Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

De vrbe Romana. Capitulum vicesimum quartum.

AVCTOURS telleþ and writeþ*. [writeþ and telleþ, α.; wryten and tellen, Cx.] þat þe citee of Rome is i|bulde in Tuscia, þat is a party of Italia. Of þe fundacioun þerof and gouernynge auctoures writeþ*. [Cx. here, contrary to his cus|tom, has wryte.] meny dyuers doynges; and specialliche Frater Martinus de conditione ejus; Magister*. [de . . . Magister] Added from α.] vero Gregorius of þe wondres of þe citee Page  209, vol.1 writeþ schortliche meny þinges þat beeþ worþy to be kept in mynde. Martinus. It is i-write þat many kynges regned aboute þe place of Rome. For Eustodius seiþ þat after þat tour Babel was i-bulde and men bygonne to speke dyuerse langage and tonges,*. [tonges and langages, Cx.] Noe wiþ certeyne men took a schip and seillede into Italia, and bulde a citee of his name and ended þere his lyf. Þan Ianus, Iaphet his sone, þat was Noes sone, bulde Ianiculum by ȝonde þe ryuer Tiberis; þere is now a cherche of Seynt Iohan, þat hatte Seint Iones chirche ad Ianiculum. Aboute þat tyme Nemprot, þat hiȝt Saturnus also, i-gilded*. [whiche was gelded, Cx.] of his owne sone Ioue,*. [Iupyter, Cx.] come to the forsaide Ianus kyngdom, and bulde a citee; þere þe Capytal is now. Also þat tyme Italus þe kyng wiþ Siculis*. [So α. and Cx.; Siculus, MS.] men of Sicilia come to Ianus and to Saturnus, and bulde a citee faste by þe ryuer Albula; þat ryuer hiȝte afterward and now hatte Tyber, and is a ryuer of Rome. Also Hercules, Italus his sone, bulde a citee Galeria by neþe þe Capitol. After þat Tiberi[n]us*. [Tiberis, Cx.; Tyberis, α.; Ty|berius, MS.] þe kyng com out of þe est, and Euander þe kyng out of Arcadia, and bulde citees. Virgilius accordeþ and seiþ: Þanne þe fader Euander at Rome was maker of toures. Þanne afterwarde come Romulus and closed wiþ ynne oon Page  211, vol.1 wal alle þilke citees*. [citetes, MS.; txt, Cx.] aboute, and made oon grete citee of alle i-closed in oon: and brouȝte gentil men and noble out of Italia wiþ here wifes for to wone þerynne. Titus, libro secundo. While þat citee was pore, was no place more holy noþer richere of good ensample; but afterward rich|esse gadered and eched to gidres couetise and leccherie.*. [gadred and encreased, and syn they haue ben coueytous and lecherous, Cx.]Marcus. Tweie breþren þat were twynnes,*. [born at one burthon, Cx.] Remus and Romulus, bulde Rome in þe hul Palatinus, and was i-bulde in þe enleuenþe*. [MS. adds ȝere (not α. or Cx.)] kalandes of Maij: þo bigan þe seuenþe Olimpiades,*. [Olimpus, Cx., who omits the remainder of the sentence.] þat is þe seuenþe tyme of iustes and torne|mentes þat Grees made at þe foot of mont Olympus, þo*. [that, Cx. (not α.)] was þe firste ȝere of Achaz kyng of Iuda and foure hondred ȝere and foure and fifty after þe takyng of Troye. But more vereiliche, as Solinus seiþ, foure hondred and*. [α. om. and.] foure and þritti ȝere after þe takynge of Troye. Þe*. [Cx. prefixes Marcus; α. has in margin Marcus or Martinus (Mωeȝ).] whiche citee of*. [of] om. α.] Rome was afterward wonderliche i-hiȝt wiþ walles, wiþ toures, wiþ ȝates, wiþ templis, wiþ paleys, and wiþ diuers and wonderful werkes; and hadde on þe walles þre hondred toures*. [MS. has some repetitions here.] and*. [and] om. α.] þre score and oon, and conteyneþ aboute two and twenty myle, wiþoute þat þat*. [The second þat added from α.; absent from MS. and Cx.] is byȝonde Tybre and þe citee Leonina. But, as me seiþ, þer wiþ he*. [men seyn it, Cx.] conteyneþ al aboute two and fourty myle, and Page  213, vol.1 had in all sixtene principal ȝates;*. [yates, Cx.] ten on þis half Tiber, þat were i-cleped port Capuena, port Apia, port Latina, port Asinaria, port Matronii, port Levicana,*. [So α. and Cx.; Eluicana, MS.] port Numentana, port Salaria, port Princiana, port Colina. Also byȝonde Tyberis beeþ þre ȝates, and þre in þe citee Leonina. Gre|gorius. Among þe wondres of þis citee þat ȝit beeþ i-sene, it is greet*. [a grete, Cx.] wonder of so many defensable toures and so many buldynge of palays, where*. [towres of so many buyldynges of palayces, whether, Cx.] it were i-doo*. [i-doo] om. Cx.] by wyche|craft oþer by manis dede. So þat now beeþ ferified*. [So MS. and α.] þe vers þat Hildebertus*. [So Cx.; Hidebertus, MS.] Episcopus Cenomannensis made, and Willielmus Malmesburiensis putteþ hem in his book of kynges:*. [as here foloweth, Cx.]

