Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum octavum.

THE kyngdom of Sithes*. [Schytes, α.] in þe north by cause of age and of tyme axeþ þe secounde place in ordre, and is sette after þe kyngdom of Assiries, and bygan in Sarug his tyme vnder Thanaus þe firste kyng þat*. [þer, α.] was þere. Sarug was Abraham his fader graunsire. Hit semeþ þat þe ryver Thanays haþ þe name of þis kyng Thanaus; þe whiche ryuer in þe norþside of þe world departeþ betwene Asya and Europa. Þis kyng|dom was neuere ouercome, but þries he conquerede Asia and ouercome Darius, kyng of Perses, and slowh Cyrus þe kyng, and dede awey Zephiron, þat was þe grete Alisaundre his ledere. Petrus, capitulo sexagesimo. Also anoþer kyngdom was in þe west, and was þe kyngdom of Scicions,*. [Either for Sicyon or Sicyonians.] þat is of Arcadia, a partie of Grees in Europa, and durede vnder Agilaus first nyne hondred ȝere þre score and enlevene. Agilaus is a lorde, as it were a kyng oþer an emperoure. Afterwarde Page  261, vol.2 þis kyngdom durede, vnder oon and pritty kings,*. [So α. and Cx.; kyngdoms, MS.] from þe foure and twenty ȝere of Nachor Abraham his graunsire anon to Zeuxippus,*. [Zeusippus, MSS. and Cx.] þat reignede þe ȝere of Hely þe preost seuen|tene. Þerfore oon kyngdom in Arcadia somtyme heet Agealea. Noþeles afterward hit heet Peloponnensis; þere was oon of þe kyngdom of Grees. [℞.]*. [Reference added from α. and Cx.] Noþeles Denys seiþ þat þe kyndom of Scicions bygan þe ȝere of Thare fifty; þat was twenty ȝere or Abraham was i-bore; Thare was Abraham his fader. In þis kyngdom þe firste kyng was Cecrops,*. [Cicropos, MS.; Cicrops, α.] and reignede fyue and fifty ȝere. Anoþer kyngdom as hit were in þe same age with þe*. [þese, α. Cx.] forseide kyngdoms was*. [þat was, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] þe kyngdom of Egipt in þe souþ, and bygan in Nachor his tyme, Abraham*. [Abrahams, α.] his grauntsire. Þis kyngdom hadde fiftene grete lordeschippes, and cleped hem Dynastias, from þe firste Mineus, oþer Zones,*. [sonnes, Cx.] to Abrahams tyme. After|ward Thebei, men of Thebes, hylde sixtene*. [sexten, Cx.] grete lord|schippes, and cleped hem Dynastias.*. [Damastias, MS., and similarly below.] Þan Diapolitani, þat were i-cleped Pharaones, þat were kynges of Egipt, hylde eiȝtetene grete lordschippes and cleped hem Dynastias. Dynastia is grete lordschippe, and power durynge in a pro|uince to chese*. [that chose, Cx.] kyng oþer emperoure. And so þis kyngdom of Egipt durede anon to þe tyme of Cambys[es]*. [Cambis, MS. and α.] þat was Page  263, vol.2 Cyrus his sone. Cyrus was kyng of Pers, and ȝaf while he lyuede þe kyngdom of Assyria þat was þoo i-torned to þe Medes to his sone Cambys[es], and cleped him Nabugo|donosor also, and his prince Olofernes,*. [So α.; Olofernus, MS.] and sodued Egipt. And Egipt was vnder seuene kynges of Perse, and after wente from the Perses, and hadde ten kynges of her owne forto Ochus, þat heet Artaxerxes*. [Arthaexerses, MS.; Artharexer|ses, α.] also, þe twelfþe kyng of Perses, put out Nactanabo,*. [So α. and Cx., Nactabono, MS.] the leste kyng of Egipt, anon to Ethiopia, and wan þe kyngdom of Egipt. After|ward þe kyngdom durede vnder þre kynges*. [So Cx.; þre kyndoms, α.; þe kyng Donis, MS.] anoon to the seuenþe ȝere of þe grete Alisaundre,*. [Alexander, α.] after [þat]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þe kyngdoms of Egipt and of Perse was*. [So MS., α. β. γ.; were Cx. Per|haps his own correction.] vnder þe Grees þre hondred ȝere vnder þrittene kynges, þat were i-cleped Lagides and Ptholomeus*. [Tholomeus, Cx. (i.e. Ptolemies.)] anoon to Iulius Cesar his tyme; oþer, as som mem meneþ, anon to þe fiftenþe ȝere of Augustus Cesar that ouercome Cleopatra,*. [Cleopatram, α.] Denys his doȝhter. Denys was Ptholomeus and last Lagid. Egipt from that*. [So Cx.; the, MS.] tyme fel to*. [So α. and Cx.; in to, MS.] Romanys,*. [þe Romayns, α.] and so al þe kynges of Egipt from the firste begynnynge anon to Alisaundre were foure score and eleuene. Þe kynges of Egipt were first i-cleped Page  265, vol.2 Dyastenes, and þan Pharaones, and at þe last Lagides and Ptholomeus.