Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

De incolarum moribus. Capitulum tricesimum quartum.

SOLINUS seiþ þat men of þis lond beeþ straunge*. [So α. and Cx.; strong, MS.] of nacioun, housles, and grete fiȝteres, and acounteþ riȝt and Page  353, vol.1 wrong al for oon,*. [one thyng, Cx.] and beeþ sengle of cloþinge, scarse of mete, cruel of herte, and angry of speche, and drinkeþ firste blood of dede men þat beeþ i-slawe, and þan wassheþ here face*. [theyr vysages, Cx.] þerwiþ; and holdeþ hem apayde*. [paid, Cx.] wiþ flesshe and fruit instede of mete, and wiþ mylk instede of drynke, and vseþ moche playes*. [pleyng, Cx.] and hydelnesse and huntynge, and trauailleþ ful litel.*. [lyte, α.] In hir child hode þey beeþ harde i|norisched and hard i-fed, and þey beeþ vnsemeliche of maneres and of cloþyng, and haueþ breche and hosen al oon*. [hon, α.] of wolle, and straiȝt*. [strait, α.; strayt, Cx.] hodes þat streccheþ a cubite ouer þe schuldres by hynde, and blak faldynges*. [and foldynges, Cx.] instede of mantels and of clokes. Also sadeles, bootes, [and]*. [Added from α.] spores þey vseþ none, whan þey rideþ; but þey dryueþ hir hors wiþ a chambre ȝerde*. [chambred yerd, Cx., who trans|poses some previous words.] in þe ouer ende instede of barnacles*. [barnacles] byttes with trenches, Cx., who has brydles for britels.] and of britels of reest; and vseþ bridels*. [briderls, α.] þat letteþ nouȝt here hors of here*. [to ete theyr, Cx.] mete. Þey fiȝteþ*. [fiteþ, α.] vnarmed, naked in body; neuerþeles wiþ tweie dartes and speres and wiþ brode sparthes.*. [So α. and Cx.; sparthus, MS.] Þey fiȝteþ wiþ oon hond;*. [Cx. omits to at hond.] and whan oþer wepene failleþ, þey haueþ good publestones redy at hond. Þese men forsakeþ tilienge of lond and kepeþ pas|ture for beestes: þey vseþ longe berdes and longe lokkes Page  355, vol.1 hongynge doun by hynde hir nolles.*. [hedes, Cx.] Þey vse*. [vseþ, α.] no craft of flex and*. [of, α., Cx.] wolle, of metal, noþer of marchaundise; but ȝeueþ hem alle*. [alle] om. Cx.] to idelnesse and to sleuþe,*. [slouthe, Cx.] and counteþ*. [rekene, Cx.] reste for likyng and fredom for richesse. And þey Scot|lond þe douȝter of Irlond vse harpe, tymbre, and tabour, [and Wales useþ harpe and pipe and tabour],*. [Added from α. (not in Cx.)] neuerþeles Irische men beeþ connyng in tweie manere instrumentis*. [So α.; instrumentz, MS. (twice.)] of musyk, in harpe and tymbre þat is i-armed wiþ wire and wiþ strenges of bras. In þe whiche*. [in whiche, Cx., with other slight variations.] instrumentis,*. [So α.; instrumentz, MS. (twice.)] þey [þei]*. [though they, Cx.] pleye hastiliche and swiftliche, þey makeþ wel*. [right, Cx.] mery armonye*. [So Cx.; armenye, MS.] and melody wiþ wel þicke*. [with thyck, Cx.] tunes, werbeles, and nootes; and bygynneþ from bemol, and pleieþ priueliche vnder deepe*. [secretely vnder dymme, Cx.] soun of þe grete strenges and torneþ aȝen in to þe same, so þat þe grettest partie of þe craft hideþ þe craft; [as hit wolde seme as þei þe craft]*. [Added from α. and Cx. The latter slightly varies a few words in the previous sentence.] so i-hidde schulde be aschamed, and it were i-take. Þese men beeþ of yuel maneres and of leuynge; þey paieþ none teþinges,*. [tythes, Cx.; no teþinges, α.] þei weddeþ lawefulliche none wyfes, þey spareþ not her alies, bot þe broþer weddeþ his broþer*. [the broders, Cx.] wyf. Þey beeþ Page  357, vol.1 besy forto betraye hire neiȝbores and oþere. Þey beren sparthes in here hond instede of staues, and fiȝteþ þer|wiþ*. [þerwiþ] om. Cx.] aȝenst hem þat tristeþ*. [truste moost, Cx.] to hem beste; þe*. [þese, α., Cx;] men beeþ variable