De Scotia. Capitulum tricesimum septimum.
Hit is comoun*. [a comyn, Cx.] sawe þat [þe]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] contray þat now hatte Scotlond is an out strecching, and is þe*. [and is þe] of the, Cx. (his own alteration.)] norþ partie of þe more Bretayne, and is departed in þe south side from Bretayne wiþ armes of þe see, and in þe oþer sides al aboute byclipped wiþ þe see. Þis lond heet somtyme Albania, and had*. [hath, Cx.] þat name of Albanactus, þat was kyng Brutis*. [Brutus, Cx.] sone, (for Albanactus woned first þerynne,) or of*. [So Cx.; þerof, MS. and α.] þe prouince Albania, þat is a contray of Scythia and nyȝ to Amazonia; þerfore Scottes beeþ i-cleped as it were Scites, for he*. [So MS. and α.; they, Cx. (in the same sense.)]Page 385, vol.1 com out of Scythia. Afterward þat lond heet*. [het, α. (twice.)] Pictauia; for þe Pictes reignede þerynne a þousand ȝere, þre score, and ten; oþer, as som men telleþ, a þowsand ȝere, þre hun|dred, and sixty; and at þe laste heet*. [het, α. (twice.)] Hibernia, as Irlond heet.*. [hatte, α.]Giraldus in Topographia.*. [So α. and Cx.; Beda, MS.] For meny skiles oon skile is for affinite and alye, þat was by twene hem and Irische men; for þey toke wyfes of Irlond, and þat is opounliche i-sene in her byleue, in cloþinges, in langage, in*. [and, α.] speche, in wepene, and in maneres. A noþer skile is for Irische men woned þere somtyme. Beda, libro primo. Out of Irlond, þat is þe propre contray of Scottes, come Irische men with here duk þat heet Reuda,*. [Renda, Cx. The MSS. both of the text and versions equally re|semble this reading; but Reuda is doubtless correct. See Bede, lib. l. c. l. and Smith's note.] and wiþ loue oþer wiþ strengþe made hem cheef cees and citees besides þe Pictes in þe norþside. Giraldus. Now þe lond is schortliche i-cleped Scotlond of Scottes, þat come out of Irlond and reignede þere inne þre hondred ȝere and fiftene anoon to Reed*. [the rede, Cx.] William his tyme, þat was Malcolms*. [Malcolins, MS.] broþer. ℞. Meny euidencis we haueþ þat þis Scotlond is ofte i-cleped and hatte Hibernia, riȝt as Irlond hatte. Þerfore*. [Sentence varied in Cx.] Beda, libro secundo, capitulo decimo, seiþ þat Laurence, Page 387, vol.1 archebisshop of Donbarre,*. [Dunbar, Cx. Trevisa should have written Canterbury.] was archebisshop of Scottes, þat woned in an ilond þat hatte Hibernia and is next to Bretayne. Also Beda, libro tertio, capitulo vicesimo sep|timo, seiþ: Pestilens of moreyn bare doun Hibernia; also, libro tertio, capitulo secundo, seiþ þat þe Scottes, þat wonede in þe souþ side of Hibernia. Also, libro quarto, capitulo tertio, he seiþ þat Chadde was a ȝongelyng, and lerned the rule of monkes in Hibernia. Also, libro quarto, capitulo vicesimo secundo, Egifridus,*. [Egfridus, Cx.] kyng of Northumberlond, de|stroyed Hibernia; also, libro quinto, capitulo quintodecimo: Þe moste deel of Scottes in Hibernia. And in þe same chapitre he clepeþ Hibernia propurliche i-nempned þat west ilond þat is an hundred myle from euery Britayne, and departed wiþ þe see bitwene; and clepeþ Hibernia þat con|tre, þat now hatte Scotlond. Þere he telleþ, þat Adamnan, abbot of þis ilond, seillede to Hibernia for to teche Irische men þe laweful Esterday, and at þe laste com hoom*. [hoom] om. Cx., with a few other trivial variations.] aȝen in to Scotlond. Isidorus, Ethym., libro quartodecimo. Men of þis Scotlond hatte Scottes in hir owne langage, and Pictes also; for somtyme here body was i-peynt in þis manere. Þey wolde somtyme wiþ scharpe egged tool picche*. [prycke, Cx.] and kerue here owne bodies, and make þeron dyuers figures and schappes, and peynte hym*. [or, Cx.] wiþ ynke oþer wiþ oþir peynture and*. [hem, α.] colour. And for*. [for] by cause, Cx.] þey were so i-peynt, þey were i|cleped Picti, þat is i-peynt. Herodotus.