Rome, no þing is pere to þe,
Þeyȝ þou nygh all fallynge be;
A falle*. [a falle] (i.e. "fallen") so γ.; On alle, Cx.; anaitte, MS.; analle, α.; a nalle or a ualle, β.] þou schewest þy bounde,
How grete þou were,*. [So MS. and α. See Harl. MS.] when þow were*. [So MS. and α. See Harl. MS.] sounde.

Þere were meny paleys real*. [ryal, Cx.] and noble i-bulde in Rome*. [De palatiis Romæ.] in worschippe of emperours and of oþere noble men also. Among þe whiche þe gretteste and most palys of alle was in þe myddel of þe citee, in tokene of oon principalte of Page  215, vol.1 all þe world wide. Also þe paleys of pees; þerynne Romulus dede*. [dyde do, Cx.] his owne ymage of golde, and seide: "It schal neuere falle, or*. [tel, Cx.] a mayde bere a childe;" and þat ymage fel*. [fylle, Cx.] whan Crist was i-bore. Diocletianus*. [Dyoclicianus, MS.] paleys haþ pilers as hiȝ as a stones*. [astoon, α.] cast, and so grete aboute þat an hondred men al a ȝere worchynge schulde vnneþe hewe oon of þilke pylers. Also þere was a paleys of sixty emperours, and ȝit stondeþ a party*. [a part, Cx.; another party, MS.] þerof þat al Rome may nouȝt destroye it. Þere, as*. [as] Added from Cx. (not in α.)] Pantheon þe temple*. [De templis.] of all mawmetrie was, is now a chirche of al halwen,*. [halowen, Cx.; halewen, α.] and for*. [by cause, Cx.] oure Lady is after Crist cheef halwe*. [chyef and holyest, Cx.] of al mankynde, þat chirche haþ þe name of oure Lady, and hatte Sancta Maria Rotunda, þat is þe Rounde Chirche of oure Lady, and haþ in brede þe space of two hondred feet and sixty. Fast by þat temple is an arche of marbel, and is þe arche of Augustus Cesar his victories and grete dedes. In þat arche beeþ al Augustus Cesar his dedes*. [ben alle his grete actes, Cx.] descryued. Þere is also Scipions arche; he ouercom Hanibal. At Seint Steuene in Piscina was þe temple Olouitreum, þat was made al*. [al] om. Cx.] of cristal and of golde; þere was astronomie i-graued and i-peyntwiþ sterres and signes of heuen. Seint Sebastian*. [Sebestian, MS. (not Cx.)]Page  217, vol.1 destroyed þat temple. Also*. [MS. and α. (not Cx.) add in.] þe Capitol was arrayed*. [Cx. omits the four following words.] wiþ hiȝe walles i-heled wiþ glas and wiþ gold, as it were þe mirrour of al þe world aboute. Þere consuls*. [the consuls, Cx.] and senatours gouernede and rulede al*. [of al, α.] þe world, as moche as was in here power; and þere was Iupiters*. [Iubiters, MS., and so below.] temple, and in þe temple was Iupiters ymage of golde,*. [fyn golde, Cx.] sittynge in a tronc. ℞.*. [℞] Added from α. and Cx.] Here take hede þat onliche þre temples were somtyme in Rome þat hadde flamines, [þat were bisshops to serve false goddis and mawmetrie, and heet flamines,]*. [The words in brackets added from α.] as it were fila|mines, of filo, þat is a þrede, þat þey bonde aboute hire heed, whan þei myȝte nouȝt in þe holy day suffre on hire piliouns and here cappes for hete. In Iupiter his temple seruede flamen dialis, þat is, þe day bisshop; for Iupiter was i-cleped Diespiter, þat is, þe fader of þe day: also in Mars his temple was flamen Martialis, þat is, Mars is*. [Cx. here and above prints only Mars.] bisshop, and in Romulus temple was flamen Quirinalis, þat is, Quirinus*. [his, added in α., which has often similar variations.] bisshop; for Romulus was i-cleped Quirinus also.

