rome a þow|sand and þre*. [nyne, α.] hondred, Nynus kyng of Assiriens for couetise to make hym greet lordschipe*. [his lordshippe grete, Cx.] bare out armour, and lyuede Page  277, vol.2 cruel lyf fifty ȝere in al Asia in werre and in bataille, and aroose out of þe souþ and from þe reed see, and destroyed in þe norþ vppon þe see þat hatte Eusinum þat streccheþ from the ryver Thanay to þe endes of Hiberia*. [Heberia, MS.] and*. [an, α.] Armenya. And so þis kyng Nynus ouer come men of Scitia barbarica, þat were ȝit no warriours, but stille men and esy,*. [pesible, Cx.] and made hem knowe strengþe, and tauȝte hem to lyue by manis blood þat lyvede toforhonde by*. [with, Cx.] melke of bestes; and at þe laste he slow Zoroastes*. [So α. and Cx.; Zorastes, MS., but Zoroastes below (once).] kyng of Bactrians þat was fyndere of wycche|craft, but at þe laste dede, while he bysegede a citee þat was tornede from hym, he was i-hit wiþ an arewe, and so he was i-slawe. Petrus, 36o. Nynus Belus his sone, whanne his fader was dede, [hadde]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Assiria and þe citee Ninyue i-nemped by his name, and made þat citee Ninyue [chef of his kyngdom, and made the citee]*. [Added from α.; so also in Cx. (nearly).] huger and more by þre iorneyes. For Nemproth hadde toforehonde i-founded þat citee, and slow also Cham, þat hete Zoroastes*. [So α. and Cx.; Zorastes, MS., but Zoroastes below (once).] also, kyng of Bactria, þat wroot the seuene*. [So α. and Cx. (who has sciences below); seuenþe, MS.] science in fourtene pileres, in seuene of bras and seuene of brent*. [brand, Cx.] tyle, forto saue hem aȝenst eiþer flood,*. [ayenste fyre and water, Cx.] but Nynus brende his bookes. Isidorus, libro 8o. Aristotil of Zoroastes he wroot þat he made twenty hondred þowsand vers of wicchecrafte, and Democritus made Page  279, vol.2 þat craft more afterward in Ypocratis*. [Ypocrat his, α.; Ypocras, Cx.] tyme. Petrus 36o. Of þis Nynus mawmetrie*. [Mawmetrye first, α.] bygan in þis maner.*. [So Cx.; tyme, MS. and α.] Whan Bellus was dede his sone Nynus, for to have som comfort of his sorwe, made an ymage of his fader, and he dede þat ymage so grete worschippe and reuerence þat he spared al euel doeres þat fliȝe to þat ymage; by ensample of þis doynge meny men made ymages to her leue frendes, and so by ensample of Belus his mawmet come forþ oþere mawmettes. [Also of Belus his name come forþ þe comoun names of mawmettis]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] in dyuerse longages and tonges; for som men clepeþ her mawmet Beel. som Baal, and som Baalim, and som ȝaf here mawmettes*. [mawmett, α.] a surname, and cleped hir names*. [mawmett, α. (not Cx.)] Belphegor, and som Belsebub. Alexander in mythologia.*. [Mitologia, MS., α.; Mytilog., Cx.] Of þe bryngynge forþ of mawme|trie com wel nyh al þe feyninge of poetrie, for whanne Siro|phanes of Egipt hadde an ymage of his sone þat was dede, þat ymage is i-cleped*. [he cleped, Cx., which is better. (β. and γ. agree with MS. and α.)] Y dolum, þat is, likenesse and schappe, for liknes of sorwe. Whanne þey*. [he, Cx.] hadde i-made þat image in mynde of his sone, þat ymage was hugeliche*. [gretely, Cx.] i-worschipped of his seruauntes; it was refute and socour to mysdoeres as he hadde i-ordeyned; and while þey souȝte helpe and remedye of sorwe þei fond seed and springynge of wel more sorowe; for þe old Page  281, vol.2 errour in worschippe of mawmettis gan to sprede. Noþeles þe same manere doynge was nouȝt*. [So α. and Cx.; now, MS.] i-ordeyned of al men. For philosofres worschipped oon*. [o, α.; oo, Cx.] God and ȝaf hym many names for meny manere doynges and worchynges þat he worcheþ; lyveþ,*. [and lyveþ, MS. α. β. γ. Pro|bably we should read lyver (and feler below).] for he ȝeueþ lyf; feleþ, for he ȝeueþ felynge; Iupiter, þat is, helper, for he helpeþ. Also Plato, in þe book þat hatte Philosophus, seiþ þat poetes, by cause of wynnynge and of fauour, peyntede resouns sciens and myȝt þat were i-graunted to þe vse of lyuynge in meny manere schappes, and ȝaf euerich a propre name. And so konnynge of telienge*. [tellynge, α.; tillyng, Cx.] of feeldes þey cleped Cereres,*. [So MS.; and the error may be safely set down to Trevisa himself, who elsewhere imagines Appolyn to be the nominative of Apollo. The Harl. version is somewhat worse.] konnynge of telienge of vynes þey clepede*. [So α.; clepe, MS.] Ba[c]chus, and accountede foule dedes of men amonge goddes.*. [So Cx.; goode, MS.; gode, α.]Isidorus, Etymologia, libro 8o. Þey þat payenis*. [paynyms, Cx.] clepiþ goddis, þey were men. And as þey bere hem in her lif, bettre or wers, so þey were i-worschipped after her deeþ. Bote by false lore of fendes men þat come afterward worschipped hem for goddis, þat were first i-worschipped onliche for mynde; and þan forto make it more solempne com feynynges of poetes. ℞. Augus|tinus de Civitate Dei, libro ij. capitulo xi. Þe poete wiþ his lippe spekeþ of þre manere of goddes; for som þey clepeþ Page  283, vol.2 goddes, as Iupiter*. [So α.; here, and elsewhere sometimes, MS. has Iubiter.] and Mars; som half goddes, as Hercules and Romulus; and som vertuous men þat me trowede þat hadde som|what of godhede, as Hector*. [So α.; Ector, MS.] and Achilles. Of mawmetrie come meny euel manere of doynge; such is þat þat*. [þa, MS.] Ierom spekeþ vppon Isay [decimo] octavo,*. [18o, α., Cx., correctly.] and seiþ þat Egipciens and wel nyh alle men of est*. [þe est, α.] londes worschippeth Fortune, þat is, god of happes, as þey meneþ; the ymage of Fortune*. [the ymage of Fortune] twice re|peated in MS.] is i-sette in a place þat is wel i-knowe, and haþ in his riȝt hond an horne ful of mede; alle þat sitteþ aboute fondeþ*. [foundeth, Cx.] to taste of þat horne þe laste day of Nouembre; and ȝif þey fyndeþ þan þe horne ful, it bodeþ a good corn ȝere, and ȝif þey fyndeþ it empty,*. [leer, α.; voyd or empty, Cx.] þanne þey makeþ sorwe. Trogus, libro primo. Whanne Nynus was dede, his wyf Semiramis, wiþ hir sone Nynus, þat heet Nynyan also, reignede in þis manere: þe wom|man durste*. [þurste, α.] nouȝt bytake þe kyngdom to þe ȝong childe, noþer sche durste hir self regne openliche; þerfore sche desgised hir self in þe childes liche, þe moder for þe sone, a womman in stede of þe childe, for eiþer hadde a small voys and [was]*. [Added from γ.; α. β. and Cx. agree with MS.] mene of stature. Þerfore sche*. [they, Cx.] hidde hir armes and hir þyȝhes wiþ dyuers helynges, and here heed wiþ a cappe. And for me schulde nouȝt seie þat sche hidde*. [had, Cx.] eny þing wiþ þe*. [þe] om. α.]Page  285, vol.2 newe manere of cloþinge, sche hiȝte þat hir peple schulde goo i-cloþed in þe same array, and ȝit þat peple vseþ þe same manere cloþinge. Þanne þis womman dede meny grete dedes, and whanne*. [and whan repeated in MS.] sche had ouercome þe envie*. [enemy, Cx,] of alle enemyes, þanne sche knowlechede what sche was and how sche hadde i-doo. Þan þe doynge torned hire to ful*. [right, Cx.] greet worschippe; for sche ouercome Ethiopia, blew men lond, and Ynde also. And at þe laste sche desired hir owne sone, and bad him forto ligge by here; and he slow here, whan sche hadde i-reigned two and fourty ȝere. But hir sone Nynus helde hym apaied wiþ þe trauaille*. [transuaille, MS.; trauail, Cx.] of his fader and moder, and was afterward selde i-seie amonge men, and leuede and wax olde among wommen. And his successoures, kynges þat come after hym, folwede þat ensample of hym and ȝeuen*. [ȝeve, α.; yaf. Cx.] answere to þe peple by messangers þat schulde goo by twene. ℞. Þat manere doynge was i-vsed anon to þe kyng Sardanapallus his tyme.

Capitulum decimum.

Genesis. Thare whanne he was þre score ȝere olde and ten, þan he gat Aaram, Nachor, and Abraham; [and Abraham]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] was Page  287, vol.2 i-bore þe ȝere of Nynus kyng of Assiria þre and fourty, two hondred ȝere foure score and twelue after Noe his flood, so seiþ Iosephus. ℞. Þe nombre and þe somme of þis secounde age loke to fore in þis book. Genesis. Þan Aram*. [So α. and Cx.; Aaron, MS.] gat Looth, Sarray, and Melcham: Aaram deide to fore his fader Thare in Ur Caldeorum, a place in Caldea: and so Ninus deide þe ȝere of Abraham his age eleuene. Petrus 60o. Semyramis Ninus his wif, for sche wolde reigne after hir housbonde Ninus, sche wedded hir owne sone þat sche hadde by hir housbonde Nynus, and hadde by hir sone a childe þat eched*. [echyd and enlarged. Cx.] Babilonia and made it more. Genesis. Þanne Thare myȝte nouȝt suffre þe wrong þat hym was doo of worschippynge of fuyr in Caldea, þere þei hadde i-slawe his eldest sone Aaram. He wente out of þe*. [þat, α., Cx.] contre wiþ Abraham and Nachor and Aaram his meyny anon to Charram in Mesopotamia, and deide þere after two hondred ȝere and fyue. Abraham whanne*. [So α. and Cx.; was, MS.] his fader Thare was dede he wente doun out of Charra in to Sichem, and þennes into Pen[ta]polis;*. [Pentapolis, α., Cx.] afterward he piȝt his pauyloun bytwene Bethel and Hay. And honger wax*. [was, Cx.] strong he went doun in to Egipte, and tolde þere þat Sarray was his suster. Iosephus, libro primo, capitulo 7o. Abraham lernede in Page  289, vol.2 Caldea and wente doun in to Egipte, and was þe firste þat tauȝte þe Egipcians ars metrick*. [arithmetryk, α. (not Cx.)] and astrologie, þat was vnknowe to hem to fore honde. Genesis. Abraham was ful riche, and went aȝen out of Egipt to þe place of þe forseide pauyloun, and for strif of herdes he departede from Loth, and wente from hym anon to þe vale of Mambre besides Ebron. Petrus 42, Hebron. Hebron, þat hatte Chebron also, is*. [þere is, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] a citee, and hatte [also]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Cariatharbe, of Cariath, þat is a citee, and Arbe, þat is foure; for foure þe grettest patriarkes were i-buryed þere, Adam, Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob; but Ioseph is i-buried in Sichem besides Mount Ephraym, as it is i-seide aboue in libro Iosue, capitulo ultimo. Genesis. Whan Abra|ham come aȝen from þe batayle of foure kynges, he ȝaf teþynge of al þat he hadde i-gete to Melchysedek*. [Melchesedech, α.; Mechysedech, Cx.] king of Salem; and Melchisedek offred bred and wyn. Hieronymus in Epistola ad Evangelum, et Petrus 43, Decimæ Melchisedek.*. [Decimæ Melchisedek] om. α.] Men*. [Me, α.] spekeþ and*. [spekeþ and] om. α.; Me redeth that, Cx.] demeþ þat Abraham ȝaf first tethynges; but Abel ȝaf raþer þe firste þat God sente hym of alle manere kynde. Þe Hebrewes telle þat Melchysedek was Sem, Noe his sone, Page  291, vol.2 and telleþ þat he leuede anoon to Isaac. Þey telleþ also þat from Noe anon to Aron*. [Aaron, α.] alle þe eldest sones were preostes, and blessid þe peple in offrynges [and festes],*. [Added from α. and Cx.] and fenge and hadde þe firste burþe of bestes, and me seiþ þat suche were þe firste burþes þat Esau solde to his broþer Iacob. Also som men meneþ þat annus Iubileus,*. [Iubilemus, α.] þat is þe ȝere of grace as*. [and, α. Cx. has omissions here.] is i-ordeyned þe fifþe ȝere, took þe bygynnynge of þe victorie for þe delyueraunce of prisoneres. Iobel is*. [So α.; his, MS.] forȝifnes oþer bygynnynge; þerof comeþ Ioboleus oþer Iubileus, þe ȝere of grace, as is*. [and is, α.] i-ordeyned þe fiftiþe*. [L (i.e. 50), Cx.; fiftenþe, MS.] ȝere; for Looth was þoo fifty ȝere olde. For Abraham, þat was konnynge in þe craft of knowleche of þe planetes and sterres, knewe þat þe temperure*. [temperure of þe fiftiþe ȝere, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] þat comeþ of hiȝnesse and lownesse of sterres and planetes,*. [planetes and sterres, α.] comeþ aȝen to tem|perure at þe fiftiþe ȝere; and so Abraham ordeyned som liknesse here in erþe þat he say in þe sterres and planetes. Petrus 53. Abraham hadde a sone Ismael i-bore of his seruaunt Agar, þe whiche Ismael was i-circumcised*. [i-circumcided, α.] whan he was þrittene ȝere olde. Þe Arabes vseþ ȝit þat manere of doynge. Ismael was hire auctor. Genesis. Þis Ismael was afterward an archer, and gat on his wif þat was of Egipt twelue dukes, lederes of peple, þat cleped hem self Page  293, vol.2 Saracenys, as þogh þey*. [þei þeiȝ, α.] were i-come of Sarra; but þey beeþ verrailiche Agarenes, for þey come of Agar [Ismael his moder. Also þey beþ cleped]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Ismaelites, for þey come of Ismael; and beeþ Madianites*. [Madiamites, MS. and α.] also. ℞. Oure Lorde ȝaf Abraham and his children þe circumcisioun forto make and departe*. [departed, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] his peple from oþer naciouns. Petrus 47. For Abraham his name was i-chaunged whan he was circum|sised, þerfore þe Hebrewes ȝeue hir children names þe eiȝtþe*. [eiȝteþe, α.] day whan þey beeþ circumcided. In þe olde testa|ment me redeþ þat men were i-warned of foure men names to fore þe burþe: of Ismael, Isaac, Sampson, and Iosyas. In þe newe testament onliche of Iohn Baptiste and Crist. ℞. And whan þat [þat]*. [Added from α.; not in Cx.] was i-doo it bodid grete merite and vertue; so me redeþ in Remigius his lyf. Genesis. Þis ȝere Sodoma was destroyed, and Looth delyuered, and wente into Segor, a litel citee þere besides an hul; and was wyndronken; and in his sleep he gat Moab on his eldest douȝter and*. [an, α.] Amon on his oþer douȝter. Of Moab come þe Moabites, and of Amon come*. [come] the, α. and Cx.] Amonytes. ℞. Of þe place of Sodoma, þat hatte now þe dede see, loke above in þe firste book, in þe prouince of Asia, in þe chapitre Iudea, þat is þe Iewerye.

Page  295, vol.2

Capitulum undecimum.

ISAAC was i-bore of his moder Sarra whan sche was foure skore ȝere olde and ten. Petrus 53. Isaac was i-wened whan he was þre ȝere olde, and þo*. [þoo, α.] was i-made a grete feste; for þo he wente firste to his fader bord. Crees bygan to regne in Creta; of hym þat ilond Creta haþ þat name Creta. Som men telleþ þat*. [say, Cx.] Crees was oon of þe gouernours þat norsched and hidde Iupiter. Sarra deide whan sche was sixe score ȝere olde and seuene, and was i-buried in Hebron. And sone þere after Eleeser Abrahams seruaunt was i-sent forto fecche*. [fette, Cx.] a wyf for Isaac, and brouȝte Rebekka.*. [Rebecca, α.; Rebecka, Cx.] Also Abra|ham wedded Cethura to wyf, and gatt on hire sixe children, and departed hem alle from his sone Isaac. Petrus 59.*. [5, α. (not Cx.)] Hebreus seieþ*. [siggeþ, α.] þat Cethura is a comyn name, and is to me|nynge*. [vnderstandyng, Cx.] i-coupled; and seiþ þat þis Cethura was Agar, and of a lemman was i-made a wyf after þe deeþ of Sarra, anaun|ter*. [lest perauenter, Cx., who varies the rest of the sentence.] leste þe olde man schulde be holde a lecchour, and he hadde i-take anoþer þan he hadde i-lay by to fore honde. Isaac was fourty ȝere olde whan he wedded Rebekka, þat bare Page  297, vol.2 no childe twenty ȝere after. Augustinus, libro 18o. At þe lake Tritonides was i-seie a womman þat heet Tritona; þe Grees clepeþ hir Mynerua; and hatte Pallas also of Pallas þe ilond of Tracia, þere he*. [heo, β.; α., γ.; she, Cx., quite rightly, who notwithstanding has he slough. The pronouns are so strangely employed by Trevisa or his scribes, that the concordant readings of MS. and α. have been rarely corrected.] was i-norsched, oþer of Pallas þe geant þat he*. [So MS., α., β., Cx.; heo, γ.] slowh. ℞. Here take hede þat þis geant Pallas was anoþer geant þan þe geant Pallas, þat Turnus Euander is sone slowh in Eneas his tyme. Augustinus, ut*. [ubi, α., Cx.]supra. Þis mayde Pallas, þat heet Mynerua also, fonde vp meny craftes, and specialliche wolcraft,*. [wolle craft, α., Cx.] and was þe liȝtloker*. [lightyer, Cx.] i-trowed a goddes. For me wiste wel litel whennes sche come.*. [cam, Cx.] Isaac hade tweye twynnes i-bore of Rebecca, Esau and Iacob. Augustinus, ubi supra. Þe kyngdom of Argiues bygan in Grecia vnder Inachus Isis his fader. Isis heet [Io]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] also, and Inachus regnede fifty ȝere, and þat kyngdom durede fyue hondred ȝere and foure and fourty vnder fourtene kynges anon to þe laste Acrisius: hym slow Persius, þeyȝ it were nouȝt wiþ*. [by, Cx.] his wille, þe twelfþe ȝere of Delbora iuge of Israel. And þerfor Persius dradde ful sore, and Page  299, vol.2 lefte þe Argus and tornede þe kyngdom to þe Mycenes.*. [So α. and Cx.; Mecenes, MS., in which (as well as in α.) several words are wrongly inserted from below.] Abraham lyuede fiftene ȝere þre skore and an hondred ȝere, and was i-buried in Ebron. Petrus 66. Þe longage of Hebreu*. [So α. and Cx.; Ebron, MS.] and þe vsage of olde Latyn is forto acounte the lasse nombre to fore þe more, contrarye to þe manere þat Latyn vseþ now, for now we seieþ in Latyn, Abraham lyuede an hondred ȝere þre skore and fiftene; but þe Hebrewes seiþ in þis*. [So α. and Cx.; his, MS.] manere, Abraham lyuede fiftene ȝere þre skore and an hondred ȝere. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro 18o. Feroneus, Inachus his sone, was þe secounde kyng of þe Argiues,*. [armes, MS.] and reignede sixtene*. [sixty, Cx.] ȝere. Þis Feroneus Argolicus ȝaf first lawes in Grees, and ordeynede þat causes schulde be i-pleded*. [pleted, Cx.] to fore iuges. Þerfore þey cleped þe places of domes Forum after his owne name. His broþer heet Fogous,*. [So α.; Fogronis, MS.] and kowþe*. [and the Fogons coude, Cx., who varies the sentence.] moche astrologie, and ordeyned temples to worschip þe*. [þe] om. α.] false goddes ynne; þerfore he was acounted a god amonge hem þat worschipped suche goddes. His suster heet Isus,*. [Ysis, Cx.] and Io also: he*. [she, Cx. (not α.)] seilled into Egipt and tauȝte men here lettres and telynge of feeldes;*. [fildes, α.] þerfore after her deth sche was i-made a goddesse among.*. [Cx. adds theym.]Isidorus, libro 3. Isis ordeynede firste trompes, þerfore þe Amazones cleped hire Page  301, vol.2 ofte to batailleward*. [bataylward, α.] wiþ trompes. [℞.]*. [Added from α.] Þat me redeþ þat Iupiter ravesched Io and gat Epaphus, it is but a fable and feynynge of poetes for noble fame*. [ffame, MS. (not α.)] of eyþer persone.*. [persoon, α.] For poetes feyneþ meny noble persones i-gete of Iupiter, for þe kyn schulde be*. [holde, added in α.] þe more gentil and noble i-holde.*. [i-holde] om. α.] But Io was in Ysaac his tyme, and Iupiter was afterward in Iosue his tyme. Thessalus, Grecus his sone, reignede in Thessalia. Iacob, after þat he hadde i-bouȝt þe firste birþe, and slyliche i-gete his fader blessynge by his moder counsaile þey*. [he, Cx.] wente doun in to Mesopotamia. Petrus 64. Þe furste burþe*. [burþes, α., Cx.] of hem*. [of hem] om. α, Cx.] were special profiȝtes*. [profyȝt, α. (not Cx.)] and worschippes*. [worschippe, α., Cx.] to the eldest sones,*. [oldest sonne, Cx.] hadde in hire kynrede anon to Aaron; for þey were cloþed in special cloþynge in offrynge of sacrefice, and hadde hire fader blessynge, and double porcioun in festes and in delynge of heritage, and he*. [they, Cx.] schulde blesse hire lasse.*. [þe lasse, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] Iacob gat his firste sone Ruben on his wyfe Lya. Þis ȝere was a litel flood in Achaia, þat hatte Atthica þat lond, vnder*. [was vnder, Cx.] Ogiges þe kyng, þat renewede Page  303, vol.2 þe citee Atthen and bulde Eleusis. Þis ȝere Iacob foure score ȝere olde and enleuene gat Ioseph on Rachel. Petrus 74. Whanne þe fourtene ȝere were i-doo in þe whiche Iacob ser|uede for his wifes, Laban made couenant wiþ hym þat alle þe splekked lamberne*. [lambren, α.; lammes, Cx.] and kedes þat schulden be i-ȝened*. [yȝened, α.; ewed, Cx.] durynge his couenant schulde be Iacob his*. [Iacobys, α.] mede, and al þat were of oon colour whyte oþer blak, schulde be Laban his owne. Þerfore Iacob took grene ȝerdes of populers of almand trees and of platans,*. [So Cx.; plauntes, MS.] and pyled of þe rynde in som place of þe ȝerdes, and in som place pyled hem nouȝt; and so he made þe ȝerdes splekked,*. [spekeld, Cx.] and leyde hem in þe waterynge place to fore þe schepes eyȝen, whan þey schulde conceyue*. [for they shold conceyue, added in Cx.] lambren liche to þe schadewes þat þey seie of rammes in þe merrour of þe water in þe conceyuynge. And for þey schulde not al be splekked leste þe gyle were i-knowe, þerfore in þe firste conceyuynge tyme he leyde so ȝerdes, but not in þe latter conceyuynge tyme, and so Iacob fonde a newe manere tornyng of kynde,*. [kynge, MS.] wiþ kyndeliche craft to fiȝte agenst kynde. ℞. Loke more of þis mater aboue, libro ejus, capitulo Page  305, vol.2 primo. Whanne Iacob was i-come aȝe wiþ his wyfes and his children, or þey come to his fader, twelue*. [twelf, α.] ȝere to fore Isaac his deeþ, Ioseph sextene ȝere olde was i-solde in to Egipte to oon þat heet Putyphar, þat was eunuchus,*. [eunuches, MS. (not α. or Cx.); sone after eunuches in MS. (not α. or Cx.)] and maister of Pharao his knyȝtes. Trevisa. Eunuchus is he þat is i-gilded,*. [gelded, Cx.] and suche were somtyme i-made wardeynes of ladyes in Egipt. Augustinus super Genesim. Þis Puti|phar was*. [So Cx.; þat was, MS. and α.] not so eunuchus as þey þat were i-gilded in hir childhode, for he hadde a*. [α] om. α., Cx.] wyf and children, and Ioseph hadde i-wedded his douȝter. But þis Putiphar [say þat Ioseph was fayre,*. [so fayre, α. (not Cx.)] and bouȝte him forto mysuse hym, þerfore God made þis Putyphar]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] so colde þat he myȝte neuere after haue to doynge flescheliche wiþ his owne wyf na more þan þey he were eunuchus*. [eunuches, α.] i-gelded, and þerfore, as he þat was most worschipful, he was i-made bisshop of God Heliopoleos. Apis þe þridde kyng of Argiues was Foroneus his sone, and regned two and twenty ȝere. Isaac an hondred ȝere [olde]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] and four skore*. [ȝere olde, added in MS.] deyde, and was i-buryed in þe double graue of*. [in, Cx.] Ebron. Þat ȝere Pharao sigh*. [syȝe, α.] þe sweuene of the seuene corn eres, and of þe seuene kuyn.

Page  307, vol.2

Capitulum duodecimum.

THIS*. [Yis, α.] ȝere, þat was þe secounde ȝere of hunger,*. [Fanus, α., Cx.; Phanus, γ.] Iacob, an hondred ȝere olde and þritty, wente wiþ his children doun in to Egipte. Augustinus, libro 18o. Þis ȝere Apis þe kyng Argolicus seilede in to Egipt and deyde, and was i-cleped Serapis. [Varro tellith why he was cleped Serapis,]*. [Added from γ., Cx.] and seiþ þat þe chiste þat he was i-putte inne was i-cleped Seron*. [Soron, γ.] in Grewe, and þerfore Apis was i-cleped [Seronapys],*. [Added from α. and Cx.] and afterward by wiþ drawynge of lettres, as me vseþ, he was i-cleped Serapis. Þat whyte splekked oxe þat men of Egipt hadde,*. [hadde] om. α. β. γ., Cx. For hadde we should perhaps read hadde in worschip.] ffor it was [i-wor|schipped onlyve, hit was]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] i-cleped Apys; and whan þat oxe was deed, þey ordeyned hem anoþer oxe þat was also whyte splekked and tenderliche i-norsched and i-worschipped. Hugutio, capitulo Apes. Þat bole heet Apis, þat was i-woned to come out of þe ryuer Nylus, and warne by his pleyenge and startelynge*. [So α. β. γ. and Cx.; stelynge, MS.] what was to comynge. Petrus. Som men telleþ þat eueriche ȝere in Serapis feste come vp a bole out Page  309, vol.2 of þe ryuer Nilus, and hadde a whyte mark in þe riȝt schuldre i-schape as a newe mone, and whanne þe Egipcians come to hym wiþ alle manere musyk and merþe, þat bole was i left vp in to þe ayer as it were wiþ iolyte, and at þe meuynge and styntynge of þat boole þe Egipcians meued and stynte vp on þe erthe, but þat bole vanisched out of hir siȝt þe*. [þat, Cx.] same day. Þerfore þe Egipcians worschipped þe*. [þat, α., Cx.] bole for þat man Apis, and a kowe in stede of Isis*. [Isus, MS.] þat womman, and a bole also for Iupiter. Þerfore it was a grete abhomynacioun among þe Egipcians to sle reþeren*. [reþeren] neet, Cx.] or*. [oþer, α.] ete reþeren flesche. Argus þe fourþe kyng of Argiues bygan to regne, and regnede sixe and fourty ȝere. In his [tyme]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Grees hadde seed i-brouȝt out of oþer londes, and gan to ere and sowe and haue corne i-teled þere ynne. Iacob, an hondred ȝere olde and seuene and fourty, blessede his children, and ȝaf eueriche his blessynge, and deyde. and was anoynt, and i-kept þritty dayes, and at þe laste i-bore in to Ebron, and i-buried þere in þe double graue. Petrus. Hit was þe manere of mysbeleued men forto kepe a dede body nyne dayes wiþ oute oignement, and make sorwe for hym nyne dayes, and wasche þe body nyne daies, for to wete wheþer þe soule were apassed oþer no. Afterward þey Page  311, vol.2 kepte þe bodies fourty dayes anoynt.*. [enoynted, Cx.] But it was þe manere of Iewes forto kepe dede bodyes seuene dayes wiþ oute oyne|mentis, and afterward þritty dayes anoynt. Augustinus, libro 18o. Me seiþ þat Prometheus*. [So α.; Promotheus, Cx. (and so MSS. often); Ptholomeus, MS.] Rapetus*. [So MSS. (including β. and γ.) and Cx., for Iapetus.] his sone, and Atlas*. [Athlas, MSS. and Harl. MS., and so below.] þe astronomere, his broþer, made men; so seiþ Ouidius in Magno; noþeles þat is i-seide, for of men þat were vnkonnynge and boistous as bestes he made konnynge [men]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] and wise.*. [wise men, MS.]Isidorus 13o. Also for me redeþ þat he made ymages of men goo and walke in*. [on, Cx.] þe grounde by a certeyn craft. Also þese fonde first a ryng of iren, and closed þerynne a precious stoon, and cleped it a nayle, for as þe nayle is i-closed in þe flesche, so is suche*. [suche is, MS.] a stoon i-closed in þe metal. Hugutio, capitulo Anulus. Anulus is a ryng i-seide of anus an ers, for somtyme þeues and mansleers, whan þey were i-take, scholde bere an ape on hire nekke and holde hir mouþ to þe apes*. [ape his, α.] ers. But þis foule vsage cesed, and þeues and mansleers whan þey were i-take schulde bere rynges of iren on hire fyngres. And þerfore gentil men, for to haue dyuersite and distinccioun from Page  313, vol.2 suche briboures, made hem rynges of gold other of siluer. Isidorus, libro 19o, in fine. Gentile men vsede here rynges of gold and of siluer*. [of seluer and of gold, α. β. γ., Cx.] on þe fourþe fynger, þat is y-cleped þe leche by cause of þe more hiȝtynge and fairenesse, for in þat fynger is a veyne þat streecheþ to þe herte. But Romayns hadde rynges of þe common tresour*. [tresorye, α. β. γ., Cx.]: gentil men hade rynges, and oþere hadde solidy þat were hole and sownde. Fremen of blood vsede [rynges of gold; free men that came of bonde men vsed]*. [Added from β. γ., Cx.] rynges of siluer, but bonde men vsede rynges of iren. Somtyme it were a greet diffamacioun for a man to vse more rynges þan oon. Augustinus de Civitate. Þis Prometheus hadde a broþet þat het Atlas, and was an astronomer; þerfore me feynede þat he bare heuene; also a greet hille in Affrica, þat*. [þat] om. α. β. γ., Cx.] hatte Atlas by þis man Atlas his name; and þe lewed peple weneþ þat þat hylle bereþ vp heuene. Petrus. Me seiþ þat Tritholomus wente þat tyme in his schippe þat was i-peynt wiþ a dragoun into Grees, and made þere more craft of telienge of feeldes. Also þat tyme Ceres, þe womman þat þe Grees clepeþ Demetra, wiþ oute instrumentes þat sche fonde vp of erynge craft, sche fonde vp also mesures of whete; for to fore|honde þey delede whete by hepes*. [huples, Cx.] smal oþer greet. ℞. After Page  315, vol.2 þat tyme Grees by gan to haue tilþe and*. [and] of, Cx.] corne; so seyþ Isidre, libro 5o. Ioseph, an hondred ȝere olde and ten, deyde in Egipt, and was anoynt wiþ swete oynementis, and i-kepte anon to þe goynge of þe children of Israel out of Egipte, an hondred ȝere and foure and fourty, in þe which tyme þe Hebrewes seruede þe Egipcians; also as Ioseph his breþeren deide eueriche after oþer, they*. [So γ., Cx.; and were, MS. and α. (without sense); also Ioseph hys breþron(sic), as hy deyde, &c. were, β.] were i-buried in Hebron. Noþeles afterward hire bones were i-bore in to Sychem wiþ Ioseph his bones: þat place hatte now Neapolis, þe citee of Samaritans: and so from þat tyme þat Iacob come into Egipt anon to þat tyme þat þe Hebrewes þe children of Israel went out of Egipt were two hondred and fiftene ȝere.

