Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

De Gallia sive Francia. Capitulum vicesimum septimum.

℞. Hit is i-write in stories þat Gallia, þat*. [þat] Added from α.; which, Cx.] is Francia, haþ þat name Gallia of whitenes of þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] peple. Gala is Grew,*. [a worde in Grewe, and is lac, Cx.]lac in Latyn, mylk*. [and mylke, Cx.] in Englissh. Þerfore Sibylla clepeþ hem Gallos, þat is, white, and seiþ "Þan*. [that, Cx.] þe mylky nekkes beeþ i-wasche wiþ gold." Hugutio, cap. Gala. By þe dyuer|site of heuene is dyuersite of coloures of face, of quantite and gretnes of body, of maneres and of witt; þerfore in Rome beeþ heuy men, yn Grees lyȝt, in Affrica gileful, in Gallia witty men and wys. ℞. Here take hede, as Augus|tinus toucheþ, De Civitate Dei, libro [secundo, cap.]*. [The words in brackets added from Cx. This is the true reference, and the text agrees; the Harl. MS. is wrong.] quinto, þat Gally in oon manere speche were þe preostes, þat were Page  269, vol.1 in þe temple of þat goddes þat hiȝte Cybele,*. [Cibeles or Sibeles, MSS. and Cx.] and hadde the name*. [haue that name, Cx.] nouȝt of þat lond Gallia but of þat*. [the, Cx.] ryuer Gallus þat is in Phrygia.*. [Frigia, MSS. and Cx.] Alle þat drank of þat ryuer schulde worþe wood, and were alle i-gilded in mynde*. [their mynde, Cx.] of þat child Attis,*. [Athis, MSS. and Cx.] þat þilke goddes Cybele loued wiþ all her myȝt. Þe*. [That, Cx.] childe worþe*. [waxe, Cx.] wood, and gilded hymself, for fraude and gile þat he hadde i-doo to þat goddes Cybele, [so sayth]*. [Added from Cx.] Ovidius de Fastis. But of*. [þe] Added in α.] Galli þat beeþ Franci, and Frensche men, Eutropius, libro secundo, seiþ, Galli beeþ wel hasty, and here body passeþ þe comune sta|ture of oþer men. But it is i-founde by assay þat as*. [α. and Cx. add þe.] Galli beþ wel hasty þan strong in þe firste rees,*. [rese or brout, Cx.] soo afterward þey beeþ*. [they ben after fyghtyng, in Cx.] in fiȝtynge more feble þan wommen. For as þey beeþ liche Alpes in gretnes of body, so þey beeþ liche*. [be somwhat like, Cx. (and α.)] to the snowe þat lieþ vppon Alpes*. [the Alpes, Cx., and so below.] þat brekeþ out on sweet, and melteþ wiþ hete of fyȝtynge as snow dooþ wiþ hete of þe sonne. Girald., Dist. [i.], cap. septimo decimo. Þanne Gallia wiþ his parties al hole haþ in þe north side Germania, in þe est þe Ryne, in þe souþest*. [So α. and Cx.; south est, MS.] Alpes, in þe west þe see of*. [of] om. Cx.] occean þat hatte boþe Britannicus and Gallicus, þat is, Englisshe and Frensche,*. [So Cx.; Frensche in Englisshe, MS., α.] for it departeþ boþe Engelond and Fraunce, in þe souþ þe see of myddel erþe þat wascheþ aboute by þe Page  271, vol.1 prouynce of Narbon. In Iulius Cesar his tyme Gallia was departed on þre; but for dyuers happes þat byfel afterward in þat lond þe contray and lond þat streccheþ from þe Ryne to Seyne, from þe oon ryuer to þat oþer, hatte now Gallia Belgica, þat is verray Fraunce; and þat contray þat*. [þat] Added from Cx.] streccheþ from þens to þe ryuer of Leyre, hatte Gallia Lugdumensis. Þe ouer partie þerof hatte Burgundia, and þe neþere hatte Neustria; and þe contray þat streccheþ fram þe ryuer of Leyre to þe water þat hatte*. [þat hatte] of, α., Cx.] Garonna hatte Gallia Aquitanica, þat is Gyan, and streccheþ out of þe est from þe ryuer of Rone anon to þe West occean. Þe ouer party þerof hatte Celica,*. [Selica, α.] þat is, heuenliche and