Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum tricesimum primum. Amasyas.

AMASIAS, Ioas his sone, regned in Iuda nyne and twenty ȝere. After hym þe kyngdom of Iuda was wiþ oute kyng þrit|te[ne Page  31, vol.3 ȝere].*. [xiii. yere, Cx., and from γ.]Petrus. Vppon caas me seiþ þat þat kyngdom voidede*. [was voyde, Cx.] so longe for Amazias departede the kyngdom while he was on lyue, and his sone a childe of þre ȝere olde ȝit myȝte not reigne; and so it semeþ, ffor whanne his fader Amazias was deed, his sone Ozias was but sixtene ȝere olde whan he gan*. [began, Cx.] to reigne. [℞.]*. [From Cx.] Þese*. [þeos, γ.] þrittene ȝere in þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] me seiþ þat þe kyngdom of Iuda was wiþ oute kyng, som stories acounteþ hem [nouȝt, oþer acounteþ hem]*. [From α. and Cx.] among þe nyne and twenty ȝere of Amazias þe kyng, elles nouȝt schal so*. [be is repeated in MS. by an error of the scribe.] many ȝeres be founde þere as Eutropius acounteþ from the fyue and twenty ȝere of kyng Latyn, in þe whiche ȝere Troye was destroyed, anon to*. [unto, Cx.] þe buldynge of Rome, þat was in al foure hondred ȝere and two and þritty. Ieroboam, Ioaz his sone, regnede in Israel oon and fourty ȝere. Þe þritten þe kyng of Latyns, Euen|tinus Siluius, regnede among þe Latyns foure and þritty ȝere. Ozias þat heet Azarias,*. [Aȝrias, γ.] Amazias his sone, regnede in Iuda two and fifty ȝere. Þis kyng louede wel erþe telynge;*. [tillyng, Cx.; teliynge, β.] also þis kyng wolde haue i-take vppon hym and entermeted of þe office*. [offys, γ.]Page  33, vol.3 of preost, and was i-smete wiþ [lepre or]*. [Cx.] meselrie; and half a grete hille*. [hul, γ.] to-cleef, and fil*. [ful apon, γ.] vppon his gardyns. Arbaces oþer Arbactus,*. [otherwise called Arbactus, Cx.] þe firste kyng of Medes, slowȝ Sardanapallus þe laste kyng of Assiries, and regnede among þe Medes nyne and twenty ȝere, and þo faillede þe hool kyngdom of Assiries*. [Assires, γ., passim.] þat hadde i-stonde*. [continued, Cx.] from Belus and Ninus to þe laste Sarda|napallus, a þowsand ȝere and foure hondred. Noþeles after Sardanapallus were myȝty kynges*. [kyngis, β.; the usual plural ending in this MS.] in Assiria anon to*. [unto, Cx.] þe destroyenge*. [distriynge, β., the usual form.] of Nynyue, þouȝ þey were nouȝt*. [þey a were noȝt, γ.] ful and hool kynges. Henricus,*. [Trogus, Cx. and γ. correctly.]libro primo. Þis Sardanapallus was a man more wrecche þan eny womman; his steward*. [styward, γ.] Arbaces fond hym spynnynge reed selk at þe*. [on a, Cx.] distaf in wommen cloþinge among a*. [Om. α.] companye of hoores*. [comyn wymmen, Cx.] forto fonge*. [receyue, Cx.] som of þe hire. Þerfore Arbaces took greet indignacioun, and exci|tede his knyȝtes aȝenst þe kyng in conspiracie, and at*. [atte, Cx.] þe laste þe kyng was ouercome, and wente in to his real place,*. [plas, γ.] and Page  35, vol.3 brend hym self wiþ myche*. [gret, γ.] richesse. ℞. Commentator primo Ethimologia 4to,*. [c. 14., Cx.] 41o, seiþ*. [sayde, Cx.] þat oon wroot vppon Sardanapallus his*. [Wanting in Cx.] tombe in þis manere: "So moche I*. [ych, γ.] hadde as I*. [ych, γ.] ete and drank;" and Seint Austyn de Ciuitate, libro 2o, capitulo 17o, meneþ*. [understandeth, Cx.] þat Sardanapallus hym self*. [sylf, γ., passim.] whyle he was on lyue*. [whiles he liued, Cx.] ordeyned þat þat schulde be i-write*. [that to be writen, Cx.; þat þat hyt scholde, γ.] on his tombe whan he*. [α, γ.] were deed; ffor it was þe manere þat tyme þat kynges or|deyned þe writinge þat schulde be i-wrete on his*. [here, α., Cx., and γ.] tombe after hir deth. Þe fourtenþe kyng of Latyns, Procas Siluius, regnede among þe Latyns two and twenty ȝere. Þat tyme Fydon fond vp and ȝaf þe Argiues mesures and wiȝtes. Tro|gus, libro primo.