Capitulum tertium-decimum.

Amram was Caath is sone, Caath was Leuy is sone. Þis Amram, sixty ȝere olde, gat Moyses on his wif Iocabeth. Petrus,*. [Petrus] So α., Cx.; Iosephus, MS.]libro 2o. Pharao, vnder wom Ioseph was, heet Nephres by his owne propre name; þe eiȝtþe Pharao after hym heet Amonophis, in his tyme Moyses was i-bore. Iose|phus,*. [Iohannes, Cx.]libro 2o. Þis Pharao hatede þe children of Israel for Page  317, vol.2 vertu of witte, ffor konnynge of trauaille, ffor plente of rich|esse*. [riches, α.] and for fairnesse of children; þerfore he byþouȝt hym felliche and gilefulliche to bere a doun þe children of Israel, and holde hem lowe, leste þey wolde multeplie to swiþe*. [fast, Cx.] and aryse aȝenst hym; also he putte vppon hem charges of many manere works forto make brend tyle forto digge diches aboute þe rennynge stremes of þe ryner of Nilus, and for to bere fen and clay; and ȝaf hem nouȝt to mete but smal chaf, for he wolde so ouercome hem wiþ trauaille and wiþ honger, þat þey schulde haue no wille to ligge by here wyfes; and so it schulde folowe þat children schulde faile. Also oon, þat was a writere of holy lettres and wiste what was*. [was to done and] MS. (not α. β. γ., Cx.)] to comynge, warnede Pharao þe kyng of Egipt þat oon schulde [be i-bore of þe Hebrewes þat schulde]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] bere adoun þe principat of Egypt, and arere þe kynde of Israel, and make hem ful grete. Þerfore it was i-hote þat*. [þat] So α. and Cx.; þe, MS.] þe knaue*. [men, Cx.] children of Israel schulde be i slawe whan þei were i-bore. Petrus. But ȝit for al this þe peple multeplied wel faste, and Pharao heet þe myd|wyfes of Egipte þat þey schulde kylle*. [slee, Cx.] alle þe knaue children of Hebrewes, and kepe þe mayde children; ffor he heelde womman kynde ful feble to be rebel, and noþeles wel likynge to þe leccherye of*. [of lechery to, Cx.] þe Egipcians. And whan Pharao myȝt nouȝt so haue*. [haue so] MS. (not α. or Cx.)] his wille, he heet þrowe þe children þat were Page  319, vol.2 knaue children*. [the men childer, Cx.] in to a ryuere anoon as þey were i-bore. Me troweþ þat for þat synne þe Egipcians fille in to þat errour for to worschippe þat oxe*. [an oxe, Cx.] þat þey clepeþ Apis, instede of God. Genesis. Þerfore Moyses was i-hydde þre monþes whanne he was [i-bore, but at þe laste he was]*. [Added from α. β. γ. and Cx. (β. γ. Cx. have atte last.)] i-doo in a scaf of risshes*. [resches, α.] i-schape as a litel boot i-glewed wel a boute, and i-þrowe in þe ryuer. Þanne Thermit, Pharao his douȝter, fond hym, and took hym up of þe water, and made hym as it were hire owne sone, and cleped hym Moyses. Iosephus,*. [So α. and Cx.; Isidorus, MS.]libro 2o. Moyses is a name i-made of tweie names of Grewe, of moy, þat is water, and esis, þat is i-saued; and so Moyses is i-seide as he þat is i-saued by water. Also þis childe Moyses hatede alle þe wommen brostes of þe Egipcians, and wolde souke no woman breste of þe Egipcians, but he was sliliche i-brouȝt to his owne moder, and sche fed hym; and whan he was þre*. [so þre, MS. (not α.)] ȝere olde, God Almyȝty made hym so fayre of schap and of stature, þat whanne they were i-bore*. [So MS. and α.; he was born, Cx.; he were y bore, β.; a wer y bore, γ.] by stretes al þat were aboute lefte [of]*. [Added from α. β. γ. and Cx.] hire work and occupaciouns for to loke and byholde on þat childe, were þey neuere so sterne ne so angry. Þan in*. [on, Cx.] a day Thermuth, Pharao his douȝter, brouȝt þe childe to Pharao, for he schulde see þe childe and make hym as hit were his owne sone. Þanne the Page  321, vol.2 kyng wondrede*. [had wonder, Cx.] of þe childes fairnesse, and took his owne crowne in þe whiche the ymage of Iupiter was i-graue, and sette it on þe childes heed; but þe childe anon þrewe doun*. [it doun, MS. (not α.)] þe crowne, and tradde þeron spitousliche wiþ his feet. And þere stood one þat was god Eleopoleos his preoste, and cride and seide: "Þis is þat childe þat oure god heet vs slee, þat we drede na*. [no, α., Cx.] more;" and wolde anon haue i-slawe þe childe; but þere was a wise man and seide þat þe childe hadde so i-doo by vnkonnynge of childhode, and so he saued þe child. Petrus, libro 2o. In euydence of þis excusacioun of þe childe were brennynge cooles i-brouȝt to fore þe childe Moyses, and anon he putte hem in his mouþe and scaldede þe poynt of his tonge. Þe Hebrewes troweþ þat bycause þerof he hadde*. [α. and Cx. add afterward.] a lette of his tonge. Þis childe Moyses was so faire, þat men þat by helde hym took so great hede to þe fairnesse of hym*. [hym] so α. and Cx.; the childe,] þat þey putte away*. [away] of, α. β. γ., Cx.] alle anger and tene,*. [teone, β.] and toke hede to þe fairnesse of the childe.*. [Text as in α. and Cx.; MS. has several words repeated.] Me seiþ þat aboute þis tyme Hercules ouercome Anteus*. [Antheus, MSS.] in wrastlynge. Iosephus, libro 2o. Þe Ethiopes, blewe men, werred vppon Egipt, and þe dyuy|nours of Egipt fenge answere þat þey schulde take a ledere of Hebrewes; and vnneþe þey gat Moyses, and made hym hire Page  323, vol.2 ledere and cheueteyn.*. [capitayne, Cx.] Moyses was konnynge in dedes of batayle, and forsook þe wey by þe water Nilus, and ladde his oost by a wildernesse þat was ful of serpentes; noþeles he putte ciconias*. [ciconyas, MS.] by nyȝte aȝenst þe serpentes; ciconie*. [So α.; cicoine, MS.] beeþ briddes*. [So α. β. γ.; brydde, MS.] of the lond of Egipt, þat hateþ and destroyeþ ser|pentes, þat*. [þat] and, Cx.] beeþ mylde i-now to mankynde; and so com vnwar vppon þe Ethiopes, and closed hem in a rial citee Saba. Afterward Cambyses*. [Cambises, MS. and Harl. MS.] þe kyng cleped þat citee Meroen after his owne [suster]*. [Added from α., &c.] name. Þat citee is ful strong by cause of walles of diches and wateres þat renneþ aboute þat citee, þat*. [and, α., Cx.] is i-sette bytwene þe Ethiopes and þe Egipcians vppon þe ryuer Nilus. Tarbis,*. [Tharbys, Cx.] þe kynges douȝter of Ethiopes, sigh þe fairnesse of Moyses, and bytook hym*. [delyuered him, Cx.] þe citee vppon a couenant þat he schulde wedde hir to wif. Petrus, libro 2o. Þis is þe*. [that, Cx.] womman of Ethiopia for þe whiche Mary and Aaron stryue*. [So α. β. γ.; stryueþ, MS.; stroof, Cx.] with Moyses in desert. Whan Moyses wolde torne aȝen in to Egipte, his wif wolde not assente; þerfore Moyses, as a man þat was konnynge in þe cours of*. [and, Cx.] worchynge of þe sterres and planetes, made tweie rynges, oon of mynde and anoþer of forȝetyngnesse; and kepte þe rynge of mynde wiþ hym self, and took his wif þe ryng of forȝet|nesse;*. [oblyuyon, Cx. (who has however forgetyngnesse above).]Page  325, vol.2 and so sche*. [he, α. β. Cx.; α, γ.] tornede home aȝen. Genesis. Þat tyme, whanne Moyses visited his breþeren in þe lond of Iessen, he slowȝ a man of þe Egipcians, and hydde hym in þe sonde; for he hadde i-smyte a man of þe Hebrewes. A morwe*. [On the morue, Cx.] a man of Hebrewe putte þat aȝen Moyses berd, and Moyses dradde sore, and fliȝe*. [auoyded for drede in to, Cx.] into þe lond of Madian, and wedded Zephora a preostes douȝter of þat lond, and gat on hire Gersan*. [So α. and Cx.; Tersan, MS.] and Eliezer. Petrus, libro 2o. Þis preost was primat in þat*. [þe, α., Cx.] lond of Madyan aboute þe Rede See; his propre name [was]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Raguel; and hadde tweie surnames, Jethro and Cineus; and hadde seuene douȝters þat were herdes and kepte bestes. For þe office of keþynge of bestes was þat tyme i-ordeyned to*. [for, Cx.] wommen, and specialliche in þe lond of Trog|[l]oditees.

The kyngdom of Athenes bygan under Cecrops.*. [Cicrops, MS. and Harl. MS., and so below.] Fables telleþ þat on his wife Latona*. [Lathona, MS.] Apolyn lord of witt and of wisdom was i-gete of*. [by, Cx.] Iupiter. Deucalion bygan to reigne in Thessalia; in his twelfþe ȝere was þe þridde particuler flood in Thessalia,*. [in Thessalia] om. Cx.] and þe brynnynge vnder Feton.*. [Pheton, Cx.; but Feton below.]Augus|tinus, Page  327, vol.2 libro 18o. Þis flood destroyed a greet deel*. [partye, Cx.] of Grees, þere meny men fleiȝ in*. [fledde into, Cx.] schippes to Deucalion, kyng of Thes|salia, and were i-saued. Deucalion occupied þat tyme þe hil Parnas[s]us. For þis happe poetes feynede þat Deucalion and his wyf Pyrrha*. [Pirra, MSS. Similar slight errors in this chapter have been tacitly corrected.] þrewe doun stones and arered men. Isi|dorus, libro 13o, capitulo 61o. Whan reueres wexeþ*. [waxen, Cx.] ouer mesures*. [mesure, Cx.] þey dooþ not harme onliche in þe arisynge, but þey bodeþ*. [bode and bitoken, Cx.] also harme þat schal come afterward. Orosius, libro 2o. Also þe sonne þat tyme brende nouȝt onliche Ethiopia blewe men lond, bote he brende also the lond of Scythia*. [Scicia, MSS.] so greuousliche, þat men myȝte nouȝt endure. Bycause þerof mysbeleued men feynede þe fable of Feton.*. [This form, though unclassical, has been allowed to stand, as being in a manner anglicised.]

Capitulum quartumdecimum.

MOYSES foure skore ȝere olde, wiþ his broþer Aaron foure skore ȝere olde and þre, spak to Pharao kyng of Egipt, for he schulde delyuere God Allemyȝty his peple and lete*. [So α. β., Cx.; hete, MS.] hem goo to*. [goo to] om. Cx., who has other slight variations.] doo sacrifice to God. But Pharao was harde and faste in his malice,*. [malys, α.] and wolde nouȝt lete goo þe peple. And Egipte Page  329, vol.2 was i-smyte wiþ ten grete wreches.*. [wreeches and pynysshmentes, Cx.]Augustinus, libro 18o. Þat tyme þat God took wreche in Egipte, som of þe Egip|cians dradde leste Egipte schulde be lost for euere more, and fleyȝe*. [fley, α.; sentence varied in Cx.] into oþer londes. And so oon Cecrops seillede in to Grees, and bulde þe citee Athen, þat heet afterward Athene.*. [Athenes, Cx.] Loke more of Athen in þe firste book, capitulo Grecia, scilicet Alladia.*. [So MS. for Helladia, the bar|barous form in the Latin text.] Noþeles Corinthus þe firste heet Epira, and was i-bulde fyue ȝere to fore Athen.*. [Sentence varied in Cx.]Petrus, libro 2o. Þere were meny wreches in Egipt wiþ oute þe ten grete wreches. Þerfore some dayes in þe kalender beeþ i-cleped dayes of Egipt, [for þilke dayes fil wreches in Egipt.]*. [Added from α. β. and Cx.] Of þe whiche dayes we setteþ in þe kalender but in eueriche monthe tweyne in mynde of þe wreches þat God took of Egipt.*. [in Egipt, Cx., and so below.] Neuerþeles þere were meny moo wreches i-take of Egipt. Hit is nouȝt to trowynge,*. [to be demed ne trowed, Cx.] þey þe Egipcians were konnynge in knowleche of sterres and planetes, þat þei founde þat þese dayes beeþ peri|lous and forbode in þe bygynnynge of werkes and of weyes and in blood letynge. Þanne whanne Moyses was foure skore ȝere olde, he ladde the folk of [Israel out of]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Egipt þe same day of þe ȝere þat Iacob and his children entrede in to Egipt. Whan Israel wente out of Egipte þe mone was fiftene dayes olde, and was foure hondred ȝere and þritty after þat Abraham wente out of Charran,*. [Carram, MSS.] þat was in Mesopotamia,*. [Mesopotanea, MSS. and Cx.] in þe lond of Page  331, vol.2 byheste. Whanne Israel wente out of Egipt, aboute sixe*. [an sixe, α. β.] hon|dred [þowsand]*. [Added from Cx.] men bare*. [hy (i.e. they) bar, γ., which is better.] wiþ hem Ioseph his bones and his enleuene breþeren bones, that beeþ i-cleped patriarkes, and buried hem in Sychem, so seiþ Ierom. Israel toke wiþ hem mele and floure i-spronge wiþ oyle, and vsed þat þritty dayes. A pyler of a cloude wente to fore Israel, and ladde hem by day; and a pyler of fuyre by nyȝte. Whanne Israel wente out of Egipt, þe Reede See openede and lete hem passe, and drenche*. [drenched, α., Cx.] alle þe Egipcians þat took þe same weye in þe openynge of þis*. [the, α., Cx.] see forto pursewe. Iosephus. Þe openynge of þis see schal not ben vntrowed, for me redeth þat þe see Pamphylicum openede to fore kyng Alexander Macedo and also to fore his oost whan he pursewed Darius. Petrus, libro 2o. Þe water of þis see is nouȝt rede of kynde, but is i-dyȝed*. [dyed, α.] of reed clyues and erthe þat lieþ þere aboute. Þerfore also þere beeþ i-founde reed precious stoones, and þere is i-founde scharpe fermyloun.*. [vermyloun, α.] Þis see is i-deled atweyne; þat oon is cleped þe see Persicus and [þat oþer]*. [Added from Cx.; but absent from MS., α. β. γ.] þe see Arabicus. Isidorus, libro 2o.*. [Johannes, libro tercio, Cx. The true reference is to Joseph. Ant. Jud. iii. l.] Þritty dayes after þat Israel wente out of Egipt, hem faillede corn;*. [they faylled corne, Cx.] and oure Lorde ȝaf hem corlewes and*. [and] om. α.] manna and water of Page  333, vol.2 þe stone in Oreb. Ȝit þat place is i-watered wiþ reyn, as God ȝaf water þat tyme by Moyses hond. [Þre monthes]*. [Added from α. β. γ. and Cx.] after þat*. [þat tyme, MS. (only).] Israel went out of Egipt, Moyses wente vp in to the hille, and fasted fourty dayes and fourty nyȝtes, and fenge þe lawe; and seuene monþes he made þe tabernacle [by ensample þat was i-schewed hym on þe hille; and so þe tabernacle]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] was arered þe firste day of Auerel in þe secounde ȝere of here out goynge of Egipt. From þis tyme to þe buldynge of the temple in Ierusalem is acounted foure hondred ȝere and foure skore. Also þis tyme, as some men telleþ, Io that womman wente from þe Argiues in to Egipt, and þere sche was i-cleped Isis,*. [So α.; Isus, MS.] and was i-wedded to Telegon,*. [Thelegon, MS.] and hadde a childe þat heet Epaphus. Petrus, libro 4o, [capitulo 16o.]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] After þe sec|ounde ȝere of þe out goynge of Egipte twelue spyes were i-sente to the londe of byheste, and come aȝen; and for grucchynge of þe peple and despeyre and wanhope þe chil|dren of Israel were forbode to goo forþere. Þerefore þey tornede aȝen in to wildernesse, and were þere i-punisched fourty ȝere; and noon of hem entrede into þe lond of byheste outake Caleph and Iosue. Page  335, vol.2

Þis sixe ȝere after þe out goynge of Egipt Eriston bulde þe temple of Appolyn Delphicus. Also þat ȝere Cranaus þe secounde of Athenes bygan to reigne, and reigned nyne ȝere. His douȝter heet A[t]this; of hir Attica*. [Atthica, MSS.] þat lond haþ þat name. Looke to fore in þe firste book, capitulo Grecia, scilicet El[l]adia. Þat tyme þe Hebrewes feng lettres, and Grecia vynes. Also Lacedemon Semelis sone bulde Lacedemonia þat citee, and þe ferþe Ericthonius of Atthene reignede fifty ȝere olde, and þe*. [in þe MS. (not α.): Cx. has some omissions here.] nynþe St[h]enelus of the Argyues and Erict[h]o|nius*. [So α.; Erictorius, MS.] of Sciciones. Arcas*. [Archas, MSS.] kyng of þe Argyues, ȝaf his name to þat lond Arcadia,*. [Archadia, MSS.] and cleped it so after his owne name; but þat lond Arcadia heet raþer Scicionia. Egipt heet rather Aerea, and hadde þat name Egipt of oon Egiptus þat reigned þerynne. Danaus þe tenþe of Argyues reigned fifty ȝere. Orosius, libro primo. Danaus and Egiptus*. [Here and below MSS. and Cx. have Egistus.] were tweye breþeren; and Danaus by his fifty douȝters slowȝ Egiptes fifty sones in oon nyȝht, outake oon þat schulde reigne after hym. Danaus doere of meny euel dedes wente vp to þe Argyues, and by gile putte out St[h]enelus, þat hadde ofte i-saued hym whiles he was nedy Page  337, vol.2 and outlawe, and reigned hym self. Me troweþ þat in þat tempest went out þat man þat heet Liber pater and heet Dio|nysus*. [Dyonisius, MSS.] [Bacchus]*. [Added from α. and Cx. (Bac|hus).] also; he made vp Argiues, and ȝaf þe Grees vse of vynes. Augustinus de Civitate Dei. Me seiþ þat þe grete Mercurius was in þat tyme; þis Mercurius was Maia Atlas*. [Athlas α.; Athalas, MS.] is douȝter sone. Þis Mercurius was connynge in meny craftes, and þere he was i-made among hem as it were a god. But þe grete Hercules*. [Text as in α. and Cx.; MS. has words repeated from below.] was somdel lattre þan he. ℞. Þis grete Hercules hadde a surname Dasaneus, so seiþ Marianus, libro primo, capitulo fyue hondred fourty and fyue. Also þis is þat Hercules þat slowh Busiris*. [Busirus, MSS. and Cx.] þe tyraunt, so seiþ Ouyde. Iosephus. Þis Hercules weddede Ethea Affer*. [So β. γ., Cx.; after, MS., α.] his douȝter. Affer was Madian his sone. Þerfore Hercules wente wiþ Affer to wynne Libya, and þat lond was þanne i-cleped Affrica by Affer þe conquerour his name. Þe fourty ȝere after þe out goynge of Egipt Aaron an hondred ȝere olde and þre and twenty deyde in Oreb. Also þe same ȝere Moyses whan he hadde i-lyued fourty ȝere in Madian, and fourty ȝere saue þritty dayes in desert, sex score ȝere old almost, he deide in þe hil Mont Abarim, aȝenst Ierico þat town, and was i-buried of oure Lord in þe valey of Moab.

Page  339, vol.2

Capitulum quintumdecimum. Iosue.

IOSUE, Moyses seruaunt, rulede þe peple sixe and twenty ȝere, so seiþ Iosephus. Neuerþeles þe Scripture rekeneþ not þe ȝeres. Iosue,*. [of Iosue, MS. (not Cx.)] þe firste ȝere of his ledynges*. [ledynge, α., Cx.] ladde þe peple into þe londe of byheste; and þe ryuer flom*. [flum, α., Cx.] Iordan oponede, and lete hem passe, and Iosue offrede þe Ester offrynge, and renewede þe circumsicioun þat was forbode fourty ȝere in wyldernesse. And whanne þey ete of fruyt of þat londe, þanne manna faillede þat hadde i-dured fourty wynter. Petrus. Eusebius in his book*. [cronike, α., Cx.] seiþ þat*. [that that, α., Cx.] ȝere was Iubileus, þe ȝere of grace, and was þat oon and fyfty ȝere of grace, as þeyȝ þoo were apassed from þe bygynnynge of þe world two þowsand þere fyue hondred and fifty, þat is oon and fifty [siþes fifty]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] ȝere. Þan forto take of eueriche fifty ȝere oon ȝere of grace it comeþ to oon and fifty ȝeres of grace; but by þe Seuenty þere were apassed meny mo ȝeres. And Beda folweþ þe Hebrewes, and preueþ*. [proued, Cx.] þat þere lakkede seuene ȝere of two þowsand fyue hondred and fifty. Þe firste ȝere of Iosue Erichthonius,*. [Eructonius, MSS.] þe fourþe kyng of Atthene, was þe firste þat Page  341, vol.2 brouȝte charioth*. [chariot, α. β. γ.; charyote, Cx.] in to Grees, as me seiþ. Noþeles to fore honde were chariottes in oþer londes. Augustinus, libro 18o. Þis ordeyned first playes to Appolyn, and to Minerua. Also þat tyme Busiris þe tyraunt, kyng of Egipt, he kydde*. [So α.; hidde, MS.; vsed, Cx.] his tyrauntyse*. [tyrannye, Cx.] on his gestes; for he slowh men, and offred hem to goddes. Me seiþ þat he was Neptunus his sone i-gete on Libya, Epaphus his douȝter. Iosue departed þe lond of Palestines to þe Iewes. Also þat tyme Fenix and Cadmus,*. [Candmus, MS. (not α.)] tweyne breþeren of Thebe, þat is in Egipt, wente into Syria,*. [Sciria, MS.] and reigned at Tyrus and at Sidon, tweie citees þat so hatte. Iupiter, kyng of Creta, rauesched Europa, þe douȝter of Agenor,*. [Agenore, MS.] kyng of Libya. Afterward Asterius, kyng of Creta, wedded*. [wedde, α.] Europa to his*. [his] om. α., Cx.] wyf. Augustinus, libro 18o. Iupiter on Europa þat he rauisched he gat Radamanthus, Sarpedon, and Minos,*. [Minois, MS.; Minoys, Harl. MS.] þat reigned after hym in Creta. Noþeles, Marianus, libro primo, capitulo 610,*. [61, Cx.] seiþ þat Asterius on Europa gat þese þre sones. Isidorus, libro 14o. Agenor, kyng of Libya, gat þre sones, Silex,*. [So MSS. for Cilix.] Phenix, Cadmus, and oon douȝter þat heet Europa. Whan Iupiter hadde i-rauisched hire, he dede hire in Page  343, vol.2 his schippe þat was i-peynt wiþ a bole; and þerfore poetes feyneþ þat Iupiter was i-torned in to a boole. Agenor heet*. [bad, Cx.] his þre sones þat they schulde goo and seche her suster þat was so i-rauisshed and i-lad away, and forbede hem forto come aȝen, but ȝif þey brouȝte hir suster wiþ hem. And for*. [by cause, Cx.] þey myȝte not fynde hir, þey dredde þe wreþþe of here*. [So α. and Cx.; the, MS.] fader. Silex abood in a contray and cleped hit Scilicia*. [So α. and Cx. (for Cilicia); Scicilia, MS.] after his owne name, and Phenix*. [So α.; Fenix, MS.; and Fenicea below.] abood in Phenicia. But Cadmus chees his exilynge in Grecia. Þere he folowede þe fore*. [steppe, Cx.] of an oxe, and come to a contray, and aboode þere, and cleped it Boecia, Oxelond. Afterward he bulde þere þe citee of Thebe. ℞. Loke more here in þe firste book, capitulo Grecia. Au|gustinus, libro 18o. Iupiter regned in þe ilond Creta, and his fader Saturnus was i-put out, and wente to Itali. Henricus. Þis was a wicked man and a greet werriour, and con|quered Grees. Þere after his deth, þe Grees þat were ful of lesynges hilde hym god of heuene, and nempned hym god of goddes for his grete power and myȝt. Þe men of Creta, fore he was i-buried among hem, wolde speke of his buriels. Þerfore þe Grees cleped hem lyȝers. Alexander in Myth.*. [So Cx. (Mith.); Math., α.; Mat|theum, MS.]Page  345, vol.2 Verrey storie seiþ þat Saturnus þe fader [and Iupiter]*. [Added from α. β. γ., Cx.] þe sone hadde tweie kyngdoms ioynynge to gidres in Creta, and for endes and bondes of feeldes was a bataile bytwene hem; and Iupiter hadde þe maistrie, and Saturnus was i-chased out and wente into Ytaly; and þere Ianus þe kyng feng hym to a part of þe empere, by cause þat he kouþe skile of vynes*. [So α. β. γ., Cx.; wyne, MS.] and*. [and] om. α.] in repynge and in telyenge of feeldes. And he was i-cleped Saturnus of saturitas, þat is plente; for he made a*. [α] om. α. and Cx.] grete plente in þat lond. Eutropius. Þis Saturnus fly*. [So α.; fleeþ, MS.; flemed, Cx.] his sone Iupiter out of Grees to þe endes of Tuscia nouȝt fer from þe place of Rome; he hidde hym þere in a place, and cleped þe place Saturnia after his owne name; and afterward he cleped hit Latium, þat is his hydynge place. Þere he tauȝte boistous men to bulde and to erye and sowe, and to sette vynes. For to forehonde þey lyued by acres,*. [akres, α.; akornes, β., Cx.; akkarns, γ.] and wonede vnder bowes and twigges i-wounde*. [i-weue, α.; wouen, β., Cx.] to gidres. Also þis ordeyned pannes of bras; þerfore þe vplondische men hilde hym a god. ℞. And þey poetes mene þat Iupiter gildede*. [geldede, α.] Saturnus, for he schulde not gete children to supplante hym, neuerþeles þe storie of Rome seiþ þat Saturnus gat Picus in Itali. Page  347, vol.2Alexander in Mythologia. Oþere myȝty tyrauntis fondede to putte out þis Iupiter, þat*. [þat] þis Jupiter, α., Cx.] was ful cruel and desturbed þe pees, after þat his fader was i-put out, and ouercome þe geantes wiþ gynnes of werre. Me feyneþ þat he liȝtnede out geantes. Petrus. Iosue, or he deide,*. [Some words repeated in α.] helte*. [hyeld, Cx.] water on þe erþe to fore þe peple in tokene of þe couenante þat was i-made bytwene God and þe peple; [þat was, þat þe peple]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] hadde i-chose þe sooþfast God. Petrus. Mysbyleued men vsede to helde out*. [out water, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] and schede out*. [out] om. α. β. γ.] þe blood of a sowe þat is i-slawe*. [þat is i-slawe] om. α. β. γ., Cx.] in tokene of couenant i-made. Hugutio, capitulo Fedus. Fedus, þat is a couenant, is i-seide of feda,*. [So α., Cx.; pheda, MS.] a sowe þat is so*. [So α. β. γ.; is i-slawe, MS., Cx.] i-slawe, as it were to mene, þat is blood þat brekeþ þe couenant schulde in þat manere be i-sched. Petrus. But þe Hebrewes hilde out water in token þat as þe water is al i-schad and nouȝt i-left, so he þat brekeþ þe couenant schulde be ded, and al his kyn.*. [So α. and Cx. (MS. has repeti|tions from above).] Also men in olde tyme vsede to arere signes and tokenes þat myȝte longe dure in mynde of couenant to*. [to] of, Cx.] hem þat come afterward; and so somme arered*. [arered and enhaunced, Cx. Slight corrections of orthography in the proper names have been tacitly made in this chapter for both ver|sions.] stones and hepes of stones in mynde of couenantes.