hiȝe, for hiȝe mountaignes þat beeþ þerynne. From þe ryuer of Garonna to þe see of myddel erþe and to þe mountaignes þat beeþ montes Pyrenei, greet hilles of Spayne, is i-cleped Gallia Narbonensis, and now som þerof hatte Gothia, and som Vasconia, þat is Gasquyne. And so Gallia al hool is i-closed aboute wiþ þre noble wateres, wiþ þe Reyne*. [Ryne, α.] in þe norþ side, wiþ þe Rone in þe est, and wiþ þe Bruttische*. [So also Cx. (Bruttysh.)] occean in þe west side. In Gallia beþ many good quarers and noble for to digge stoon;*. [digge yn stones, α., Cx.] and bysides Parys is greet plente of a manere stoon þat hatte gypsus, and is i-cleped white plaistre also; whan þat stoon is i-tempred wiþ water Page  273, vol.1 and torned to playstre.*. [into plaster, α., Cx.] Þanne me makeþ þerof ymages, walles and chambres, pamentes and dyuerse manere of*. [of] om. Cx.] workes, þat dureþ longe i-now. Þere is þe faire floure þe citee of Parys, norice*. [which is noryce, Cx.] of þewes, botiller of lettres, schy|nynge in Europa as Athene*. [Athenes, Cx.] somtyme in Grecia. Girald. Dist. prima. Þe Frensche men, þat hatte Franci also, and many oþer men þe strengest of Europa come of*. [α. and Cx. add þe.] Troians; ffor aftir þat Troye was i-take, Antenor wiþ his men fliȝ*. [fled, Cx.] awey by þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] watres þat hatte paludes Meotides, and by þe ryuer Tanais, and wonede in Pannonia, and bulde þere a citee, and cleped it Sicambria. Of þat citee he and alle hise were aftirward i-cleped Sicambri. After Antenore his deeþ þey ordeyned hem tweie lederes, Trogotus and Franco, and of þilke Franco þei were after i-cleped Franci. Turpinus, de gestis Karoli, seiþ þat whanne*. [So α.; what, MS. (first hand); altered to whan.] kyng Charles had i-made Spayne soget, and was i-come home to Parys aȝen, he made alle þe bonde men of Gallia fre*. [So α. and Cx.; fre before of Gallia in MS.] in worschippe of Seint Iame*. [Iames, Cx.] and of Seynt Denys; but þey schulde euery ȝere offre foure pans*. [panes, α.; pens, Cx.] to þe chirche work of Seynt Denys. And so þey were i-cleped Franci Page  275, vol.1 Beati*. [Sancti, Cx.] Dionysii, þat is Seint Denys his fre men. And so it come*. [cam, Cx.] aboute þat Gallia was i-cleped Francia, by cause of þat fredom. Oþer men telleþ þat Valentinianus*. [So Cx.—MS. and α. have his tyme also, after Val.; but this seems a mere clerical error. See below.] þe emperour cleped hem Francos as it were Ferancos, þat is steorne and wither, in þe langage of Attica, þat is Grecia. For Sicambri, þat beeþ Frensche men, were tri|butarii to Rome longe tyme to fore Valentinianus is tyme also. But whan Alani, men of Alania, were enemyes to Rome, Sicambri hadde hire tribute forȝeue for ten ȝere for to werre aȝenst Alani, men*. [ayenst the men, Cx.] of Alania; and whan þe ten ȝere were i-doo and Alani ouercome, þe Romaynes asked her tribute; and Sicambri werned it and wolde none paye. Þerfore Valentinianus þe emperour werred vppon hem wiþ a grete oost, and hadde þe victorie; þan for þat myshap Sicambry were wood wrooþ,*. [sore wroth, Cx.] and werred*. [warred, Cx.] in þe londes of Rome [and also on the londes that were subgett to Rome]*. [Words in brackets added from Cx.] also. Þerfore Sicambri were afterward i-cleped Franci, as it were feranci, þat is wither and sterne,*. [wiþer and steerne, α.] and of þat duke Franco þey were i-cleped Franci, as it were Franco his men. Also of hir fredom þat kyng Charles ȝaf hem þey beeþ i-cleped Franci, þat is fre men so*. [so] om. Cx.] for to mene. Treuisa. But how er þey come to þat name, Franci beeþ Frensche men, and hatte boþe Sicambri and Galli. And so Page  277, vol.1 it is alle oon peple, Sicambri, Galli, and*. [α. om. and.] Franci, and Frensche men. ℞.