*. [tercio, Cx. correctly.] Ligurgus, kynge of Lacedemonies, ȝaf lawe to his peple: þe tenor of þis*. [his, Cx.] lawes was suche:*. [is thus, Cx.] þe peple is enformed to be boxom to þe princes, and þe princes to doo þe peple riȝt and resoun; he techeþ alle men to be skilfulliche*. [skylfolych, γ.] scars,*. [scars, α.; scars or mesurable, Cx.] þat þe trauaille of knyȝthode be nouȝt destroyed by greet wastynge and spendynge; alle þat schal be bouȝt and solde [shal be bought and sold]*. [In Cx. and γ.] nouȝt for money but for chaungenge of marchauntdise; he dede*. [dyde, Cx.] awey vse of money as it*. [hyt, γ.] were mater of vice and*. [or, Cx.] of synne; he departed þe go|uernance*. [gouernours, γ.]Page  37, vol.3 of þe comunalte by grees,*. [comonte by degrees, Cx.; com|nete, γ.] and ȝaf kynges*. [kynges knyghtes, Cx] power of bataille, and to Iuges power of doomes, and to þe senatoures kepynge and meyntenynge of þe lawes; and he ȝaf þe peple power forto chese iuges,*. [jugges, et semper, Cx.] whom he*. [they, Cx.; α, γ.] wolde; þe londe and ground he deled euene amonge alle*. [al, γ.] men, þat euenesse of heritage*. [egalyte of enherytaunce, Cx.] and of londes schulde make hem alle i-liche*. [lyke, Cx.; ylych, γ.] myȝty and strong. Here [take hede]*. [take hede] om. α., Cx., and γ.] ȝongelynges schulde holde hem apaied al þe ȝere wiþ oo*. [one, Cx.] clooþ, he suffred no man to be gayer þan oþere, ne no man to fare bettre þan oþer of mete noþer*. [ne, Cx.] of drynk;*. [dryngke, γ.] he hiȝte*. [bade, Cx.] þat children*. [childer, Cx.] of fourtene ȝere olde*. [Cx. omits olde.] schulde not vse hem in chepynge*. [y-chepynge, α.] noþer in feyres, but in feldes forto*. [unto, Cx.] þat þey*. [hy, γ.] come to manis age: no þing schulde be sprad vnder hem whan þey schulde slepe; þey schulde lyue*. [lybbe, γ.] wiþ oute likynge*. [delicious, Cx.] mete; maydens schulde be wedded wiþ oute dowynge*. [endowing, Cx.; dowyngge, γ.] and ȝiftes, forto constreyne wedlok þe fastere, whanne no weddynge were i-bounde wiþ brydeles of dowynge.*. [endowing, Cx.; dowyngge, γ.] He or|deyned þat olde men schulde be more i-worschipped þan riche; he ordeyned no þing to be holde*. [holden, Cx.] of oþer men but as he*. [they, Cx.] wolde holde it hym*. [hem, Cx.] self. And for þis*. [his, α. and γ.] citee, þat was out of good [rule and out of good]*. [α., Cx., and γ.] lyuynge, schulde þe raþer come to rule and fonge*. [receyue, Cx.; fange, γ.] þe lawe, he feyned þat Appolyn was Page  39, vol.3 fyndere of þis lawe. And for he wolde þat þis lawe schulde laste euermore, he bonde*. [a boond, γ.] þe peple wiþ oþ,*. [by oth, Cx.] and made hem swere*. [swerye, γ.] þat þey*. [not to, Cx.] schulde [not]*. [Supplied from α. and Cx.] chaunge of þis lawe or*. [til, Cx.; ar, γ.] he come aȝen, and feyned hym as*. [that he, Cx.] þey he wolde goo to Appolyns Delphicus and axe counseille of hym ȝif out*. [yf ought, Cx.] schulde be wiþdrawe of þis lawe or put*. [pot, γ.] out*. [ouȝt, α. and γ.] more*. [or made moore, Cx.] þerto. Noþeles he wente into Creta þat ilond, and was þere to his lifes ende;*. [till he dyed, Cx.; eende, γ.] and whanne he schulde die he heet*. [bade, Cx.] þrowe his body into the see lest ȝif he were i-bore to Lacedemonia men*. [lest he were born to L. and the men, Cx.] þat were i-swore to his lawe wolde wene þat þey were discharged of oþer oþis.