Page  349, vol.2

Capitulum sextumdecimum. Othoniel.

AFTER Iosue his deth Israel seruede Chusan,*. [So α. and Cx.; Chasan, MS.] kyng of Mesopotamia, eiȝte ȝere. Neuerþeles þese eiȝte ȝere beeþ acounted wiþ Othoniel his tyme, Caleph his broþer, by þe Hebrewes; but þe ȝeres of reste and of þraldom were acounted to gidres vnder iuges of Israel þe sothnesse of acountes wolde not stonde in þe storie. [Augustinus, libro 18o.]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Aboute this tyme þat womman Latona baar Appolyn in þe ilond Delos.*. [So Cx.; Dolos, MS.] ℞. But nouȝt þat oþer Appolyn Delphi|cus, þat hadde i-be longe to forehonde, but þat Appolyn þat seruede þe kyng Admetus*. [So α. and Cx.; Admetrius, MS.] wiþ þe lattre Hercules. Me seiþ þat þis Latona*. [Lathona, MS., and so below.] was þe same womman [that heet]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Isis. Þanne Othoniel was ledere of Israel fourty ȝere forto rekene þe forseide eiȝte ȝere of þraldom. Neptunus regnede and was þe fifte kyng of Athene. Cadmus*. [So α.; Cadynus, MS., Cx.] regnede in þe citee Thebes; of his douȝter Semela was i-bore Denys Bacchus, þat heet also Liber Pater, þat is þe Fre Fader. In his tyme was Linus*. [Lynus, MS. Similar slight errors have been tacitly corrected in this chapter and the following.] of Thebe in Egipt, þe grete chauntour, in his floures. Fenix bulde Bithynia, þat heet somtyme Mariandyna. Page  351, vol.2Isidorus, libro 2o, capitulo 5o. And as Fenix ȝaf þe Fenices some reed lettres. ℞. Þerof loke more in þe firste book, capitulo quintodecimo,*. [So Cx., rightly; 5, MS. Tre|visa's version is evidently mutilated here.] in Fenicia. Isidorus, libro 2o. Þe lettres of Grees þat Cadmus ȝaf hem speleþ wordes, and stondeþ for nombres. [℞.]*. [Reference added from α. and Cx.] Þe lettres of Grees from þe firste to þe tenþe as þey stondeþ in ordre [in þe A.B.C., so þey stondeþ]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] for nombre among þe Grees; for þe firste stondeþ for oon; þe secounde for tweyne, [and]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þe þridde for þre, and so forþ*. [the fourth, Cx.; badly.] anon to þe tenþe. But þe eleueþe lettre stondeþ for twenty, þe twelfþe for þritty, þe þrittene*. [þrittenþe, α.] for fourty, and so anon to an hondred. For an hondred stondeþ þe nyntenþe*. [So α.; nynþe, MS.] lettre; þanne þe twentyþe lettre stondeþ for two hondred; þe oon and twenty for þre*. [So Cx.; foure, MS.] hondred,*. [Cx. adds: the xxij. for four hon|derd.] and so forþ. Petrus. Craft and vse of iren was i-founde in Egipte. Þe dedes þat me telleþ of Demetra*. [So α. and Cx.; Dometra, MS.] and of Dan, Persius his moder, byfel þat tyme. And þe citee Corinthi was i-bulde þat tyme.

Page  353, vol.2

Capitulum septimumdecimum. Aioth.

AYOTH was ledere of Israel foure score ȝere, forto acounte eiȝetene ȝere in þe whiche Israel seruede Eglon þe fatte king of Moab; also forto rekene oon ȝere of Sangar, þe duke and ledere*. [þe ledere, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] þat slow sixe hondred men wiþ a plowh schare. Þis Aioth vsede eiþer hond for his riȝt hond, and was Ihera his sone; Ihera was Geminus*. [So α. and Cx.; Gominus, MS., which has sometimes Gemynus below.] his sone. Petrus. Som telleþ þat Geminus was a vile persone of þe lynage of Beniamyn, and was ofte i-nempned in reprofe to al his ofspringe, for he was so fyle*. [vyle, Cx.] and so vnworþy. Noþeles þe Hebrewes meneþ þat þis Geminus was Beniamyn, as þey he were*. [So α. β. γ.; and þey were, MS.] so i-nempned by chaungynge oþer wiþdrawing of somwhat of þe begynnynge of þe name. For þey we setteþ Geminum þe Hebrewes setteþ Iamyn, þat is a rynge þat longeþ to þe riȝt side, and may be side*. [seid, α.] Geminus in*. [in] α, β. γ.] Latyn. Ritholomus*. [Here and elsewhere in this chap|ter the orthography of the versions has been left unaltered; to correct them in such cases is to re-write them. The MSS. of Trevisa agree.] com yn a longe schippe to Eleusis, and delede þere whete; and Orcus, kyng of Molos and of Thracia, ra|uesched Proserpina; hire hound, þat heet Cerberus, swelowede vp a man, þat heet Piritoun, þat come with Theseus to rauysshe Proserpina; and þe same hound Cerberus wolde have i-ete Theseus also, but Hercules hadde i-come þe mene tyme and i-saued hym, and þerfore he was i-fonge in to helle. Acheus Page  355, vol.2 bulde Achaia. Denys Liber Pater, duke of Athene, was i-bore of Semela, as som men telleþ, and took misteria of Per|seus, þat slowȝ þat hore Gorgon, þat was so faire, [that she]*. [Added from Cx.; þat (only), β.; heo, γ.] astonyed men þat byhelde hire wiþ hir fairnesse. Also þat tyme Frixus and his suster Elles flyȝe þe malice and þe pur|sute of here stepdame, and were adraynt*. [drowned, Cx.] in þe see þat heet Ellespontus. And for a weþer was i-peynt in þe signe of here schippe, þerfore me feynede þat a wether wiþ gildene flees bare hem forþ by þe ayer. Laomedon, þe eiȝtþe kyng of Sciciones, regnede fifty ȝere. Amphion and Zethus regned in Thebe, þe*. [in þe, MS. (not α. β. γ.)] citee of Grees, and put out Cadmus. Tros*. [So α. β. γ.; Troos, MS.] regnede in Dardania, þis is Frigia,*. [Frisia, MS.] and werred afterward aȝenst Tantalus, kyng of Athene, for þe rauyschynge of Ganymedes. Of þis Tros þe Troians haueþ þat name, and hatte Troians. [℞]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Þan þe fable of Iupiter is i-feyned; and so þe rauyschynge of an egle is i-feyned and*. [an, α. γ.; in, Cx.; on, β.] ydul. Perseus, Ericteus his broþer, fauȝt aȝenst þe Perses, and*. [he, Cx.] smoot of þe heed of þat hoor Gorgon. Pegasus was a ful swift hors of a womman, oþer*. [oþer] that, Cx.] heet Bellefrontys his schip. Ion*. [So α. and Cx.; Ione, MS.] þe strong man cleped þe men of Atthenes Iones by his owne name. Denys, that hatte Liber Pater also, werred wiþ þe Indes, and bulde þe Page  357, vol.2 citee Nisan.*. [So all the MSS.] Þis Denys ordeyned first wommen in his oost wiþ*. [her men, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] men. Pelops,*. [Pelopis, MS. (not α.)] þe firste kyng of Peloponens, was heed of þe Olimpies;*. [So α., Cx.; Olimpus, MS.] neuerþeles afterward he was aȝenst Troye, and ouercome of Dardanus. In Aioth his tyme, duke of Israel, þe latter Hercules, anoþer þan we spak of raþer, was in his floures. Trogus. Þis Hercules was strong, and temede þe world, and ouercome þe Amazones, and passed in to Inde and werred þere, and ouercome þe Troians, and werred in Libya, and was lord of*. [of] in, MS. (only).] Spayne. ℞. Þis Hercules ouer|come Anteus,*. [Antheus, MSS., and so below.] þe geant of Libya, so seiþ Ouyde, in Magno, libro octavo; and slowȝ Geryon þe geaunt, kyng of Spayne, and ladde his catel and his bestes þorw Italy in tokyn of þe maistrye; and he gat þe kyng Latyn on þe douȝter of Fau|nus;*. [So γ.; Fanus, MS., α. β.] and he slowȝ a leon; he slowȝ þe serpent Ydra in þe water Lerna; and he ran a furlong at oon breeþ; and he re|stored þe tornementis and ioustes of Mont Olymp; he ouer|come þe Centaures; and piȝte his pilers in þe see at þe Ilondes Gades; and he dede twelue grete dedes. Trevisa. Þe Cen|taures were men of Thessalia; þey were þe firste þat chastede*. [chastised, Cx.] hors, and ladde hem wiþ brydels, and ride*. [rode, Cx.] on hors bakkes. Augustinus, libro 18o. And after his grete dedes he fille in a Page  359, vol.2 grete siknesse þat was so hard*. [hard] payneful, Cx.] and sore þat he myȝte not endure. Þerfore he þrewe hym self in to a fuyre, and brend hym self. [℞].*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Claudianus, libro 6o, de raptu Proserpinæ, and Virgil, Æneidos 8o, and Ouide, Methamorphoses, libro 9o, rekeneþ þe grete dedes þat Hercules dede. Of þe whiche dedes þe firste was þe victorie þat he hadde of þe Centaures. Þe secounde þe sleynge and þe hildynge of a leon in a wode þat hatte Nemea.*. [Nenia, Cx.; Menia, MSS.] Þe þridde þe chasynge of þe foules þat hatte Arpies. Þe ferþe þe takynge of goldene apples out of þe orcheȝerd of þe seuene douȝters of Atlas*. [Athlas, MSS., as usual; which conversely have Tracia below.] þe geant, and þe sleynge of the dragon þat kepte þe place.*. [palce, Cx.] Þe fifte þe chaynyng and teienge of þe grete hound Cerberus þat deuoured Piri|thous*. [Pyrytheus, and Peritheus, MSS.] in þe rauischynge of Proserpina. Þe sixte þe berynge doun of Diomede, þe kyng of Thracia, þat fedde his hors wiþ manis*. [So α.; maris, MS.; mennis, Cx.] flesche. The seuenþe þe destroyenge of Ydra þe serpent in þe water Lerna.*. [So α; Berna, MS.] Þe eiȝþe*. [echt, Cx.] þe ouercommynge of Achelous, þat chaunged ofte tyme in to dyuers liknes and schappes. Þe nynþe þe þrowynge doun of Anteus, þe geant of Libya, þat took aȝen myȝte and strengþe as ofte as he touched þe erþe. Þe tenþe þe sleynge*. [slynge, MS. (clerical error.)] of the cat þat cast out fuyre of his mouþ, Page  361, vol.2 as me seide. Þe enleuenþe þe sleynge of þe boor in Arcadia.*. [Archadia, MSS., as usual.] Þe twelfþe þe berynge and þe holdynge vp of heuene, while Atlas þe geant reste hym, whan he was wery. But in þe þrittenþe he dede on a corsette of Ianyr,*. [So MSS.; Dianier, Cx. (i.e., Dejanira.)] and deide. Here take hede þat þis*. [these, Cx.] twelfe dedes þat beeþ acounted to Hercules sowneþ þe storie as it is i-tolde; soo dooþ the secounde of þe leon, and þe enleuenþe of þe boor; oþer he perteyneþ onliche þe couerynge of þewes; and þanne þe tale is a fable, but þe menynge is ful of trowþe and of soþnesse. So is þe þridde of þe arpies, and þe fourþe of þe takynge and rauyschynge of þe goldene apples. Other he tokeneþ and sowneþ the storye medled wiþ a fable; so dooþ alle his oþer dedes of þese twelue.*. [So α. and Cx.; twelue dedes, MS.] Also here take hede, it semeþ þat it is nouȝt al oon Hercules þat þese twelfe dedes beeþ acounted to; fore*. [too, for, α.] Seint Austyn, de Civitate, libro 18, capitulo 14o, seiþ þat it was an oþer Hercules þat [þese dedes beþ acounted*. [aretted, Cx.] to, and anoþer Hercules þat]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] ouercome Anteus þe geant in wrastlynge. And also Boecius, in fine quarti libri de Consolatione telleþ þe*. [þe] that, Cx.] same of Anteus among þe twelue dedes of Hercules. Also Seint Austyn, ubi supra, et capitulo 19o, seiþ þat þere were meny Hercules; and also Sampson for his wonder strengþe was acounted Hercules. Page  363, vol.2 And Frigius Dares,*. [So Cx.; Daret, MS. α. β. γ.] in his book of bataille of Troye, seiþ þat Iason þat gat*. [wan, Cx.] þe weþer wiþ the*. [the] om. α.] goldene flees at Colchos had a surname, and was i-cleped Hercules. Þerfore Ouid, Metha|morphoses 13o, seiþ: Menia vnder furt*. [So α. and Cx.; fruit, MS. Tre|visa cannot be blamed for making no sense of a corrupt text; nor the Harleian translator for leaving it out.] and þe Troians vnder Hercules. And Ouidius, 8o Methamorphoses, acounteþ*. [arreteth, Cx.] the sleynge of þe boor of Arcadia to Meleandrus;*. [Meleandris, MS. (only).] and also 7o*. [So α. β. γ., Cx.; 17, MS.] Methamorphoses acounteþ þe chasynge of þe arpies to Boreas his sones, þat heet Zoas and Calaius.*. [So α. β. γ., Cx.; Calcanis, MS.] Þerfore meny wise men telleþ þat Hercules is þe surname of noble men and stalworþe, þat passed oþer men hugely*. [greetely, Cx.] in boldenesse and in strengþe. And so hit semeþ al by kyndeliche menynge of þat name; for Hercules is i-seide of heros,*. [So Cx.; eros, MS.] þat is a man, and of cleos, þat is blisse; as þey Hercules were to menynge a blisful man and glorious.

Capitulum octavumdecimum.

Eusebius in Cronica. In Aioth his tyme, nameliche in Grees ffables were i-founde, and*. [as, MS. (only.)] me seiþ þat Esopus fonde first fables for to hiȝte*. [So α. β. γ.; hiȝte wiþ, MS.] kyndeliche sooþnesse;*. [Sentence varied in Cx.] ffor þe Page  365, vol.2 priuite of kynde schulde nouȝt be despised: þerfore [by]*. [Added from conjecture only.] kynde of þinges and by dyuerse manere of doynge þey feyned names and worchynge of goddes. Alcyn.*. [So also α. β. γ., Cx. Read Alex|ander.]in Mythologia. And so he*. [he] om. MS.] feyned þat after þe flood men come of stoones and of trees; bote þat was i-feyned for þe manere wonynge of men in olde tyme; for, erc*. [So α.; here, MS.; Cx. omits twenty words.] housynge were i-made, men wonede in holownesse of treen oþer in dennes of erþe and of stones, and som wente aboute as it were bestes. Augustinus, libro 18o, capitulo 13o. After Iosue his deeþ anon to þe bataille of Troye fables were i-feyned in Grecia. As þat Vulcanus*. [Vlcanus, MS., α. β.; and so below (not γ.).] in grete hete and brennynge of leccherie wiþ Minerua gat Eructonius*. [So α. β. γ. (for Erichthonius); Eructorius, MS.; Eruconius, Cx.] i-foted as a dragon, þat is a fable and a poetes feynynge and sawe. But þe sooþ menynge is þat in þe citee Athene was oo temple of Vlcanus and of Minerua; in þat temple was a childe i-founde byclipped aboute wiþ a dragoun. Þat bytokened þat þe childe schulde be greet; and for þe childe was i-founde in here boþe temple, þerfore þe childe was i-cleped hir boþe sone. Also Tritholomus, þat was i-bore of fleynge addres in to nedy londes at þe heste of Cereres*. [So all MSS. (or Cerreres.) The error is certainly due to Trevisa.] and brouȝt hem whete, it is a fable. Also of Minotaurus,*. [So β.; Mynataurus, MS., α. γ.] þat was a best i-closed in laborintus, Dedalus his hous; and Page  367, vol.2 whan men wente into þat hous, þey were so i-briged*. [begyled, Cx.] þat þey couþe nouȝt come out. Also of Centaures, þat were i-medled of mankynde and of hors kynde. Also of*. [of] om. MS.] Cerberus þe hound of helle, þat þadde þre heedes. Also of Frixus and his suster Elle, þat were i-bore of a wether by þe ayer and flih*. [flewen, Cx.] as foules. Also of Gorgon þe hore,*. [strompet, Cx.] þat sche was i-hered wiþ addres and torned in to stones men þat byhelde her. Also of Bellifront, þat he was i-bore of a fleynge hors wiþ feþeres and wynges; his hors heet Pegasus. Also of Amphion, þat he plesed stoones, and drew hem to hym wiþ swetnesse of his*. [his] om. MS.] har|pynge. Also of Dedalus þe carpunter and his sone Icarus, þat made hem wynges of feþeres and fliȝe as foules. Also of Anteus; hym slowȝ Hercules. Anteus was þe sone of þe erþe; þerfore, whan he fel doun, he roos anon aȝen in wel more strengþe. Isidorus, libro 11o. Also Geryon, þe geant kyng of Spayne, þat was i-slawe of Hercules, and was descreued in þre liknesses and schappes, it is a fable. For þere were þre breþeren so wel acordynge to gedres þat it semed þat þey hadde oon soule, oon witte, and oon wil. Also þe hoores*. [strompettes, Cx.] Gorgons, i-hered as serpentes, hadde oon yȝe, and tornede in to stones men þat byhelde hem, it is a fable. But þere were þre sustres Page  369, vol.2 all of oon fairnesse; men þat byhelde hem [þei]*. [Added from β. and Cx.; γ. has and.] made hem as stille and as stedfast as stones. Also þe þre Sirenes, þat were half maydens, half foules, and hadde wynges and clawes*. [talentes, Cx.] as haukes; and oon of hem songe, þat oþer pipede, and þe þridde harpede, and drowȝ to hemward schipmen þat seilled in þe see in to shipbruche;*. [So α. and Cx. (shipwreke); þe shippe to breke, MS.] it is a fable. But þere were þre hoores*. [So α. and Cx.; hors, MS.] þat brouȝte men þat vsede hem in to meschief; and þerfore me seide þat þey brouȝte hem to shipbreche. Also [þat]*. [Added from α. β. γ. and Cx.] me feyneþ þat Scylla*. [Scilla, MS., and Silla below.] was a womman byclipped aboute wiþ hedes of houndes and wiþ grete berkynge of houndes, þat is i-seide for þe*. [þe] om. MS.] wawes of þe*. [þat, α. β. γ. and Cx.] see Siculus, þat flascheþ and wascheþ vppon a*. [α] that, α. β. γ. and Cx.] rokke þat hatte Scylla, makeþ suche manere noyse þat men þat seilleþ þerby beeþ so aferd þat þey weneþ þat þe wawes berkeþ þat wascheþ on þat rokke.*. [So α. and Cx.; rokkes, MS.] So þey feyneþ þat þe serpent Ydra wiþ*. [Probably we should read was wiþ, or if not, cancel þat.] nyne hedes; and if oon hede were i-smyte of, þanne grewe vp þre for þat oon. Þe sooþ tale is þat Ydra was somtyme a place þat wonderliche and perilous|liche caste vp water; and ȝif oo water wey were i-stopped, þe water brak vp in meny places and weyes. Hercules seigh þat, and destroyed the swolwe and closede alle þe weies; þer|fore Page  371, vol.2 me feynede*. [feyneþ, α. β. γ.] þat he destroyed Ydra þe serpent. Isidorus, libro primo, capitulo 13o. Fables beeþ i-seide of fando, þat is spekynge; nouȝt for þei beþ sooþ indede, but i-feyned in spekynge. Poetes brouȝte in fables for þre skiles; for likynge of*. [So α. β. γ. Cx.; and, MS.] talkynge and of fayre spekinge; suche beeþ þe fables [of Plautus and of Terentius and fables]*. [Added from α. β. γ. and Cx.] þat beeþ comoun|liche i-tolde. Also for helynge and hiȝtinge*. [helthe and enhauncing, Cx.] of kynde; so me seiþ þat Vulcanus*. [Vlcanus, MS., here and below.] halteþ, for*. [for me seiþ, MS., α. (not β. γ.)] þe fuyre is neuere euene; Vulcanus is i-feyned god of fuyr. So Chimera is i-feyned a beest of þre manere schappe and kynde, and bytokeneþ þe ages of mankynde; þe firste ȝowþe of manhede*. [manhod, α.] is cruel as a lyoun; þe secounde age of manhode is scharp of siȝt as a goot, oþer stynkeþ by leccherie as a goot; þe þridde age is elde and boweþ as a dragoun, and wasteþ alle away. And so þe fable of Ypocentaurus,*. [Read Hippocentaurus, but the barbarous form indicates the false derivation; cf. Ypocras, Ypolita, &c.] þat was feyned i-medled of hors kynde and of mankynde, bytokeneþ þe swift passynge of manis lyf. Also fables beeþ i-feyned for derke and faire manere speking of þewes; as whan me feyneþ þat þinges þat konneþ no resoun spekeþ hem self, þat by þe tale þat is i-feyned þe sooþ by tokenynge may be remeued [to þat]*. [Added from α. β. γ. Cx.] þat is soþeliche i-doo in dede. So Oras*. [Orace, Cx.] spekeþ of þe Mous and þe Wesel, and Esopus and Avenet of þe Fox and of þe Wolf, and in libro Iudicum Page  373, vol.2 of þe treen of Libanus; and so spekeþ Demosthenes*. [Demostenes, MSS.] of wolfes and houndes i-feyned for þe delyueraunce of þe advoketes and ditoures.*. [lawers, Cx.] ℞. And þat is þat Seynt Austyn seiþ in his book De Mendacio. Fables, as seiþ Seynt Austyn, þeyȝ þey haue no soþenesse in ham self, noþeles þey makeþ soþenesse in þing þat þei*. [hit, α.; a., γ.] betokeneþ.*. [netheles they represente and en|duce to mannes mynde sothnesse that they bitokene and signefye, Cx.]Augustinus, libro 3o, capitulo 3o. By auctorite of þe Romayns it was affermed þat þe goddes Venus was Enyas his moder, and þat god Mars was Romulus his fader. But I trowe not so; Varro*. [So Cx.; Farro, MS.] troweþ it nouȝt, þe writere of stories of Rome, þat seiþ priueliche, it were profitable to citeseyns þat stronge men and orpede trowe*. [trowed, Cx.] þat þey ben i-gete*. [were bigeten, Cx.] of goddes, þeyȝ it be false; þat in þat manere þe men hertes schulde be þe boldere, and haue trust in þe lynage*. [lignage, Cx.] of goddes, and auntre*. [auenture, Cx.] hem to þe grettere dedes, and doon*. [do, α. β. γ. and Cx.] grete dedes wiþ þe more boldenesse and myȝt in trist of gracious ende by cause þat þey holdeþ hem self of þe kynde of goddes.*. [Clause slightly varied in Cx.]Alexander in Mytho|logia. Macrobius super somnium Scipionis seiþ þat som fables beeþ i-feyned by cause of likynge; suche beeþ of Menander and Terentius, and suche longeþ nouȝt to philosofres. And som fables beeþ i-feyned by cause of profiȝt in excitynge and con|forte; in þe whiche fables þe matiere, þat me spekeþ of, oþer þe Page  375, vol.2 ordre of tellynge of þe þing þat is i-feyned is feynyngliche i-tolde; þat is to menynge, oo fals is tolde by a noþer false. So it fareþ in Esopus his fables and in Auian his fables also; and þese fables longeþ nouȝt to philosofres.*. [Clause varied in Cx.] Also somtyme a soþ sawe is i-tolde by a feynyng*. [feyned, Cx.] tale; and soche were þe feynynges of Hesiodus*. [Esyodus, MS.] and of Orpheus, whan he spekeþ*. [they spak, Cx.] of dyuers dedes and kynde of goodes;*. [Goddes, Cx.; the more usual orm in MS. also.] and such a tale is no fable, but a tale liche a fable. And if suche a tale is i-tolde by lik|nesse of foule þing and harlotrie, þan it longeþ nouȝt too phi|losofres [neþer to dyuynes; but siche as beþ tolde by liknesse of feirnesse and of honeste perteyneþ to filosophris].*. [Added from β. γ.] So Plato feynede þat a knyȝt, þat heet Er, aros from*. [som, MS.] deþ to lyue, and tolde meny þinges of þe euerlastynge lyf of manis soule. ℞. And Boys*. [Boece, β. Cx.] feynede þat Philosofye appered to hym in þe lyknesse of a mayde; in þis manere may a deuyn*. [dyuyne, Cx.] vse ensamples manerliche in his talkynge and spekynge. Petrus. In Ayoth his tyme þe lattre Apollo,*. [Appollo, MSS.] þat was Latona his*. [Latonaes, Cx.; both forms are instructive.] sone, as þe Grees telleþ, fond vþ þe art of phisik and made harpe.*. [harpes, Cx.] ℞. Noþeles Isidorus, libro 3o, Etym., seiþ þat Mercu|rius Page  377, vol.2 afterward in Gedeon*. [So γ. Cx.; Gedion, MSS.] his tyme putte seuene strenges to þe harpe, þat was to fore honde i-founde; and þey putte to þe strenges and streyned hem in þis manere. Þe ryuer Nilus*. [Salus, MS.] had be vppe and byflowe þe lond and was a falle*. [was ebbed, Cx.] into þe chanel aȝen, þan lay many beestes dede on þe feeldes, and among oþere lay a dede snayle. Whan þis snayl was i-roted, þe senewes*. [senwes, α.] were i-streyned with ynne þe skyn of þe snayles hous, and sownede as þe wynde blewe þerynne*. [þeron, α. β. γ. and Cx.] esiliche and softe|liche. Þan Mercurius took hede*. [hede] om. MS.] þerto and made an harpe to þe liknesse þerof, and took hit to Orpheus þe harpour. Tre|visa. I rede among þe wondres of Ynde, þat snayles beeþ þere so grete and so huge þat a man may be herborwed in a snayles hous. Petrus.*. [Reference added from Cx.] Also þat tyme þe forseide Mercurius fonde vp an instrument of musyk þat hatte Syringa [by the name of that woman Syringa]*. [Added from β. γ. Cx.] þat was Cadmus*. [Cadynus, MS. (not Cx.) Va|rious slight errors in spelling proper names have been tacitly corrected in this and the following chapters.] his wif. She*. [he, α.; heo, β. γ.] wente away from hire housbonde for loue of musyk and melodie. It is vn|certeynte whiche Mercurius þis was; wheþer Mercurius Hermes, oþer Mercurius Trimegistus þe philosofre, oþer þe [grete]*. [Added from β. γ.] Mercurius; for Iosephus spekeþ of þre, of þe whiche eueriche heet Mercurius. Isidorus, libro quinto.*. [So α. and Cx. (who has sexto); Petrus, MS.] Also þat tyme in Gres Page  379, vol.2 was i-founde vp an instrument of musyk þat hatte chorus. Petrus. Strabus seiþ þat þat instrument is a skynne*. [is a skynne] om. Cx.] wiþ tweie pipes; by oon pipe þe ayer gooþ yn, and by þe oþer þe soun gooþ out.

Capitulum nonum decimum.

Augustinus, de Civitate, libro 18o, capitulo 13o. Delbora þat womman was a prophetes of the lynage of Effraym. Þis Delbora wiþ Barach of þe lynage of Neptalym rulede þe peple of Israel fourty Ȝere, for to rekene twenty ȝere in þe whiche Iabyn kyng of Canaan pursued Israel. In hir tyme kynges of Argyues faillede þat hadde i-regned fyue hon|dred Ȝere and fourty, þat was from þe firste Inachus to þe firste Pelops his tyme, kyng of þe Peloponenses; and þanne þe kyngdom tornede to þe Mecenes.*. [So α. and Cx.; Macenes, MS.] Þat tyme bygan þe kyng|dom of Laurentynes in Italy. After þe deth of Ianus and Saturnus þat hadde longe i-regned þere, þere regned Picus Saturnus his sone. Augustinus de Civitate, ubi supra. Aboute þat tyme deyde Denys þat heet also Liber Pater, þat werred in Page  381, vol.2 Inde, and hadde in his oost men and wommen i-medled to gedres. Noþeles at þe laste Perseus slowȝ hym. His goldene buriels is ȝit i-seyn*. [seie, α.] in Thessalia bysides Appolyn Delphicus in mount Parnassus. Mida þe riche kyng regnede þat tyme in Frigia; of hym poetes feynede meny þinges, as it is i-write in Mythologia Fulgentii and Alexandri. And Ilus,*. [Ilius, Cx.; Iulius, MS. and α.] Appolyn his sone, bulde Ilium in Troye.

Capitulum vicesimum.