*. [℞.] Added from α. and Cx.] Franci made hem a kyng þat hiȝte*. [heet, α.] Fera|mundus, Marcomiris*. [Marcomirus his, α.; Marconurus, Cx.] sone, and made alle þe lond sogett, ffrom*. [ffram, α.] Sicambria anon to þe Ryne. Willielmus de Regibus, libro primo. Whan Feramundus was dede, þey made his sone kyng, þat hadde þre names, and heet Clodion, Clodius, and Crinitus; and of hym kynges of Fraunce were aftir|ward i-cleped Criniti.*. [Criniti] So α. and Cx.; Cirini Sirini, MS.] After Clodius þey made his sone kynge, þat hadde þre names,*. [Cx., β., γ. omit this clause, which seems repeated by a clerical error.] and hiȝte Meroueus; and after hym kynges of Fraunce were i-cleped Merouyngi anoon to Pypinus his tyme. In þe same manere kynges sones of Engelond hadde names i-schape by hir fader names and so*. [had names after the names of theyr fader, as, Cx.] Edgarus his sone hiȝte Edgaryngus,*. [So α. and Cx.; Edgaryndus, MS.] and Edmun|dus his sone heet Edmundyngus. Comounliche he þat comeþ of*. [of þe, α.] kynges blood is i-cleped Adelyngus. Girald., Dist. prima. After Meroueus regned his sone Childericus; hym folwede*. [cristned, Cx.] Remigius. Þis Childericus at þe prayere*. [atte prayere, Cx.] of þe Romayns put þat peple Gothi Arriani out of Gyan.*. [Guyan, Cx.] Whan he was dede his sone Childebertus helde þé kyng|dom wiþ his þre breþeren Theodoricus, Clodomirus,*. [Added from α. and Cx.] and Clo|tarius. Page  279, vol.1 Þis was in þe popes tyme þe Grete Gregory.*. [time of the grete pope Gregory, Cx.] Afte þis Childebertus*. [So α.; Chilbertus, MS.] regned his broþer Clotarius: he wedded Seynt Radagund. And after hym regned his sone, Childericus, wiþ his þre breþeren Carbertus, Gundianus, and Sigesbertus. After Childericus reigned his sone Clotarius: he bygat Dagobertus and his suster Batildys.*. [So Cx.; Batildus, MS., α.] Vnder þis Dagobertus Pypinus was þe grettest man of þe kynges hous; and þat was in Heraclius þe emperoures tyme.*. [in the tyme of Eraclius thempe|rour, Cx.] After Dagobertus regned his sone Clodoueus. In his tyme seynt Benet his body was translated and i-bore out of þe prouince Beneuentana in to Fraunce. After Clodoueus regned his sone Clotarius; after*. [and after, Cx.] hym his broþer Theodoricus. In his tyme Ebroynus,*. [Ebronius, α., Cx.] þat was þe grettest of þe kynges hous, pursuede Seint Leode|garius and dede hym moche woo and tene, and martired hym at þe laste.*. [atte laste, Cx.] After Theodoricus regned Clodouius; and after hym his ȝonge*. [ȝunger, α., Cx.] broþer Childebertus; [after him his ȝonger*. [yong, Cx.] sone Dagobertus;]*. [Words in brackets added from α. and Cx.] and after hym þe kynges lynage faillede. For after hym reigned his broþer Daniel, þat was a clerk. But Franci chaunged Daniel his name, and Page  281, vol.1 cleped hym*. [hym] om. α.] Childericus. After hym reigned oon of his kyn þat heet Theodoricus; and after hym his brother Hil|dericus. He was i-putte doun for grete nysete and i-made a clerk, and leued as a monk in an abbay; and þanne faillede þe lynage in men of Feramundus blood. But ȝit it laste*. [lasted, Cx.] and durede in a womman þat was Batildis, Dagober|tus his suster. In þis manere Batildis*. [Batildus, MS. (not Cx.)] was i-wedded to Ansebertus, and hadde by hym a sone þat heet Arnold. Þan þis Arnoldes sone heet Arnulphe.