*. [Giraldus, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] Scottes beeþ lyȝt of herte, strange and wylde*. [So Cx.; mylde, MS., α.] i-now, but by mellynge*. [medlynge, Cx.] of Page 389, vol.1 Englisch men þey beeþ moche amended; þey beeþ cruel vppon hir enemyes, and hateþ bondage most of eny þing, and holdeþ a foule slewþe,*. [sleuþe, α.; slouthe, Cx.] ȝif a man deieþ in his bed; and grete worschepe, ȝif he deie*. [deieþ, α.] in þe feeld. Þey beeþ litel of mete, and mowe faste longe, and eteþ wel seelde while*. [whan, Cx.] þe sonne is vppe, and eteþ flesche, fysshe,*. [fysshe] Added from Cx.] mylk, and fruyt more þan brede. And þey [he] be*. [þeiȝ he be, α.; though they, Cx. þey be, MS.] faire of schap, þey beeþ defouled and i-made vnsemelich i-now wiþ here owne cloþinge. Þey*. [þe, α.] preiseþ faste þe vsage of þeyre*. [here, α.] owne forme fadres*. [for faders, Cx. (as usual.)] and despiseþ oþer mens*. [So α.; men, MS.; mennes, Cx.] doynge. Here lond is fruytful i-now in pasture, gardynes, and feeldes. Gi|raldus, dist. prima,*. [De p., MS.; de p., Cx.; Harl. MS.]capitulo octavodecimo. Þe princes of Scottes, as þe kynges of Spayne, beeþ nouȝt i-woned to be annoynt noþer*. [enioynted (sic) nother, Cx.] i-crowned. In þis Scotlond is so|lempne and grete mynde of Seynt Andrew þe apostel; for Seint Andrewe hadde þe norþ contrayes of þe worlde, Scites and Pictes, to his lot, for to preche and conuerte þe peple to Cristes byleue; and was at þe laste i-martired in Achaie*. [Achaia, α., Cx.] in Grecia in a citee þat hatte Patras, and his bones were i-kept two hondred ȝere, þre skore, and twelue Page 391, vol.1 anon to þe Grete Constantinus tyme*. [vnto Constantinus themperours tyme, Cx.] and þan þey were translated in to Constantinople,*. [Constantyne noble, MS., α.; Con|stantinoble, Cx.] and i-kepte [there]*. [Added from Cx.] an hon|dred ȝere and ten anon to Theodosius þe emperours tyme. Þanne Vngust, kyng of Pictes, in Scotlond, destroyed a greet partie of Britayne, and was*. [wast, α.] bysette wiþ a grete oost of Bretouns in a felde þat hatte Merk, and herde Seynt Andrew speke to hym in þis manere: "Vngus, Vngus, here þou me Cristes apostle, I behote*. [promise, Cx.] þe help and socour; whan þou hast ouercome þyn enemyes by myn help, þow schalt ȝeue þe þridde dele of þyn heritage in*. [So α. and Cx.; I, MS.] almes to God Almyȝhty and in worschippe of Seint Andrew." And þe signe of þe crosse*. [croys, α.] wente to fore his oost, and þe þridde day he hadde þe victorie, and so torned home aȝen and deled his heritage as he was i-hote.*. [boden, Cx., who has also some slight variations.] And, for he was vncerteyn what citee he schulde dele for Seynt Andrewe; he fasted þre dayes boþe he and al*. [al] om. α.] his Page 393, vol.1 meyny,*. [meyny] om. α.; he and his men, Cx.] and prayed*. [Seynt added in α.] Andrewe þat he wolde schewe what place he wolde chese. And, loo,*. [loo] om. Cx.] oon of þe wardeynes þat kepte þe body of Seint Andrewe in Constantinople*. [Constantyn noble, MS. and α.; Constantynoble, Cx., and similarly below.] was i-warned in his sweuene,*. [swefene, α.] þat he schulde wende out of þat lond in to a stede whider an aungel hym wolde lede, and by suche ledynge*. [that he shold go in to a place whyder an angle (sic) wolde lede him, and so he cam, &c., Cx. A fair spe|cimen of his free handling of the text, which makes a minute colla|tion almost impossible.] he com in to Scotlond wiþ seuene felawes to þe cop*. [So MS., apparently; but c and t can hardly be distinguished. toppe, Cx. Both forms are good.] of þe hille þat hat Ragmund.*. [So α. and Cx.; Ragmud, MS.] Þe same oure liȝt of heuene byschon and byclipped þe kyng of Pictes, þat was comyng wiþ his oost to a place þat hatte Carcenan. Þere were anon i-heled meny seke men; þere mette wiþ the kyng Regulus þe monk of Constantinople wiþ þe relikes of Seynt Andrewe. [There is founded a chirche in worship of Seynt Andrew,]*. [Added from Cx. Absent also from α.] þat is hede of alle chirches in þe lond of Pictes, þat is Scotlond. To þis chirche comeþ pilgrymes oute of alle londes; þere was Regulus first abbot, and gadered monkes. And so al þe Page 395, vol.1 teþe*. [tienthe, Cx.] londe, þat þe kyng hadde assigned him,*. [So α.; hem, MS.] he departed in dyuers places among abbayes.