GEDEON, þat heet Iheroboal, was ledere of Israel fourty ȝere, forto rekene*. [So α. and Cx.; reigne, MS.] eiȝte ȝere þat Israel seruede Midianites and Amalachites. Iosephus seiþ þat þe citee Tyrus was i-bulde in Gedeon his tyme, aboute an*. [So MS. α. β. γ.] two hondred ȝere and fourty to fore Salomon his temple. Petrus. Minos, kyng of Creta, Iupiter his sone, occupied þe see þat [tyme and ȝaf lawe to þe men of Creta. Þat tyme]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þe strong man Theseus, Egeus þe kynges sone of Athene, slowȝ Minotaurus in þe tornemente. Þerfore Page  383, vol.2 men of Athene þat were tributarii to forhonde*. [byfore, Cx.] were quyt and free of al tribute. Minotaurus was a grete man and huge, myȝty and strong, and a wiȝt wrastlere,*. [and ful delyure in wrastling, Cx., who otherwise varies the sen|tence.] and was kyng Minois his bocher. Þerfore he was i-cleped as it were Minois taurus, þat is a bocher. Aboute þat tyme Theseus rauesched Eleyne;*. [Eleyn, Cx.; Helen, α.] and here tweye breþeren Castor and Pollux fette hir, and brouȝt hir aȝen, and took Theseus moder and chasede Theseus out of contray. Also me seiþ þat Dedalus was þat tyme in his floures. Þis Dedalus made briddes*. [byrdes, Cx.] of metal by craft of*. [of] and, α. β. γ. Cx.] spirit en|closed*. [i-closed, α.; closed, Cx.] for to flee aboute. Me seiþ also þat he made ymages þat meued hem self. He was þe firste þat departede feet of ymages atwynne; ffor oþer men ioyned hem to gidres. Isido|rus, libro nono. Þis Dedalus hadde a nevew þat heet Perdix,*. [So Cx.; Pardix, MS., here and below.] and fenge hym to his lore. Þis Perdix wax sotil and connynge of craft, and byþouȝt hym*. [Cx. adds, in his ymagynacion.] for to haue som spedful manere cleuynge of tymber, and took a plate of iren, and fyled it, and made it i-toþed*. [I toþed, α.] as a rugge*. [rigge, Cx.] boon of a fische, and þanne it was a sawe. Also þis childe byþouȝt hym and made þe firste com|pas, and wrouȝt þerwiþ. Þerfore his mayster Dedalus took greet envie to þe childe, and þrewe hym doun of an hiȝe toure, Page  385, vol.2 and brak his nekke. Þerfore Dedalus wiþ his sone Icarus*. [Ycarus, MSS., and so below.] at Creta fliȝe and come in to Sicilia,*. [Scicilia, MSS.; Scilicia, Harl. MS.] and þere he made first labo|rinthus.*. [Cx. adds, otherwyse callyd a mase.]Petrus. For Dedalus fliȝ away so swiftliche after þe manslauȝt,*. [after he had slayn his neuew, Cx.] me feyneþ þat he fleyȝ wiþ wynges as a bryd by þe ayer. Isidorus, libro quintodecimo. Laborinthus is a manere buldynge wonderliche i-bulde wiþ daungers*. [daungerous, Cx.] walles; þerynne Minotaurus was i-closed. Ȝif eny man wente þider yn wiþ oute a clewe of þrede, it were ful harde to fynde a way out. Þey þat oponed þe ȝates schulde here dredful þondringe. Hugutio, capitulo Labor. Me gooþ adoun [as hit were]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] by an hondred grees:*. [grees or steppes, Cx.] þere beeþ also in derkenesse wonder meny dyuers wyndynges and tornynges; and suche foure beeþ in þis worlde of suche hous;*. [howses, Cx.] oon in Egipt, anoþer in Creta, þe þridde in þe ylond Lemno,*. [Lempno, MS. Similarly Harl. MS.] and þe ferþe in Italy; and beeþ so i-made þat vnneþe þey mowe be destroyed, while þe worlde dureþ. Hugutio, capitulo Cilleo. Whanne þere fel a pestilence among men of Athene*. [MS. has some words repeated.] for þe deth of Icarus and his douȝter Erigon, and maydens of Athene were com|pelled as it were to snarles and greues, þanne þei hadde Page  387, vol.2 answere of Appolyn Delphicus þat þe pestilence myȝt cese, ȝif þey souȝte besiliche þe bodyes of Icarus and his douȝter Erigon. Þan þey souȝte besiliche, and whanne þey hadde longe i-souȝt and myȝte nouȝt*. [nowther, Cx.; nowhar, β. γ.] fynde,*. [fynde in erþe, MS. (not α. β. γ. or Cx.)] for to schewe þe deuocion and wil þat þey hadde forto seche [and]*. [Added from conjecture; but perhaps the five words following should be cancelled.] forto be seie seche besiliche in anoþer element þat þey myȝte nouȝt fynde in erþe, men of Athene heng*. [hyng, α.] vp ropes in þe ayer and men totrede þeron and meued hider and þider; for þey wolde be seie seche þe bodies in þe aier aboue þe erþe. And whan men [fel]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] of þe totres and were i-herte sore,*. [i-hurt, α.] it was i-ordeyned among hem þat images i-liche to þe bodies schulde be sette in þe totros,*. [totres, α., Cx.] and meue and totery in stede of hem þat were a-falle. Þat game is cleped ocillum in Latyn, and is com|powned and i-mayde of tweyne, of cilleo cilles þat is forto mene*. [meoue, α.]toterynge,*. [toterynge] om. α. and Cx.] and os oris þat is a mouþ; for þey þat totered so mouede aȝenst men mouþes.

Page  389, vol.2

Capitulum vicesimum primum.

ABYMALECH, Gedeon*. [So α.; Geon, MS.] his son i-bore of a concubyn, was ledere in Sichem after his fader þre ȝere, and slow his owne broþern þre score and ten, outake oon, þat were i-bore of diuers wifes.*. [So α and Cx.; a concubyn, MS.] Þat tyme was þe batayle of Athene bytwene þe Laphites and Centaures. Palefatus, libro De Incredibilibus, seiþ þat þe Centaures*. [So α.; Sentaures, MS.] were noble hors men of Thessalia, þat fauȝt aȝenst þe Thebes men of Thebe in Egipt. Thola of þe lynage of Isachar was iuge in Israel þre and twenty ȝere. In his fourþe ȝere Medea*. [Meda, MS., and so below. A few similar slight errors have been tacitly corrected in this chapter; as Gereon, Synope, Archadia.] wente from hire hous|bonde Egeus, kyng of Athene, in to þe ilonde Colchos, þere sche was i-bore. Trogus, 43. Aboute þat tyme Faunus [Picus his sone regnede in Italy. In his tyme Euander come out of Arcadia and feng fildes*. [receyued and toke feldes, Cx.] and þe hil mount Palatyn. Þis Faunus]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] had a wyf þat heet Fatua, and hadde ofte a spirit of prophecie. Þerfore ȝit ofte þey þat haueþ a spirit of prophecie beeþ i-cleped Fatui. Þoo Hercules hadde i-slawe Geryon þe geant, kyng of Spayne, and ladde Page  391, vol.2 his bestes þoruȝ Italy in token of þe victorie; he lay by þis Faunus his douȝter vnlawfulliche and gat Latinus,*. [So α. and Cx.; Lathinius, MS.] þat regnede afterward in Itali. Orosius, libro primo. Aboute þis ȝere Vesores, kyng of Egipt, werred first aȝenst þe Scites; noþeles*. [yet, Cx.] firste he sente messagers and heet [his]*. [Added from Cx. (only), who varies the clause.] enemyes be soget to his lawe; and þe Scites answerede: "A dul kyng and most riche meueþ bataile aȝenst pore men and nedy, nameliche while it douteþ what ende þe batayle schal haue; profite comeþ þerof noon, but grete and opoun harme and damage." And nouȝt longe after the dede acordede*. [acord, Cx.] wiþ þe answere; for þey com|pelled þe kyng of Egipt forto flee aȝen, and chasede and spoyl|ede his oost, [and wolde have i-spoylled]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] al Egipt, hadde þey nouȝt be lette by watres of þe ryuer Nilus. Þanne in þe torn|ynge aȝen þey werred fiftene ȝere in Asia, and made Asia tributarie; and here wifes sent hem worde, þat but þei wolde come home þey wolde haue children by men of þe contrayes aboute. Þe mene tyme among þe Scites tweye real ȝonge|lynges by fraude and deceyt of þe grete werre*. [So MS.; were, Cx.] i-putte Page  393, vol.2 from home, and took wiþ hem a grete multitude of peple and strengþe, and werred in þe contrayes of Pontus and Cappado|cia.*. [Capadocie, Cx.] And whanne þey hadde i-doo greet destruccioun, þan þey were i-kilde of men of þe contrays aboute. Þanne hire wifes exilede and wydewes armed hem, and toke wreche of hire housbondes deþ; and whanne þey hadde i-made pees by strengþe and by dedes of armes þey took men of oþer londes to ligge*. [lye, Cx.] by hem forto haue children, and slow hire owne knaue children,*. [men childer, Cx.; who, however, has childerer above.] and kepte here mayde children, and brende of þe*. [her, Cx.] riȝt brest. At þe laste tweyne of þese women were queenes, Marsepia and Lampeto, and departed hire oost, and kepte and mayntenede hem, and batailled*. [hem in batel, Cx.; bataille, α. γ.; batel, β.] eiþer by hir cours. Þan whanne þey hadde ouercome a grete dele of Europa and many citees of Asia, þey sent home þe bettre part of here oost wiþ prayes þat þey hadde i-take. Þan enemyes slowȝ Marsepia þe queene and*. [So α. and Cx.; of, MS.] þe oþere women þat were i-left þere forto kepe Asia. And here douȝter Sinope regned after hir moder deþ, and gadered a singuler ioye of vertue by euer|lastynge chastite. Men wondrede so hugeliche of this wom|man, þat whanne Hercules hadde heste of his lorde for to werre Page  395, vol.2 aȝenst þis*. [the, Cx.] queene, he gadrede al þe grete strengþe of þe ȝong men of Grees, and ordeyned hym nyne longe schippes, and fil vppon þe wommen þat were vnarmed. For hym was leuere stele*. [to stele, Cx.] vppon hem þan come vppon hem wiþ a bataile opoun|liche. Þan, whanne þe tweie queenes þat were sustres were sodeynliche ouercome, Hercules ȝaf Menalippa to his suster Antiopa, and wedded hir suster Hippolyta*. [Ypolita, MS., α.; Ipolita, β. γ.] to his knyȝt Theseus, and fenge þe armure of þe queene in prys of redemp|cioun. At the laste after Orthia þe queene, Penthesilea*. [Pentasilea, α.; Pentafiles, MS.] þe queene was in þe batayle of Troye, and ȝaf and*. [ȝaf and] om. Cx.] dede meny grete dedes aȝenst the Grees.

Capitulum vicesimum secundum.

IAIR*. [Lair, MS.] of Galaad, of þe lynage of Manasse, was iuge of Israel two and twenty ȝere, and hadde þrittey sones, and made hem princes vppon þritty citees, and cleped þe citees by his owne name, Anot Iair, þat is to mene, Iair is townes. ℞. Som telleþ þat Carthago*. [Cartago, MSS.; Cartage, Cx.] was i-bulde þe þridde ȝere of þis Iaire, but Page  397, vol.2 look in þe firste book, capitulo Affrica, scilicet Numidia.*. [So β.; Munidia, α. γ., Cx.; Mundia, MS.] Þe sextenþe ȝere of Iaire, Mynois of Egipt amendede armure aȝenst Dedalus in Sicilia, and was i-kyld of Cocalus his sones. Isidorus, libro primo. Carmentis Nympha, þat heet also Nicostrata,*. [Nichostrata, MSS.] kyng*. [kyng of, MS., and so below.] Latyn his moder, fond and brouȝt vp*. [vp] om. Cx.] Latyn lettres. Isidorus, libro nono. Þe longage of Latyn was departed in foure: for þe firste was vnder Ianus and Saturnus, and was i-cleped Prisk; and Latyn vnder þe*. [þe] om. α., Cx.] kyng Latyn and oþer kynges of Thuscayn;*. [Tuscayn, α.] in þat longage were þe twelue tables of lawe i-write; also Romayn þat bygan after kynges were i-made suget; and þat longage vsede Plautus and Tullius, Virgilius and Caton; but medled*. [melled, α.; myxt, Cx.] longage encresed after þat þe Empere encresede and was huge. After þe deeth of Iaire Israel seruede þe Philistinis and Ammonitys eiȝtene ȝere, þat beeþ acounted to þe ȝeres of Iepte þat was duke afterward of Israel.

Page  399, vol.2

Capitulum vicesimum tertium. Iepte.

IEPTE of Galaad, of the lynage of Gad, an hoore*. [a comyn womans, Cx.] sone, was iuge of Israel sixe ȝere. Kyng Latyn, Faunus is sone, bygan to regne in Ytaly; and regned þere two and þritty ȝere. Of hym þe kynges of*. [of] om. MS. (only.)] Itali hadde þat name, and were i-cleped kynges of Latyns, and þan cesed þe name of Laurentines, and torned into þe name of Latyns.*. [and þan . . . of Latyns] om. Cx.]Isidorus, libro octavo. In þis kyng Latyn his tyme was Sibil Eritrea in hir floures, þat heet Erofila, and was i-bore in Babilon. Sche warnede þe Grees þat wente to Troye þat Troye schulde be destroyed, and þat Homerus schulde write lesynges afterward. Þere were ten Sibilis, and þis is þe fifte in nombre, and is i-putte tofore oþere. Þe firste Sibile was of Pers, þe*. [Pierse, α.] secounde of Libya, þe þridde was Delphica yn Appolyn his temple to fore þe bataile of Troye. Homerus wroot meny of hir vers in his bookes. Þe fourþe was Cimeria of Italy. Þe fifte was Eritrea, of hire is now oure speche. Þe sixte was Samia, i-bore in þe ylond*. [londe, MS. (only.)] of Samos. Page  401, vol.2 Þe seuenþe [was]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Cumana, i-bore in Campania; sche*. [he, α.] brouȝte nyne bookes to Torquynus Priscus, kyng of Romayns, in þe whiche were i-write þe domes of Rome. Þe eiȝþe was Elles|pontia, i-bore in a feeld of Troye. Me redeþ þat sche*. [he, α.] was in kyng Cyrus and [in]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Solon*. [Salon, MSS.] his tyme. Þe nynþe was Frigia. Me redeþ þat he*. [she, Cx.] prophecied in Anchisa. Þe tenþe was Tybur|tina, and heet also Albymea.*. [Albumea, Cx. Some proper names in this chapter being very corrupt, have been left unaltered.] Þe bookes of hem alle beeþ i-preysed, for þey writen moche of God, of Crist, and also of Payenis.*. [Paynes, Cx. (who varies the sentence.)] ℞. Noþeles it semeþ þat Seynt Austyn, 18o libro, capitulo 16o, wil mene þat Sibille Eritria was in Romulus his tyme, and sche wroot moche of Criste, and þat openliche, as in þis vers of heroes:

"Token of doome þe erþe schal wiþ swoot*. [of swete, Cx.] by come weet,
Out of heuene þe kyng endeles schal come to siȝte.
And þat in flesche present forto deme þe world."

And so forþ Sibil haþ many mo vers. Þe heed lettres of þese þre vers, and of þe oþere as þey beeþ i-write in Latyn, speleþ þis menynge:*. [speketh thus, Cx.] Ihesus Crist, Goddes sone, Sauyour. Isidorus, libro 14o.*. [9, α.; quarto, Cx. The true reference is to lib. viii. c. 8.] Sibille is a name of offys, and nouȝt of persone, and is i-seide of syos, þat is God, and of beele, þat is þouȝt; and so Page  403, vol.2 Sibil is i-seide as it were a womman þat haþ Goddes*. [God his, α.] þouȝt. Þerfore as a man þat prophecieþ is i-cleped a prophete, so a womman þat prophecieþ is i-cleped Sibil. Vnder þis dayes in kyng Latyns tyme was þe seyllynge i-made þat is i-cleped þe seylynge of Argonautes. Þat seillynge was cause and occasioun of þe bataille of Troye, and bygan in þis manere. Trogus, libro 2o. After Neptunus, þe successour of Erictonius,*. [So α.; Erictorius, MS. Read Erichthonius.] þe kyngdom of Athene fil to Egeus, þat hadde i-gete his sone Theseus on his firste wif; and at þe laste whanne þat wyf was deed, he wedded Medea, þe kynges douȝter of Colchos, and gat on hire Medus. At þe laste Medea dredde hir step sone*. [So α. β. γ., Cx.; sone, MS.] Theseus, whan he come to age, and took wiþ here hir sone Medus, and wente hoom to hire fader in to Colchos. After Egeus his sone Theseus reignede in Athene; he wente somtyme wiþ Hercules and werred, and ouercome þe Amazones. After Theseus his sone Demophon regnede; he halp*. [halp and assisted, Cx.] þe Grees aȝenst þe Troians. Trogus, libro 42o. Þanne Pelias, kyng of Peloponens, þat is of Thessalia, dredde leste Iason þe noble werriour*. [werriour] om. α. β. γ. and Cx.] wolde werre in his londes*. [lond, Cx.] and putte hym out. Iason was Eson his sone; Eson was Pelias his owne broþer. Pelias brouȝte Page  405, vol.2 Iason in witte forto fette*. [fetche, Cx.] þe goldene flees at Colchos and hopede þerby þat þe ȝong man schulde be deed oþer for long seillynge in þe see oþer in bataile aȝenst straunge naciouns. Phrygius*. [Frigius, MSS. and Cx.]Dares. Þerfore Pelias made Argus ordeyne a wel faire schippe couenable to þis seillynge and passage. Petrus. Of þis name Argon comeþ þis name Argonaute. Argonaute were stalworþe ȝonge men i-gadred al aboute for Iason his viage; þanne Iason seillede forþ wiþ þese men and londede first in Frigia. Þo Laomedon*. [So Cx.; Laomadon, MS.] reignede þere. Trogus. But Iason was put out of Frigia and come in to Colchos, and ouercome þe kyng and slowȝ his sone Egealius and took þe goldene flees, and had wiþ hym Medea*. [So Cx.; Meda, MS.] þe kynges douȝter, and made hire his wyf. Noþeles aftirward he forsook hire and putte hir away. But afterward whan kyng Pelias his sone was put out of Thessalia, Iason reconsilede*. [recounseylled, Cx.] and took aȝen his wif Medea wiþ his stepsone Medus, and gaderede a stronge multitude of ȝonge men and wente in to Colchos and restored orpedliche*. [orpedly, Cx.] his wifes fader, þat was putte out of his kyngdom, and ȝaf hym meny citees to his kyngdom in*. [So α. β. γ., Cx.; and, MS.] recompensacioun and amendement of þe olde wrong. PhrygiusPage  407, vol.2Dares. Whan Iason hadde*. [Thanne Iason whanne he hadde, α. β. γ.] sodued Colchos, he hadde wiþ hym at his prayenge*. [Cx. ins. Hercules.] Castor, Pollux, Peleus of*. [and of, MS., α. (not β. γ. Cx.) For Scitia read Phthia. See above.] Scitia, Telamon*. [Thelamon, MSS. and Cx.] of Salomina,*. [So β. γ.; Salomina, MS., α. Read Salamis.] and come yn wiþ fyue schippes by nyȝte into Frigia and slow Laomedon þe kyng and destroyed Ilium in Troye. He rauysched Hesiona þe kynges douȝter and ȝaf hire to his kniȝt Telamon of Salamina to wife;*. [wyve, α.] for he was þe firste þat entrede in to Troye and*. [and] om. α.] þere took*. [was i-take, α. β. γ.; was taken, Cx.] a grete pray. And Iason tornede aȝen wiþ his men. Whan Priamus*. [Pryamus, MS. A few similar corrections have been made tacitly in this chapter.] Laomedon his eldest sone herde and wiste of al þis, he strengþede Ilium þat is Troye wiþ ȝates and wiþ walles and bygan for to reigne.

Capitulum vicesimum quartum. Abessa.

ABESSA of Bethleem was iuge in Israel seuene ȝere. In his secounde ȝere Priamus kyng of Frigia, þat is kyng of Troye, sente Antenor to þe Grees,*. [Grekes, Cx.; and so below.] and seide þat he wolde gladliche forȝeue al trespas þat was doo to forehonde,*. [trespasses that they had deo bifore, Cx.] ȝif þey wolde Page  409, vol.2 sende aȝen his suster Hesiona, þat þey hadde i-rauesched. Þe Grees wolde nouȝt. Priamus arrayed for þe bataille and made his eldest sone Hector*. [So β., Cx.; Ector, MS., here and below.] ledere of oþere men. Alisaundre, þat heet Paris also, Hector his broþer, assenteþ her to, and seiþ þat whanne he hontede some tyme in þe woode þat hatte Ida,*. [So α., Cx.; Yda, MS.] he sleep*. [slept, Cx.] and mette*. [dremed, Cx.] þat Mercurius brouȝte abowe to fore hym Iuno, Venus, and Minerua, for he schulde deme whiche of hem was fairest; and Minerua by heet hym wisdom, [Iuno worship, and Venus behete him]*. [Added from Cx. (only); wyt and wysdom and the fayreste wyf, γ.] þe fairest wif of þe worlde, ȝif he wolde deme þat*. [So α. and Cx.; yf, MS.] sche were þe fairest. Helenus þe oþer broþer prophecied þe contrarie; and seide þat ȝif Alisaundre, þat heet Paris, took a wyf of Grees,*. [Grece, Cx.] [þe Grees]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] wolde come and destroye Ilium, þat is Troye. Þat womman Cassandra propheciede þe same. Noþeles schippes were arrayed, and Alisaundre, þat heet Paris, wiþ Antenor*. [Anthenore, MS., but Antenor above.] sent*. [and Paris with Anthenor were sente, Cx.] into Grecia, and whenne wommen come*. [tho men came, Cx.] into þe ilond Cythera to þe feste of Iuno, Helena kyng Menelaus his wif come forto see þe fairnesse of Paris, [and Paris]*. [Added from α. β. γ., Cx.; MSS. sometimes have Parys.] rauesched hire and took hir wiþ hym and torned home aȝen.*. [and toke hir with hym in to Troy, Cx. (omitting the rest.)] Þan was Priamus glad i-now, Page  411, vol.2 as þey he schulde rekke neuere and haue aȝen his suster He|siona.*. [as þey . . . Hesiona] wenyng therby recouer his sister Hesiona, Cx.] Þan Menelaus kyng of Lacedemonia made a greuous*. [greet and greuous, Cx.] playnt to his broþer Agamemnon,*. [Agamenon and Agamynon, MSS., and so below.] kyng of Messenes,*. [Mescenes, β. γ.] of þe rauyschinge of his wif, and gadrede passyng strong men, Achille, Patroclus, Vlixes,*. [So β. γ., Cx.; Flixes, MS., α., and so below.] Aiax, Nestor, wiþ oþere stalworþe men, seuen and fourty; and hadde schippes redy in þe hauene of Athene*. [of Athene] om. Cx.] in nombre of a þowsand and two hondred, and hadde answere of Appolyn Delphicus, þat Ilium, þat is Troye, schulde be destroyed in þe tenþe ȝere. Þe Grees took vp here ancres and seillede on þe see, and took grete prayes, and tornede home aȝe. In þe mene tyme Agamemnon sende messangers Vlixes and Diomedes to kyng Priamus, ȝif he wolde ȝelde vp Helene, and sende hir home aȝen. Þanne Priamus byþouȝt hym, and hadde anon in mynde þe wrong of þe Argonautes,*. [Argenautes, MS.] þe deth of his fader, þe rauyschynge of his suster, þe displesynge of his messager Antenor. Þerfore he forsook pees, and heet array*. [heet array] ordeyned, Cx.] for þe werre. Þan whan þe oost was i-gadred in eiþer side, Hector slow Protesilaus*. [Prothesilaus, MS.; Prothesalaus, Harl. MS.] and Menon,*. [So MSS. here and below. The translators had Menonem (i.e. Memnon) in their text.] and slow and felde to þe*. [þe] om. α. β.] grounde meny men Page  413, vol.2 forto*. [forto] til, Cx.] þat his cosyn Hesiona sone, Aiax Telamonius,*. [Thelamonius, MS.] knowleched kynrede bytwene hem, and so lette hym of his rees. Þe mene tyme were truyse i-take for two ȝere, þat þey myȝte burye hir men þat were i-slawe.*. [slayn, Cx.] But after two ȝere þey fenge in a strong bataille. Hector slowȝ ten stal|worþe dukes, and Achilles in þe oþer side slow foure stalworþe men and noble; and þe bataile durede foure score dayes contynueliche in harde fyȝtinge and stronge. And after þat were*. [was, Cx.; but were (trewes) just below.] trewes i-take for þre ȝere, and after þe trewes þey fenge on forto fiȝte and slowȝ ful meny men in eiþer side,*. [Sentence slightly varied in Cx.] and Andromach, Hector his wif, warned Hector by here sweuene*. [dreame, Cx.] þat he schulde*. [not þat, α. and Cx.] þat day nouȝt*. [nouȝt] om. α. and Cx.] wende in to batayle.*. [þe batayle, α., here and below.] Noþeles Hector wente in to bataile and was i-slawe of Achilles. And whan Hector was i-buried, were trewes i-take for a ȝere. Whan Hector his mynde day was i-holde, Achilles was þerat, and loued hugeliche Polyxena,*. [Polixena, MSS.; Policena, Cx.] kyng Priamus his douȝter, and axede and had*. [and had] to have, Cx.] hir to his wif, and wiþdrowe hym from þe bataille, and seide þat it was euel i-doo*. [done, Cx.] forto destourbe*. [destrouble, Cx.] al Europa for þe raueschynge of Helen. But at Page  415, vol.2 þe laste he wente forþ at þe prayere of þe Grees, and was i-wounded of Troilus,*. [Troylus, MS. and Cx.] þat hadde i-slawe meny Grees. Þerfore he was angri and wrooþ, and slow Troilus and Menon also. Þan was Hecuba wonder wrooþ, Priamus his wif, and by þouȝte [here of gyle],*. [Added from α. β. and Cx.] and sette Achilles a day whan he schulde come and fecche home his wyf Polyxena, þat was hir owne douȝter. And whanne þe day was i-come,*. [comen, Cx.] Alisaundre, þat het Paris, slow Achilles gilefulliche. Þerfore þey hadde answere of goddes, þat þe Grees schulde haue þe victorie by Achilles his lynage. Neoptolemus,*. [Neoptholomus, MSS., and so be|low; Neoptholomeus, Harl. MS.] Achilles his sone, wente forþ into bataille; in þe whiche bataile Alisaundre*. [Paris, Cx.] and Aiax were i-wounded to þe deth eiþer of oþer. Þanne þe seuenþe ȝere of þe bataille*. [siege, Cx.] come Penthesilea,*. [Pentasilia, or Pentisilia, MSS.] queene of Amazones,*. [Amosons, Cx.] in help and socour of þe Troians, and brak þe sege of þe Grees, and brende meny of hir schippes. Noþeles sche was i-slawe of Neoptolemus þat sche hade i-wounded. After þat Antenor*. [So Cx.; Anthenore, MS., as often; Anthenor, Harl. MS.] and Eneas counsaillede forto delyuere hoom Eleyne, and forto axe*. [desire, Cx.] pees. Priamus took grete indignacioun [of here Page  417, vol.2 counsail, and seide he schulde dey ȝif euere he were so wood to counsail þat eftsones. Þerfore þey took greet indignacioun,]*. [Added from α. and Cx. (β. has þei for he twice.)] and sente Polydamas to þe Grees forto betraye þe citee for hire owne sauacioun. The Grees grauntede pees to þese þre, [to]*. [Added from α. β. and Cx.] Antenor, to Eneas, to Polydamas, and to alle hires,*. [to alle theyr retinue, Cx.] and þe citee was i-oponed by nyȝte to þe enemyes.*. [Grekes, Cx.] Þanne Priamus fliȝ to auters of goddes, and Neoptolemus pursued hym and slow hym stan deed.*. [stan deed] om. Cx.] Eneas hidde Polyxena at his fader Anchises at þe prayer of Helene. Andromache hadde fredom i-graunted. Polyxena was longe i-souȝt, and at þe laste i-founde and i-slawe of Neoptolemus at here fader tombe. Eneas, for he hadde hidde Polyxena, was i-hote be agoo. Þe londe was i-lefte to Antenor. Helen wente home aȝen wiþ Menelaus. Me hadde i-fouȝte at Troye ten ȝere and sixe monþes, and were i-slawe of þe Troians, or þe citee was bytrayed, sixe hondred þousand þre skore and sixtene; and whan þe citee was betrayed, þre score þowsand and eiȝten þowsand.*. [Sentence recast by Cx.] Þanne Eneas wente out of þe contray wiþ foure and twenty schippes, and wiþ hym þre þowsend men and þre Page  419, vol.2 hondred, and wiþ Antenor two*. [thre, Cx.] þowsand, wiþ Andromache*. [Adromache, MS. A few similar trivial errors of orthography have been tacitly corrected in this chapter.] and Helenus two þowsand.

Capitulum vicesimum quintum. Aylon. Abdon.