*. [Arnulphus, Cx. (thrice.)] Þat Arnulphe*. [Arnulphus, Cx. (thrice.)] wed|ded duke Pypinis douȝter. Pypinus was grettest of king*. [the grettest of the kyng, Cx.] Dagobertus his hous. Kyng Dagobertus was Batildis broþer. Þis Arnulph*. [Arnulphus, Cx. (thrice.)] was afterward i-made bisshop, Metensis epi|scopus.*. [episcopus] om. Cx.] Þan his sone Ansegesilus gat Pipinus, þat hadde tweie oþer names, Vetulus and Bremys.*. [Breuis, α. and Cx.]Willielmus*. [Willelmus, Cx., here and else|where.]de Re|gibus, libro primo. Þis Pypinus gat Charles þat heet Tutidis,*. [So α. and Cx.; Tutidus, MS. (not so below.)] [and Martellus also, and had þat name Tutidis]*. [Words in brackets added from α. and Cx.] of tu[n]dere, þat is bete and bounse.*. [beten and bounsed, Cx.] For he beet*. [he beet] abent, α.] out of Fraunce alle þe tyrauntes and Sarazynes*. [Sarzines, α.] þat werrede þerynne, and de|stourbed*. [destroubled, Cx.] þe lond and þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] peple. Þis Charles folwed þe Page  283, vol.1 sentens of his forme fadres,*. [forfaders, Cx.] and helde þe kynges of Fraunce in his retenue. And he hym self was i-cleped an erle, and hilde hym a payed*. [paid and content, Cx.] in*. [wiþ, α., Cx.] þat name. Giraldus. Þis Charles gatte þe secounde Pypinus*. [Pupinus, Cx. (but not uni|formly).] and Charles þe Grete þat was aftirwarde a monk. Þis secounde Pipinus was of þe kynges kynde: for he com of Batildis, þat we speke of raþere.*. [bifore, Cx.] And þerfore he was i-made kyng of Fraunce by assent of alle þe chyualrie and by auctorite of pope Steuene þat was next pope*. [pope neyt (for next), Cx.] after Zacharie. Þis Pipinus gat Charles þe Grete; þis Charles was i-made kyng after his fader*. [faders, Cx. (and so often.)] deeþ, þe ȝere of oure Lorde seuene hundred þre score and nyne. For his noble dedes þe Romayns chees*. [chose, Cx.] hym afterwardes for to be Seynt Petres aduokett,*. [aduocate, Cx.] aftirward patricius, and þan þe em|perour and Augustus. And from þat tyme þe empere of Constantinopolis*. [Constantinople, Cx.] tornede from the Romaynes to þe Frensche men; for þey wolde not*. [nouȝt, α. (not, Cx. uniformly.)] helpe þe chirche of Rome aȝen þe Longebardes þat werred aȝenst þe Romayns. Þis Charles gat Lewes,*. [Lowys, Cx. (and so below.)] þat was aftirward emperoure. Þis Lewis gat þe Balled Charles, þat was emperour also. Þe Balled Charles gat Lewes; Lewes gat Charles þe Sym|ple. Page  285, vol.1 Charles þe Simple gat Lewes;*. [Cx. omits both clauses relating to Charles the Simple.] Lewes gat Lotha|rius; Lotharius gat Lewes, þe laste kyng of þis lynage. Whan þis Lewes was dede, Franci took Huwe*. [Hugh, Cx.] duke of Burgoyne, and made hym here kyng. Þis Hewe gat Robert; Robert gat Henry;*. [Harry, Cx.] Henry gat Phelip; Philip gat Lewes. Lewes regnede in Henry Clerkes*. [clerk his, α.] tyme, þe Conquerours sone. Þe Grete Charles his*. [his] So α.; of, MS.] ospringe regnede in Fraunce anon to Hughe is tyme, þat hiȝt Capet by his surname. Of hym come oþer kynges of Fraunce, as it is wiþynne in his place openliche declared; kynges of his ofsprynge regned in Italia and in Almania anone to þe ȝere of oure Lord nyne hondred and twelue, whan Conradus,*. [So α. and Cx.; Contradus, MS.] kyng of Duches*. [Duche, Cx.] men, toke þe empere to hymself. ℞. Longe aftirward, as comyn*. [the