Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum primum.

AFTER þat places and contrees beeþ [rekened and]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] dis|cryued of þe worlde wyde, þe ordre of þe tale of þe story axeþ þat berynge and dedes of þe worlde be also discreued. But ȝif*. [ȝif] om. Cx.; badly, not per|ceiving the extract from Trevisa to be parenthetical.] every þing is for somwhat and þat is more, (Trevisa. Here is*. [þis, α., Cx.] auctorite of philosophre, and*. [and] om. Cx.] is to mene þat al þing þat is resonabliche*. [resonable, Cx.] and kyndeliche i-ordeyned for anoþer þing as a mene forto come þerto [and forto]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] save it, is i-or|deyned for bettre þing and more noble þan is þat þing þat is i-ordeyned*. [so ordeyned, α.; so ordeyning, Cx.] þerfore: ensaumple,*. [ensaumple] om. Cx.] erynge and sowynge and dongynge of lond is ordeyned for to haue good corne, [and good corne]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] is better þan al þe oþer deel; also medecyne is i-ordeyned for hele, and hele is better þan þe medecyne; also Page  177, vol.2 mete and drynke and oþer þynges beeþ i-ordeyned*. [So Cx. (but with be for beeþ); þat beeþ so i-ordeyned, MS. and α.] for þe lyf, and þe lyf is better and more noble þan mete and drynke and alle oþere*. [þe oþere, α.] þinges þat beeþ so i-ordeyned for þe lyf.) ℞.—þanne, seþþe þat þe more worlde is i-made for þe lasse, as holy writte seiþ, "þe more schal serue þe lasse," and now þe more world is discreued in oure foure sawes in þe firste book, þan it is skilful somdel to descryue þe lasse world also from þe bygynnynge of his forme*. [forne, Cx.] dedes, þat*. [So Cx.; þan, MS.] hit myȝte be knowe what manere þing hit is and how grete, þat is so litel and dooþ so grete dedes in þe more worlde, þat is so grete and so huge. And also þe worchere and þe*. [þe] om. α.] makere of alle þinges þat haþ wiþ him schapliche resouns of al manere resouns and*. [and] om. α.; al maner thynges, Cx.] þinges, whanne he hadde i-made þe more worlde, þan he made þe lasse; and þey he made him lord of þe grete world, ȝit he prynted on hym þe likenesse of þe greet*. [So α. and Cx.; lasse, MS.] world. For a man and þe world beþ liche in þre þynges: in lengþe, in brede, and in dipnesse;*. [and in dipnesse] om. α.] in kyndely dispo|sicioun; and vertues worchynge.*. [Here ys þe proporcyon of mannys body. Note in MS.] And firste þeiȝ þe lengþe of a manis body, þat is from þe sole of þe foot to þe top of þe heed, be*. [So α; ben, MS.] suche sixe as þe brede, þat is from þe oon side of þe ribbes to þat oþer side, and ten so moche as þe depnesse þat is from þe rugge*. [rygge, α.; rigge, Cx.] to þe wombe; noþeles Plinius, libro 7o, capitulo 18o, seiþ þat as moche space as is bytwene cinit, Page  179, vol.2 þat is þe point þat is in þe welken*. [wolkyn, α.; firmament, Cx.] euen aȝenst hem*. [hym, Cx., more correctly.] in þe oþer side of þe erþe, so moche is out of þe est in to þe weste; and so hit is in þe body of a man þat as moche as is from þe sole of þe foot to þe top of þe hede,*. [heued, α.] so moche is bytwene his tweie lengest fyngres endes, and he strecche out his armes and hondes abrood. Also Plinius þere*. [the, Cx.] riȝt, capitulo 7o,*. [17, Cx.] seiþ þat þe stature and þe mesure of a childe whan he is þre ȝere olde is euen half mesure of*. [and, α., Cx.] his stature þat he schal haue whan he is of age, and he lyue*. [alyue, α.] so longe. Þe secounde as we seeþ in þe world so we seeþ in a man, þat þe membres and þe