AYLON, of þe lynage of Zabulon, was iuge of Israel ten ȝere. Noþeles þe Seuenty acounteþ hem nouȝt, and þerfore Eusebius acounteþ his ȝeres of Iosue, of Samuel, and of Saul; for þe Scripture spekeþ nouȝt of here ȝeres. Noþeles þey setteþ moo ȝeres þan beeþ i-founde by Iosephus. So þat from þe goynge out of Egipte anon to Salaman his temple were foure hondred ȝere and foure score. Abdon, þat heet Lapdon, was also iuge of Israel eiȝte ȝere. In his þridde ȝere Troye was i-take, eiȝte hondred ȝere and foure and fourty after Abraham his burþe, þre hondred ȝere and fourty after þe goynge out of Egipt, þe ȝere of kyng Latyn in Italy fyue and twenty, to fore þe buldynge of Rome aboute an*. [an] So MS., α. β. γ.; om. Cx.] foure hondred ȝere and two and þritty.*. [twenty, Cx.]Augustinus, libro octavodecimo, capitulo sexto|decimo. After þat Troye was destroyed, ȝit while kyng Latyn regned in Itali, þe Grees þat tornede aȝen and*. [This word should be cancelled apparently, though found in all the four MSS.] hadde in þe Page  421, vol.2 weie many myshappes. For Varro,*. [So β. γ., Cx.; Farro, MS., α.] libro tertio de historia, seiþ þat Diomed his felawes were i-torned in to foules, and Diomedes hym self was na more i-seie; so þat he was i-holde a god. His temple is solempne in þe ilond Diomedia, nouȝt fer from Mont Gargan in Apulia.*. [So α. and Cx.; Ampula, MS.] Me seiþ þat foules woneþ and fleeþ about þis temple, and serueþ wonderliche, and springeþ water. Ȝif þe Grees or*. [So also Cx.; oþer, α. (or is very frequently oþer in α.)] eny oþer of þe kynde of [þe]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Grees comeþ þeder, þe bryddes makeþ*. [make, α.] hem good semblaunce;*. [semblaunt, α., Cx.] and ȝif eny oþer comeþ, þey woundeþ hem wiþ hire grete beeles. And forto conferme þe same Varro*. [So α. and Cx.; Farro, MS.] telleþ nouȝt a fable lesynge, but soþenesse of storie of þat famous wicche*. [dyuyncresse, sorceresse, and wytche, Cx.] Circe, þat tornede*. [transfourmede, Cx.] and chaungede Vlixes his felawes into bestes; and of þe Arcades*. [Archades, MSS. and Cx.] þat by lot swam ouer a pool and þan were i-torned into wolfes and leuede wiþ wylde bestes, and ȝif he*. [they, Cx. (a frequent variation.)] ete þere no manis flesche, þey schulde after nyne ȝere swymme home ouer þe pool and torne aȝen in to schap of mankynde. [He sayth also that Demenetus, whan he had Page  423, vol.2 tasted of the sacrifice of Archad,*. [Read Arcas; but the error may safely be ascribed to the translators themselves.] was torned in to a wolf; and after nyne yere he was restored ayene to his owne shappe of mankynde,]*. [Added from β. γ., Cx. (γ. omits of mankynde).] and vsede afterward geauntes dedes, and hadde þe maistrye in a tornement*. [tornyng, Cx.] of Olympus.*. [Olymp, α. β.]Plinius, libro sextodecimo, capitulo vicesimo secundo. Þat men torneþ in to*. [be transformed into, Cx.] wolfes and eft*. [oft, Cx.] in to hire owne schap, we troweþ it be false. Noþeles auctoures of Grees telleþ þat*. [þat þe, α. (not Cx.)] Arcades were i-lad to a pool in þe same lond, and heng hire cloþes on an ook, and swam ouer þe pool, and in wildernesse tornede into wolues, and nyne ȝere wonede among wolfes; and ȝif þey kepte hem al þat tyme and ete no manis flesche, þey schulde swymme home aȝe, and take here owne cloþes and hire owne schap, and be nyne ȝere eldere*. [older, Cx.] þan þey were whan they wente out: but þere is no lesynges so grete þat is wiþ oute witnesse.*. [þat . . . witnesse] but it may be confermed, Cx.]Augustinus, libro 18o.,*. [So α. and Cx.; 16, MS.]capitulo 16.*. [So α. and Cx.; 22, MS.] Þan what schal we saye to alle þese sawes?*. [sayngys, Cx.] Certeynliche whanne we were in Italy we herde i-now of wommen hostelers of þat lond, þat vsede to ȝeue chese þat was bywicched to men þat Page  425, vol.2 trauailled by þe weie, and anon*. [to þe, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] þe men tornede into bestes and bar heuy charges, and hadde kyndeliche witte and resoun; and whan þey hadde i-doo hir seruice þey tornede aȝen into*. [to, α.] hir owne schap. Also Apule[i]us in his book knowlechede*. [knowlecheþ, α. β.; sayth, Cx.] þat so hit happed hym self, þat he toke suche venym, and hadde his witte and resoun, and was i-made an asse.*. [Some words erroneously re|peated in MS. (which omits ℞)., and α.; (text as β. γ. and Cx.)] ℞. Wil|lelmus de Regibus, libro secundo, telleþ suche*. [þat suche, MS. (not Cx.)] doynge of tweyne wicches þat wonede in þe hiȝe weye þat ledeþ to Rome;*. [wey to Romeward, Cx.] and ȝif eny gest come allone, þey torneþ*. [torned, α. β.] hym in to a beest; and so come by ham a mynstral þat couþe moche merþe, and þey tornede hem in to an asse, and solde hym to a riche man for a grete somme of monay. Noþeles wiþ suche warnynge þat he schulde neuere passe water, and his wardeyn kepte hym besiliche longe tyme. Noþeles in passynge of tyme he took lasse hede to his asse; and þe asse scaped to water, and torned aȝen in to þe schappe of mankynde. Þe wardeyn of þe asse folowede after, and asked*. [axed after, Cx.] his asse of euerich man þat he mette; and he, þat hadde ben an asse [and]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] was torned to Page  427, vol.2 man aȝen, seide þat he hadde ben an asse and was by come a man. And his wardeyn ladde*. [led, α., Cx.] hym to his lorde, and þe lorde ladde hem boþe to Leon þe pope, and þe olde wicches were conuycte tofore þe pope, and knowleched þe dede. Þe pope dowted*. [doute, α.] of þis þing, and Petrus Damianus,*. [Damyanus, MS.; also Symon and Fastinus below. Other MSS. read as in text, but Faustinus is the mistake of Trevisa.] a connynge man of lettrure,*. [letture, Cx.] confermede þe manere doynge by ensample of Simon Magus, þat tornede Faustinus in to his owne schappe, and made his owne children*. [childer, Cx.] drede hym ful sore. Augustinus ubi supra. Hit is to trowynge,*. [It is to be bileuyd, Cx.] þat fendes mowe nouȝt doo but at Goddis suffraunce; and so þei mowe make no manere kynde, noþer body chaunge.*. [ne chaunge bodyes, Cx.] Noþeles it semeþ somtyme þat þey chaungeþ liknes and schappe of þinges, þat God made and wrouȝte; so þat þe ffantasie of man*. man, Cx.] þat chaungeþ in þouȝt and in metynge of sweuenes by dyuers manere þinges, and takeþ þe lyknesse of bodyes wiþ a wonder swiftnesse, þey no body be present. Whan þe wittes of þe body beeþ absent*. [astent, α. (not Cx.)] and i-lette*. [i-sette, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] of here worchynge, and þe ymage and*. [So α. and Cx.; in, MS.] liknesse, þat is in þouȝt and in fantasie, is as it were i-peynted*. [i-prented, α. β. γ. and Cx.] in þe liknesse of som beest, and semeþ to*. [to] þat, MS. (not α.)] oþer men wittes in þe*. [in þe] so β. γ., Cx.; þe, MS., α.] same liknesse. And so a man may seme to hym self suche as he semeþ in metynge of sweuenes; and so Page  429, vol.2 hym may seme þat he bereþ burþenes and charges; [but if þey beeþ verrey burþens and charges],*. [Added from α. β. and Cx.] fendes bereþ hem, þat men mowe so be bygiled. For oon Prestantius tolde þat suche an happe byfel his owne fader, þat he took suche venym by chese in his owne hous, and lay in a bed, as he were slep|ynge; and no man myȝte hym awake, but after many dayes he wook,*. [So α.; awoke, Cx.; toke, MS.] and tolde as it were a sweuene how hym was byfalle; for hym þouȝte þat he was i-made an hors, and bare corne among oþer bestes to knyȝtes þat were at Retica;*. [Rethica, MSS.] and it was i-founde, þat riȝt as he tolde it was i-doo in dede. He seide also þat he say a philosofre at home in his hous; þe whiche philo|sofre*. [Words erroneously repeated in MS. and α.; text as β. γ., Cx.] expowned hym*. [to him, Cx.] many þinges*. [secretes, Cx.] of Plato his bookes, þe whiche þinges he hadde i-bede hym expowne to fore honde, and he wolde not. And whan me axed of þe philosofre, why he wolde expowne in anoþer manis hous þat [he]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] hadde denyed in his owne, "Nay," quod he, "I dede nouȝt so, but I mette þat I dede." And in þat manere by þe ymage and liknes of fantasie it was schewed to þat oon waking what þat oþer mette in his slepe. Þerfore þat þe Arcades torned in to wolfes by wicchecraft of Circa,*. [So MSS. and Cx., for Circe; but correctly above; Sirces, Harl. MS.] me semeþ it myȝte bee in þis manere, noþeles yf it were sooþ. But for Diomedes his felawes vanschede sodeynliche awey, and were neuere after i-founde, me troweþ þat wicked aungels took wreche of hem, and torned hem in to anoþer foules liknesse,*. [torned hem in to oþer foules, α. β. γ.] þat were i-made and i-brouȝt Page  431, vol.2 þider by craft of fendes in stede of þe men,*. [Clauses varied in Cx.] as hit is i-knowe þat an hynde was i-brouȝt and i-put in stede of Iphigenia,*. [Ephigenia, MSS. and Cx.] Agamemnon*. [Agamenon, MSS. and Harl. MS.] his douȝter; and sche was i-lad away. Þat foules at Diomedes temple springeþ water, and flatereth wiþ þe Grees, þat is by excitynge of þe deuel for to brynge men in witte for to trowe*. [for to trowe, &c.] to believe Dio|mede to be made a god, Cx.] þat Dyomede is i-made a god, þat men be so begiled in worschippynge of false goddes. ℞. Loke more of þis mattere in þe firste book, capitulo Hibernia. Giraldus in Topographia. Fendes and wicked men mowe not chaunge kynde but by suffraunce of God; þei mowe chaunge liknesse and schappe and lette manis wittes and bygile men, so þat þinges semeþ nouȝt as þey beeþ. But by strengþe of fantasie and of wicchecraft men haueþ semynge by feyned schappes; but it is nouȝt vnsittynge*. [Sic MS.; and so α. β. γ., Cx.] þat we trowe þat God as he makeþ þinges of nouȝt, so he chaungeþ hem oon into anoþer,*. [oþer, α. β. γ.] forto take riȝtful wreche oþer forto schewe his myȝt oþer mercie. So he tornede Loth is wyf in to an ymage of salt, and water in to wyn; oþer chaunge þe liknesse wiþ oute and leue þe kynde vnchaunged wiþ ynne.

Page  433, vol.2

Capitulum vicesimum sextum.

AFTER þe destroyenge*. [destruction, Cx.] of Troye, Eneas wiþ his fader An|chises and his sone Ascanius wiþ twelue schippes come to Sicil. Þere*. [and there, Cx.] Anchises deide. And whanne Eneas wolde seille into Itali, tempest drof hym in to Affrica.*. [Sentence varied in Cx.] Þere he was hugeliche*. [hugeliche] right wel, Cx.] i-loued of Dido þe queene; but after a schort tyme he lefte Dido and come in to Italy. ℞. Yf it is sooþ þat Trogus and Papy and oþer wise men telleþ, þat Dido bulde Cartage þre score ȝere and twelue to fore þe byldynge of þe citee of Rome, þat was i-bulde þe fourþe ȝere of Achaz, kyng of Iuda, þanne it is sooþ þat Eneas sygȝ*. [So α.; sawe, Cx.; seiþ, MS. (probably clerical error for seiȝ).] neuere Dido þe quene of Cartage; for Eneas was to forehonde,*. [was bifore, Cx., who varies the sentence.] and deide þre hondred ȝere and more to fore þe buldynge of Cartage. And þat meneþ Seint Austyn primo libro Confessionum in fine, and seiþ þat wise men denyeþ þat Eneas sey Cartage.*. [So α. β. γ.; Cartago, MS. and Harl. MS.]Hugutio, capitulo Elissa. Þis Dido heet Elissa, þat is Virago, a manliche womman; for hap þat fel afterward, for sche Page  435, vol.2 slowȝ hir self manliche. Trogus, libro octavo decimo.*. [So α. and Cx.; octavo, MS., wrongly. See lib. xviii. c. 6.] At þe laste þis Elissa, Pygmalion*. [Pigmaleon, MS.] his douȝter, whan he*. [So also α.; she, Cx.; heo, β.; α. γ.] schulde be*. [haue be, Cx.] compelled of þe peple forto take an housbonde, sche wente in to a greet fuyre þat sche hadde i-made; and so sche slow hir self manliche, and was longe after i-worschipped as a goddes. Martinus. Þan Eneas com in to Itali, and was confedered and i-swore to kyng Euander, þat þoo regnede in seuene hilles. Þese tweyne fauȝte aȝenst Latyn, kyng of Latyns, and aȝenst Turnus,*. [Tornus, MS., α. (not β., Cx.)] kyng [of Tuscan, kyng]*. [Added from α. β. and Cx.] Latyn his douȝter hous|bonde. In þat batayle Pallas Euander his sone and Turnus were i-slawe. ℞. Noþeles Trogus, libro quadragesimo tertio, wil mene þat Eneas in his firste comyng fond so grete grace wiþ kyng Latyn, þat he entrede into a partye of þe kyngdom, and wedded Lauyn,*. [So α. and Cx.; Lamyn, MS., and so below.] kyng Latyn his douȝter, þat was Turnus his spouse; and so boþe Latyn and Eneas i-confedered to gidres toke batayle aȝenst Turnus for þe gileful mariage of Lauyn, and Latyn and Turnus were boþe dede in þat bataile. And Eneas afterward was kyng of eiþer kyngdom of Latyns and of Tuscans, and bulde a citee and cleped þe citee Laui|nium by þe name of his wif, and werred afterward aȝenst þe Page  437, vol.2 kyng of Messene in Tuscan. And in þat bataile Eneas was dede,*. [slayne, Cx.] and lefte after hym his sone Ascanius, þat he hadde i-gete on*. [So α. and Cx.; in, MS.] Creusa at Troye. Isidorus, Etymolog. Iulus was Eneas his sone, and heet firste Ascanius by þe name of a ryuer of Frigia þat so hatte,*. [heet, Cx.] and was afterwarde i-cleped Ilus, by þe name of Ilus kyng of Troye. Hugutio, capitulo Iulus. Afterward, whan þe kyng of Mesens was i-slawe in a singuler batayle of stalworþe men, þanne Ascanius was i-cleped Iulus for his firste spryngynge of berd [þat þo was first i-sene; for þe firste spring of berd]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] is properliche i-cleped Iulus in Latyn [and is]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] a name of tweie silables, [þey hit be oþerwhiles i-sette in þre sylables]*. [Added from α. β. γ.; wanting in Cx.] by cause of metre. ℞. Here take hede þat but þe ȝeres of Eneas his regnynge be acounted wiþ ynn þe ȝeres of kyng Latyn, þe acountynge of þe storie schal faille. For þe storie seiþ þat kyng Latyn reignede two and þritty ȝere; and specialliche while Eneas, whan Troye was i-take, come in to Itali, þe fyue and twenty ȝere of kyng Latyn, as alle stories telleþ. Trogus, libro quadragesimo tertio. Ascanius, Eneas his sone, bygan to regne among þe Latyns; and regnede eiȝte and þritty ȝere, and lefte*. [specialliche lefte, MS. (not α. β, or Cx.)] þe citee Lauinium, þat his fader Eneas hadde som|tyme i-bulde, and bulde þe citee Alban along vppon þe ryuer Page  439, vol.2 Tibre. Þat cite was hede of þat kyngdom þre hondred ȝere; by þe name of þat citee kynges Latyns were i-cleped kynges Albans, Reges Albani. Eutropius. Þis Ascanius norsched vp ful myldeliche his broþer Siluius Posthumus*. [Postumus, MS., here and usually (not always) below. A few very slight errors in spelling proper names below have been tacitly cor|rected.] þat was i-bore of his stepdame Lauinia*. [Lavina, MSS. and Cx.] after his fader deþ, and was i-cleped Posthumus, for he was i-bore after þat his fader was i-buried; and was i-cleped Siluius, for he was i-norsched in a wode.*. [Sentence varied in Cx.] A woode is siiva in Latyn. By his name þe kynges of Latyns were i-cleped Siluies. Ascanius, whanne he hadde i-regned eiȝte and þritty ȝere, he lefte þe kyngdom to*. [So Cx.; of, MS.] Siluius Posthumus; for his owne sone Ilus was ȝet of tender age, so seiþ Marianus, libro primo. Of þis Ilus þe mayny*. [meyne, Cx.] þat is i-cleped Familia Iliorum hadde þat name. Sampson was iuge in Israel twenty ȝere. In his tyme byfel þat þe fables telleth of Vlixes*. [So Cx.; Flixes, MS., as before.] of Grecia, how he fleigh Scylla and Sirenes. Þerof spekeþ Palephatus*. [Palefattus, MS.; Polefatus, Harl. MS.] libro primo Incredibilum, and seiþ þat Scylla was a womman þat vsede to robbe hir gestes, and seiþ þat Sirenes were hoores þat bygiled men þat seillede on þe see. Also þat tyme Orestes slow Pyrrhus*. [Pirus, MS.; Pirrus, Cx., Harl. MS.] of Egipt in Appolyn Delphicus his temple. Also som telleþ þat Homerus was þat Page  441, vol.2 tyme. But to speke of his tyme, olde men discordeþ. For som meneþ*. [saye, Cx.] þat he was an hondred ȝere, some an hondred ȝere and fourty, some an hondred ȝere and foure score, som two hondred ȝere and fourty after þat Troye was destroyed, and some troweþ þat he was to fore þat Troye was destroyed.*. [The text of this sentence as in α. β. γ. The numbers are confused in MS.] Hyderto þe book of Iuges, liber Iudicum, acounteþ þre hondred ȝere vnder twelue iuges.

Capitulum vicesimum septimum. Hely.

HELY þe preost after Sampson was iuge in Israel fourty ȝere; so seiþ Isidorus libro quinto, and Iosephus libro sexto; but þe Seuenty telleþ þat Hely was ouer þe peple twenty ȝere. In his dayes fil a greet*. [So α. and Cx. (who has felle); fil greet, MS.] honger in þe lond of Israel; and þe storie of Ruth, þat was of Moab, fil in his tyme. Hector his children took Ilium, þat is Troye, and putte out Antenor his ofspringe by helpe of Helenus, Priamus his sone. Siluius Posthumus, Eneas his sone, and Ascanius his broþer, i-gete of his stepdame Lauinia, was þe þridde kyng of Latyns, and bygan to reigne and reigned nyne and þritty ȝere; in þe Page  443, vol.2 whiche ȝere Brut, Siluius his sone, þat was Ascanius his sone, occupied Britayne, as stories telleþ. ℞.*. [R] added from α. β. γ. (not in Cx.)] Hit semeþ þat stories discordeþ, þat telleþ of þis Brute his fader; for þe storie of Britouns seiþ þat þis Brut was Siluius his sone, [þe whiche Siluius was Ascanius his sone].*. [Added from α. β. γ.] But þe storie of Rome seiþ þat Ascanius gat Iulus, of þe whiche come the mayny, Familia Iuliorum, and makeþ noon mencioun of Siluius. Þan bot*. [if, Cx.] þis Iulus hadde tweie names, and were i-cleped Siluius also, þat*. [þe, α. γ. (not β. or Cx.)] oon of þe stories failleþ. For me seiþ þat þis Brute, whan he was fiftene ȝere olde, slouȝ his fader at hontynge; and alle stories telleþ þat Siluius Posthumus was Eneas his sone, and nouȝt Ascanius sone, and leued long age*. [longe after, α. β. γ., Cx.] afterward vnslawe, and regned also. Þanne hit is sooþ þat þis Siluius Posthumus was nouȝt Brute his fader, bote vppon caas for þe storie of Rome seiþ þat Ascanius after Eneas his deth norsched vp tenderliche Siluius Posthumus, þerfore he is acounted his fader. Herto I wolde assente wiþ oute doute, ner þat me redeþ þat Siluius was i-slawe of his sone Brute. Gaufridus. Þis Brute slowh his moder in his burþe, and his fader after|ward an*. [at, Cx.] hontynge, whan he was fifteuene ȝere olde. Þer|fore he was i-putte out of Italy, and went into Grees, and Page  445, vol.2 þere by help of þe Troians he ouercome Pandrasus þe kyng of Grees, and wedded Pandrasus þe kynges douȝter Innoges. Sche*. [He, α. β., Cx., correctly.] delyuered þe Troians, and seillede þennes, and hadde answere of þe goddes, and londede in Affrica. Þan he passede þe aunteres*. [auenters, Cx.; but auters (altars) is doubtless the true reading, and so β. γ.] of Philenes, þe lake þat hatte Lacus Salinarum, þe salt lake, þe ryuer þat hatte*. [þat hatte] om. α. β. γ.] Malue, and Hercules his pilers, and com in to þe see Tyren, and fonde þere Corinius,*. [Corneus, Cx.] and wente into Gyan, and ouercome þere Gopharnys,*. [Gopharyns, Cx.] duke of Peytow. And Turnus, Brute his neuew, was i-slawe at a citee þat heet Turnupt*. [Turnip, α. β. γ.] oþer Taroun*. [Turon, α. (Cx. has Turon owther Turon).] by his owne name. And þanne Brute hadde good wynde, and seilled into Britayne, and helde Bretayne at þe clif of Totenes in Cornewayle, and was first kyng of Bretayne al hoole, and destroyed þe geantes þat wonede þerynne; and cleped þe ilond Bretayne by his owne name, and cleped his felawes Britouns, and bytake*. [bytook, α.] Cornewayle to Cor[i]neus, and bulde a citee, and cleped hit Trinouantum, as it were Newe Troye. Þat citee nowe hatte Londoun, and is vppon Themise.*. [Temse, α.] Brut gat þre sones, Locri|nus, Camber, and Albanactus; and deyde whan he hadde i-regned foure and twenty ȝere in þe ilond. Þe kynges of Scicions*. [Read Sicyon.] faillede whan þey hadde i-reigned an hondred ȝere Page  447, vol.2 þre score and tweyne. Samuel after Hely was iuge in Israel twelfe ȝere; so seiþ Iosephus, libro octavo, noþeles þe Skripture spekeþ nouȝt þerof. From his tyme bygan þe tymes of pro|phetes, tempora prophetarum. [And]*. [Added from α. β. γ. and Cx.] in his þridde ȝere Dauid was i-bore. Petrus. Þis Samuel ordeyned first com|panye of clerkes and quercs forto synge; and þan me seide þat þey prophecied, þat is to menynge, þei worschipped God bysiliche. Afterward Samuel was iuge in Israel vnder Saul eiȝtene ȝere. Locrinus, Brute his eldest sone, bygan to reigne as it were vppon þe souþ see to þe ryuer of Homber,*. [Humber, α.] and cleped þat partye of þe ilond Loegria, þat is Engelond, as it is i-seide in þe firste book in þe chapitre of Briteyne. But Albanactus was i-slawe, and Camber deide; and Locrinus, after þat þey*. [he, α.] hadde i-regned twenty ȝere, was i-slawe also in [a]*. [Added from α. β. γ. (not in Cx.)] batayle þat his wif Guendolena ȝaf hym, by cause of a strompet þat heet Estrilda. And Guendolena reigned aftir hire housbonde fiftene ȝere.

Page  449, vol.2

Capitulum vicesimum octavum. Saul.

SAUL of þe lynage of Beniamyn was þe firste kyng of He|brewes, and regned twenty ȝere; so seiþ Iosephus. Of þe whiche ȝeres þe Scripture spekeþ not. Petrus. For Saul regnede eiȝtene ȝere while Samuel lyuede, and two ȝere after his deth. Þe fourþe kyng of Latyns, Eneas Siluius, was Posthumus his sone, and bygan to regne and regned oon and þritty ȝere. In som stories Posthumus his brother, Latinus Siluius,*. [Siluinus, MS. (not Cx.)] is i-sette þe fourþe, and*. [So α. and Cx.; in, MS.] þis Eneas is i-sette þe fifte. But in þis place þis Eneas schal be sette þe fourþe. Þe seuen|teþe duke of Athene, Codrus, Melanthus*. [Melantus, MSS.] his sone, bygan to reigne, and regnede oon and twenty ȝere. After his deth kynges of Athene faillede. Augustinus, libro octavodecimo, capitulo quartodecimo. Þe Peloponens, men of Thessalia, weren rebel aȝenst men of Athene. Þanne was answere i-ȝeue of*. [So α. β. γ.; to, MS.] þe goddes, þat in wheþer side þe duke were i-slawe, þat side schulde haue þe maistrye. Þerfore þe knyȝtes were i-charged ouer al þing to take good kepe of kyng Codrus. Noþeles Codrus took a pore manis cloþinge and a burþen of fagettes on his nekke, and entrede in to þe strengþe of his enemyes. And þere was strif arered amonge þe peple; and a knyȝt slow hym, þat he hadde raþer i-wounded wiþ an hook. Whan þat was i-knowe þe Doreyns*. [that coreus, Cx.] wente away wiþ oute Page  451, vol.2 bataile, and þe Athenes were delyuered. Codrus were leuere deye and his men haue þe maistrie, þan lyue and his men be ouercome. After his deeþ þe commounalte of Athene was gouerned by maistres. For þere was no lawe bot likynge of lordeschippe, forto þat Solon*. [Salon, MSS. and Cx.] þe noble makere of lawes was i-chose to iuge.*. [So α.; iuges, MS.; was chosen iugge, Cx.] Maddan, Locrinus his sone, on Guendolena*. [So Cx.; Guendelona, MS.] i-gete, regnede fourty ȝere among þe Britouns, and gat Mem|pricius and Maulus. Þe Amazones werreþ in Asia. Saul and his children beeþ i-slawe in þe hille, Mont Gelboe. And so endeþ þe þridde age of þe world from þe burþe of Abraham to þe kyngdom of Dauid. Isidorus libro quinto seiþ þat the þridde age of þe worlde conteyneþ nyne hondred ȝere and two*. [eyȝte, α., Cx. .] and fourty by fourtene generaciouns. But eiþer trans|lacioun seiþ þat þe þridde age of þe world conteyneþ nyne hondred ȝere and two and fourty. ℞. Þis dyuersite bifalleþ for Isidorus seiþ þat Samuel and Saul rulede þe peple fourty ȝere; noþeles Iosephus, libro octavo, and þe Maister of Stories telleþ*. [acorden, Cx.] þat Samuel rulede þe peple allone twelue ȝere, and after hym Saul regnede twenty ȝere.

Page  [3], vol.3

Capitulum vicesimum nonum.