comyn, Cx.] fame telleþ, a woman þat was quene of Fraunce by eritage wedded a bocher for his fairenesse; þerfore in þe repreef*. [reproof, Cx.] of þat dede Frensche men ordeyned among hemself þat no womman schulde aftirwarde be eyre of þe reigne*. [royame, Cx.] of Fraunce. Giraldus. Þe Romayns were som|tyme Page  287, vol.1 victours of alle þe worlde; but stalworþe men and wight,*. [wiȝt, α.] þat wonede in Fraunce, ouercome hem in many batailles; but at þe*. [Cx., as usual, omits þe.] laste in Gaius Iulius Cesar his tyme Gallia, þat is Fraunce, was i-made soget, and so occupied by Romaynes aboute a foure hondred ȝere anon to þe laste tyme of Valentinianus þe emperour, whan dyuers men of straunge londes werred in Gallia. For first Wandali and Huni, þanne Sweui and Burgundi, þat beeþ of Sweuia, a lond of Almania,*. [So α., Cx.; Alemanii, MS.] þat is*. [is] Added from Cx.] Almayne. Þanne Gothi and Si|cambri, þan Norþways*. [So α., Cx.; Norwaye, MS.] and Danes made hem*. [hem self, Cx., who omits cheef.] cheef citees in Gallia. In Gallia, þat is Fraunce, beeþ many prouinces and londes þat beeþ Braban, Flaundres, Pycardie, Nor|mandye, þe lasse Britayne, Peyto, Gyan, Angeoye, Gas|quyn,*. [Gascoign, Cx.] Burgoyne,*. [Burgun, α.] Salina, Prouincia, Campania þe lasse, þat is*. [is] Added from α.] Champayn. And Aluarn also is in Fraunce. Flan|dria, Page  289, vol.1 þat is Flaundres, a prouince of Gallia Belgica,*. [So α.; Bellica, MS.] and is vppon þe brynke*. [coste, Cx.] of þe see of occean, and haþ in þe north side Frisia, in þe est Germania, in þe souþe Pycardie, in þe west occean, in*. [α. and Cx. add and.] þe norþ a party of Engelond. And þeyȝ Flaundres be a litel lond, it is ful plentevous of meny profitable þinges, and*. [and] om. Cx.] of richesse of pasture, of bestes, of marchaundise, of ryueres, of hauenes of þe see, and of good townes. Þe men of Flaundres beeþ faire, stronge, and riche; and bringeþ forth meny children, and beeþ pesible*. [pesibel, α.] to hir neighebores, trewe*. [and trewe, α., Cx.] to straungeres, noble craftes*. [crafty men, Cx.] men, and greet makeres of cloþ þat þey sendeþ*. [whiche is sante, Cx.] aboute wel nyȝ al*. [in al, α. and Cx.] Europa. Þe lond is pleyne and skarse of wode; þerfore in stede of wode þey brenneþ torfes, þat smelleþ wors þan wode, and makeþ fouler askes.*. [asshes, Cx. (as usual.)] Braban is by south est Flaundres, and is plentevous of marchaundise and of*. [of] om. Cx.] makynge of clooth. For of wolle,*. [the wulle, Cx.] þat þey haueþ out of Engelond þey*. [þey] added from Cx. (they.)] makeþ clooþ of dyuers coloures and sendeþ in to oþere*. [So α. and Cx.; dyuers, MS.] prouinces and londes, as Flaundres dooþ. For þey Engelonde haue wolle at þe beste, he*. [it, Cx.; þei, α.] haþ nouȝt so grete plente of good water for dyuers coloures and hewes as Flaundres haþ and Braban. Neuerþeles at Londoun is oon welle þat helpeþ*. [So α. and Cx.; clepeþ, MS.] wel to make good scarlet, and so is at Lyncolne in*. [in] one, Cx.] certeyne place in þe brook þat Page  291, vol.1 passeþ by þe toun. Pycardie is a prouince of Gallia, and haþ þat name of þe toun þat hatte Ponticus, and hat now Phiten; so seiþ Herodotus. Pycardie haþ many noble castelles and townes, þat beeþ Ambyans,*. [as Amyens, Cx.] Belgis, oþer Beluacus, Attrebat,*. [Attrebat] om. Cx., who adds and many other after Tournay.] Tornat; and lieþ bytwene Flaundres in þe north side and Normandye in þe souþ side, and haþ in þe west side the see and