parties helpeþ and stondeþ euerich oþer in stede, and byneneþ*. [So α. and Cx.; bymeneþ, MS.] his woo. For þe ouer lymes gouerneþ and ȝeueþ; þe neþer lymmes bereþ and serueþ; þe myddel fongeþ and deleþ aboute to*. [about the, Cx.] oþer lymes. And in eiþer*. [the eyther, Cx.] world ȝif a lyme is oute of his owne place, and i-entred in to anoþer place þan his*. [in his, Cx.] owne, anon is grete distourbaunce i-made, as whan þe ayer*. [eyer, α.] is closed*. [enclosed, Cx.] wiþ ynne þe erþe, þan þe erþe schakeþ,*. [quaketh, Cx.] and whan with ynne þe cloudes þan is greet þondrynge; also in þe body of a man Page  181, vol.2 whan þe lymes beeþ awreiȝt*. [writhed, Cx.] out of her*. [here, α.] owne places, oþer ȝif þe humours beeþ apaired, þanne is ache, sicknesse, and sorwe. Also whan þe lymes beeþ wel arayed, and as they schulde be in schappe, colour and hewe, manere, quantite, and gretnesse and smalnesse, meuynge and place, þan haþ þe man good þees and quiete, and is in good heele and reste. Þe contrary falleþ,*. [So α. and Cx.; contray failleþ, MS.] and þe lemes*. [lymes, α.] be euel and nouȝt riȝtly [and richeliche]*. [Added from α. Not in Cx.] arrayed; þerfore Plato ȝaf his doom, and seide suche ordenaunce, disposicioun, and schap as a man haþ in his kyndeliche [membres and lymes, suche kyndeliche]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] maneres þey foloweþ in*. [and, α., Cx. The latter varies the sentence.] dedes. Also as it is in þe parties of þe grete world þat þey beeþ so i-ordeyned and i-sette þat þe ouermeste*. [highest, Cx.] of þe neþer kynde touche þe neþermeste*. [lowest, Cx.] of þe ouer*. [high, Cx.] kynde, as oistres and schelle fische, þat beeþ as it were lowest in bestene*. [beestes, Cx.] kynde, passeþ but litel þe perfeccioun of lyf of treen and of herbes, for þey mowe not meue hem but as culpes of þe see waggeþ wiþ þe water, elles þey cleueþ to þe erthe and mowe noþer [see]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] ne hire, ne taste, ne smelle, but onliche fele whan þey beeþ i-touched; and þe*. [at þe, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] laste [of]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þe erþe toucheþ þe lowest of þe water, and þe ouermeste*. [So Cx. (Words are repeated without sense in MS.)] of þe Page  183, vol.2 water toucheþ þe loweste of þe ayer, and so vpward by degrees anon to þe ouermeste hevene: also*. [So MS. α.β.γ.; but probably we should read so.] þe hiȝeste in bodiliche kynde, þat may skilfulliche be i-cleped manis body, kyndeliche and perfitliche disposed arecheþ to þe lowest of þe nexte ouer|kynde; þat is manis soule, þat holdeþ þe lowest degre of spiritis and of gostes þat haueþ knowleche and vnderstondinge, and þerfore he is i-cleped orisoun, as it were þe next marche in kynde bytwene bodily and goostly þinges. By þe soule me goþ vp from*. [and from, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] þe lowest kynde by degrees of knoweleche and of konnynge anon to þe ouermeste knowleche and vnderstondynge, and whan þe soule is al clene wiþ oute erþeliche likynge he recheþ oþerwhile to holy [spirites]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þat beeþ no þyng bodilich. Also man*. [So α. and Cx.; men, MS.] haþ somwhat comyn wiþ þynges þat beeþ parties of þe grete world. For Gregorie in an omelye seiþ þat man haþ beynge wiþ stones, lyuynge wiþ trees and herbes, felynge*. [So α. and Cx.; felynges, MS. (first hand.)] wiþ bestes, knowleche and vnderstondynge wiþ aungels. Also in manis body semeþ erþe in flesche and bones, water in