David. Dauid, of þe lynage*. [lignage, Cx.] of Iuda, was þe secounde*. [second, Cx.] kyng of Hebrewes, and regnede fourty ȝere, first seuene ȝere in Hebron*. [Ebron, Cx.] vppon*. [apon, γ., passim.] Iuda allone,*. [al oon, β.] and after ward*. [Cx. om. ward.] þre and þritty ȝere vppon al Israel. Latinus Silvinus*. [Siluius, Cx.] þe fifte*. [fyfth, Cx.] kyng of Latyns regnede fifty ȝere. Þe secounde*. [second Ixyon king of Corinth regned, Cx.] kynge Ixion of Corinth reignede eiȝte and þritty ȝere.*. [yeres, Cx.] Andonicus bulde þe citee Ephesus, and Salamon is i-bore. Petrus.*. [Ysidorus libro 5o, α., Cx., and γ.] Cartage [is]*. [α. and Cx.] i-bulde. [Petrus.]*. [From α. and Cx.] Som wol mene þat Carthedon Tyrius bulde Cartage, and oþere wil*. [wryte, Cx.] mene þat his douȝter Dido*. [buylded it, Cx.] bulde þat citee Carthage. ℞. But*. [bote, γ., passim.] ȝif þere were but Page  5, vol.3 þre skore*. [score, Cx.] [yere]*. [From Cx.] and ten bytwene þe bildynge*. [buldinge, β., passim.] of Cartage and of Rome, as Trogus and Papias telleþ,*. [acorden, Cx.] þanne it semeþ þat Cartage was i-bulde aboute þe firste ȝere of Ozias, kyng of Iuda, as it is i-seide in þe firste book, of þe prouince of Affrica, capitulo Numidia. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Mempricius*. [Menpricius the fifth, Cx.] þe fifte kyng of Britouns reignede twenty ȝere, þis*. [þes, γ., ut passim.] cleped his broþer [Maulus]*. [From γ.] for acorde, and slow*. [slough, Cx.] hym stan deed,*. [Cx. om. stan deed.] and took þe kyngdom wiþ strengþe, and vsed tyrauntise*. [used tyrannye, Cx.; tirauntre, β.] in þe peple, and gat*. [bigate, Cx.] on his wif a noble ȝonge man þat*. [called, Cx., ut passim.] heet Eb|ranctus,*. [Ebrancus, Cx.] and forsook his wyf at þe laste, and vsede*. [uside, β., passim.] sodomye*. [zodomye, Cx.] as a schrewe schulde, but at þe last at hontynge he*. [he] γ. has α, ut passim.] was i-ete*. [eten of, Cx. and β.] wiþ wolues. David þe kyng deide þe nyne and twenty day of Decembre at þe tour of Syon in Ierusalem,*. [Iherusalem, ut sæpe, Cx.] and was i-buried þere wiþ grete richesse, [of þe whiche richesse]*. [From α. and Cx.] afterward Hircanus þe bisshop ȝaf Anthiochus,*. [Antiochus, Cx.] Demetrius his sone, þre þowsand talentis for to goo from Ierusalem. Trevisa. A talent is agrete wiȝte,*. [weyght, Cx.] and þere beeþ*. [be, Cx., ut semper; buþ, γ.] þre manere talentes; þe leste is of fifty pound, þe myddel of þre score*. [lx score pound, Cx., a mis|take.] pound and twelue, þe moste of an hondred pounde and twenty. SequiturPage  7, vol.3 [in]*. [From α., β., Cx., and γ.]historia. Þis Dauid while he hadde pees*. [pes, γ.] made songes and ympnes, som of þre metres and som of fyue, and made also organs of dyuerse manere and oþere instrumentis of musik, in whiche*. [whuch, γ.] þe dekenes schulde seie*. [say, Cx.; segge, γ.] ympnes and songes, and foure men maistres ouer oþere, Eman in þe myddel, Asaph in þe riȝt side, Ethan in þe lift side, and Idithym*. [Edythim, Cx.] to ouer see symbalys.*. [cimbels, α.; the symbals, Cx.] Also þere were foure and twenty bisshoppes, and hadde vnder hem*. [ham, γ., semper.] foure and twenty preostes, foure and twenty dekenes, and foure and twenty porteres: þe þridde parte of hem seruede in þe temple [fro Saturday to Saturday, and come nouȝt nere*. [nyȝ, γ.] hir wifes, and sleep*. [sleop, γ.] in þe porches of þe temple],*. [Omitted in Cx.; evidently from the same words ending the two clauses.] and þe mene tyme þe oþere tweie deles*. [two partes, Cx.] ordeyned for hir owne hous. Salamon reignede in Israel somwhat of ȝeres while his fader Dauid was on lyue,*. [alyve, Cx. and γ.] the whiche ȝeres beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] acounted to Dauid, and nouȝt to Salamon. And after þat his fader was deed he regnede fourty ȝere. Also Ierom in Epistola ad Vi|talem Presbiterum seiþ þat Salamon whan he was enleuene ȝere olde [gate a sone on Pharoes doughter. Also me redeth of Page  9, vol.3 Achaz the kyng þat*. [þat a gat, γ.] gate a child whan he was xi. yer old].*. [Cx.; om. in MS.; cf. note, p. 7.] Also þis Salomon, whan he hadde i-slawe*. [whan þat he had slayne, Cx] Ioab, Semeþ,*. [Semey, Cx. and γ.] and Adonias, and whanne he hadde i-fonge wit and wisdom of God in þe*. [hul, γ.] hille, and*. [From γ.; MS., he.] ȝeue dome*. [zyve doom, α. and yeven dom, Cx.] of þe hoores,*. [two strompettes, Cx.] he caste in his herte to doo þre þinges, for*. [fyrst, Cx.] to bulde atemple to God alle myȝty, and a kynges paleys to hym selue and to walle Ierusalem wiþ þre walles:*. [wallys, Cx.] wiþ ynne þe firste wal wonede preostes and clerkes þat seruede in þe temple, and þe kyng and his meyny; wiþ*. [meyne, α.; houshold, Cx.] ynne þe secounde walle wonede stalworþe men and prophetes; and wiþ ynne þe þridde wal wonede*. [were inhabyte with, Cx.] the comoun*. [comyn, γ.] peple and craftes men. Salomon his*. [Salamon's, Cx.] mete was euery*. [euerych, γ.] day þritty corues*. [chorus, Cx. and γ.] of clene*. [ter, Cx.; tere, β.; teer, γ.] floure and foure score corues of mele, ten fat oxen, and an hondred weþeres wiþ oute venisoun,*. [veneson, γ.] pultrie, and wylde foul. [Chorus conteyneth the mesure of 30 busshels.]*. [Inserted in Cx.] He*. [Salamon, Cx.] wroot also þre bookes: þat oon hatte Parabole Salamonis and Proverbia also; þat oþer*. [the second, Cx.] hatte Page  11, vol.3 Ecclesiastes; þe þridde hatte Cantica Canticorum. He des|putede also of kynde of treen*. [kunde of tren, γ.] and of herbes, from þe ceder þat groweþ in þe wode Libanus, anon*. [unto, Cx.] to þe ysope þat groweþ out of þe walles. Also he tolde moche philosofie of þe kynde of bestes; he fonde up also halsynge*. [halsyng and conjurisons, Cx.] coniuresouns forto slake wiþ*. [wiþ] om. in Cx.] siknesse, and oþere for to caste fendes out of men þat þey*. [hy, γ.] combre.*. [combrede, α. and γ.; combred, Cx.] Also he*. [From Cx.; þey, α.; MS., þe fend.] fond*. [a fond, γ.] vp figures and prentis*. [printes, α. and Cx.; preentes, γ.] to be graue in precious stones þat schulde wiþ rootes of som herbes be i-holde*. [y-holte, β.] to þe nostrelle*. [nose hrylles, Cx.; nosterls, γ.] of men þat hadde fendes wiþ yn hem, and put out the fendes. Þis craft was moche i-vsed among þe Hebrewes tofore*. [bifore, Cx.] þe comynge of Crist. Þerfore Iosephus, libro viijo, seiþ þat he seiȝ*. [þat he seiȝ] om. γ.] Eliȝarus*. [Elyazarus, Cx.] þe coniuroure in presens of Vaspacian þe prince heled men þat hadde fendes wiþ ynne ham*. [hem, Cx.] in þis manere: apot*. [he put, Cx., α.; put, γ.] a vessel*. [fessel, γ.] wiþ water to the men*. [mannes, Cx.] nose, and heet þe fend þat he schulde ouercome*. [overtorne, α. and Cx.; ouer|turne, γ.] þe vessel*. [fessel, γ.] whan he wente out, and so it was i-doo. Also Salomon to fynde þe spedeful craft for to clense and cleue stones, he closede*. [enclosed a struction bird, Cx.] Astructio*. [a struclo, α.; structions bryd, γ.] his bryd in a glas, and þe struccon brouȝte a worme þat hatte Thamir out of wildernesse, and touchede þe glas al*. [al] om. in Cx.] aboute wiþ þe blood of þat worme, and so brak þe glas Page  13, vol.3 and delyuerede his brid. Þan þe firste ȝere of Salamon was þe out passynge*. [outgoing, Cx.] of þat nacioun Ionica of Lacedemonia. Homerus*. [Omerus, Cx.] was in þat passynge. Ionica is a nacioun of Grees.*. [Grekes, Cx.] Þe fourþe ȝere of Salomon, þe secounde monþe, þat was foure hondred ȝere and foure score after þe goynge out of Egipt, Salomon bygan to bilde the temple, and was seuene*. [seue, γ.] ȝere in bildynge, and bodede*. [signefyed, Cx.] holy chirche, and þe eiȝteþe*. [viii., Cx.] ȝere þe temple was i-halowed,*. [yhalwed, γ.] and hadde in lengþe an hondred cubyte and twenty, in brede þre score, and in heiþe*. [heiȝþe, α.; heyght, Cx.] þritty. In þis temple was so moche golde þat whanne þe Romanys sette hit a fuyre*. [on fyre, Cx.] þerfrom ran a streem of gold of nayles i-melt*. [molten, Cx.; ymelt, γ.] in to þe brook þat hatte Torrens Cedron. Also þat ȝere þe quene of Saba come for to hire*. [huyre, α.; here, Cx.] þe wisdom of Salomon. [Petrus].*. [In Cx.] Me seiþ þat þis*. [þeos, γ.] queene seiȝ atree in þe temple, on þe whiche tree oon schulde be an honged, and by cause of his deth þe kyngdom of lewes schulde be destroyed. Þe quene warned Salomon, and anon þe tree was þrowe in to adeep pitte*. [deop put, γ.] vnder erþe; and how it fleet afterward aboute Cristes tyme in a pond þat hatte Probatica Piscina, hit is vncerteyn. Me troweþ þat þis tree was þe rode*. [rood, Cx.] tree. Gaufridus. Ebranc, Mem|pricius Page  15, vol.3 his sone*. [Nempricius sone, Cx.] was þe sixte kyng of Britouns, and regnede sixty ȝere. Þis man was boþe faire and strong, and on twenty*. [one and twenty, Cx.] wifes he gat*. [bigat, Cx.] twenty sones and þritty douȝtres. Þe fairest*. [fayrste, γ.] douȝter of alle was Gwalaes. Ebranc*. [Hebranc, Cx.] sente þese*. [þeos, γ.] douȝters to Alba*. [Albia, Cx.] Siluius kyng, for he wolde haue hem i-maryed to þe blood of Troye, by cause þat þe wommen Sabynes fliȝe*. [fledde, Cx.] þe beddes of þe Latyns. Also Ebrank by ledynge of Assaracus occupied a party of Germania. Ebrank by-ȝonde Humber bulde þe citee of York in þe Marche of Norþhumberlond and of Scotlond; he ordeyned þe citee Alcluit, and he bulde wiþ ynne Scotlond þe castel of Maydons þat now hatte Eden|burgh; afterward he seilled*. [sayled, Cx.] in to Fraunce wiþ a grete nauey, and come aȝen wonderliche riche. Alba Siluius þe sixte kyng [of]*. [Cx. and γ.] Latyns regnede nyne and þritty ȝere. Roboam.*. [Cx. has the division of the chapter, which is not in MS.]

Page  17, vol.3

[Roboas. Abdyas. Asa. Capitulum tricesimum].

Roboas Salomon his sone regned onliche vppon tweyne*. [twey, Cx.] lynages, Iuda and Beniamyn, eiȝtene*. [echten, Cx.; eyȝtetene, γ.] ȝere; so seiþ Iosephus, libro 8o, capitulo 5o; and seuentene ȝere as oþer meneþ.*. [wryten, Cx.] Roboas forsook þe counseille of olde men, and helde*. [was ruled by, Cx.; huld, γ.] þe counsaille of ȝongelynges. Þat tyme Ieroboam Nabath his sone regnede in Samaria vppon ten lynages of Israel seuentene ȝere; but Iosephus, libro octauo, capitulo 7o, seiþ þat he regnede two and twenty ȝere. Þis Nabath, for þe pepel schulde not torne hire herte to hire lord Roboam ȝif*. [whan they wente, Cx.; ȝef a wente, γ.] he wente to do sacrifice*. [sacrefys, γ.] in Ierusalem, he made tweie calues of*. [yȝote of gold, γ.] gold to [be]*. [From α.] worschipped of þe peple in Dan and in Bethel. And so he*. [this Nabath, Cx.] was cause of mametrie in Israel. Þe contrarinesse*. [varyaunce, Cx.] in þe acountes*. [countynge, Cx.] of ȝeres of the kyng of Iuda and of Israel may be determyned by þat þat a partye of þe ȝere is i-take for al*. [the hoole, Cx.] þe ȝere, oþer for som kynges reigned wiþ hir fadres or*. [er, β. and Cx.; ar, γ.] þat he*. [they, Cx.; α, γ.] regnede allone, oþer*. [or, Cx.] for þe kyngdoms were oþer|whiles Page  19, vol.3 [som ȝeres]*. [Not in Cx.] wiþ oute kynges, for þe bookes of kynges were i-gadred of dyuers writynges of prophetes, þerefore þe bygynnynges boþe of kynges of Iuda and of þe kynges of Israel beeþ*. [be, Cx.; buþ, γ.] dyuersliche i-sette, and þerfore suche discorde may nouȝt liȝtliche be determyned: we troweþ*. [trowe it, Cx.] þat it happeþ by defaute of writers þat beeþ*. [be, Cx.; buþ, γ.] ofte begyled in nombres and in propre names. Trevisa. For we spekeþ*. [speke, Cx.] of þe kynges of Iuda and of þe kynges of Israel, here take hede þat þe [lyne or]*. [In Cx.] of|springe of Iacob his children were*. [Iacob his children were] from α. and γ.; MS. has Benjamin was; Iacob's childer were called, Cx.] i-cleped þe lynages of Israel; and so þe [lyne or]*. [In Cx.] ofspringe of Iudas, Iacob is sone, was cleped þe lynage of Iuda; and*. [MS. inserts of after and.] þe ofspringe of Beniamyn was i-cleped þe lynage of Beniamyn; and so of þe oþere. Dauid and Salomon were kynges of alle þe lynages of Israel, but for Roboas Salomon his sone was harde and sterne, þe ten lynages forsook hym, and made hem*. [ham, γ.] a kyng by hemself,*. [hemsilf, β., passim.] and cleped hym þe kyng of Israel, for he was kyng of þe more deel*. [parte, Cx.] of Israel. Tweye lynages abide*. [abode, Cx.] wiþ Roboas, þe lynage of Iuda and of Beniamyn, and for þe lynage of Iuda was þe worþier lynage, þe kyng of þese*. [þeos, γ.] tweie lynages was i-cleped þe kynge of Iuda: and Crist com to*. [of, Cx. and γ.] þe kynges of Iuda. Iose|phus, libro 8o, capitulo 5o. Susac kyng of Egipt [spoylede]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] and took awey þe schildes*. [sheldes, Cx.] of gold þat Salamon hadde i-sette in Ierusalem: Roboas sette schildes of bras in hir stede.*. [stude, γ.] Syn*. [Susac, Cx. and γ.] wente and sodewed*. [subdued, Cx.; sudewid, β.] Siria. Abias, Roboas sone, was þe fourþe*. [feurþe, γ.] kyng of Iuda, and regnede þre ȝere, þat is to men|ynge*. [say, Cx.] two fulle ȝere and þe þridde del of þe þridde ȝere; and Page  21, vol.3 for he truste*. [trustede, Cx.; a trust, γ.; triste, β.] in God he*. [Cx. inserts sholde. A mistake.] ouercom Ieroboam þat fauȝte aȝenst hem,*. [hym, Cx.] and slowh sixty þowsand. Asa þe riȝt ful, Abias his sone, regnede oon and fourty ȝere, and destroyed*. [destruyde, γ.] mawmetrie, and clensed þe temple, and slowh þe kyng of Egipt; and at þe laste he hadde a grevous siknesse on his feet, and deyde: he hadde i-putte*. [ypot, γ.] a prophetes [feet]*. [Cx.] in þe stokkes, þat hadde i-charged hym for to doo aryȝt. Nadab, Ieroboas his sone, regnede in Israel two ȝere, þat is oo ȝere and somwhat of þat oþer. Hym slowȝ Basa,*. [Baasa, α.] and regned for*. [for] after, Cx.] hym foure and twenty ȝere: þis slouȝ Ieheu*. [Iehen, Cx.] þe prophete. Þat tyme Ieheu,*. [Ieheia, Cx.] Ananias, and Azarias prophecied in Israel. Egippus Siluius, þe seuenþe*. [seueþe, γ.] kyng of Latyns, regned foure and twenty ȝere. Asa þe kyng*. [huyrede, γ.] hirede Benedab þe kyng of Sciria þat*. [to, Cx. and γ.] let Basa þe kynge, þat hadde i-bulde*. [y-byld, α.] Rama, fourty forlonges out of Ierusalem, so þat no man myȝte goo out. Brute grenescheeld, Ebrank his eldeste*. [elþeste, γ.] sone, was kyng of Bretouns twelue ȝere. Capis Siluius,*. [Silvius, α. and Cx.] þe eiȝtþe*. [eyȝtenþe, α.; eyȝteþ, γ.] kyng of Latyns, regnede eiȝte and Page  23, vol.3 twenty ȝere, and made Capua. Hela, Baasas*. [Bases, Cx.] his sone, regnede in Israel two ȝere, þat is oo [hole]*. [Cx.] ȝere and somwhat of þat oþer. Þat ȝere Zamri slowȝ Hela, and regned for hym seuen dayes;*. [dawes, γ.] and whan*. [whan, Cx.] he was dede þe peple was departed, and þe oo partie*. [one part, Cx.] folowede*. [folewide, β.] Zamry and þe oþere folowede Tebni. Petrus. Þis strif of the kyngdom indurede*. [durede, α.] þre ȝere and more; for Zamri bygan to reigne þe oon and twenty*. [twentyþ, γ.] ȝere of Asa kyng of Iuda, and regned with Tebni foure ȝere, and after Tebni he reigned allone in Israel eiȝte ȝere, and so he regned in al twelve*. [twel, γ.] ȝere. Leyl, Brut greneschilde his sone, regnede in Bretayne fyue*. [fif, γ.] and twenty ȝere. Achab, Zamry his sone, regnede in Israel two and twenty ȝere [of Asa kyng of Iuda],*. [Of Asa kyng of Juda]. These words are wrongly inserted in MS. They appear to have been also in the copy from which α. was made, as there the words [of Asa kyng] are written and then expuncted. They are not in Cx.] and his wif heet Iesabel. Iosephath, Asa his sone, was riȝtful*. [rightful before, Cx.] to fore God, and regned in Iuda fyue*. [fif, γ.] and twenty ȝere. In his tyme prophecied Helyas, Michias, and Abdias. Ruthudybras, Leil his son, regnede in Bretayne nyne and þritty ȝere, and bulde þre noble citees, Caunterbury, Page  25, vol.3 Wynchestre, and Schaftisbury.*. [Scheftesbury, γ.] Carpentus Siluius, þe nynþe kyng of Latyns, regnede among þe Latyns þrittene ȝere. Ochasias, Achab his sone, regnede in Israel two ȝere, and hadde no sone; but his broþer Ierom*. [Ioram, Cx.] regnede viij. ȝere after hym, anon*. [unto, Cx.] to þe secounde ȝere of Ioram þe kyng, and regnede after þat allone foure ȝere. Ioram, Iosephath kyng of Iuda*. [Ioram.] his sone, regnede eiȝte ȝere. In his eiȝtteþe ȝere Edom wente away for he*. [they, Cx.; α, γ.] wolde nouȝt be vnder Iuda, and ordeyned hem a kyng of here owne; and Helyas was i-rauisched in to Paradys. Þe tenþe kyng of Latyns, Tiberius Siluius, Carpentus his sone, regnede among þe Latyns*. [Latyns, viii. yere. Of him . . . Cx.] [þe]*. [þe] not in Cx.] eiȝte ȝere. Of hym þe ryuer Tyber hadde þat name, þat heet raþer Albula.*. [Achazias.] Achazias, þat*. [otherwyse called, Cx.] heet Azarias also,*. [Not in Cx.] Ioram his sone, regnede in Iuda oo ȝere. Matheu rekeneþ nouȝt þis Achazias, noþer*. [ne, Cx.] his sone Ioas, noþer his sone Amazias, in þe genologie*. [genealogye, Cx.; genelogy, γ.] of Crist, by cause of hir [vicious and]*. [Sic in Cx.] wicked lyuynge. Iehu, anoynt of Helyseus his childe vppon Israel, slowȝ Achasias*. [Achazias, α.] kyng of Iuda, and Ioram kyng of Israel, and his moder Iezebel, and Achab his*. [Acabs, β.] seuenty sones, and Azarias kyng of Iuda, and*. [Not in Cx. nor γ.] his Page  27, vol.3 [two and]*. [two and] not in MS., supplied from α. and γ.; xlii., Cx.] fourty sones, and alle Baal his preostes, and reg|nede eiȝte and twenty ȝere. Athalia, kyng Azarias his moder, was Achab his douȝter, and regnede in Iuda sixe ȝere, and slowȝ*. [Athalia.] alle þe kynges children of Ioram his hous, outake*. [except, Cx.] Ioas, Aza|rias his sone: ffor Achasias his suster, þat was Ioaide þe preost his wif, took awey þat childe, and hydde*. [hudde, γ.] hym, and nor|sched*. [norysshed, Cx.] hym priueliche sixe ȝere in þe dekenes chambres wiþ ynne þe temple. Þe enlevenþe kyng of Latyns, Agrippa Siluius, regnede among þe Latyns. Ioas, Achazias his sone, regnede in Iuda fourty ȝere, and renewed þe temple. Bladud, Ruthu|dibras his sone, regnede in Bretayne twenty ȝere. Gaufridus et Alfridus telleþ*. [writen, Cx.] þat he by craft of*. [ofe, Cx.] nygromancie made þe citee Caerbadun, þat is Baþe, and made þerynne*. [þerynne] þe, Cx.] hote bathes. ℞. Noþeles Willelmus Malmesbury seiþ þat Iulius Cesar brouȝte vp þilke*. [þulke, γ.] bathes, but*. [bote ytrowe, γ.] I trowe it nouȝt, as it is i-seide raþer in þe firste book, capitulo de vrbibus. Ioathas, Iehu his sone, regnede in Israel seuentene ȝere. In his tyme Helyseus*. [Helyȝeus, Cx.] þe preost*. [prophete, Cx.] deide, and was i-buried in Sabasten, þat is Samaria. Whan þis Eliseus*. [Helyȝeus, Cx.] was i-bore in Galgalis, oon of þe goldene Page  29, vol.3 calues þat Ieroboas hadde i-made*. [ymad, γ.] lowede [ful scharpliche];*. [Not in Cx.] and whan þat was i-herde*. [yhurd, γ.] [in sharp wyse],*. [Sic in Cx.] a preost of Ieru|salem seide, "Now is a prophete i-bore*. [born, Cx.] þat schal destroye*. [destruye, γ.] al þe mawmetrie in*. [of, Cx.] Israel:" and Zacharias, Ioaide þe bis|shop his sone, was i-stened*. [stoned, Cx.] to deþe of kyng Ioas bytwene þe auȝter*. [aulter, Cx.] and þe temple. Oure Lord in þe gospel clepeþ hym Barachias his sone, by cause of his myldenesse and goodnesse: Barachias is to menynge*. [as moche to saye as, Cx.] Goddis owne blessed sone. Leyr,*. [Leyth, Cx.] Bladud his sone, regned in Bretayne sixty ȝere, and bulde Leycetre vppon þe ryuer Sarray,*. [soray, α. and Cx.; Sorai, γ.] and gat þre douȝtres, so seiþ þe Brittisshe book. Ioas, Ioatas þe kyng of Israel his sone, regnede in Israel seuentene ȝere. Þe twelfþe kyng of Latyns, Aremulus Siluius, regnede among þe Latyns nyntene*. [nyȝentene, γ.] ȝere.

Capitulum tricesimum primum. Amasyas.

AMASIAS, Ioas his sone, regned in Iuda nyne and twenty ȝere. After hym þe kyngdom of Iuda was wiþ oute kyng þrit|te[ne Page  31, vol.3 ȝere].*. [xiii. yere, Cx., and from γ.]Petrus. Vppon caas me seiþ þat þat kyngdom voidede*. [was voyde, Cx.] so longe for Amazias departede the kyngdom while he was on lyue, and his sone a childe of þre ȝere olde ȝit myȝte not reigne; and so it semeþ, ffor whanne his fader Amazias was deed, his sone Ozias was but sixtene ȝere olde whan he gan*. [began, Cx.] to reigne. [℞.]*. [From Cx.] Þese*. [þeos, γ.] þrittene ȝere in þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] me seiþ þat þe kyngdom of Iuda was wiþ oute kyng, som stories acounteþ hem [nouȝt, oþer acounteþ hem]*. [From α. and Cx.] among þe nyne and twenty ȝere of Amazias þe kyng, elles nouȝt schal so*. [be is repeated in MS. by an error of the scribe.] many ȝeres be founde þere as Eutropius acounteþ from the fyue and twenty ȝere of kyng Latyn, in þe whiche ȝere Troye was destroyed, anon to*. [unto, Cx.] þe buldynge of Rome, þat was in al foure hondred ȝere and two and þritty. Ieroboam, Ioaz his sone, regnede in Israel oon and fourty ȝere. Þe þritten þe kyng of Latyns, Euen|tinus Siluius, regnede among þe Latyns foure and þritty ȝere. Ozias þat heet Azarias,*. [Aȝrias, γ.] Amazias his sone, regnede in Iuda two and fifty ȝere. Þis kyng louede wel erþe telynge;*. [tillyng, Cx.; teliynge, β.] also þis kyng wolde haue i-take vppon hym and entermeted of þe office*. [offys, γ.]Page  33, vol.3 of preost, and was i-smete wiþ [lepre or]*. [Cx.] meselrie; and half a grete hille*. [hul, γ.] to-cleef, and fil*. [ful apon, γ.] vppon his gardyns. Arbaces oþer Arbactus,*. [otherwise called Arbactus, Cx.] þe firste kyng of Medes, slowȝ Sardanapallus þe laste kyng of Assiries, and regnede among þe Medes nyne and twenty ȝere, and þo faillede þe hool kyngdom of Assiries*. [Assires, γ., passim.] þat hadde i-stonde*. [continued, Cx.] from Belus and Ninus to þe laste Sarda|napallus, a þowsand ȝere and foure hondred. Noþeles after Sardanapallus were myȝty kynges*. [kyngis, β.; the usual plural ending in this MS.] in Assiria anon to*. [unto, Cx.] þe destroyenge*. [distriynge, β., the usual form.] of Nynyue, þouȝ þey were nouȝt*. [þey a were noȝt, γ.] ful and hool kynges. Henricus,*. [Trogus, Cx. and γ. correctly.]libro primo. Þis Sardanapallus was a man more wrecche þan eny womman; his steward*. [styward, γ.] Arbaces fond hym spynnynge reed selk at þe*. [on a, Cx.] distaf in wommen cloþinge among a*. [Om. α.] companye of hoores*. [comyn wymmen, Cx.] forto fonge*. [receyue, Cx.] som of þe hire. Þerfore Arbaces took greet indignacioun, and exci|tede his knyȝtes aȝenst þe kyng in conspiracie, and at*. [atte, Cx.] þe laste þe kyng was ouercome, and wente in to his real place,*. [plas, γ.] and Page  35, vol.3 brend hym self wiþ myche*. [gret, γ.] richesse. ℞. Commentator primo Ethimologia 4to,*. [c. 14., Cx.] 41o, seiþ*. [sayde, Cx.] þat oon wroot vppon Sardanapallus his*. [Wanting in Cx.] tombe in þis manere: "So moche I*. [ych, γ.] hadde as I*. [ych, γ.] ete and drank;" and Seint Austyn de Ciuitate, libro 2o, capitulo 17o, meneþ*. [understandeth, Cx.] þat Sardanapallus hym self*. [sylf, γ., passim.] whyle he was on lyue*. [whiles he liued, Cx.] ordeyned þat þat schulde be i-write*. [that to be writen, Cx.; þat þat hyt scholde, γ.] on his tombe whan he*. [α, γ.] were deed; ffor it was þe manere þat tyme þat kynges or|deyned þe writinge þat schulde be i-wrete on his*. [here, α., Cx., and γ.] tombe after hir deth. Þe fourtenþe kyng of Latyns, Procas Siluius, regnede among þe Latyns two and twenty ȝere. Þat tyme Fydon fond vp and ȝaf þe Argiues mesures and wiȝtes. Tro|gus, libro primo.*. [tercio, Cx. correctly.] Ligurgus, kynge of Lacedemonies, ȝaf lawe to his peple: þe tenor of þis*. [his, Cx.] lawes was suche:*. [is thus, Cx.] þe peple is enformed to be boxom to þe princes, and þe princes to doo þe peple riȝt and resoun; he techeþ alle men to be skilfulliche*. [skylfolych, γ.] scars,*. [scars, α.; scars or mesurable, Cx.] þat þe trauaille of knyȝthode be nouȝt destroyed by greet wastynge and spendynge; alle þat schal be bouȝt and solde [shal be bought and sold]*. [In Cx. and γ.] nouȝt for money but for chaungenge of marchauntdise; he dede*. [dyde, Cx.] awey vse of money as it*. [hyt, γ.] were mater of vice and*. [or, Cx.] of synne; he departed þe go|uernance*. [gouernours, γ.]Page  37, vol.3 of þe comunalte by grees,*. [comonte by degrees, Cx.; com|nete, γ.] and ȝaf kynges*. [kynges knyghtes, Cx] power of bataille, and to Iuges power of doomes, and to þe senatoures kepynge and meyntenynge of þe lawes; and he ȝaf þe peple power forto chese iuges,*. [jugges, et semper, Cx.] whom he*. [they, Cx.; α, γ.] wolde; þe londe and ground he deled euene amonge alle*. [al, γ.] men, þat euenesse of heritage*. [egalyte of enherytaunce, Cx.] and of londes schulde make hem alle i-liche*. [lyke, Cx.; ylych, γ.] myȝty and strong. Here [take hede]*. [take hede] om. α., Cx., and γ.] ȝongelynges schulde holde hem apaied al þe ȝere wiþ oo*. [one, Cx.] clooþ, he suffred no man to be gayer þan oþere, ne no man to fare bettre þan oþer of mete noþer*. [ne, Cx.] of drynk;*. [dryngke, γ.] he hiȝte*. [bade, Cx.] þat children*. [childer, Cx.] of fourtene ȝere olde*. [Cx. omits olde.] schulde not vse hem in chepynge*. [y-chepynge, α.] noþer in feyres, but in feldes forto*. [unto, Cx.] þat þey*. [hy, γ.] come to manis age: no þing schulde be sprad vnder hem whan þey schulde slepe; þey schulde lyue*. [lybbe, γ.] wiþ oute likynge*. [delicious, Cx.] mete; maydens schulde be wedded wiþ oute dowynge*. [endowing, Cx.; dowyngge, γ.] and ȝiftes, forto constreyne wedlok þe fastere, whanne no weddynge were i-bounde wiþ brydeles of dowynge.*. [endowing, Cx.; dowyngge, γ.] He or|deyned þat olde men schulde be more i-worschipped þan riche; he ordeyned no þing to be holde*. [holden, Cx.] of oþer men but as he*. [they, Cx.] wolde holde it hym*. [hem, Cx.] self. And for þis*. [his, α. and γ.] citee, þat was out of good [rule and out of good]*. [α., Cx., and γ.] lyuynge, schulde þe raþer come to rule and fonge*. [receyue, Cx.; fange, γ.] þe lawe, he feyned þat Appolyn was Page  39, vol.3 fyndere of þis lawe. And for he wolde þat þis lawe schulde laste euermore, he bonde*. [a boond, γ.] þe peple wiþ oþ,*. [by oth, Cx.] and made hem swere*. [swerye, γ.] þat þey*. [not to, Cx.] schulde [not]*. [Supplied from α. and Cx.] chaunge of þis lawe or*. [til, Cx.; ar, γ.] he come aȝen, and feyned hym as*. [that he, Cx.] þey he wolde goo to Appolyns Delphicus and axe counseille of hym ȝif out*. [yf ought, Cx.] schulde be wiþdrawe of þis lawe or put*. [pot, γ.] out*. [ouȝt, α. and γ.] more*. [or made moore, Cx.] þerto. Noþeles he wente into Creta þat ilond, and was þere to his lifes ende;*. [till he dyed, Cx.; eende, γ.] and whanne he schulde die he heet*. [bade, Cx.] þrowe his body into the see lest ȝif he were i-bore to Lacedemonia men*. [lest he were born to L. and the men, Cx.] þat were i-swore to his lawe wolde wene þat þey were discharged of oþer oþis.*. [here oþ, α.; their oth, Cx.] Cranius, þe firste kyng of Lacedemonia, regned þere eyȝte*. [echte, Cx.] and twenty ȝere. Eutropius, libro primo.*. [Gaufr., Cx. The reference to Eutropius is an error.] Cor|deilla, kyng Leyr*. [leyers, Cx.] his douȝter, after hir fader reignede in Britayne fyue ȝere; but at þe laste here sustres sones, Mor|gan and Cunedagius, [put hir in prison, and Cunedagius]*. [In Cx. and γ. This sentence in MS. is in part repeated by error of the scribe.] regnede in Britayne after Cordela þre and þritty ȝere. He Page  41, vol.3 slowȝ Morgan, þat was rebel aȝenst hem, in Glamorgan in Wales, and by cause of þat happe þat contray is ȝit*. [ȝut, γ.] i-cleped Morgans londes.*. [Morgan his lond, α.; is called Morgan's lande, Cx.] After Cunedagius regnede Riuallo; after hym Gurgustius Siluius; after hym Iago, after hym · Kyn|marchus;*. [Kymnarchus, Cx.] after hym Gorbodio. He hadde tweie sones, Fer|rex and Porrex, and*. [this, Cx.] Porrex for couetise of lordschipe slow his broþer. Þerfore hire moder was ful wrooþ, and fil*. [fylle, Cx.; ful, γ.] wiþ hir maydens vppon þe man sleer while he sleep,*. [slept, Cx.; a sleop, γ.] and hakked hym al to*. [hem all in, Cx.] gobettes. Afterward was discord in þe lond þat greued þe peple ful sore vnder fyue kynges anon to [þe]*. [Not in γ.] Molinicius*. [unto Molyuncius, Cx.] Donwallon his tyme. Þe fiftenþe*. [fifteþe, α.; fyftenth, Cx.] of Latyns Amilius, Procas his*. [Not in Cx.] ȝonger sone, regnede þre and fourty ȝere, but his ȝeres beeþ*. [be, Cx.; buþ, γ.] acounted wiþ his broþer Mimitor*. [Munitor, α.; Munitors, Cx.] his ȝeres. Mimitor, Procas his sone, was i-putte out of his kyngdom by his owne broþer Amulius, and lyuede in his owne feld afterward, and*. [and] from α. and Cx.; in, MS.] his douȝter Rea, þat heet also*. [otherwyse callyd, Cx.] Etilia, for sche*. [α, γ.] schulde haue no childe, was i-chose to be a mayde in þe temple of þe*. [þat, α.] goddes Vesta. And þe seuenþe ȝere of [here Page  43, vol.3 eme]*. [From α., β.; hir eme Amulius, Cx.; heore eme, γ.] Amusius sche*. [heo, γ.] bare tweie children at oon burþen,*. [at oo childyng, Cx.; o birþen, β.] Remus and Romulus, and lygh*. [and lygh] not in Cx.; lyȝ, α.] and seide þat god Mars hadde*. [gate hir, Cx.] i-brouȝt hir wiþ childe, and þerfore sche*. [α, γ.] was buryed quyk on lyue,*. [on lyve] not in Cx.] and þe children were i-leyde in a wode, and a wolfesse*. [wolvesse, α.; woluas, γ.] þat hadde i-lost hir whelpes fedde ofte þe children, and made hem ofte*. [ofte] om. Cx.] souke of here owne tetes.*. [tyttes, γ.] But Fastulus*. [Faustulus, Cx.] þe heerde*. [heorde, Cx.; heurde, γ.] aspied þis doynge, and toke awey þe children*. [childer, Cx., as always; chyl|dron, γ.] from þe wylde beest, and norsched*. [norysshed, Cx.] hem vp among his bestes wiþ mete of wode and of feeldes. Þanne whanne þe children come to age, and hadde witte and strengþe, þey*. [hy, γ.] saued wel*. [wel] not in Cx.] ofte þe bestes from wel*. [wel] not in Cx.] strong þeeues; but at þe laste þe þeoues took Remus and brouȝte hym to Mimytor,*. [Munitor, α, and Cx.] for he schulde punche*. [punsche, γ.] hym as a þeef*. [þeof, γ.] þat hadde i-stole his bestes. And whanne Mymitor took heede of þe schap of þe childe he auised*. [aduysed, Cx.] hym longe, and byþouȝt hym how his douȝter children were somtyme i-leide in þe wode; þan*. [Than in the, Cx.] þe mene tyme com Fastulus þe herde*. [heurd, γ.] and brouȝte wiþ hym Romulus. Þanne afterward*. [after, Cx.] whanne Mimytor*. [Mimitor, α.] knewe þat þe children were his douȝter sones, he and þe children caste forto*. [entended to, Cx.] slee Page  45, vol.3 [his broder]*. [In Cx.] Amilius. Eutropius. Fastulus, þe heerde þat kepte þe kynges bestes, fonde tweie litel breþeren i-leide by þe brynke of þe ryuer of*. [of] not in Cx.] Tyber, and brouȝt hem to his wif, þat heet Acta Laurencia, and for hir fairenesse and couetise of hoor|dom*. [concupysence of her disordinate lust, Cx.] sche*. [α, β. and γ.] was i-cleped Lupa in*. [α, γ.] Latyn, þat is a wolfesse*. [woluas, γ., always.] in Englische, and þerfore ȝit þe hoore hous*. [hows of comyn women, Cx.] beeþ i-cleped Lupanaria in Latyn. These children, Remus and Romulus, worþ*. [waxede, Cx.] strong, and gadrede to hem many herdes of þeoues,*. [and þeoves, α. and Cx. Oues, MS.] and slowȝ Amilius vppon þe ryuer Alba, and restored hire grauntsire Mimitor to his kyngdom aȝen. Martinus. Noþeles wheþer þat woman*. [woman] from Cx.; MS. has wommen.] heet Lupa oþer no, þe olde writynge in marbil and in oþer stones at Rome scheweþ ȝit þat a wolfesse*. [woluas, γ., always.] fedde þe tweie breþeren wiþ her melk: a wolfesse*. [woluas, γ., always.] is Lupa in*. [α, β. and γ.] Latyn. Zacharias, Ieroboam his sone, regnede in Israel sixe monthes. Hym smote Cellum,*. [Sellum, Cx.] Iabes his sone, and regnede oon monthe.*. [oo moneth, Cx.]Petrus. By verray*. [ferrey, γ.] acountes oþer*. [veray acomptes owther, Cx.] þe kyngdom of Israel, after the deth of Iereboam, was þre and twenty ȝere wiþ oute kyng, oþer þis Zacharias bygan to reigne Page  47, vol.3 þe fiftene*. [fiftenþe, α.] ȝere of Ozias, and so regnede al þilke*. [þulke, γ.] þre and twenty ȝere þat beeþ nouȝt acounted to hym, for al þat tyme he lyuede a wicked lyf, and for he mendede hym and lyuede sixe monþes [good life, þerfore sixe monthes]*. [From α., Cx., and γ.] beeþ counted to hym in þe eiȝte and þritty ȝere of Ozias. Manaen, Gaddy his sone, regnede*. [regnede] from α. and Cx.; MS. has regne.] in Israel ten ȝere. Ocors ȝaf þe Egip|cians lawe: in his tyme a lamb*. [lomb, γ.] spak and tolde redy tales. Þe Lacedemonies arayed bataille aȝenst þe Mecenes, and at the laste were agreued by playntes of hire wifes ffor þey*. [α, γ.] were so longe from home, and ordeyned þat þe wommen þat were left at home*. [hoom, β.] eueriche schulde take meny men, for þey*. [hy, γ.] hopede in þat manere to haue þe strenger children. [℞.]*. [From α. and γ. A space is left in MS. for this ℞.] Loke more hereof in þe firste book, capitulo Grecia, scilicet Lace|demonia. In Corinthy were euery*. [euerych, γ.] ȝere ordeyned Iuges instede*. [instude, γ.] of kynges; þe firste Olimpias bygan [to reigne]*. [to reigne] not in Cx. or γ.] þat tyme, so seiþ Eusebius in his cronyke. Þis ȝere Phaceas,*. [Phaceas] from α. and γ. MS. has Pharoes.] Manaen his sone,*. [Phaceas, Manaens sonne, Cx.] bygan to reigne in Israel, and regned two ȝere.