*. [Ptolomees, α.]Iosephus, libro octavo, capitulo tertio. Þe kynges of Egipt hadde in her childhode oþer names, but whanne they were i-made kynges þey were i-cleped Pharaones. For a kyng is i-cleped Pharao in þe longage of Egipt. Þe kynges of Alexandria were i-cleped Ptholomeies, when þey were i-maked*. [made, α.] kynges; and þe kynges of Romaynes were i-cleped Cesars. Salomon wedded a kynges douȝter of Egipt; [I rede of no kyng after hym of Egipt]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þat was cleped Pharao. Augustinus, libro sextodecimo, capitulo octavo|decimo. Þe fourþe kyngdom, but þe eldest of tyme, is þe kyngdom of Assiries; and bygan in þe est vnder Belus Nemproth þe fyue and twenty*. [So α. and Cx.; þritty, MS.] ȝere of Sarug þat was Abra|hams fader*. [ffader, α.] grauntsire. Þis kyngdom had lordschippe of al Asia outake Inde. Petrus sexagesimo. And it durede a þowsand ȝere þre hundred and tweyne, vnder seuene and þritty kynges anon to þe [last]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Sardanapallus þe kyng, þat dyede in*. [in] om. α. and Cx.] þe seuenþe ȝere of Ozias, kyng of Iuda. Þan Arbaces, þat heet Abbacus*. [Abaccus, α.] also, þe kynges styward and his traytour, for he slowh hym and tornede þe kyngdom of Assiries to þe Medes, þat is to vndirstondynge in hope and nouȝt in dede. [℞.]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] For after Sardanapallus from þe Page  267, vol.2 seuenþe ȝere of Ozias kyng of Iuda to Manasses kyng of Iuda, aboute an hondred ȝere and twelue, the Assiries hadde seuen myȝty kynges, þey [he]*. [Added from α.] hadde nouȝt þe kyng|dom al hool, of þe whiche þese beeþ þe names: Arbaces, Phull, Teglafalasar, Salmanasar, Senacheryb, Assaradon, Sargon. Noþeles som wil mene þat after Sardanapallus his deþ, from þe seuenþe ȝere of Ozias þe kyng to þe ȝere of*. [of þe, α.] transmygracioun of Iewes oon and þritty, þe hoole kyngdom of þe est stood with þe Medes two hondred ȝere and þritty vnder eyȝte kynges, from þe firste Arbaces anon to Astyages þat was Darius em*. [eem, α.; vncle, Cx., and so be|low.] and Cyrus his grauntsire. Cyrus ouertorned þis Astyages, and tornede þe kyngdom of Medes to þe hool kyngdom of Perses, and lefte þe kyngdom of Hircans to Astyages. Noþeles in Senacheryb kyng of Assiries his tyme, and in Ezechias his tyme kyng of Iuda, com vppe þe*. [to þe, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] grete kyngdom of þe Babileyns and Caldeys, and durede vnder seuene kynges,*. [So Cx.; kyngdoms, MS. and α.] þat beeþ Meredak,*. [Here and below the orthography of the proper names has been left unaltered.] þat hatte Baladak also; Nabugodonosor, Euilmederok,*. [Euilmerodoc, α.] Rugusar,*. [Regusar, α.] Labofardok,*. [Labofardak, α.] Balthasar, þat heet Nabar also. Hym slowh Cyrus i-socied to his eme*. [eem, α.; vncle, Cx., and so be|low.] Darius, Page  269, vol.2 and tornede his kyngdom [to þe kyngdom]*. [Added from α.] of Perse and of Medes þe ȝere of þe transmygracioun of Iewes oon and þritty. And so passede two hondred ȝere and sixty from þe seuenþe ȝere of Ezechias*. [So Trevisa for Ozias.] kyng of Iuda. In þe whiche ȝere bygan to faille þe hole kyngdom of Assiries anon to þe ȝere of þe transmygracioun oon and þritty. Þoo bygan þe hool kyng|dom of Pers.*. [Peerse, α. (Peers, above.)] [Þan þe hole kyngdom of Perse,]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] from þe ȝere of þe transmygracioun oon and þritty anon to þe seuenþe ȝere of þe grete Alexandre, þat was from þe firste Cyrus to þe laste Darius Arsanius his sone, durede two hondred ȝere and fyue and þritty vnder þrittene kynges; þat was Cyrus þe firste, Cambyses þe seconde. His fader Cyrus ȝaf hym anoþer name, and cleped hym Nabugodonosor, and ȝaf hym Nynyve wiþ þe kyngdom of Assiries, whyle he was hym self alyve.