In Rome was an hous i-made wel nyh al of gold and*. [De domi|bus.] i-hiȝt*. [besette, Cx.] wiþ precious stones; me seide þat hous was worþ wel nyȝ þe þridde deel*. [part, Cx.] of all þe world. In þat hous eueriche londe and prouince hadde an ymage i-sette by Page  219, vol.1 wicche craft;*. [nigromancie, Cx.] eueriche of þilke ymages bare his owne lordes name i-write on*. [and on, Cx. (typ. error?)] his brest and a cokebelle*. [cockerbelle, Cx.] of siluer i-honged aboute his nekke; so ȝat*. [So the MS.; but seemingly a mere clerical error; α. has þat.] ȝif eny londe arise aȝen Rome, anon þe ymage of þat londe torned his bak toward þe ymage of Rome, and þe belle aboute his nekke anon schulde rynge, and þe preostes þat kepte þat hous euerich by his cours warnede þe princes of þat doynge. Þere was also an horsman of bras an*. [and, α.; on, Cx.] hiȝe on þe cop of þat hous, and moued*. [meouede, α.; meued, Cx.] also wiþ a spere in his hond, and torned þe poynt of his spere to ward þat londe þat so wolde arise; and so þe Romayns myȝte liȝtliche come vppon here enemyes vnwarned.*. [on ware, Cx.] In þat hous also was a fuyre þat no man myȝte aquenche,*. [quenche, Cx.] and men askede*. [axed, Cx.] of þe craftesman þat it made how longe it schulde dure,*. [endure, Cx., and so below.] and he answerde and seide: Þat*. [Cx. omits Þat.] it schulde dure for euermore for to*. [for to] vnto, Cx.] þat a mayde bere a childe. And in*. [α. and Cx. omit in.] þe same nyȝt þat Crist was i-bore þat hous fil doun, and þe fuyre was aqueynt also þe same*. [quenchyd that same, Cx.] nyȝt and tyme. Also Beaneus Apollo þat Page  221, vol.1 man closede a confeccioun of brymston and of blak salt in a vessel of bras, and sette hit on þe fire*. [it a fyre, Cx.; hit on fire, α.] wiþ a candel þat he hadde made on his manere,*. [i-halewed in his manere, α., Cx.] and made þere a bath wiþ baþinge places þat all wey were hote. Þere was also on*. [in, α., Cx.] an hous an ymage of yren, and was [namyd]*. [Added from Cx.] Bellefrontes ymage, and*. [whiche, Cx.] weyed xv. þowsand pound wiþ his hors þat he satte on, and hyng*. [heng, α. and Cx., and so Cx. (not α.) below.] in þe ayer wiþ no post ne pyler byneþe vnder sette, noþere*. [ne, Cx.] i-holde wiþ chayne aboue; but adamant stones þat were in þe fot*. [vawte, Cx.] and in þe arches aboute drowe euen þe yren eueriche to his side, so þat þe yren ymage myȝt nouȝt dounward noþer vpward ne toward neyther side,*. [So Cx.; neuere aside, MS., α.] but hyng alwey euene amydde.