*. [here oþ, α.; their oth, Cx.] Cranius, þe firste kyng of Lacedemonia, regned þere eyȝte*. [echte, Cx.] and twenty ȝere. Eutropius, libro primo.*. [Gaufr., Cx. The reference to Eutropius is an error.] Cor|deilla, kyng Leyr*. [leyers, Cx.] his douȝter, after hir fader reignede in Britayne fyue ȝere; but at þe laste here sustres sones, Mor|gan and Cunedagius, [put hir in prison, and Cunedagius]*. [In Cx. and γ. This sentence in MS. is in part repeated by error of the scribe.] regnede in Britayne after Cordela þre and þritty ȝere. He Page  41, vol.3 slowȝ Morgan, þat was rebel aȝenst hem, in Glamorgan in Wales, and by cause of þat happe þat contray is ȝit*. [ȝut, γ.] i-cleped Morgans londes.*. [Morgan his lond, α.; is called Morgan's lande, Cx.] After Cunedagius regnede Riuallo; after hym Gurgustius Siluius; after hym Iago, after hym · Kyn|marchus;*. [Kymnarchus, Cx.] after hym Gorbodio. He hadde tweie sones, Fer|rex and Porrex, and*. [this, Cx.] Porrex for couetise of lordschipe slow his broþer. Þerfore hire moder was ful wrooþ, and fil*. [fylle, Cx.; ful, γ.] wiþ hir maydens vppon þe man sleer while he sleep,*. [slept, Cx.; a sleop, γ.] and hakked hym al to*. [hem all in, Cx.] gobettes. Afterward was discord in þe lond þat greued þe peple ful sore vnder fyue kynges anon to [þe]*. [Not in γ.] Molinicius*. [unto Molyuncius, Cx.] Donwallon his tyme. Þe fiftenþe*. [fifteþe, α.; fyftenth, Cx.] of Latyns Amilius, Procas his*. [Not in Cx.] ȝonger sone, regnede þre and fourty ȝere, but his ȝeres beeþ*. [be, Cx.; buþ, γ.] acounted wiþ his broþer Mimitor*. [Munitor, α.; Munitors, Cx.] his ȝeres. Mimitor, Procas his sone, was i-putte out of his kyngdom by his owne broþer Amulius, and lyuede in his owne feld afterward, and*. [and] from α. and Cx.; in, MS.] his douȝter Rea, þat heet also*. [otherwyse callyd, Cx.] Etilia, for sche*. [α, γ.] schulde haue no childe, was i-chose to be a mayde in þe temple of þe*. [þat, α.] goddes Vesta. And þe seuenþe ȝere of [here Page  43, vol.3 eme]*. [From α., β.; hir eme Amulius, Cx.; heore eme, γ.] Amusius sche*. [heo, γ.] bare tweie children at oon burþen,*. [at oo childyng, Cx.; o birþen, β.] Remus and Romulus, and lygh*. [and lygh] not in Cx.; lyȝ, α.] and seide þat god Mars hadde*. [gate hir, Cx.] i-brouȝt hir wiþ childe, and þerfore sche*. [α, γ.] was buryed quyk on lyue,*. [on lyve] not in Cx.] and þe children were i-leyde in a wode, and a wolfesse*. [wolvesse, α.; woluas, γ.] þat hadde i-lost hir whelpes fedde ofte þe children, and made hem ofte*. [ofte] om. Cx.] souke of here owne tetes.