blood and in oþer humours, ayer in þe longen,*. [lungen, α.] fuyre in þe herte; and hatte homo in Latyn and antropos*. [antrapos, α.] in Grewe, þat is as hit were a tree Page  185, vol.2 i-torned vp so doun, and haþ an heed*. [heued, α.] wiþ heer as it were*. [Several words are erronously re|peated in MS., but omitted in α. and Cx.] a roote, and haþ armes and þyghes as it were bowes. Touchynge þe þridde liknesse, þat is vertuous worchynge, we seeþ, as Gregory seiþ in an omelie of þe Aduent, þat þe world was at þe begynnynge þryuynge and strong for to brynge forþ children as it were in ȝowþe, and was ful of hele, and so fresche and grene, and by greet richesse it was fatte. But now it*. [he, α.] is abated, wiþelde, and ait*. [as hit, α., Cx.] were i-dryue toward þe deth wiþ ofte and meny diseses. So in a mannys ȝowþe þe body is þryuynge, þe brest is strong, the nolle is bolde, þe armes beeþ fulle. But in his elde þe stature boweþ and crokeþ and stoupeþ adoun, þe bolde nolle abateþ, þe brest is i-dryue ofte wiþ many sighes and soore, þe breþ schorteþ, in to alle*. [in al, Cx.] þe body myȝt and strengþe abateþ, and ȝif þey*. [and ȝif þeiȝ, α.; and though, Cx. Probably ȝif should be cancelled.] þere were noon oþer siknesse in olde men, for þe more deel hele is sikenesse. Also as we seeþ þat in þe more worlde beeþ tweie contrary meuynges; oon is kyndeliche, by þe whiche þe planetes and þe neyþer wolkons moeueþ out of þe west in to þe est; þat oþer is violent, by þe whiche þey beeþ i-rauisched aȝenward wiþ the meouynge*. [meuynge, α.] of þe ouermeste wolken out of þe est in to þe west: so it fareþ in a man þat the flesche Page  187, vol.2 coueyteþ aȝenst þe spirit, and þe spirit aȝenst þe flesche; for þe neþere knoweleches and wittes fiȝteþ aȝenst [þe]*. [Added from α.] resoun. And ȝit a man haþ comoun worchynge and suffrynge leche*. [soffrynge liche, α.] to many oþere parties of þe more*. [the body more, MS.] world; for he is slow and heuy as þe erþe, and fleteþ away as þe water, and wiþ|draweþ sodeynliche as þe ayer, and heteþ as þe fuyre, chaungeþ as the mone, fiȝteþ and sleeþ*. [So α. and Cx.; fleeþ, MS.] as Mars, coueyteþ as Mercurius, gooþ oute of kynde as Iupiter,*. [So α.; Jubiter, MS.] and is cruel as Saturnus. Also Plinius, libro 7o, capitulo 3o, seieþ þat as þe vtter parties of þe grete worlde welleþ and springeþ ful of myracles, won|dres, and meruailles, as in Ynde, in Ethiopia, Blomen*. [blew men, α.] londe, and in Affrica; so in mankynde, kynde haþ slilyche and craftiliche i-made wonderful werkes and merþe. For first in a mannys face þere*. [Perhaps we should read where. See p. 173.] beeþ ten lymes oþer fewe moo, þer*. [So Cx.; þat, MS.] is so grete diuersite, þat among meny þowsand men vnneþe is oon i-founde in face i-liche to anoþer. In Affrica beeþ meyneys*. [many, Cx.] þat haueþ wycchen*. [wicching, α.; wirchyng, Cx.] tonges, so þat þinges þat þey preiseþ þey schendeþ and sleeþ wiþ hire preisynge. So þat trees þat þey preiseþ waxen drie*. [So Cx. Various words erro|neously repeated in MS. (not α.)] and children Page  189, vol.2 deyetþ.