and vnstedefast, trecherous and gileful. Who þat deleþ wiþ hem nedeþ more to be war more of gile þan of craft, of pees þan of brennynge brondes, of hony þan of galle, of malice þan of knyȝthode. Þey haueþ suche maneres þat þei beeþ not stronge in werre and bataille, noþer trewe in pees. Þey bycomeþ [gossibs to hem]*. [Added from Cx. (not in α.)] þat þey wolleþ falseliche betraye in*. [in þe, α.] gosibrede and holy kynrede; eueriche drinkeþ oþeres blood, whan it is i-sched. He*. [So MS. and α.; they, Cx. (in the same sense.)] loueþ somdel her norice and here pleieng*. [pley feres, α., Cx.] feres whiche þat*. [So also α., and Cx.] soukeþ þe same melk þat þey soukeþ, while they beeþ*. [were, Cx.] children. And þey purseweþ here breþeren, her cosyns, and here oþer kyn; and despiseþ hir kyn, while þey beeþ on lyue,*. [alyue, α.; they lyue, Cx.] and awrekeþ*. [auenge, Cx.] her deeþ, and*. [whan, Cx. (so often).] þey beeþ i-slawe. Among hem longe vsage and euel custume haþ so longe i-dured,*. [Slightly varied in Cx.] þat it haþ i-made*. [qoten, Cx. adding ouer them.] þe maistrie, and torneþ among hemself*. [among hemself] om. Cx.] traisoun in to kynde so fer forthe, þat as*. [as and so, below, om. Cx.] þei be traytoures by kynde,*. [nature, Cx.] so aliens and men of straunge londes þat woneþ longe among hem draweþ aftir þe manere*. [maneres, α.] of hir companye, and skapeþ wel vnneþe*. [folowen their maners that vnnethe, Cx.] but þey be Page  359, vol.1 i-smotted*. [smytted, α.] wiþ þe schrewednesse and bycomeþ traytours*. [ther is none but he is besmitted with their treson also, Cx.] also. Among hem many men pisseþ sittynge and wommen stondynge. Þere beeþ meny men in þis*. [that, Cx.] lond wonder*. [om. Cx.] foule and yuel i-schape yn lymes and in body.*. [Slightly varied in Cx.] For in hir lymes lakkeþ*. [they lacke. Cx.] þe benefice of kynde, so þat nowher beeþ no*. [non, α.] better i-schape, þan þey þat beeþ þere wel i|schape; and nowher non worse i-schape þan þey þat beeþ þere euel i-schape. And skilfulliche kynde, i-hurt and de|fouled by wykkednesse of lyuynge, bryngeþ forþ suche foule gromes and euel i-schape of hem þat wiþ vnlaweful wed|dynge*. [delyng, Cx.] wiþ foule maneres and euel lyuynge so wickedliche defouleþ*. [So Cx.; and defouleþ, MS. and α. (without sense.)] kynde.*. [kynde and nature, Cx.] In þis lond and in Wales olde wyfes and wymmen were i-woned, and beeþ ȝit (as me pleyneþ)*. [So also α.; as men seyne, Cx.] ofte forto schape hem self in liknes of hares for to melke here neiȝhebores keen,*. [kyne, Cx.] and so*. [so] om. C.] stele hire melk, and ofte grehoundes*. [gerhoundes, Cx.] renneþ after hem and purseweþ hem, and weneþ þat þey be hares. Also som by craft of nygramauncie makeþ fat swyne [þat beeþ reed of colour,]*. [Altered from Cx., who has for to be reed, &c. Absent from α.] and noon oþer, and selleþ hem in chepinge*. [markettis, Cx.] and in feires; but anon as þese*. [the, Cx.]Page  361, vol.1 swyne passeþ ony water þey torneþ aȝen in to hir owne kynde, where*. [wheþer, α., Cx.] it be straw, hey, gras, oþer torues.*. [turues, Cx.] But þese swyn mowe not be i-kept by no manere*. [manere] om. Cx.] craft forto dure in liknesse of swyn*. [Four previous words om. in Cx.] ouer þre dayes. Among þese wondres and oþere take hede þat in þe vttermeste*. [otmeste, α.] endes of þe world falleþ ofte newe meruailles and wondres,*. [Slightly varied in Cx.] as þei kynde pleyde wiþ larger*. [So Cx., who has loue (typ. error?); large, MS. and α.] leue priueliche and fer in þe endes þan openliche and nyȝ in*. [in] om. Cx.] þe myddel. Þerfore in þis ilond beeþ meny grisliche meruayles and wondres.