*. [anlyue, α.] Vnder hym byfel þe storie of Iudith. Þe þridde Ermeudes Magus; þe ferþe Darius Tapsis his sone; þe fifte Excerses; þe sixte Athar Excerses,*. [Artarexerses, α.] þat heet Longimanus*. [Logimanus, α.; Longinianus, Harl. MS.] also. Vnder hym were Esdras and Nee|myas. Þe seuenþe Excerces; the eiȝþe Fogodian; þe nynþe Darius Nothus. Nothus is a bastard, or he þat is i-gete of a worþy fader and i-bore of an vnworþy moder. Þe tenþe Page  271, vol.2 Artharexcerses, þat heet Assuerus also; vnder hym was Hester. Þe enleuenþe Ochus; þe twelfþe Arsanius; þe þrit|tenþe Darius Arsanius his sone. Þe grete Alexandre ouer|come hym, and tornede þe kyngdom of Perses to þe hole kyng|dom of Macedonyes*. [Macedons, α.] and*. [at þe Grees, α.] of Grees. Noþeles þis*. [So α. and Cx. Noþeles þere were oþer kyngdoms, but þis, MS.] kyngdom of Macedons bygan raþer vnder þe firste Cranaus þe fourtenþe ȝere of Ozias kyng of Iuda, and so durede sexe hondred ȝere and sixe and þritty anon to þe laste Persius. Þe Romayns slowh hym þe nynþe ȝere of Onias þe bisshop, þat heet Me|nelaus also. Noþeles þere were oþer kyngdoms in Grees, eueriche after oþer i-ordeyned; of þe whiche þe firste was in Arcadia at þe Scicions, þat peple, and was i-torned þens to þe Peloponenses, as it is i-seide tofore. Anoþer kyngdom of Grees was among þe Argyues, and was i-torned þennes to þe Macens.*. [Mecens, α. and Cx.] Anoþer was at Athenys, þat citee; anoþer among þe Lacedemons, þese were þe Sportans. Anoþer at Epirus, þat is T[h]racia. Anoþer at Macedonia. Þe kyngdom*. [kyng, Cx.] of Rome swolowede vp alle þese kyngdoms [as he dede oþere kyngdoms]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] of londes, and made hem [alle]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] longe to þe kyngdom of Rome. In þis manere þe kyngdom of Rome*. [Text as in Cx.: words errone|ously repeated in MS.]Page  273, vol.2 bygan vnder Ianus þe firste kyng of Italy, and durede anon to þe seuenþe ȝere of Darius Arsanius his sone, kyng of Perses. Hym slowh þe grete Alexander. And so þe grete*. [grete] om. α.] kyngdom of Rome durede at þat cours eiȝte hondred ȝere and foure score, vnder seuen*. [eiȝte, MS. and α. (not Cx).] and twenty kynges. [Of þe whiche seuen and twenty*. [tweny, α.] kynges]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] sixe þe firste*. [The same order of words in α. and Cx.] were Latyns. Þe fourtene*. [So Cx.; fourtenþe, MS.] þat were*. [came, Cx.] after were Albans. Þe oþere seuene þat come after þat þe citee was i-bulde were Romayns, of þe whiche Romulus was þe firste and Tarquinius þe proude was þe laste. Afterward kynges were i-put*. [put, α] out of þe citee, and were from ȝere to ȝere tweie consulles i-chose. After consuls tribunes plebis*. [plebes, MS., Cx.] and dictatores*. [doctores, MS. α. and Cx.] rulede the comounte anon to Iulius Cesar his tyme, foure hondred ȝere þre score and foure. Afterward he*. [they, Cx.] lift of þe name of kynges, and cleped here cheef lordes Cesares, emperours, and Augustes; of þe whiche Iulius Cesar was þe firste of a consul and dictatour i-made empe|rour; his successour and ne was Octauianus*. [So Cx.; Octianus, α.; Occeanus, MS.] Augustus, and brouȝte alle þe kyngdoms of þe world in to oon kyngdom al hool. Þanne Philippe þe eiȝte and twentyþe emperour was þe firste emperour þat was Cristene.*. [cristened, Cx.] Þanne þe grete Page  275, vol.2 Constantyn made Constantynople*. [Constantynnoble, MS., α. β. γ., here and below. (not Cx.)] þe chief citee of þe empere, and lefte Rome forto be chief see of þe pope to Seint Petre his successours. Whanne þe empere was trans|lated and i-torned to þe grete Charles, kyng of Fraunce, Pipinus þe kynges sone, þanne þe name of þe emperour [was] lefte*. [lifte after þanne in MS. (not α. or Cx.) The verb is wanting in all, and in β. and γ.] allone at Constantynople.