*. [tyttes, γ.] But Fastulus*. [Faustulus, Cx.] þe heerde*. [heorde, Cx.; heurde, γ.] aspied þis doynge, and toke awey þe children*. [childer, Cx., as always; chyl|dron, γ.] from þe wylde beest, and norsched*. [norysshed, Cx.] hem vp among his bestes wiþ mete of wode and of feeldes. Þanne whanne þe children come to age, and hadde witte and strengþe, þey*. [hy, γ.] saued wel*. [wel] not in Cx.] ofte þe bestes from wel*. [wel] not in Cx.] strong þeeues; but at þe laste þe þeoues took Remus and brouȝte hym to Mimytor,*. [Munitor, α, and Cx.] for he schulde punche*. [punsche, γ.] hym as a þeef*. [þeof, γ.] þat hadde i-stole his bestes. And whanne Mymitor took heede of þe schap of þe childe he auised*. [aduysed, Cx.] hym longe, and byþouȝt hym how his douȝter children were somtyme i-leide in þe wode; þan*. [Than in the, Cx.] þe mene tyme com Fastulus þe herde*. [heurd, γ.] and brouȝte wiþ hym Romulus. Þanne afterward*. [after, Cx.] whanne Mimytor*. [Mimitor, α.] knewe þat þe children were his douȝter sones, he and þe children caste forto*. [entended to, Cx.] slee Page  45, vol.3 [his broder]*. [In Cx.] Amilius. Eutropius. Fastulus, þe heerde þat kepte þe kynges bestes, fonde tweie litel breþeren i-leide by þe brynke of þe ryuer of*. [of] not in Cx.] Tyber, and brouȝt hem to his wif, þat heet Acta Laurencia, and for hir fairenesse and couetise of hoor|dom*. [concupysence of her disordinate lust, Cx.] sche*. [α, β. and γ.] was i-cleped Lupa in*. [α, γ.] Latyn, þat is a wolfesse*. [woluas, γ., always.] in Englische, and þerfore ȝit þe hoore hous*. [hows of comyn women, Cx.] beeþ i-cleped Lupanaria in Latyn. These children, Remus and Romulus, worþ*. [waxede, Cx.] strong, and gadrede to hem many herdes of þeoues,*. [and þeoves, α. and Cx. Oues, MS.] and slowȝ Amilius vppon þe ryuer Alba, and restored hire grauntsire Mimitor to his kyngdom aȝen. Martinus. Noþeles wheþer þat woman*. [woman] from Cx.; MS. has wommen.] heet Lupa oþer no, þe olde writynge in marbil and in oþer stones at Rome scheweþ ȝit þat a wolfesse*. [woluas, γ., always.] fedde þe tweie breþeren wiþ her melk: a wolfesse*. [woluas, γ., always.] is Lupa in*. [α, β. and γ.] Latyn. Zacharias, Ieroboam his sone, regnede in Israel sixe monthes. Hym smote Cellum,*. [Sellum, Cx.] Iabes his sone, and regnede oon monthe.*. [oo moneth, Cx.]Petrus. By verray*. [ferrey, γ.] acountes oþer*. [veray acomptes owther, Cx.] þe kyngdom of Israel, after the deth of Iereboam, was þre and twenty ȝere wiþ oute kyng, oþer þis Zacharias bygan to reigne Page  47, vol.3 þe fiftene*. [fiftenþe, α.] ȝere of Ozias, and so regnede al þilke*. [þulke, γ.] þre and twenty ȝere þat beeþ nouȝt acounted to hym, for al þat tyme he lyuede a wicked lyf, and for he mendede hym and lyuede sixe monþes [good life, þerfore sixe monthes]*. [From α., Cx., and γ.] beeþ counted to hym in þe eiȝte and þritty ȝere of Ozias. Manaen, Gaddy his sone, regnede*. [regnede] from α. and Cx.; MS. has regne.] in Israel ten ȝere. Ocors ȝaf þe Egip|cians lawe: in his tyme a lamb*. [lomb, γ.] spak and tolde redy tales. Þe Lacedemonies arayed bataille aȝenst þe Mecenes, and at the laste were agreued by playntes of hire wifes ffor þey*. [α, γ.] were so longe from home, and ordeyned þat þe wommen þat were left at home*. [hoom, β.] eueriche schulde take meny men, for þey*. [hy, γ.] hopede in þat manere to haue þe strenger children. [℞.]*. [From α. and γ. A space is left in MS. for this ℞.] Loke more hereof in þe firste book, capitulo Grecia, scilicet Lace|demonia. In Corinthy were euery*. [euerych, γ.] ȝere ordeyned Iuges instede*. [instude, γ.] of kynges; þe firste Olimpias bygan [to reigne]*. [to reigne] not in Cx. or γ.] þat tyme, so seiþ Eusebius in his cronyke. Þis ȝere Phaceas,*. [Phaceas] from α. and γ. MS. has Pharoes.] Manaen his sone,*. [Phaceas, Manaens sonne, Cx.] bygan to reigne in Israel, and regned two ȝere.