*. [dreyeþ, α.] So in Triballis and in Illyricis*. [Trivallis and in Iliricis, MS.] beeþ men þat sleeþ wiþ hir siȝt what þey beholdeþ and lokeþ on longe, nameliche and þey be greued and wroþ while þey lokeþ so and by|holdeþ, and þese hauen*. [haueþ, α.] in eueriche yȝe*. [ye, α.] tweie blakkes. Also among vs, Varro seiþ, kynde haþ i-gendred and i|brouȝt forþ venym in som mennys eyȝen, so þat non euel is y-founde þat þere nys somwhat i-liche and i-founde in mankynde. So som parties of a manis body beeþ forseynge*. [forbuson, α.; forbyson, Cx.] and bodynge of wondres. So Pyrrhus,*. [Pirus or Pirrus, MS.] kyng of Epirotes, hadde a greet too in his riȝt foot, þe touchynge of þat too was a good medicyne aȝenst venym; and þat too myȝte noȝt be brent [wiþ þe oþer body]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] whan þe oþer bodyes was i-brent,*. [whan the other partyes of his bodye was (sic) brente, Cx.] so auctors telleþ. Also Plinius, libro 7o, capitulo 17o,*. [27, Cx.] seiþ þat som men beeþ i-gete and i-bore wiþ gendrynge stones cleuynge to gidres as it were al oon; som beeþ i-bore wiþ oon boon al*. [al hool, Cx.] in stede of teeþ, and þat boon is hardere and scharpere þan any mannys tooþ. So Prusy, kyng of Bithynia, hade a sone þat hadde a bone in his mouþ instede of his ouer*. [oþere, α., Cx.] teeþ, oon bone al hool, and þat boon was so harde, þat whan þe oþer deel of þe body was i-brend þat bone myȝte nouȝt brenne also. Ibidem, capi|tulo 18o. Som men lyueþ þat*. [and, α., Cx.] eueriche of hem haþ þe bones of his body cleuynge to gidres as hit were al oon boon, al hool and wiþ oute marwe;*. [marouȝ, α.; mary, Cx.] þese men been neuere aferst,*. [So also α.; a thirst, Cx.] also þey sweteþ neuere more. Trevisa. Som men telleþ þat som man Page  191, vol.2 in Irlond haþ oon boon al hool in oon side instede of all his ribbes; and Thomas*. [Thomme, α.; Tom, Cx.] Hayward of Berkeley haþ in þe molde of his heed, pol and forheed, but oon boon al hool; þerfore he may wel suffre grete strokes aboue on his heued,*. [heed without hurt, Cx. (omitting the rest of the sentence.)] and busche aȝenst men and horshedes, and breke strong dores wiþ his heed, and hit*. [hit] om. α.] greueþ hym nouȝt. Also Plinius, libro 7o, capi|tulo 21o, seiþ þat som men hadde in to alle þe body senewes, even i-streiȝt,*. [i-straut, α.; strayght, Cx.] þwart ouer in*. [and, α., Cx.] a crosse wise, and passynge wonderful in strengþe. Som mowe dure to renne wiþ out [werinesse; som be passyng clere of sighte, as a knyghte þat highte Strabo stode in]*. [Added from Cx.] a weytes place, and sigh þe navey of schippes*. [nauyes and shippes, Cx.] of Puni þat were from hem*. [him, Cx.] an hondred and fyue and þritty myle.*. [myles, Cx.]Also Plinius, libro xi., capitulo 44o, seiþ þat Tiberius Cesar sigh more clereliche in derkenesse þan in liȝt, so þat whan he were awaked anyȝt*. [waked in the nyght, Cx.] he myȝt see*. [So Cx.; i-see, MS.] al þing cleerliche aboute hym. Also Plinus, libro 7o, capitulo 27o. Som were wonder myȝty of mynde, as Cyrus kyng of Pers, that to al þe kynȝtes of his oost ȝaf certayne names. And Seneca, libro primo declamationum, seiþ of hym self, þat he was so myȝty of mynde þat he rehersed two þowsand names arewe by herte in þe same ordre as þey were i-seide. And þat he rehersede mo þan two hondred vers þat oþer men hadde i-ȝeue,*. [yeuen, Cx.] and bygan Page  193, vol.2 at þe laste and rehersed anon to þe firste wiþ oute eny faile. Also he seiþ þere þat Cineas, Pyrrhus messanger*. [messager, α.] kyng of Epirotes, þis Cineas þe secounde [day]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þat he come to Rome, he saluted*. [salewed, Cx.] and grette þe senatoures, and spak to eueriche of þe peple þat come aboute hym by his owne name. Anoþer seide þat Cineas hadde*. [hadde made, Cx.] a grete makynge of poyesie, for he rehersed hit at þe firste bygynnynge*. [atte firste herynge, Cx.] more swiftly þan he þat hadde i-made it. Also Plinius, libro 7o, capitulo 21o,*. [27, α., Cx.] seiþ som were more noble and wys of witte, as Iulius Cesar, þat was i-woned to rede and write what me*. [men, Cx. (and so generally.)] seide wiþ good avise|ment al at ones. Also he vsed to write quayers, and endite letters and pisteles al at ones. Also Plinius, libro 7o, capi|tulo 18o, seiþ þat som men haueþ more strengþe in þe riȝt side, and som haueþ more in þe lift*. [left, α.] side, and some beeþ i-liche strong in eiþer side.