Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum vicesimum quintum. De quibusdam Romanorum institutis et obseruantiis.

Isidorus, Etym., libro octavo decimo, cap. de triumphis, et Hugutio, cap. Tris. Whan duke, kyng, consul, oþer empe|rour hadde i-doo greet viage*. [don ony grete voyage, Cx.] and victorie, and come into Rome, at his comynge he schulde wiþ *. [re before þre in MS. (not α.)]þre manere wor|schippe be vnderfonge.*. [receyued, Cx.] Al þe peple schulde come aȝenst hym wiþ all þe solempne*. [solempte, α.] merþe, comforte, and ioye þat þey kouþe make; alle þe prisoneres schulde folwe þe*. [his, Cx.] chaar wiþ hire hondes i-bounde byhynde her bakkes; þis victor hym self schulde were on Iupiter his cote and sitte in*. [on, α., Cx.] a chaar þat fyue white hors schulde drawe anon to*. [vnto, Cx.] þe Capitol. Þerof spekeþ Ouidius:

Wiþ foure hors all snowe white
Þou schalt, sire Emperour, wende.

Ȝit among all þis worschippe, for he schulde not forȝete hym self, þis onnuy*. [So MS. and α.; this one annoy, Cx.] he hadde: a cherle was wiþ hym in Page  241, vol.1 his chare, and smote hym all wey in þe nekke; and þat for tweye skilles; þat oon was, for he schulde nouȝt be proude of þat greet worschippe; þat oþer skile was, for euerich man schulde hope to come to þat worschippe, ȝif he made hym self worþy by his dedes. While þe cherle smoot þe victor, he schulde ofte seie to hym in þis manere: Nothisselitos,*. [So MS. and α.; Notho solitos, Cx.] þat is to menynge, Knowe þyself; as who seiþ, Be nouȝt to proude of þis worschippe. And also þat day euerich man hadde leue to seie to þe victor what euere he wolde, and no blame schulde take.*. [sholde he take therfore, Cx.] And so were meny dispitous worde*. [wordes, Cx.] i-seide to Iulius Cesar [and he took þerof no maner wreche. On seide to Iulius Cesar]*. [The words in brackets added from α. and Cx.] at suche*. [siche, Cx.] a tyme: "Salue, calue;" þat is, "Hail, ballard;" and anoþer seide: "Heile, kyng and quene." ℞. Loke wiþ ynne Iulius Cesar. In vita Iohannis Eleemosynarii. Whan þe emperoures of Rome were i-crowned, come*. [sholde come, Cx.] to hem craftes men þat made tombes, and axed*. [axe, Cx.] of hem of what manere stoon oþer metal þey schulde make her tombes; as who seiþ, "Þow schalt deye;*. [deye] Added from Cx.] gouerne myldeliche þy peple." Hugutio, capit. Clarus. When þe Romaynes wolde werry in eny lond, schulde oon goo to þe endes of þat lond and clere|liche Page  243, vol.1 declare and schewe þe matire and cause of the werre, and þat declaracioun was i-cleped clarigatio.*. [clarigacion, Cx.] Þanne a spere i-pyȝt in þe ende of þe londe warned þat þe Romayns wolde werre. Isidorus, libro nono decimo, cap. vicesimo secundo. While consuls ruled Rome, þe knyȝtes of Rome schulde were rede cloþes þe day to fore þat þey schulde fiȝte. Þat was i-do for þey schulde not knowe and be abashed, whan þey say þe reed blood renne on hir cloþes; and suche knyȝtes were i-cleped Rosati, as it were i-cloþed in roses. ℞. Take hede þat*. [what, Cx.] Papy seith, Virgil clepeþ the Romayns togati; þat beeþ men i-cloþed in gownes. Þre manere gownes þey vsede and were i-hote, Pretextata,*. [Pretaxata, MS. and Cx.] Palmata, Candidata. Þe firste manere gowne, Pretextata, gentil men*. [gentilmens, Cx.] children vsede for to þey were*. [for to were of xiiij., Cx.] fouretene ȝere olde; þe secounde manere, Palmata, vsede victoris for here noble dedes; þe þridde manere gowne, Candidata, vsed lordes and maistres*. [maystres rulers, Cx.] of þe lawe. Hugutio, cap. Fastus. Þe dayes þat þe Ro|mayns wel spedde heet fasti, þat