þe south side*. [Eleven words wanting in MS.] of Engelond. Þere beeþ tweie Picardies, þe ouer*. [that one, Cx.] is nere Fraunce; and þe neþer*. [and eyther, Cx.] ioyneþ*. [inneþ, α.] to þe endes of Flaundres and of Braban. Þe men þere of beeþ boistous men of dedes, and gretter*. [grettre, α.] speche haþ*. [haue gretter speche, Cx.; specheþ, MS.] þan oþer men of Fraunce. Normandie, þat hatte*. [heet, Cx. (who usually substi|tutes is named.)] Neustria also, haþ*. [and hath, Cx. (typ. error.)] þe name of Norwayes þat seilled*. [sail, Cx.] out of Norway and of Denmark, and gatt a contrey vppon þe clyues of occean yn Gallia and cleped it Normandie. Þe cheef citee þerof is Rowan vppon þe mouth of þe ryuere of Seyne;*. [ryuer Seyne, α.] þere Seyne torneþ into þe see of occean. Normandye haþ in þe souþ [the lasse Brytayn, in the weste the Frensshe occean, and in the north west the south syde of Englonde].*. [The words in brackets added from Cx.; partly also from α.] Þe lasse Bretaigne haþ þe name of Britoons*. [So α.; Britons, Cx.; Brutus, MS.]Page  293, vol.1 þat twyes occupied*. [So α. and Cx.; occupieþ, MS.] þat lond. Fyrst by Brennus*. [Birremus, MS.; Brenius, Cx.] þat was kyng Bellynus his broþer,*. [Bellinus broder, Cx.] and efte sones by Britons þat were pursued and greued by þe Saxons in Fortigerns*. [Vortegerns, α.; Vortigers, Cx.] tyme kyng of Britons, as it is i-write and conteyned in þe storie of Britouns. Þis prouince haþ in þe est side Ande|gauia, þat is Angeoye,*. [Andegoy, Cx.] in þe north Normandye, in þe souþ Guyan, in þe west occean Aquitanicus, þat is þe see þat is by Gyan is side.*. [by the side of Guyan, Cx.]Giraldus in Topographia.*. [toppicis, (sic) Cx. Reference omitted in MS.] In þis Britayne is a welle; ȝif þe water of þat welle is i-take in bugle*. [in a bugles, Cx.] horn and i-helte*. [poured, Cx.] vppon a stoon þat is*. [þat is] om. Cx.] next to þe welle, by*. [So MS., but probably by a cle|rical error for be, which α. and Cx. read.] þe wedir*. [be þe welle, α.] neuer so faire anon it schal rayne. Also in þe Frensche men lond*. [And in Fraunce, Cx.] is a welle faste by þe castel Pascence, þe water of þat welle is swiþe good*. [the water therof is right good, Cx.] for men and nouȝt for wommen. No man can hete water*. [that water, Cx.] of þat welle noþer wiþ fuyre ne wiþ craft þat any man can deuyse.*. [So α. and Cx.; can do deuyse, MS.] Pictauia, þat is Peytowe, is a prouince of Gallia Narbonensis. Englischmen, Scottes, and Pyctes*. [So Cx.; Puteis, MS.; Putees, α.] seilled and wonede þere and cleped þe contray Pictauia, and þe chief citee Pictauus, þat is Peiters, so seiþ Herodotus.*. [Erodotus, MSS. and Cx., as usual.]Page  295, vol.1 Þis prouince streccheþ longe wey vppon þe occean, and haþ in þe est side Turonia, þerby passeþ þe ryuer of Leyre, in þe souþ side Spayne, in þe norþ þe lasse Bretaigne and þe see of Gyan, in þe west þe see of occean. Þe*. [So α. and Cx.; þat, MS.] men of þat lond draweþ after þe maneres of*. [ben of the conditions of, Cx.] Frensche men, bycause þat þey beeþ i-meddled*. [i-melled, α.; by cause they medle, Cx.] wiþ hem, and also by cause of þe contray þat þey woneþ ynne;*. [and of the countrey that is so neyghe to them, Cx.] so þat þey beeþ now stronge of body, faire of face, bold of herte, and fel of witte. For Ysidre, Eth., libro nono, seiþ þat dyuersite of contrayes vnder heuene is dyuersite of face in man in strengþe, in colour, and in witt.*. [The last sentence is omitted in Cx.]