*. [So α. and Cx. Some words are repeated in MS.] Also men beeþ heuyer þan wommen, and dede men*. [mennes, Cx. (with other slight variations above and below.)] bodyes heuyer þan quykke, and sleping þan wakynge heuyer also. Of dede men kareyns renneþ foule moistures and humours, and þey ligge vpriȝt; and of dede wommen kareyns and þey ligge neuelynge and dounriȝt,*. [þis ys a merveyle. Note in MS.] as þey kynde spared schame. Also libro 7o, capitulo 17o, we redeþ þat oo man lowh*. [louȝ, α.] þat day þat he was i-bore, and Page  195, vol.2 putte awey a manis hond þat groped and handeled hym. Also, Capitulo 20o. Men*. [Me, α., and also Cx. (contrary to his custom.)] spekeþ of som men þat neuere lowh, of som þat wepe neuere, of som þat spat*. [spytte, Cx., and so below.] neuere, of somme þat bolked*. [balked, Cx.] neuere. Trevisa. Rogge*. [Rogger, Cx. (not α.)] Bagge was a ful old man at Wotton vnder hegge, in Glowcetre schire, he spat neuere, he kowhed*. [coughed, α., Cx.] neuere. Also Seneca, ubi prius, capitulo 4o. And as hit is among oþer*. [oþere, α.] bestes, so hit is in mankynde þat somtyme oon of mankynde is boþe man and woman, and such oon is i-cleped hermofrodita, and was somtyme i-cleped androgumus,*. [androgimus, α. Both in Trevisa and in the Harl. translation we should read androgynous.] and acounted among meruayles and wondres; but now among us it is deynte, for it is seelde i-seye. Also we haueþ i-seie and i-herde þat some haueþ i-chaunged*. [chaunge wonderly, Cx.] hir schaþ; for we sighe in Affrica a mayde þe same day þat sche scholde haue be i-wedded, i-chaunged and i-torned into a man, and was i-berded anon, and anoon hadde alle lymes as a man schulde haue, and wedded a wyf with inne a schort tyme after. Also Seynte Austyn de civitate Dei, libro 3o, capitulo 29o, toucheþ þat A. Gellius*. [Agellius, MS., α., and Harl. MS.] [libro] Atticarum*. [atticaruco, MS., α., and Cx. (not Harl. MS.) Several proper names have been tacitly corrected throughout the chapter.] noctium seiþ þat wommen beeþ somtyme i-torned into men: hit is no made*. [magel, Cx.] tale, but hit is sooþ as þe lettre is i-write; Page  197, vol.2 þerfore A. Gellius seiþ, þat in a citee þat het Smyrna he seih*. [syȝe, α.; sawe, Cx. (and so usually.)] a maide i-torned in to a stoon*. [a man, α., Cx.] þe same day þat sche schulde haue be wedded. Also suche oon was i-brouȝt to Rome to þe senatoures in þe tyme of Licinius*. [Lasciuius, MSS.] and Cassius Lon|ginus, consulus*. [consuls, ., Cx.] of Rome, and by heste of dyuynours þat toke hede of þe*. [þe] om. α., Cx.] weder and of chitterynge of briddes it was i-bore into a wild ilond. Also Titus Liuius spekeþ of hennes þat were i-torned into cokkes And Auicenna, libro 8o de animalibus, spekeþ of an hen þat hadde ouercome a cok in fiȝtinge, and after þe fiȝtynge and þe victorie, he*. [she, Cx.] rered vp the tayle as a cok, and had anon i-growe*. [i-crowe, α.] a spore on þe leg and a crest on þe heed as it were a cok. Also capitulo 50o. Trogus seiþ in Egipt beeþ seven children i-boren*. [i-bore, α.; born, Cx. (The latter varies the sentence.)] at oon berþen; but ȝif tweie twynnes beeþ i-bore, it is wel seelde*. [selde, α.] þat þe moder and þe firste childe lyveþ longe after þe burþe, and nameliche ȝif þat oon is a knaue childe and þe oþer a mayde childe. Also capitulo 12o. And somtyme a womman conceyueþ twey children and is but a litel tyme bytwene; and so þe children ben afterward i-bore oon after oþer, and beeþ perfit i-now, as hit was of Hercules and his broþer Iphicles.