Þere is a place at Rome in Heraclea and hatte theatrum;*. [De arti|ficiis.] þat is a place to stonde oþer sitte ynne for to loke wel aboute. Þerynne is wonderliche i-graue cabans and dennes, dyuers oute goynges, benches, and seges all aboute, and is hool and sound, al oon marbel ston: [and þis work is i-sett uppon sixe crabbes i-hewe of hard marbilston];*. [The words in brackets added from α. and Cx.] in þat place may no man so priuely speke, noþer by*. [to, Cx. (twice).] hem|self noþer by*. [to, Cx. (twice).] anoþer man, but al þat he seiþ be herde al aboute. Faste by Augustus Cesar his place*. [palays, Cx. (not α.)] is a wal i-made of b[r]ent*. [welle i-made of brend, α.; walle made of brente, Cx.] tile and streccheþ dounward oute of þe hiȝe hulles by þe ȝate, port Asinaria. Þat wal is i-made vppon grete arches and heug; þat wal streccheþ a dayes iornay from Rome yn a greet condyt; vppon þat wal þe wateres and þe*. [α. and Cx. omit þe.] stremes of þe*. [So α. and Cx.; þat, MS.] welles of þe mounteyns renneþ ynto Rome; and þan is*. [it is, Cx.] departed in dyuers condites and pipes of bras, and so ran somtyme in to euery paleys of Rome: for þe water [of]*. [Added from Cx. (not in α.)] Tyber is holsom and good for Page  223, vol.1 hors, and for men yuel*. [euel, α.] and vnholsom.*. [and vnholsome and euyl for men, Cx.] Þerfore þe olde Romaynes made fresche water come oute of foure parties of þe citee by weies craftliche i-made, and þerof men myȝte take al þat þey wolde, [whyle]*. [Added from Cx. (not in α.)] þe comynge*. [comins, Cx.] of Rome were in her floures. By þat wall is þe bath Byaneus made, of þe whiche baþ was raþer a speche.*. [was spoken to fore, Cx.] In Albist[e]rio*. [Albisterio, α., Cx.] a place þat heet also Mutatorium Cesaris were i-made white stolis for emperours. Also þere was a candelstikke i-made of a stoon þat hatte Albeston; whan it was ones i-tend*. [yteyned, Cx., who adds and sette a fyre.] and i-sette per oute,*. [without, Cx.] þere couþe no man it aquenche*. [quenche it, Cx.; hit quenche, α.] wiþ no craft þat me kouþe deuise. [℞.]*. [℞.] Reference added from α. and Cx.] In þis manere hit miȝte be of*. [of] that, Cx.] þe geaunt Pallas aboute þe ȝere of oure Lord a þowsand and fourty; þat ȝere was i-founde in Rome a geantis body i-buried all*. [all] om Cx.] hool and sounde; þe chene*. [space, Cx.] of his wounde was foure foot longe and an half; pe lengþe of his body passed the heiȝte of þe walles; at his heed was founde a lanterne brennynge alway, þat no man couthe quenche wiþ blast noþer*. [ne, Cx., twice; (as frequently.)] wiþ water noþer*. [ne, Cx., twice; (as frequently.)] wiþ oþer craft, or*. [ar, α.] þere were Page  225, vol.1 i-made an hole*. [vnto the tyme that there was made a lytil hoole, Cx.] ·vnder þe lyȝt by neþe, þat þe ayer myȝte entre. Me seiþ þat Turnus slow þis geaunt Pallas, whan Eneas fauȝte for Lauin[i]a þat was Eneas his wyf. Þis*. [So Cx. (This); þese, MS., α.] geauntes epitaphium,*. [epytaphium, Cx.; ephitafium, MS., α.] þat is,*. [is this, Cx. (without sense).] þe writynge of mynde of hym þat lay þere, was suche:*. [suche] this, Cx.]

Pallas Euander his sone lieþ here:
Hym Turnus þe knyȝt wiþ his spere
Slowe in his manere.