is, leful, for it was*. [Four words preceding wanting in MS.] leful to hem þylk*. [So Cx.; þat, MS.] dayes to vse dyuers doynge and dedes. Dayes*. [þat dayes, α.; the dayes, Cx.] þat þe Romaynes mysspedde were i-hote nefasti, as it were nouȝt leeful, and [þey] byhelde*. [and they heelde, Cx.] þilke dayes and wrouȝt nouȝt þilke dayes,*. [þilke dayes] om. Cx.] but nouȝt for loue and*. [and] ne, Cx.] deuocioun, but Page  245, vol.1 for drede of euel happes. Hugutio, cap. quinto. Þe feste of þilke dayes is i-cleped Quinquatria, þat is, þe fyue bl[a]k*. [black, Cx.; blake, α.] dayes, for þe sorwe and þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] bitternesse þat þe Romayns mysspedde*. [mysspedde] had, Cx.] whan þe Frensche men and Hanni|bal*. [Hanybal or Hanibal, MSS. and Cx.] byseged hem all aboute. For þan no Romayn dorste ones goo out of towne.*. [the toun, Cx.]Hugutio, cap. Classis. Whan Romulus hadde ordeyned for the comoun profiȝt, he departed atwynne*. [a sondre, Cx.] þe grete and þe mene, and cleped eiþer partie Classis,*. [Cx. has large omissions here.] for certeyne noyse and signes þat þey were by departed, þat we[re] i-cleped classica. And so þe gentil*. [jantil, α.] men and noble were i-cleped first þe firste classis. In wor|schippe of hem*. [MS. repeats in worschippe after hem.] he ordeyned a monthe and cleped hym Maius, þat is, þe monþe of þe grete men. Þe mene*. [So α. and Cx.; merie, MS.] men were i-cleped þe secounde classis, and in worschipe of hem he ordeyned a monþe, and cleped hym Iunius, þat is, þe monþe of ȝonge*. [ȝongere, α. and Cx.] men. Afterward þe Romaynes were de|parted in foure parties. In þe firste partie were consuls and doctoures; in þe secounde classis were tribuni and men of lasse dignite; in þe þridde were fre men; and in þe fourþe Page  247, vol.1 were bonde men. Tribunus is he þat fongeþ*. [fangeth, α.; receyueth, Cx., as usual.] tribute, and payeþ knyȝtes, and a ledere*. [Cx. adds, or capitain.] of a þowsand knyȝtes hatte tribunus. Hugutio, cap. Calon. Þe Romayns vsed somtyme in eueriche monþe to make a faire, and þe faire bygan þe firste day of þe Nonis,*. [Nonas, Cx.] and durede to þe firste day of Idus. Idus is to menynge*. [is as moche to saye as, Cx.] delynge and departynge; for þan þe feire was departed. Also for þe begynnynge of the monthe was ofte tyme vnknowe of*. [to, α., Cx.; the latter omits of the monthe, just above.] marchaundes and to chapmen, þerfore the firste day of þe monþe þat*. [þet, Cx.] hatte Kalende, of calo, calas, þat is, to clepe and crie. A cryour schulde stonde vppon a toure, and as meny dayes as were from þat day to þe bygynnynge of the feire, he schulde crie, "Calo:" þerfore it is þat som*. [in somme, Cx. (typ. error.)] monþe in þe kalendere haþ but foure Nonas, and som haþ sixe. And þat was i-doo, for þeffes (þat were*. [So α. and Cx.; we, MS.] i-hud*. [hidde, Cx.] in woodes for to aspye chapmen) schulde not knowe*. [i-knowe, MS. (not Cx.)] whan þe faire schulde bygnne. Hugutio, cap. Mereor. Som tyme knyȝtes after þey were sixty wynter*. [yere, Cx.] olde were noȝt compelled forto do deedes of armes; but me*. [men, Cx.] ȝaf hem feldes oþer townes oþer somwhat Page  249, vol.1 elles of*. [of] So α. and Cx.; for, MS.] þe comyn tresorie, wherby þei schulde leue. And þan suche a knyȝt was i-cleped Emeritus (oþer Emeryte) militie, as it were a knyȝt i-sett out of þe myddel*. [medful, α.; nedeful, Cx.] dedes of chyualrie. ℞. Þerfore Achanarii*. [Anatarij, Cx.] þat is by|ȝonde Tyber heet Emeritoria; for*. [for suche, Cx.] knyȝtes spended*. [spende, α.] þare what þey hadde raþer*. [to fore gotten, Cx.] i-gadered and i-wonne. Hugutio, cap. Sita.