Page  49, vol.3

[Ioathan.]*. [Cx.]Capitulum tricesimum secundum.

IOATHAN, Ozias*. [Iosias, Cx.] his sone, reignede in Iuda sixtene ȝere; in his firste ȝere Phacea, Romelyas his sone, bygan to reigne in Israel, and regned in Israel*. [in Israel] not in Cx.] twenty ȝere. Þis firste ȝere of Ioathan, as Iosephus and þe storie*. [history, Cx.] of Affrica and Beda telleþ,*. [tellen, Cx.] after foure hondred ȝere and sixe after þe destroyenge*. [destruction, Cx.] of Troye, þe firste Olympias was i-ordeyned by þe Ilienses vn|der Escilis, Iuge of Athene; in þe whiche*. [whuch, γ.] Olympias Corebus of Athene was þe firste victor. Hugucio. Olympus is þe name of an hille*. [hul, γ.] in Grecia, at þe clif þat hatte Atten:*. [Acten, Cx.] þat hille*. [hul, γ.] hatte Olimpus for merþe*. [murþe, γ.] and cleernesse of weder þat is þere,*. [þar, γ.] as it were þe merþe of god. Þere*. [þar, γ.] þe Iliens haueþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] hire*. [theyr, Cx.; α, γ.] tornementis from*. [MS. has in þe whiche, by a mis|copying.] foure ȝere*. [from iiij. yere to iiij. yere, so that . . ., Cx.] [to foure ȝere, so þat foure ȝere schal be bytwene þe tornementes,*. [tornoyes, Cx.] in þe whiche foure ȝere] princes*. [buþ, γ.] beeþ i-ordeyned and chose; and þat space of foure ȝere is i-cleped Olympias. Isythus,*. [Isychus Praxonidys sonne] Cx.] Praxonidus his sone, ordeynede first Olympias. ℞. Þe Olympias by|gynneþ Page  51, vol.3 at stintynge of the sonne in þe wynter, þat is whan þe day is schortest, for þe Grees*. [Grekis, Cx.] bygynneþ hir ȝere þanne. Hugucio, capitulo Olympus. Olympiades beþ playes i-ordeyned vnder þe hille Olympus in worschepe of Iubiter, in þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] playes who þat hadde*. [hath, Cx.] þe maistrye schulde*. [shal, Cx.] haue*. [habbe, γ.] what he wolde axe, and was i-holde ones in fyue ȝere, lesth*. [lest it, Cx.] he schulde be forȝete and it*. [he, α.; α, γ.] were*. [were] from Cx.; MS. has we.] lengere for|bode,*. [forborn, Cx.] and for it*. [he, α.; α, γ.] schulde greue men wiþ greet cost and*. [yf it, Cx.] it*. [he, α.] were ofter i-vsed. Teglath Phalasar, kyng of Assiria, went vp into Israel, and destroyed þe contray by ȝonde Iordan, and toke prisoners tweie lynages*. [lygnages, Cx.] of Israel and an half, and lad wiþ hym to Assiria, and þat was þe bygynnynge of þe þraldom of þe ten lynages of Israel. Pol. libro 8o. Ierom seiþ þat þis kyng of Assiria hadde fyue names, and heet*. [and heet] not in Cx.] Sal|manazar, Senacheryb, Phull, Teglath Phalasar, Sargon. Þer|fore it is no wonder þey*. [though, Cx.] þis kyng be i-nempned*. [ynemned, γ.] in dyuers stories by dyuers names. [℞.]*. [From α. and Cx.] Now som wol mene þat þese names beeþ dyuers*. [dyvers] not in Cx.] names of dyuers kynges þat regnede in Page  53, vol.3 Assiria after Sardanapallus, eueriche*. [euery, Cx.] after oþer, as Arbaces, Phul, Teglathphalazar, Salmanazar, Senacheryb, Assaradoun, Sargon. After hem*. [ham, γ.] þe grete kynges Merodak and oþere anon to Balthazar reignede in Babilonia, forto*. [unto, Cx.] Darius. Cirus tur|nede her kyngdom to þe Perses. Þerfore after Sardynapallus, þat was þe laste hool kyng of Assiria, come kynges eueriche after oþer, and werrede wiþ naciouns þat wonede*. [dwellyd, Cx.] aboute hem, for to rekeure*. [rekevre, from α.; rekeuer worship, Cx.; MS. has rekeue; rekeuere, γ.; rekeuer, β.] here worschippe and dignite, and brouȝte the ten lynages of Israel in seruice,*. [seruage, Cx. and γ.] and regned anon to Ezechias his tyme, kyng of Iuda, whan Senacherib fliȝe*. [fledde, Cx.] out of Iuda, and was i-slawe of his owne sones in þe temple.

[Achas.]*. [Cx.]Capitulum tricesimum tertium.

Achaz, Ioathan his sone, regnede in Iuda*. [Israel, Cx.] sixtene ȝere. In his fourþe*. [feurþe, γ.] ȝere Rome was i-buld*. [ful byld, α. and Cx.; folbuld, γ., ful bulde, β.] in þe hille Palatynys of þe tweie breþeren twynnes, Remus and Romulus, þe oon and twenty*. [twentiþe, γ.]Page  55, vol.3 day of Auerelle,*. [Apryll, Cx.] in þe bygynnynge of þe seuenþe Olympyas: from þat ȝere is þe kyngdom of Romulus acounted, þat regnede*. [þat regnede] not in Cx.] nyne and þritty ȝere. Martinus. Me redeþ þat*. [Cx. inserts this before kynges.] kynges regned long to forehonde*. [before, Cx.] aboute þat place in Itali,*. [Ytaly, Cx.] and [hadde]*. [hadde] om. α. and Cx.] specialliche Ianus, Saturnus, Picus, Famius,*. [Faunus, Cx.] and Latynus regnede anon to Eneas, aboute an*. [an] om. Cx.] two hondred ȝere. [℞.]*. [From α.] Þan from Eneas to þis*. [þes, γ.] Romulus Italy was vnder fif|tene rectoures foure hondred ȝere and two and þritty; and after þat so,*. [so] om. α. and Cx.] from þat þe citee was i-bulde anon to þe laste ȝere [of]*. [Cx.] Torquinius þe proude,*. [proute, γ.] me regnede at Rome vnder seuene kynges aboute two hondred ȝere and þre*. [four, Cx.] and fourty; and afterward vnder consuls, anon to Iulius Cesar, foure hondred ȝere and foure and sixty.*. [fourty yere, Cx.]Eutropius. Þanne while Romulus regnede, his ledere*. [ledar, γ.] Fabius slowȝ Remus [Romulus]*. [From α.] his bro|þer, wiþ an herdes rake.*. [heordes raak, Cx.; heurd hys rake, γ.]Martinus. I noot*. [not, Cx.] ȝif þat was i-doo by his broþer wil. Þe cause of his deth was þis: Romus seide þat a sengle wal was nouȝt strengþe ynow for þe newe citee, and forto make þat good he lepe*. [lept, Cx.; a leop, γ.] ouer þe wal at oo leepe.*. [on lupe, γ.] [Titus].*. [From α.] For þese breþeren twynnes were of oon age, þey Page  57, vol.3 putte vppon deuy[n]enge*. [devynynge, α.; dyuynyng, Cx. and γ.] wheþer of hem schulde rule þe citee þat was bulde as þe eldere*. [elþer, γ.] and þe grettre maister. Þanne whanne þey were in þe hille Auentinus, seuen foules schewede hem to Remus, þat beeþ i-cleped vulterus, and afterward suche two þat were fourtene vulterus*. [vultres, α. and γ.] schewed hem to Romulus; þan þe stryf*. [hy stryue, γ.; þei stryue, β.] and eiþer s[e]ide þat [he]*. [he] from γ.] hadde þe better*. [they stryued and eyther sayd that he had the better, Cx.] dyuy|nacioun of foules; Remus for he hadde first, and Romulus for he hadde þe more noumbre, and so Remus was i-slawe in þat strif. Martinus. But þe more comoun sawe is þat Remus was i-slawe for he leep*. [lept, Cx.; a leop, γ.] ouer þe newe walles of Rome. Eu|tropius. Þanne Romulus, þe firste of þe Romayns, for by his name þe Latyns were i-cleped Romayns.*. [and he named the cyte after his owne name, Cx.] Þe citee was i-cleped after warde*. [cleped the cite after his owne name, α.] his owne name, and gadrede peple al aboute, and chees*. [chasse, Cx.] an hondred of þe eldeste [and wysest]*. [Cx.] and de[de]*. [dede, α.; did, Cx.; de, MS.] alle þing by hir counsaile, and cleped hem sena|toures by cause of hir elde [or age],*. [Cx.] for Senex in*. [α, β. and γ.] Latyn is olde in*. [an, β. and γ.] Englisshe; and he cleped hem fadres by cause of þe Page  59, vol.3 charge and kepynge þat þey*. [hy, γ.] hadde; and he made hir names i-write*. [be wryten, Cx.] wiþ lettres of gold, and þerfore þey were i-cleped fadres i-write. He ches a þowsand werriours, and cleped hem milites by þat nombre mille, þat is a þowsand: milites beeþ knyȝtes in*. [an, β. and γ.] Englische. Titus. And whanne Romulus hadde [y]*. [From α. and γ.]-gadrede to his citee a greet multitude of flemed*. [fleem, γ.] men, of mysdoers, of heerdes,*. [and heordes, Cx.; heurdes, γ.] and of vnworþy persones, þanne men þat wonede aboute hem helde hem but harlottes, and wolde nouȝt ȝeue hem here douȝtres to wyfes, for þey were so unworþy. Þanne Romulus sette*. [satte, Cx.] vp games, and prayede al þe naciouns aboute forto*. [to, Cx.] come and see.*. [to see, Cx.] And whanne þey*. [a, γ.] were i-come, þe Romayns rauesched here maydens; þe faireste mayde of alle*. [al, γ.] was i-ordeyned*. [yeuen, Cx.] to duke Thalassus,*. [duc Thalassus, Cx.] þerfore in weddynge of Romayns me crieþ Thalassus. *. [℞., Cx.]Austyn de Ciuitate, libro 3o, capitulo vndecimo, seiþ þat Titus Liuius treteþ how by cause here of was werre longe durynge bytwene þe Sabynes and þe Romayns. At þe laste whan þe Sabynes*. [ful, γ.] fil on,*. [fyll one, Cx.] Tarpeius his douȝter made couenant wiþ Tacius kyng of Sabynes, and he hiȝte*. [by hiȝte, α.; byheet, γ.] hym*. [and . . . . hym] not in Cx.] þat sche*. [α. γ.; heo, β.] wolde [take hym and his men*. [deliver to hym and to his men, Cx.] þe tour Tarpeya, þere here*. [heore, γ.] fader was lord, so þat þe Sabyns wolde]*. [From α. and β.] ȝeue here*. [heore, γ.] þe broches þat þey*. [hy, γ.] bere on hir lifte*. [lyf, α.; lyft, Cx.] armes, of þe whiche Ouide makeþe mynde, libro primo de Fastis. Þe Sabynes entrede yn at þe ȝates of Rome, and brusede and ouer|lay þat mayde wilfulliche wiþ þe schildes þat þey*. [hy, γ.] bere on hire Page  61, vol.3 left sides. Whanne þe Romayns herde*. [hurde, γ.] þat, [they]*. [Cx.] arayed hem for to fiȝte, and fauȝte for to*. [till, Cx.; fort a wer nyȝ de|struyd, γ.] þey were nygh destroyed. But þe Romayns wyfes, þat were the Sabyns douȝtres, wente wiþ hir heer i-sprad, and children on hir armes wepynge, bytwene þe scheltroms,*. [shiltrons, Cx.; scholtroms, γ.; sheltrons, β.] and cryde pees,*. [þes, γ. ut passim.] and made pees, so þat hire kynges schulde regne to gidres,*. [and þe peple] bis in MS.] and þe peple putte*. [shold putte, Cx.; scholde pot, γ.] hir owne names to fore þe names of hir felawes, but þe name of þe kyngdom schulde leue to þe Romayns. Trevisa.*. [Eutropius, Cx. and γ.] Þerof it*. [hyt, γ.] come þat eueriche Romayn hadde afterwarde tweie names. [Gaufridus].*. [Gaufridus] α.; om. in Cx. and MS.; Titus, γ.] But sone after, Tacius kyng of Sabyns was i-slawe by assent of Romulus, þat semeþ wel, for he made no sorowe for hym, noþer took wreche, but he graunted hem fredom*. [freodom, γ.] þat dede*. [dude, γ.] þat deede. Galfridus.*. [Galfridus] om. α.; ℞., Cx. and γ.] Titus Lyuyus and oþere telleþ*. [wryten, Cx.] þat while Romulus tolde his peple at þe watre of Capre,*. [Capne, Cx.] he was i-couered and i-helid wiþ a þicke clowde. But Austyn, de Civitate Dei, libro 3o, capitulo 13o, meneþ*. [understondeth, Cx.] wiþ oþere, as it*. [hyt, γ.] semeþ, þat Romulus Page  63, vol.3 was i-smyte wiþ liȝtnynge,*. [lyȝtyng, γ.] and al to dasshed*. [dayscht, γ.] so þat no þing of his body myȝte be founde; oþer,*. [or, Cx.] as som Romayns writeþ, he was alto haled [and drawen]*. [Cx.] of his owne senatoures for his cruelnesse.*. [cruwelnes, γ.] Þan oon Iulius Proculus, þat was at greet worschipe among þe Romayns, seide þat Romulus apperede to hym in his slepe, and hiȝte*. [heet, γ.] hym and þe Romayns þat þey*. [he, α.; α, γ.] schulde worschepe hym, Romulus, instede*. [inslude, γ.] of a god, and cleped hym Quirinus in*. [in þe longage of Sabyns, and þerfore] om. α., Cx., and γ.] the longage of Sabyns, and þerfore, *. [for, add. α. and Cx.]he vsed a spere, and a spere hatte quirus*. [quiris, α.; quyris, Cx.] in þe longage of Sabyns, and þerfore knyȝtes of Rome beeþ i-cleped Quirites, as hit were spere men. In þis manere þe peple of Rome was i-lette*. [were lette, Cx.] þat þey slow not þe senatoures for þe deþ of Romulus; and nameliche for þat tyme fil*. [ful, γ.] þe eclips of þe mone,*. [sonne, Cx. and γ.; sunne, β.] þerfore þe Romayns wende*. [went, γ.] þat þe sonne hadde be sory for Romulus his deeþe. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo, capitulo 30o.*. [Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro decimo octavo, capitulo quartodecimo, Cx., γ., and β. See the opposite page, note 9.] In Romulus his tyme was Tales Millesus in his floures, þe firste of*. [seue, γ.] þe seuene wise men. Orosius, libro 2o.*. [Ysidorus, libro secundo, Cx. Plinius is the author quoted: as in the Harl. version.] Þis Tales was þe firste þat serchede natural philosophie, causes and worchynge of heuene, kynde*. [kuynde, γ.] of þynges; and afterward Plato Page  65, vol.3 departede his doynge in foure,*. [a foure, β.] in arsmetrik,*. [arithmetik, α.; arsemetrik geo|metrye, Cx.] gemetrie, musyk, and astronomie. Polichronicon, libro 4o.*. [7o, Cx. and γ. correctly.] Þis naturel philosofer and dyuynour serchede kynde*. [kuynde, γ.] and vertues of þynges, and warnede hem,*. [hem] om. in Cx. and γ.] and tolde to forehonde*. [bifore, Cx.] þe eclipses of þe sonne and of þe mone, and he trowede þe*. [þat, α., Cx., and γ.] moisture is bygynnynge of alle þinges, and me seiþ þat he lyuede*. [unto the lxviij. Olmypiad, Cx.] anon to þe eiȝte and fiftiþe Olympias. Giraldus.*. [All this passage, Giraldus . . . . . fyve ȝere, om. in Cx. The reference to Giraldus is an error.] As it is i-seide to forehond, Olympias is þe space*. [spas, γ.] of ȝeres of tornementis þat me vsede somtyme at þe foot of þe hille mount Olympus, from fyue ȝere to fyue ȝere. Gaufridus.*. [Augustino, libro octavo, Cx. and γ. The Latin text has the correct reference.] Tales his disciple was Anaximander; he chaungede þe forsaide opinioun and trow|ynge of his maister, and seide þat euery þing haþ his owne propre bygynnynge and causes, wher of he*. [it, Cx.; α, γ.] is i-gendred. Anaximenes herde þis Anaximander. *. [and sayd the eyer is, Cx.]Anaximenes seide þat þe ayer was cause of alle þinges. His disciple was Anax|agoras; he seide þat Inwitte of god is*. [god is] from α., γ., and Cx.; goddes, MS.] makere of alle þinges. He tauȝt Archilaus and Democritus; and Archelaus tauȝte Socrates, and Socrates was Plato his maister. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo.*. [Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro decimo octavo, capitulo vicesimo quinto, Cx., γ., and β. correctly.] Þe oþere*. [þooþer wys, γ.] sixe wise men were in þe tyme of þe transmygracioun of Iewes,*. [Iuwes, γ.] noþeles þey lefte no Page  67, vol.3 bookes after hem i-write, but þei tauȝte men by honeste of lyuynge; þese*. [þeos buþ, γ.] beeþ þe names of these wise men: Pittacus Militenus,*. [Pitacus Milytenus, Cx.] Salon Atheniensis, Thilon*. [Chilon, α., Cx., and β.] Lacedemonius, Piri|adrus Corthius,*. [Chorinthius, α.; Corinthius, Cx.] Clerbolus*. [Cleobolus, α., Cx., and β.] Lidius, Bias Pieneus. Hen|ricus, libro 3o.*. [7o, α.; Valerius, libro quarto, capitulo primo, Cx. and γ. correctly.] In þis*. [þes, γ., ut passim.] Tales his tyme som fischeres solde a drauȝte of fische wiþ þe nettis,*. [nett, β. and γ.] þat*. [þat] om, γ. and β.] þo was*. [the nett tho was, Cx.] i-drawe þe goldene metebord þat was in Appolyn Delphicus his temple; and by cause of þat borde þere fille*. [þar ful, γ.] stryf among hem; and þe fischer*. [fisshers, α. and Cx.; fyschens, γ.] seide þat þey hadde i-solde þe fische þat were i-take, and þe biggere*. [myghtier, Cx.] seide þat fortune hadde i-bouȝt þe bargayne. Þanne for wonder of*. [of] and, γ.] nouelte of þis doynge, me axede counsaille and reed of Appolyn Delphicus, and he demede þat þe bord schulde be ȝeue to þe wisest man; þan þe borde was ȝeue to Salon, and [he]*. [he] From α. and γ.] sente hit to Tobias,*. [Bias, α., Cx., γ., and β.] and Thobias*. [Bias, α., Cx., γ., and β.] ȝaf it to Phitacus, and so from oon to oþer forto*. [fort, γ.] hit was i-ȝeue to Salon aȝe;*. [till it was yeuen to Salon ayen, Cx.] þo Salon halwede þe borde to Appalyn. Osee, Hela his sone, slouȝ Phacee,*. [Phasee, Cx.] þe kyng of Israel, and regnede for hym nyne ȝere; and whanne þe nyne ȝere were i-doo, þe folk of Israel was i-brouȝt in to seruage. Þat tyme Myda þe riche kyng regnede in Frigia.

Page  69, vol.3

[Ezechias.]*. [Ezechias] Cx.] Capitulum tricesimum quartum.

EZECHIAS was þe fourtene kyng of Iuda; in his secounde ȝere þe citee Siracusana, and in his þridde ȝere þe citee Catina in Sicilia*. [Scicilia, Cx. and β.] were i-bulde. Þe kyng of Babilon worschepede þis Ezechias wiþ ȝiftes, for he hadde herde*. [yhurt, γ.] telle þat þe sonne þat þey*. [hy, γ.] worschippeþ*. [worshiped, Cx.] instede of God hadde i-torned aȝen at þe prayer of Ezechias, and so he vnderstood þat þe same*. [sonne, Cx. and γ.] hadde i-doo þe kyng grete worschippe. Þerfore he sente messan|geres*. [messagers, Cx.] wiþ grete*. [ryche, Cx.] ȝiftes *. [and desired to knowe the reason, Cx.]to axe resoun and cause of þat wonder. Þanne Ezechias schewede al his tresorye. Sena|cheryb, þat heet*. [otherwyse called, Cx.] Salmanasar also, was kyng of Caldeys,*. [Caldees, Cx.] and ouercome Osee kyng of Israel, and biseged Samaria þre ȝere, and took*. [gate, Cx.] hit. Also he took ten lynages, þat is to menynge*. [to say, Cx.] þe seuene oþere lynages, prisoners in to þe hilles*. [hulles, γ.] of Medes, bysides þe ryuer Gotham.*. [Gothan, α. γ., Cx., and β.]Giraldus. Þat is byȝonde þe hilles of Caspy. Þere*. [where, Cx.; þar, γ.] Alisaundre closede*. [encluded and closed, Cx.] tweye foule Page  71, vol.3 manere peple, Gog and Magog; þe*. [þe] om. in Cx.] Antecrist whan he comeþ schal delyure þese,*. [thes people, Cx.] and brynge hem out; also þe Iewes abideþ þis Anticrist, and troweþ*. [bileue, Cx.] þat he is Messias, þat is Crist. [Petrus.]*. [Cx.] In þe firste takynge, in*. [in to, Cx. and γ.] þe seruage of [the]*. [Cx.] þre lynages, me troweþ þat Tobie was i-take, and lefte wiþ kyng Osee prisoner in Nynyue; his storie was fulfide vnder Manasses, Ezechias sone, oþer at þe meste*. [owther atte mooste, Cx.; atte meeste, γ.] þe twentiþe ȝere of Iosyas þe kyng. Þanne þe kyng of Assiries brouȝte men of dyuers londes in to Samaria to kepe þe londe of Israel; and þey, for drede of lyouns*. [leons, γ.] þat were cruel and sterne,*. [styerne, Cx.; cruwel and steorne, γ.; steorne, β.] were i-made holderes of þe lawe of Iewes, and i-cleped Samaryte and Samaritany,*. [Samaritani, Cx.] þat beeþ keperes. Þey beeþ i-cleped also Chutey*. [Chutei, Cx.] and Iacobytes, þat beeþ supplaunters; but þey*. [bote a lefte, γ.] lefte nouȝt here mawmetrye. Romulus deide whanne he hadde [y]*. [From α.]-regned nyne and þritty [yere],*. [Cx.] as it is i-seide to fore|honde; and þe senatoures rulede þe comyns of Rome as hit were a ȝere and an half,*. [the space of an yere and half, Cx.] and space of tyme was i-cleped inter tempus, as it were a tyme bytwene. Numa Pompilius bygan to regne among þe Romayns, and regnede foure and fourty ȝere. Þis [Numa]*. [Cx.] hadde noon bataille wiþ men þat wonede Page  73, vol.3 aboute hym; he ordeyned to þe Romaynes lawes and good ly|uynge, for they*. [α, γ.] semede raþer by costom*. [costym, γ.] of batayles þeoues and haluendele laweles men.*. [and tyrauntes lawles, Cx.] Þis descriueþ*. [discryved, α.; descryued or de|parted, Cx.] þe ȝere wiþ oute redy acountes in ten monthes. Hugucio, capitulo Ianus. For þe Romayns, as þe Hebrewes, bygynne*. [bygunne, α.; bigan, Cx.] here ȝere from*. [fram, γ., ut semper.] þe monþe of Marche anon*. [unto the tyme of this . . ., Cx.] to þis Pompilius his tyme; but he putte*. [bote he pot, γ.] Ianeuer and Feuerrer*. [Januar and Februare . . . Cx.] to þe bygynnynge of þe ȝere, and so þe ȝere lefte among þe Romayns vncorrected anon to*. [incorrecte unto, Cx.] Iulius Cesar his*. [Cezars, Cx.] tyme. Eutropius. Numa ordeyned ornementes and cerymonies, and alle worschippe of goddes, bisshoppes, dyuynes, and Mars his preostes, and oþere eueriche in his degre of presthode,*. [and other mynystres of prest|hode, every by due order, Cx.] and forboden dayes*. [dawes, γ.] and oþere, and*. [and] om. Cx.] he ȝaf a temple to þe*. [þe] not in Cx.] god Ianus, and anoþer wiþ fyre to þe goddes Vesta and here maydenes to be wor|schipped, þat þe lye*. [lyght, Cx.] schulde be wardeyn of þe*. [þe] not in Cx.] emperye,*. [emper, γ.] and wake and schyne to þe liknesse of þe*. [þe] not in Cx.] sterres of heuene. And Neuma seide þat he hadde*. [yfongge] added in γ.] alle þese to [the]*. [Cx.] kepynge of þe noble goddesse.*. [godas, γ.] Also he bulde þe capitoyl, and rered it from þe firste foundement; he ordeyned first*. [first] om. in Cx.] peny to his peple, and cleped [it by]*. [Cx.] his owne name, Nummus. Ysidorus, libro 16o, capitulo 17o. Peccunia comeþ of*. [α, Cx.] pecus, þat is a Page  75, vol.3 beste; for pecunia, þat is money, was first i-made of leþer and of bestes skynnes; afterward Saturnus made money of bras, wiþ writinge aboute. At þe laste þis Numa made money of siluer,*. [seluer, γ.] and wroot his owne name aboute, þerfore nummus, þat is a peny, haþ þat name Nummus of Numa.