De statuis et signis. Þere was at Rome a bole*. [bulle, Cx.] of bras in þe schap of Iupiter ouercast and schape to men þat loked þeron; þat boole semed lowynge and startlinge. Þere was also þe ymage of Venus al naked in þe same manere as Venus schewed hir self to þat man Paris*. [So Cx.; Pares, MS., α.] somtyme,*. [Cx. adds of Troye.] and was so craftliche made þat in þe mouþe and lippes, þat were as white as eny*. [ony, Cx.] snow, semede fresche blood and newe. Þere is also at Rome a wonder copped pilour, and is Romulus pyler. Þere Romulus was i-buried faste by Seynt Petres chirche. Þat piler pilgrims and palmers, þat faste con*. [can, Cx.] liȝe, clepeþ it*. [α (not Cx.) omits it.] seint Petris corn hepe,*. [corn hupple, Cx.] and seiþ þat whan Nero þe emperour hadde i-rauisched it, it*. [it] hit, Cx. (perhaps considering the aspirated form the stronger).] turned into an hil of stoon as grete as it was raþer, whiles it was corn.*. [as grete as it was byfore of corne, Cx.] Among þe*. [alle, α., Cx.] pilers Page  227, vol.1 Iulius Cesar his piler is most wonderful and haþ in heiþe two hondred feete*. [foot, α., Cx.] and fifty; in þe coppe þerof [in]*. [Added from α., β., γ., and Cx. Probably is is the true reading.] a rounde þing of bras, wher on*. [wher on] om. Cx.] beeþ Iulius Cesar his askes and his bones.*. [So MS. and α.; Iulius Cezars bones and asshes, Cx.] Of þat piler in an*. [in an] and, α, Cx.] arche beeþ vers i-write,*. [made, α., Cx.] þat beþ þus to menynge, and nameliche of þe ouermest stone:

Ȝif þe stone is oon, telle what craft brouȝt hym vppon;
ȝif meny st[on]es,*. [stones, α.; And yf they be many stones, Cx. (which is better metre).] telle where þey ioyne*. [joyneþ, α.] attones.*. [at ones, Cx.]

Þis arche and piler is i-founded and y-sette vppon foure lyouns. Pilgryms ful of lesynges clepeþ þis arche and piler Seynt Petres nedle, and lieþ and seiþ þat þat*. [thylk, Cx] man is clene of dedely*. [dedely] om. Cx.] synne þat may crepe vnder þat stoon. Þere beeþ also in Rome tweie grete horse of marbilston: for in Tiberius þe emperoures*. [þe emperoures] om. Cx.] tyme twei ȝonge philosofres, Praxi|tellus and Fibia, come to Rome, and ȝede all naked; and whan þe emperour axed hem*. [hym, Cx.] why and wher fore þey ȝede*. [wente, Cx., who, however, has yeden just before.] so naked, þei answerde and seide: "For we haueþ all þing for sake;*. [forsaken al thynge, Cx.] and for all þing is to vs naked and bare and openliche i-knowe; ȝe, sire emperoure, and all þat þow spekest in counsail and in priuete we knoweþ at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] beste." Treuisa. Þe firste poynt of þis doynge and answere techeþ Page  229, vol.1 þat who*. [þat who þat, α.] forsakeþ all þyng forsakeþ all his cloþes; and so it foloweþ þat þey þat beeþ wel i-cloþed and gooþ aboute and beggeþ and gadereþ money and corn and catel of oþer men*. [þing before men in MS. (not α. or Cx.)] forsakeþ nouȝt al þing.