*. [lita, Cx.] Hit was vsage in Rome þat þe citezeyns schulde doo nouȝt*. [not, Cx.] elles to fore none but despute of þe comyn profit:*. [profiȝt, α.] perfore comyn wommen of Rome were i-cleped Nonarie, for þey schulde nouȝt to fore none goon oute of*. [of] to, Cx.] here comoun place, leste þey schulde lette ȝonge men from the comyn profiȝte. Hugutio, cap. Nepa. Somtyme in Rome fader and moder schulde nouȝt norische and teche hire owne children; for me supposed*. [for it was supposed, Cx.] þat he*. [they, Cx.] wolde be to tendre of hem*. [of hem] om. Cx.] and nouȝt chast*. [chastyse, Cx. (omitting hem.)] hem and bete hem to sore.*. [to sore] om. Cx.] [Neyther maystres that were al straunge and out of the kynne shold teche childeren of Rome, lest they wold Page  251, vol.1 recche to lytel of the childeren, and bete hem to sore].*. [The sentence in brackets added from Cx., whose orthography is retained. [Also contained in β.] It is omitted in α. and γ.] Þerfore maistres schulde teche þe children of Rome þat were nouȝt to nyȝ, oþer*. [noþer, α.; ne, Cx.] to fer of hire own kin. Hugutio, cap. Proles. Þere were som tyme men*. [men] om. Cx.] in Rome þat serued of nouȝt elles but for to gete*. [So α. and Cx.; geten, MS.] children and dwelle*. [dwellyd, Cx.] all wey in þe citee, and were noȝt compelled to doo dedes of armes. And suche men were i-cleped proletarii, þat is geteris*. [geters, α., Cx.] of children. ℞.*. [℞] Added from Cx.] Neuerþeles in Hannibals tyme þey were i-constreyned for to goo out of*. [for, α.] skarsnesse of knyȝtes. Valerie, libro secundo. An hundred ȝere and sixti after þat þe citee was i-buld was no deuors i-made bytwene a man and his wyf. Neuerþeles Carbilius, a bastard, was þe firste þat lifte*. [lefte, α., Cx.] his wif, onliche for þe womman was bareyne. Þei he semed i-meued of resoun, ȝit he was nouȝt al blameles: for he putte couetise of children to fore þe fey*. [feyth, Cx.] of wedlock. Isidorus, libro sexto. Þey þe Grees write first yn wex wiþ poynteles of yren, the Ro|mayns ordeyned þat no man schulde write wiþ poynteles of yren but wiþ poyntels of boon. Pol., libro secundo. Who þat wil*. [wole, α.] loke bookes of stories among all men þat Page  253, vol.1 were siþþe Rome was first sette,*. [made, Cx.] he schal fynde þat þe Romayns were most couetous and proude, he schal fynde also þat þe maistrie*. [maistry, α.] þat þey hadde in þe world aboute þey gete*. [gate, Cx.] it by punyschynge of peple*. [puple, α.] by false wiles and by gile so fer forþ þat vnneþe eny of hir princes leuede his lyf kyndeliche to þe*. [his, α., Cx.] ende. Þerfore eueryche Romayn ouercomeþ*. [that ouercometh, Cx.] oþer is ouercome wiþ flaterynge and wiþ*. [wiþ] om. α. (not Cx.)] faire wordes; and ȝif wordes failleþ, ȝiftes*. [yeftes, Cx.] schal hym awelde; ȝif ȝiftes failleþ, worschip makeþ hym pri|soner. Pol., libro septimo, capitulo undecimo. While þe citees of Italia loueþ pees and worschippeþ*. [worschepeþ, α.; worshipped, Cx., more correctly, who has also loued, and leued.] riȝtwis|nesse and leueth false oþes, þan þey haueþ*. [had, Cx.] likynge and welþe in here owne lond. But whan þey ȝeueþ*. [yeue, Cx.] hem to falshede and to stryf, anon þe pride of*. [of the, Cx.] Romayns, oþer þe woodnesse of Duches*. [Duche, Cx.] men, oþer som oþer wrecche of God all myȝti*. [almyȝti, α.] falleþ vppon hem for to þey*. [vnto the tyme they, Cx.] amende her lyf*. [her lyf] om. Cx.] by penaunce of*. [of] and, Cx.] contricioun. For trespas of þat peple putteþ awey al principalte, oþer makeþ here prynce more mylde.