Manasses. Capitulum tricesimum quintum.

MANASSES, Ezechias his sone, bygan to reigne in Iuda,*. [in Iuda] om. in Cx. and γ.] [and regnede]*. [From Cx.] fyue and fifty ȝere. In his tyme Sibil*. [sybile, γ.] Ero|phuila*. [Erophila, α. and Cx.] was in hire floures in þe ilond Samia; and Nichomedia in Bithinia was i-bulde, þat heet som tyme Archacus. Myda, þe riche kyng of Frigia, drank blood of a boole,*. [bole, γ.] and deide. Manasses, on*. [an, Cx.] euel kyng tofore God, after þat he hadde i-made þe stretes in*. [of, γ.] Ierusalem reed wiþ blood of prophetes, and i-made Ysayas þe prophete i-sawed wiþ a trene sawe,*. [to be sawede with a sawe of tree, Cx.] and*. [and] α, γ.] was*. [was] om. in Cx.] i-ladde prisoner into Babilon; and at þe laste he wepte*. [weep, α.] and dede penaunce, and was i-brouȝt aȝen and Page  77, vol.3 amended his lif.*. [yet atte last this Manasses re|pented him and wept and did pe|naunce, and so by grace amended his lyf, Cx.] Þe Hebrewes telleþ*. [seyen, Cx.] þat Isayas*. [Isay as, MS.] while he was i-sawed wiþ oute Ierusalem,*. [beside, Cx.] faste by þe welle þat hatte*. [þat hatte] not in Cx.] Syloe, axed water: men ȝaf hym none, þan God from heuene sent water in his mouthe, and so he ȝelde*. [a zuld, γ.] vp þe goost.*. [his soule, Cx.] Syloe is to menynge y-sent.*. [Silve is as moche to saye as sent, Cx.] Ysayas hadde i-prayed, and [it was]*. [it was] Cx.] i-graunted of God, in þe sege of Ierusalem, þat men of þe citee þat wente þider schulde fynde þere*. [the, Cx.] water, and enemyes myȝte þere noo water fynde: in mynde of þat dede þe peple beried*. [buryed, α. and Cx.] hem vnder an ooke þat hatte Quercus Rogel, faste by þe water [of Syloe].*. [From α., Cx., and γ.] Kynges leseþ*. [seseþ, α.; seaccen, Cx.; ceeseþ, γ. and β.] at Athene, and Iuges beeþ i-ordeyned to rule þe puple. Tullus Hostilius, þe þridde kyng of Romayns, regnede two and þritty ȝere. Eutropius. Þis was þe firste kyng of Romayns þat vsede*. [ware, Cx.] purpur, a maner reed cloþinge of kynges and branderers and reueres;*. [brouders and revers, α. and γ.; and brouderd and Ryueld, Cx.] [and]*. [From α. and Cx.] after long pees he rayed*. [arayd, Cx.] batailles, and overcom þe Albans and þe Fydenates, and at þe laste he was i-smite wiþ Page  79, vol.3 þe liȝtnynge*. [lyȝtyng, γ.] in his owne hous, and so he deyde. Augustinus, libro tercio, capitulo 11o. From Ascanius his tyme to Romulus his tyme*. [his tyme] om. in Cx.] þe heed of þe kyngdom lefte wiþ Albans; whan þe citee was i-bulde was greet stryf and longe*. [long, γ.] bitwene þe Romayns and þe Albans, for þe name of þe [kyngdom: at þe laste, at þe axynge of þe]*. [From α.] kyng of Albans,*. [for the name . . . . . kyng of Albans] not in Cx.] þe ende of þe stryf was i-putte vppon*. [ypot apon, γ.] þre knyȝtes in þe oon*. [on that one, Cx.] side and þre [knyghtis]*. [Cx.] in þe oþer side, so þat of wheþer side [the]*. [Cx.] knyȝtes ouercome oþer, þat side schulde be heed of þe kyngdom. Þanne in*. [on, Cx.] þe Romayns side come to gidres þre knyȝtes, euerich of hem heet Oracius, and were i-bore at oon berþen;*. [byrthen, Cx.; burþon, γ.] and in*. [on, Cx.] þe Albans side come also to gidres þre knyȝtes, and eueriche of hem heet Curiacius, and were also i-bore at oon burþen.*. [byrthen, Cx.; burþon, γ.] Þese*. [þeos, γ.] þre Curyacies of þe Sabyns side*. [first slough tweyne, Cx.] yn þe firste rees*. [rese, γ.] slow tweie of þe Oracius*. [Oracies, Cx.] of þe Romayns side; þanne þe þridde Oracius sigh*. [Oracies sawe, Cx.; syȝ, γ.] þat he was lefte allone, and i-sette*. [and i-sette] om. in Cx.] in greet*. [right grete, Cx.] perile, he feyned forto flee, þat he myȝte sodeynliche falle vppon þe þre whanne he*. [they, Cx.; α, γ.] were departed and vnwar; and Page  81, vol.3 he caste*. [purposyng to take, Cx.] to take his auauntage, and so it was i-doo. For þey*. [ronne after hym, α.; for they ran after . . ., Cx.] of Rome pursewed after hym vnwiseliche, eueriche after oþer, and he slowȝ eueriche by hym self,*. [sylf, γ.] euere*. [evere] om. in Cx.] as þey*. [α, γ.] come to his hond, eueriche*. [eche, Cx.] after oþer: þerfore þe heed and þe name tornede to þe Romayns of the kyngdom.*. [The words of the kyngdom come last in MS., but not in γ.] But þis*. [þis] om. in Cx.] Oracius his suster, þat was i-spowsed to oon of þe Curiacius, sigh*. [Curyaces sawe, Cx.; syȝ, γ.] þat hire broþer hadde i-slawe and i-spoylled here spouse, and*. [and] she, Cx.] mysseide hir broþer angerliche for þe sleynge of her spouse; þerfore hire broþer was*. [wax, γ.] wrooþ, and slow hir also. [℞.]*. [From α. and Cx.] Þis Tullius Hostilius hadde batayle aȝenst Fydenates, and prayde to come wiþ hym [and assiste him]*. [Cx.] Mecius,*. [Metius, Cx.] kyng of Albans, boþe for olde kynrede [and alyance]*. [Cx.] and for newe couenant and frenschepe i-made after þe deth of þe þre knyȝtes*. [knyȝtes] om. Cx.] Curi|acies. But whan Tullius Hostilius fil*. [ful, γ.] on his enemyes, Metyus*. [γ. adds wiþ hys men.] wiþdrow hym, but*. [netheles Tullius had vyctory . . . Cx.] at þe laste Tullius Hostilius Page  83, vol.3 hadde þe maistrie, and took Metius þe kyng, and to drowȝ*. [drowe, Cx.] hym wiþ hors,*. [horses, Cx.; horsis, β.] and þrewe doun þe citee Alba, and took þe men and riches,*. [rychesse, Cx.] and sent hem into Rome. Archilocus and Symonydes, þe chaunteres,*. [enchaunters, Cx.] were þat tyme in here floures, and þe citee Byȝans was i-bulde in Tracia, þat now hatte Constantyn noble.*. [Constantynople, Cx.; Constan|tynoble, γ.] Amon, Manasses his sone, regnede two ȝere, so telleþ*. [wryte, Cx.] þe Hebrewes, bote þe seuenty telleþ*. [sayen, Cx.] þat he regnede twelue ȝere. Þis Amon lyuede [an]*. [Cx.] euel lyf, and was i-slawe of his owne seruantes. [℞.]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] Hit may happe þat it is by cause here-of þat þe ȝeres of þis age beeþ dyuersliche acounted among dyuers men, and þat þe ȝeres from þe buldynge of þe citee passeþ by ten ȝeres, [þe whiche ten ȝeres]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] þe seuenty putteþ*. [putten to, Cx.] too. Iosias, Amon his sone, a childe of eiȝte ȝere olde, bygan to regne, and regned in Iuda oon and þritty ȝere; þis,*. [This Iosias, the iiij. yere of his regne, corrected . . . Cx. MS. has þis is, by a mistake.] þe fourþe ȝere of his kyngdom,*. [MS. has He, to make sense with the previous error. The correction is from γ.] corrected euel dedes,*. [doers as he had been an . . . , Cx.] as it were an olde man, and [gladly]*. [Cx.] herde þe wordes [of]*. [Cx.] Deutronomii, þat is Moyses his book of þe lawe, and destroyed mawmetrie wiþ þe hiȝe Page  85, vol.3 places. Trevisa. Hiȝe places beeþ i-cleped*. [i-cleped] not in Cx.] temples þat were on*. [in, Cx.] groues vppon hiȝe totes [or hilles],*. [Cx.] to worschippe mawmetes inne. Þan foloweþ in þe story,*. [story] from α., γ., and Cx.; MS. has stodie.] and*. [and] not in Cx.] þis Iosyas brende þe bones of þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] false prophetes and of false preostes þat [worshipped and]*. [Cx.] seruede false goddes; and helde þe Es|terday in mynde of þe*. [Cx. omits þe.] passage þoruȝ þe Reed See; and at þe laste he fauȝte wiþ Pharao Nechan,*. [Nechans, α., γ.; Nechao, Cx.] kyng of Egipt, and was i-slawe, and lefte after hym þre sones, Elyachim þat heet*. [otherwise called, Cx.] Ieconias, Ioathas þat heet*. [otherwise called, Cx.] Sellum, and Mathanias þat heet*. [otherwise called, Cx.] Sedechias. Anchus*. [Ancus, Cx.] Martius, þe fourþe*. [feurþe, γ. and β.] kyng of Romayns, Neuma his neuew, i-bore of his douȝter, bygan to regne, and regned þre and twenty ȝere. Þis [Ancus],*. [Cx.] for þe grace þat he seigh in Torquynyus Prischus,*. [sawe in Tarquinius Priscus, Cx.] made hym wardeyn of his heyres;*. [eyres, β.] but he quyt hit ful euel. Ieremyas was Esechias*. [Elchyse, α.; Elchias, β. and Cx.; Helchyas, γ.] þe bisshoppes*. [bisshop his, α.] sone, and bygan to prophesie, and prophecied in Egipte*. [Cx. omits in Egipte, as does γ.] oon and fourty ȝere anon to þe destroyenge of þe citee, wiþ oute þat tyme þat he prophecied in Egipt. Þis Ieremyas sigh*. [syȝ, α.; sawe, Cx.] þre tokenes, a ȝerd wakynge, a crokke brennynge, and his*. [his owne bregyrdel yroted . . . Cx. and γ.] brigirdel*. [brygurdel, α.] yrotet*. [yrooted, α.] bysides þe ryuer Eufrates: he made lementaciouns for þe deth of Iosyas, king of Iuda. Also þat Page  87, vol.3 womman Elda,*. [Olda, Cx.] and Sophonias þe prophete, propheciede. Of hem,*. [Cx. inserts and after hem.] is made mynde in þe book of Kynges. Tarqui|nius Priscus, þe fifte*. [fyfthe, Cx.] kyng of Romayns, regnede seuene and þritty ȝere. Þis [Priscus]*. [Cx.] doublede þe noumbre of sena|toures; he ordeyned games and plaies,*. [pleyes, α. and Cx.] and made walles and vices,*. [vyses, α.; vises, β. and Cx.; vyces, γ.] and oþere strong places and priueþ;*. [pryvey, α.; pryuy, Cx.] and at þe laste Anchus his sones, þat was his predecessor,*. [Ancus sonne that was his pre|cessour, Cx.] slouȝ hym. Titus. Whanne Ancus was dede, he sente traytourliche*. [traytously, Cx.] Ancus his sones an hontynge, for he wolde hym self*. [sylf, γ.] be i-ordeyned kyng in þe mene tyme. Also he chees Seruius Tullius to wedde his douȝter, and to be his heire*. [eyr, β.] after hym; þerfore Ancus his sones conspirede aȝenst*. [aȝenes, γ.] hym, and hirede heerdes*. [huyrede heurdes, γ.] for*. [Cx. omits for.] to slee hym. Þerfore þe heerdes*. [heurdes, γ.] feynede a plee, and as it were to haue*. [habbe, γ.] a riȝtful dome [they]*. [Cx.] appelede to þe kyng. In þe whiche cause and plee, while þe kyng took hede to þat oon, þat oþer [heerde]*. [From α. and γ.] slowȝ hym. Ioathas, Iosias his eldeste*. [myddel, α. and Cx.] sone, whan his fader was deed and his elder broþer forsake, was i-ordeyned by þe peple kyng of Iuda, and regnede þre Page  89, vol.3 monþes, as it were from þe firste day of Ianyuer*. [Ianuar, Cx.] to þe firste day of Auerelle. Pharao Nechao, kyng of Egipte, ladde hym i-bounde in to Egipte, and made his elder broþer, Elyachim, kyng, and tributarie*. [trybutarii, Cx.] to þe kyng of Egipt, and cleped hym Ioachym, in token*. [tokon, γ.] of subieccioun. Þan þis Eliachym þat so was cleped Ioachym, regnede enleuene*. [eleue, γ.] ȝere, and leuede at þe worste, for he slowȝ Vrias the prophete, and prisoned Ieromye, and brende Baruch his book.

[Nabugodonosor. Capitulum tricesimum sextum.]*. [Cx.]

THE grete Nabugodonosor bygan to regne in Babilon,*. [Babyloyne, Cx.] and regnede þre and þritty ȝere, and ouercom Pharao,*. [Cx. omits Pharao.] þe kyng of Egipt, and occupiede þe lond from the ryuer of Egipt, to þe ryuer Eufrates, and was lorde of al Siria wiþ out Iudea. Io|sephus, libro 18o,*. [10o, α. and Cx. correctly.] capitulo 7o, seiþ þat þis Nabugodonosor, in þe fourþe*. [feurþe, γ.] ȝere of his kyngdom,*. [regne, Cx.] wente into Iuda,*. [Iudea, α. and Cx.] þat is þe Iewerie,*. [Iewry, β.] and took*. [wan, Cx.] Ierusalem, and took kyng*. [Cx. omits kyng.] Ioachym*. [Ioachim, Cx.]Page  91, vol.3 prisoner, and made hym tributarie, and lefte hym in þe wey; noþeles he took wiþ hym prisoners noble children þat were of kynges ofspringe,*. [descended of hynges, Cx.] Ananias, Azarias, Misael, and Daniel, and ladde ham wiþ hym into Babilon wiþ þe vessel of þe tem|ple. From þat tyme forþward*. [forward, Cx.] þis kyng Nabugodonosor was emperour of Caldea, of Assiria,*. [Siria, Cx.] of Egipt, and of Iudea, þat is þe Iewerye. Petrus. Vnder þat tempest and tene*. [teone, Cx. and β.] þe Rachabites, Ionadab Rachab his sone his children, þat folowede here fader hestes [and commaundementes],*. [Cx.] and drank no wyn, and sette*. [ne sette vynes ne sowe sedes, Cx.] no vynes and sewe no sedes, þey*. [hy, γ.] wente þoo in to Ierusalem to saue hem self.*. [hamsylf, γ.] Ioachym þe kyng herde telle þat the kyng of Egipt wolde efte fiȝte aȝenst Nabugodonosor, and denyede hym tribute þat he hadde hym byhote;*. [promysed hym, Cx.] þerfore Nabugodonosor was wrooþ, and wente*. [and toke Ierusalem, and kylled . . ., Cx.] in to Ierusalem, and slowȝ alle the strong men, and Ioachym þe kyng also, and þrewe hem wiþ outen þe walles vnburied, and ordeyned*. [crowned ther, Cx.] his sone Ieconias [kyng],*. [Cx. and γ.] and his breþeren kyng for hym.*. [Cx. and γ. omit, and his breþeren kyng for hym.] ℞. Here we schal trowe*. [yeue credence to, Cx.] Ierom, þat seiþ þat*. [Cx. omits þat.] þere were tweie Ieconias, Page  93, vol.3 oon in þe ende of*. [of] From α. and Cx.; MS. has and.] þe forme*. [forne, Cx.] fourtene generaciouns, and anoþer in þe bygynnynge of þe oþere fourtene generaciouns; and so þey semeþ*. [it may seme, Cx.; hyt semeþ, γ.] þat þe comyn lettre of Mathew is ful skars for mene men myȝte vnderstonde.*. [scars for unlerned men to under|stonde, Cx.] Þere he seiþ Iosias gat Iechonyas and his breþeren in þe transmygracioun of Babilon, for it schulde be contynued in þis manere, þat mene [and vnlerned]*. [Cx.] men myȝte vnderstonde: Iosias*. [Iosias] from β. and γ.; MS. gives Irchonyas. In Cx. the sen|tence is Iosias begate Iechonias and Iechonias. And Iochonias gate Salatiel.] [gat Iecho|nias,]*. [Both insertions from α.] and [Iechonias]*. [Both insertions from α.] gat Salatiel, and eiþer Ieconyas heet Ioachym also,*. [Cx. omits also.] so seiþ Iosephus, and þe text moot be vnder|stonde in þis manere, in þe*. [into Cx.] transmygracioun, þat is about þe tyme of*. [tyme of] twice over in MS.] þe transmigracioun. Trevisa. Þe transmigracioun of Babilon was þe takynge of þe folk*. [fook, α.; folke, Cx.] of Israel in to bondage into Babilon. Petrus. In*. [On, Cx.] þe body of þe eldere Ioachym þat was so i-þrowe wiþ oute þe walles were i-founde lettres and figures aȝenst þe lawe of God, and þe name of þe mawmet Codonosia*. [Codonasia, Cx.; Codonazia, γ. and β.] þat he worschipped. Iosephus, libro 10o, capitulo 8o. Ieconias, þat hiȝte*. [otherwyse callyd, Cx.] Ioachym, and was also*. [Cx. omits and was also.] Ioachym his sone,*. [Ioachis sonne, Cx.] was i-made kyng by Nabugodonosor, and regnede but*. [bote, γ.] þre monþes, þat was anon to þe monþe of Juyl.*. [Iule, γ.] For Nabu|godonosor dredde hym, leste he wolde haue mynde of his fader deþ, and hilde*. [holde, Cx. and γ.] wiþ þe Egipciens aȝenst Nabugodonosor,*. [hym, Cx.] and regnede but þre monþes,*. [and regnede but þre monþes] om. α. and Cx.] and [therefor he, Nabugodono|sor,]*. [Cx.] torned aȝen and byseged Ierusalem; and þe kyng Ieco|nias, Page  95, vol.3 by þe counsaile of Ieremye, ȝilde hym wilfulliche wiþ his moder and al his housholde to Nabugodonosor, [and]*. [Cx.] so þe kyng*. [this Iechonias, Cx.] was i-take prisoner, and two þowsand princes, and*. [with, Cx.] seuen þowsand craftes men, among þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] was Mardacheus, and Ezechiel, þat was ȝit*. [ȝut, γ.] a childe, of þe blood of preostes; and so þis Ieconias þat heet*. [otherwyse callyd, Cx.] Ioachym also, lefte in prisoun in Caldea seuen and þritty ȝere, for to*. [till, Cx.; fort, γ.] þis Nabugodonosor was deed, and his sone Nabugodonosor also, and Euilmora|dach,*. [Enil moradach, α.; Enylmero|dach, Cx.] Nabugodonosor his oþer sone, toke hym out of prisoun. Petrus, [144o].*. [From α. and Cx.] From þis transmygracioun, þat was i-made þe eiȝteþe*. [echt, Cx.] ȝere of þe reg[n]ynge*. [regnyng, γ.] of Nabugodonosor, som rekeneþ þre score and ten of þe bondage of Iewes; but pro|preliche forto speke,*. [þeos þat ȝuld ham wylfolych buþ yclepud, γ.] þese that ȝilde hem wilfulliche beeþ i-cleped [the]*. [Cx.] transmygracioun, and oþere þat were i-take afterward aȝenst hir wille beeth i-cleped prisoneres and bondage. Mathanias, Iosias his sone þe þridde,*. [his þridde sone, α.; thyrd sonne, Cx.] was i-ordeyned kyng of Nabugodonosor; but he was i-swore þat he schulde serue hym tributarye, and was also i-cleped Sedechias, and regned Page  97, vol.3 enleuene ȝere. Iosephus, libro 10o, capitulo 9o. Ezechiel bygan to prophecie, and prophecied in Babilon to hem þat were in bondage, after þat þey hadde i-fonge*. [taken, Cx.] þe epistel of Ieromye þe prophete out of þe lond of Iuda; and þis Ezechiel sent his prophecie in to Ierusalem; but þe king Sedechias trowed nouȝt his prophecies, [for hym semede þat þe prophe|cies]*. [From α., Cx., and γ.] of Ieremye and of Ezechiel were nouȝt accordynge. For alle þese*. [þe, α., Cx., and γ.] prophecies*. [prophetes, γ.] accorded in þat,*. [Cx. omits in þat.] þat þe citee of*. [the citee of] om. Cx.] Ierusalem schulde be take, and þat þe kyng schulde be lad awey prisoner in to Babilon. But it semede*. [semeth, Cx.] þat þey*. [hy, γ.] discor|dede in þat, þat Ezechiel seide þat Sedechias schulde nouȝt see*. [yse, γ.] Babilon, but*. [netheles ther sayng were true of both, for, Cx.] eiþer seynge*. [sawe, α., γ., and β.] was sooþ inow afterward, [for]*. [From α., Cx., and γ.] whan Nabugodonosor took Sedechias he put out his eiȝen*. [yȝen, γ.] in Reblata,*. [Reblatha, Cx.] and lad hym [so]*. [so] from α., Cx., and γ.] in Babilon streiȝt*. [start, α. and γ.; stark blynde, Cx. and β.] blynde. Salon, oon of þe seuene wise men, dede awey þe olde Dragoun his*. [the old dragons lawes, Cx. and β.] lawes, and ȝaf his owne lawes to men of Athene. ℞. Of þis Salon spekeþ Seint Austyn, de Ciuitate Dei, libro 2o, capitulo 16o, seith,*. [seiþ] om. α. and Cx.] and*. [Cx. omits and.] Agellus spekeþ more opounlyche, libro 21o, and Trogus Pompeius, libro 2o, in þis manere: in Salon his tyme men of Athene hadde no lawe, for eueriche of hem hadde Page  99, vol.3 likynge of reuynge*. [regnynge, α. and γ.; rengnyng, Cx.] instede*. [instude, γ.] of lawe. At þe laste Salon, a man of greet riȝtwisnesse, was [elect and]*. [Cx.] i-chose, þat wente so riȝtfulliche bytwene þe peple and þe senatoures þat he hadde þonk of euery*. [on either, Cx.; eyþer, γ.] side. Valerius, libro 8o, capitulo 7o. Þis at þe*. [his, α., γ., and Cx.] laste ende day, whan his frendes come aboute hym and talkede, he rered*. [arered, Cx.] [and lyfte]*. [Cx.] vp his heed,*. [heved, α.] and byhelde*. [bihelde hem, one axed him why . . . . ., Cx.] on hem; and whan he*. [me, α.] axede why he dede*. [dude, γ.] soo, he answerede and seide, "What it euere be þat ȝe talkeþ of, whan I*. [ich, γ.] haue vnderstonde hit þan I*. [y, γ.] schal deie." Danyel þe prophete vndede*. [expouned, Cx.; undude, γ.] Nabugo|donosor þe kyng his sweuene. Here take heed þat Daniel seigh*. [seyȝ, α.; see, Cx.] ten sightes; [þre vnder Nabygodonosor,]*. [Supplied from α. and γ.] þre vnder Balthazar, þe seuenþe and þe eiȝtþe vnder Darius, þe nynþe and þe tenþe vnder Cirus. Noþeles oþer prophetes, longe to fore þe takynge of Ierusalem and of þe peple, propheciede of þe takynge, and so dede Isayas, Osee, Michias, and oþere, whanne þe takynge was toward, and while it was in doynge; and so dude*. [dude, from γ.; Cx. has did; MS., it was.] So|phonias, Ieremyas, and Ezechiel; and som durynge þe takynge and þe bondage, as Danyel,*. [Danyel] om. in γ.] Abacuc; and somme afterward, as Aggeus and Zacharias. Noþeles some wole*. [wille, α.] mene*. [Yet somme understand, Cx.] þat Daniel sigh þat siȝte þe fyue and þritty ȝere of Nabugodonosor his kyngdom.*. [regne, Cx.] Nabugodonosor byseged Ierusalem for tribute Page  101, vol.3 þat was i-warned*. [i-werned, α.; trybute was werned him, Cx.] hym. Þe kyng of Egipt arrayed hym and wente out, as þey*. [though, Cx.] he wolde haue broke þe seege. Þerfore Nabugodonosor wente from þe seege, and chased þe kyng of Egipt out of Siria; and þerfore prophetes sones and false pro|phetes scornede Ieremyas, and seide þe Babilon schal not torne aȝen as þu [seydest and]*. [seydest and] From Cx.] propheciest;*. [prophecidest, Cx.] but Ieremyas seide þe contrarie, and þerfore he was firste putte in prisoun, and þan in [a]*. [α] from Cx. and γ.] lake in slyme anon to þe þrote. Þanne þe same ȝere, þe tenþe monþe, Nabuzaradan, prince of chyualrie of Babi|lon, byseged Ierusalem, and þe citee*. [MS. by an error inserts and after citee.] was i-closed [thre monethes],*. [Cx.] and for greet honger wommen eet hir owne chil|dren to the mesure of a spanne. Þat ȝere, þe ferþe monþe, þe*. [the king was taken in the dawing, Cx.; for king, MS. has citee Jeru|salem.] king was i-take in the dawenynge, in þe wey of wilder|nesse, and i-brouȝt to Nabugodonosor to Rebbata;*. [in Reblatha, Cx.; Reblata, γ.] þere his eiȝen*. [yȝen, γ.] were i-put oute, and he was i-bounde and i-lad in to Babilon, and þere hym was i-ȝeue a laxatyf drynk*. [dryngke, γ.] in presence of þe kyng and of al þe feste, and for schame he deide sone afterward.*. [after, Cx.] Also þat ȝere, þat was þe nynþe*. [nyntenþe, α. and Cx.] ȝere Page  103, vol.3 of Nabugodonosor, Nabuzardan brende þe temple and hous of Ierusalem, and destroyed þe walles, and took awey þe vessel wiþ þe pileres,*. [pylers, γ.] and took þe men prisoners, and took Ieremye*. [Ieremyas, α. and Cx.] out of prisoun. Noþeles Nabugodonosor lete Ieremyas dwelle wiþ Godolia, and he lete þe Rachabites goo free, and so þe temple was i-brent foure hondred ȝere*. [Cx. omits ȝere.] and foure and þritty ȝere after þat it was i-bulde; so telleþ*. [writen Hebrues, Cx.] þe Hebrewes; bot more verrayliche,*. [veryly, Cx.] as*. [Cx. omits as.] Isidorus and þe seuenty telleþ,*. [wryten, Cx.] foure hondred ȝere*. [Cx. omits ȝere, which he inserts after fourty.] and foure and fourty after þe buldynge of Rome, an*. [an] from α. and Cx.; MS. has and.] hondred ȝere þre score and oon. Þe fourþe*. [ferþe, γ.] age of þe worlde endeþ from þe bygynnynge of the kyngdom of Dauid to þis takynge of Ierusalem and of þe Iewes, þat is i-cleped þe transmygracioun. Þis transmygracioun and tak|ynge was i-made*. [done, Cx.] þe enleuenþe ȝere of Zedechias, and*. [in, Cx.] þe monþe of August, and durede foure hondred ȝere þre score and þrittene, sixe monthes, and ten days,*. [dawes, γ.] by sextene generaciouns. Noþeles Matheu, by cause of som priue menynge, sette*. [setteth, Cx.] fourtene generaciouns; but Isidorus and þe seuenty telleþ þat þis age conteynede foure hondred ȝere foure score and þre; and Page  105, vol.3 on*. [in, Cx.] cas þis discordynge of ȝeres happeþ for þe comyn trans|slacioun seiþ [that]*. [Cx.] Amon regnede two ȝere, and me*. [somme seyne, Cx.] seiþ þat he regnede twelf*. [twelf] from α. and Cx.; MS. has two.] ȝere; þerfore ȝif þe þrittene ȝere þat þe kyngdom of Iuda was wiþ oute kyng after þe deeþ of Amazias, be i-putte*. [ypot, γ.] too þese*. [þeos, γ.] ȝeres, [þan þe ȝeres]*. [From α.] of þis fourþe*. [ferþe, γ.; feorþe, β.] age schulde be foure hondred foure score and sixtene.

Explicit Liber Secundus.