*. [Reference to ℞. added in Cx.] Þe emperour assaied and founde sooþ all þat þey seide, and at here prayer*. [owen prayer, Cx.] made in mynde of hem tweie greet hors*. [horses, Cx.] of marbel. Þere is anoþere signe and tokene to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] þe popes paleys; an hors of bras and a man sittynge þeron and halt his*. [holdeth, Cx. (twice.)] riȝt hond as þouȝ he spake*. [speke, α.] to þe peple;*. [ple, MS.] and halt his*. [holdeth, Cx. (twice.)] bridel in his lift hand, and haþ a cukkow by twene his hors eres and a seek*. [sike, α.] dwerf vnder his horse*. [horse] om. Cx.] feet. Pilgrims clepeþ þat man Theodoricus, and þe comouns clepeþ hym Constantinus. But clerkes of þe court clepeþ hym Marcus and Quintus Curtius also. Þis signe stood somtyme to fore Iupiters auȝter*. [awlter, Cx.] in þe Capitol vppon foure*. [the four, Cx.] pilers of bras; but Seynt Gregorie þrewe doun hors and man and sette*. [Cx. omits the seventeen words following.] þe pilers in Seint Iones chirche þe Lateranensis. But þe Romayns toke hors and man and sette hem to fore þe popes paleys. Þey þat clepeþ hym Marcus telleþ þis skile and*. [skile and] om. Cx.]Page  231, vol.1 resoun. Þere was a dwerf*. [dwarf, Cx.] of þe kynrede of Mesenis; his craft was nigremansi.*. [nigromancy, α.; nygromancie, Cx.] Whan he hadde so conquered kynges þat woned hym nyh,*. [dwellyd nygh him, Cx.] and made hem soget to hym, þan he wente to Rome to werre wiþ Romayns,*. [the Romayns, α., Cx.] and wiþ his craft he byname þe Romays*. [Romayns, α., Cx.] power and myȝt for to smyte, and so*. [so] om. Cx.] byseged hem long tyme i-closed wiþynne þe citee. Þis dwerf ȝede*. [wente, Cx.] eche day to fore þe sonne risynge in to þe feld for to doo his craft. Whanne þe Romaynes had aspied*. [espied, Cx.] þat manere doynge of þat dwerf, þey speke to Marcus a noble knyȝt, and byhiȝt hym lordschippe of þe citee and a memoryall*. [memory all, MS.; memorial, Cx.; α agrees apparently with MS.] in mynde for euermore, ȝif it were his wille to helpe hem and saue*. [yf he wolde defende hem and saue, Cx.] þe citee. Þan Marcus made*. [So Cx.; at, MS.] an hole þorwe þe wal toward þe place; þere*. [Probably we should read where. Cx. has large omissions here.] þe dwerf was woned to worche and vse þe sotilte of his craft. And Marcus rod oute at þat place þorw þe wal, longe or it were day, for to abyde his tyme to cacche þe dwerf, anon as it were day. And whan it was tyme, þe kukkow song and warnede hym of þe day. Þan Marcus*. [Markus, MS.] resede too, and for*. [bycause, Cx.] he myȝte nouȝt hitte þe dwerf wiþ wepoun, he kauȝte hym wiþ his honde, and bare hym in to þe citee. And for drede lest he wolde*. [sholde, Cx.] helpe hymself wiþ Page  233, vol.1 his craft, and he moste*. [yf he myght, Cx.] speke, he threw hym vndir his*. [the, Cx.] hors feet, and þe hors all to trade hym. And herefore þat image was i-made in mynde*. [remembraunce, Cx.] of þis dede. Þey þat clepeþ þat signe an*. [and, α., Cx.] ymage Quintus Curtius, telleþ þis skille and resoun: Þere was somtyme in þe myddel of Rome a greet chene*. [clyfte or hoole, Cx.] in þe erþe; out of þat chene*. [hool, Cx., and so below.] come smoke*. [smook, Cx.] and brymston, and slow*. [slewe, Cx.] many man.*. [men, α.] Þanne Quintus Curtius took counseil of Phebus, and armed hym, and auntrede hym hym in to þe chene;*. [hool, Cx., and so below.] þanne anon fleigh a cukkow out of þat*. [þe, α.] chene.