*. [Hispicle, or Hispicles, MSS.; Hispycle, Cx.] And so it ferde*. [ferde or happend, Cx.] of þat woman þat bare Page  199, vol.2 tweie children oon liche to hire housbonde, and þe oþere to þe copenere,*. [compyner, Cx. (who has other slight variations.)] and of þat woman þat in þe seuenþe monþe aftir hir birþe in þe secounde monþe after sche bare tweie children. Som wommen bereþ alwey mayde children, and some alway knaue children, and som alway chaungeþ and bereþ somtyme a mayde*. [mayden, α.] childe [and]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] somtyme a knaue childe. Som beeþ bareyn and conceyueþ neuere of no man, and som conceyueþ [of som men]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] and [of]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] som men conceyueþ nouȝt. Also, capitulo 13o. Som bereþ children liche to [hem self and some liche to þe fader, and som liche to no man. Some bereþ douȝters liche to þe fader*. [fadris, β.] and sones*. [So β.; some α.] liche to hemself. Some bereþ children liche to]*. [Added from α., which is partly corrected from β. and Cx.] some of*. [some of] om. β.] hire forfadres. Ensample is of*. [of] om. α. and Cx.] Niceus þe*. [þe] So α. β. and Cx.; for, MS.] noble peyntour at Byzantium, þat was i-bore of a faire moder and wente out of kynde and hadde on honde [as]*. [Added from α and Cx.] a blew man. Hugo, capitulo malo. Me seiþ þat wommen kynde*. [So α.; womans kynde, Cx.; kyn|dynde, MS.] is suche þat þey*. [he, α.; she, Cx.] conceyueþ children i-liche to þinges þat þey seeþ i-peynt and i-schape; for þe worchynge of the soule while þe body is in getynge of a childe sendeþ inward liknes and schappes þat þey*. [he, α.; she, Cx.] seeþ wiþ oute, and rauischeþ þe ymages þerof as hit were to his disposicioun. And so þey useþ in Spayne for to brynge Page  201, vol.2 faire hors and gentil, and holdeþ hem to fore þe mares and in hir siȝt while þey conceyueþ. And þey vseþ also to paynte faire coloures*. [coluers, α., Cx., who adds or dowues.] in places þere*. [As in other places this word appears in the MSS. for where.] coluers beeþ i-woned to dwelle. And Quintilianus excuseþ and defendeþ a womman þat wsa accused of spousebreche for sche hadde i-bore a blew man, and he leggeþ*. [leieþ, α.; leyed, Cx. (with other slight variations.)] for hir þat suche an ymage was i-peynt in hir bed chambre whan sche conceyued þat childe. And Ypocras*. [As this form occurs in Chaucer it has been allowed to stand.] wroot of a woman þat schulde be dampned to þe deeþ, for sche*. [he, α.] hadde i-bore a faire childe þat was not liche hir self noþer to þe fader; but Ypocras made men assaie, and it was i-founde þat suche an ymage was i-peynt in þe fader and þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx. (which is better.)] moder bedchambre while þat childe was i-conceyued, and so þe moder was i-saued. Plinius, libro 7o, capitulo 13o. Þerfore in a man beeþ many dyuersitees, for swiftnes of þouȝtes and chaungynge of witte in þe concepcioun preentiþ*. [emprynteth, Cx.] in meny dyuers liknesse and schappes. In oþer bestes wit is as it were not chaungeable, þerfore among hem al þe brood is liche*. [yliche, α.] to þe same kynde.