*. [hool, Cx., and so below.] Þan þe erþe closed to gidres, and so þe chene*. [hool, Cx., and so below.] was i-stopped. Anoþer signe is Colossus*. [Colloseus, MSS. and Cx.] ymage, þat is i-cleped also þe ymage of þe Sonne, oþer of Rome. Þere is grete wonder how it myȝte be i-ȝote*. [yoten, Cx.] oþer arered, þe ymage is so grete. Þe lengþ þerof is sixe score foot and sixe. Þis ymage was somtyme in þe ylond Rhodus,*. [Herodius, MSS. and Cx.] fiftene foot hiȝere þan þe hiȝest place of*. [in, Cx.] Rome. Þis ymage bare in his riȝt hond a spere*. [So the MSS. and Cx. for sphere.] al round i-schape as þe world, and in his lift hand a swerd þat tokeneþ*. [bytokeneth, Cx.] myȝt of bataille; in Page  235, vol.1 tokeynge*. [token, α., Cx.] þat þis*. [hit, α., Cx.] is lasse maistrie, to wynne and to con|quere, þan it is to kepe and to saue þat þat is conquered and i-wonne. Þis ymage was of bras; but it was so rialliche ouer gilt, þat it schoon*. [shone, Cx.] in derknes, and ȝaf grete bemes of*. [of] Added from α. and Cx.] liȝt; also it moued*. [meouede, α.; meued, Cx.] aboute wiþ þe sonne in suche a manere þat alway his face was toward þe sonne. Alle þe Romaynes þat come þereby worschipped þat ymage in wey*. [tokene, α., Cx.] of subieccioun and of þraldom. Seynt Gregorie destroyed þat ymage wiþ fuyre, for he myȝte nouȝt destroye it wiþ strengþe. Of þat ymage is onliche i-left þe hede and the riȝt hond holdynge þe spere, þat is þe roundenesse and þe liknesse of þe world; for of al þat ymage lefte*. [is, or rather was, must be inserted before lefte.] namore vnbrend. But*. [But] om. α., Cx.] þat hede and þat hond beeþ now to fore þe popes palays vppon þe*. [þe] om. α.] tweie pilers of marbil; and wonderliche by craft of ȝetynge*. [milting, Cx.] þat bras is i-ȝote, þat þe heer semeþ nesche*. [softe, Cx.] to a manis siȝt, and þe mouþ as þey it were spekynge. Policr.,*. [Polici'., α.]libro secundo. For to hiȝte þe noblete of þe*. [this, Cx.] citee þe Romaynes made a wommans ymage in bras; þat ymage helde in his*. [hir, Cx.; but perhaps his own correction.] hond a spere þe schap*. [So α. and Cx.; scharpest, MS. (not understanding spere).] of þe world wyde. And whan þe ymage was made, hem semede þat þe legges were to feble for to bere suche an ymage; it was so grete and so huge. Page  237, vol.1 Bot þe craftes men, þat it made, answered and seide: Þe legges schal dure alway, and bere þe ymage at þe beste, and neuere faille, for to*. [vnto, Cx.] a mayde bere a childe. But þe legges faillede, and þe ymage fel*. [fil, α.] down, whan Crist was i-bore. Faste by Vespasianus his paleys is a stone þat hatte Parius, [and is whyȝte marbil; and hatte Parius]*. [Words in brackets added from α.; absent from Cx., who has other omissions.] for suche a stoon is i-digged in þe ilond þat hatte Paros. In þat*. [þat] Added from α. and Cx.] stoon is i-corue a*. [So α. and Cx.; i cornere white, MS.] white sowe wiþ þritty pigges, þat fyndeþ*. [giue, Cx.] water to hem þat wol wasche.*. [Cx. adds there.] Þere is also a table of bras þat forbedeþ synne; þerynne beeþ i-write þe chief poyntes of þe lawe; þere beeþ i-write as þere were rules in metre. Þe menynge þerof is vnderstonde in þis writynge, þat folweþ next:

Euerich nyȝt, þere*. [where, Cx.] a cok
Wakeþ som man, or it dawe;
All his song in a flok
May like no man by þe lawe.
Whan somer*. [So α.; some, MS.] is hote
Þrostel*. [the throstle, Cx.] syngeþ wiþ mery note.
Whan þe day goþ away,
Þe brid*. [birde, Cx.] is stille, and leueþ his lay.
In towne, as it longes,
Þe osul twytereþ mery songes.
At nyȝt for drede
Truly no song doþ he grede.
Whan floures*. [floure, Cx.] springeþ on rote,
Þe nyȝtyngale in his note
Twytereþ wel fawnyng
Wiþ full swete song in þe dawenyng. Page  239, vol.1
Þral makiþ his fare,
Wiþ mouth þan chetereþ*. [chiterith, Cx.] þe stare.
Of morwe song kynde
Þey haueth at eue no mynde.