Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

De Scythia.*. [Both MSS., α. and Cx. here and below give Scicia or Sicia; other proper names are also a little cor|rupted.] Capitulum septimum decimum.

HERE take hede of tweie londes, ciþer hatte*. [that eche of hem is named, Cx.] Scythia; þe ouere is in Asia, þe neþere in*. [is in, Cx.] Europa; þe ouere Scythia is a grete londe in þe north, and haþ moche wildernes by cause of greet colde and chele, and streccheþ*. [streiȝte, α.] somtyme estward anon to*. [anon to] vnto, Cx., and so below.] Inde,*. [So α. and Cx.; þe ende, MS.] northwarde to*. [to] toward, Cx.] occean, southward to þe hille Caucasus, westward anon to Germania;*. [Iermania, MS., and α.; but elsewhere (as p. 171) spelt correctly.] but now he is i-made lasse, and endeþ in þe west side to*. [So α., Cx.; of, MS.] Hyrcania. In þe whiche londe beeþ þe hilles Iperborey, greet grypes, gold and smaragdes, and oþer precious stones. Trogus, libro secundo. Þilke men destingeþ nouȝt noþer to Page  137, vol.1 sette her feeldes by boundes, noþer by meres;*. [nether marke her feldes by boundes, ne by dyches, Cx.] þey haueþ non house yn for to wonye; her wyfes and here children þei ledeþ in cartes; and þey beeþ i-cloþed in wylde bestes skynnes. Wollen cloþes useþ þey nouȝt:*. [none, Cx.] þey lyuetþ by mekk*. [melk, α.; mylk, Cx.] and by hony; þey reccheþ nouȝt of gold, noþer of siluer;*. [selver, α.] þei greiþeþ*. [make, Cx.] no þing þat þey dredeþ to lese, þey acounteþ no trespas gretter þan robberie; here werrioures*. [men of warre, Cx.] and victoures desireþ not*. [nothing, Cx.] but worschippe: þey were neuere soget to no man.*. [subget yet to ony man, Cx.] Þey ouercome*. [ouercame, Cx. (not α.)] Vesore þe kyng of Egipte in werre and batayle, Darius þe kyng of Pers*. [Regem Persarum, α.; fered Darius the kynge, Cx., who has sloughe Cyrus below.] þey chasede and ferede, and made him flee. Cyrus þe kyng þey slowh. Also þei destroyed Zephirona and his riches; Zephirona was þe greet Alexander his ledere.*. [Alysaunders capytayn, Cx.] Þries þey conquered Asia, and Asia was afterwarde tributarie to hem a þowsand ȝere and fyue hondred. Þe men of þis peple be*. [be] Added from Cx. (absent from α.)] by hem selue and þe*. [om. þe.] women by hem self. Also þey made*. [made] Added from α. and Cx.] kyngdoms of dyuerse londes; þe*. [So Cx.; þat, MS., α.] men made of Parthia and Bactria, and þe wommen*. [wymmen, Cx. (bis).] made of Amazonia kyngdoms myȝty and stronge, and so it is among hem vncerteyn and vnknowe wheþer is more worþy and more noble in kynde,*. [nature and kynde, Cx.] men or wommen.*. [wymmen, Cx. (bis).] In þe firste iourney in Asia after þat þey hadde i-dreue and i-chased and i-pursewed Vasore þe kyng of Egipt in to þe*. [in the, Cx.]Page  139, vol.1 tornynge aȝe, þey abede*. [abode, Cx.] fiftene ȝere for to make pees in Asia. But wyfes made grete pleyntes and sorwes*. [sorwe, α.] þat hire housbondes were so longe from home,*. [So Cx.; hire, MS.] and so þe men were of sent*. [sente fore, Cx.] and torned home to*. [and dwellede, α. and Cx.] dwelle wiþ hir wifes. In þe secounde iornay þe men were by traisoun i-slawe, and þe wifes took greet wreche of þe enemyes. In þe þridde iornay*. [So α.; iorday, MS.] þe men were oute and absent foure ȝere to gidres, and [þe]*. [Added from Cx.; absent from α.] wifes wedded hir owne seruauntes and bonde men þat were i-left*. [left, α., Cx.] at home for kepynge of bestes. But whan here lordes and housbondes had þe victorie and torned home aȝen, þe wyfes and here*. [the, Cx.] newe housbondes gadred hem to gidres and arrayed hem in a greet bataile to fiȝte aȝen hire olde lordes and housbondes þat were comyng home;*. [homeward, Cx.; hoom, α.] and whan þey mette to gidres hap*. [fortune, Cx.] was vnstable and vnstedefast; ones*. [So α. and Cx.; unstedfastnesse wiþ, MS.] wiþ þat oon side, and eft wiþ þat oþer. Þanne*. [that, Cx. (typogr. error?)] þe lordes byþouȝte hem, and toke hem to rede*. [and toke hem to rede] and con|cluded, Cx.] oþerwise to fiȝte wiþ hir owne*. [owne] Added from α. and Cx.] bonde men þan wiþ*. [with theyr, Cx.] enemyes of straunge londes, and caste awey hire owne armure and wepene of knyȝtis, and bere whippes in hir hondes; and so fered þe cherles,*. [Cx. omits some words which follow down to false wifes.] and droof hem away, and made hem to fle. And afterward, al þat myȝte be i-take of þilke false cherles and of þe false wifes þat hadde Page  141, vol.1 i-broke spousaille hadde schenful*. [schendeful, α.; shameful, Cx.] deth; for som were i-slawe with iren, and som were an honged ful hiȝe. After þis phare*. [fare, α.; iourney, Cx.] was pees in Scythia for to Darij his tyme*. [vnto the tyme of Darius, Cx.] kyng of Persida. Þanne Darius was ouercome of þe Scytes*. [So Cx.; Cytes, MS.; Cytees, α.] men of Scythia, and in þe tornynge homward he ouer|come Macedones, þat beeþ men of Macedonia of þat londe, and werede vppon Athenienses men of Athenis.

Bactria is a lond*. [and werede . . . a lond] Added from α. and Cx.] þat Cham, Noe*. [Noes, α.] sone, woned first ynne, and streccheþ from þe see Caspius anon to þe ryuer of Inde, and haþ in þe west side þe mount Caucasus, and in þe south Parthia. Þis hille Caucasus is lengest of alle þe est hilles, and most famous, and streccheþ from þe endes of Inde anon to þe hille þat hatte Mount Taurus, so þat mont Taurus*. [so þat Mont Taurus] Added from α. and Cx.] and Caucasus is i-conteyned al oon hille; but som men seiþ þat þe westside of Caucasus, þat is to|ward Armenia, is and hatte mount Taurus. Þat mount Caucasus haþ in þe northside þe see þat hatte Caspius and Hyrcania þat londe, and in*. [α. adds in.] þe southside Parthia and Assyria and Babylon.*. [Babiloun, MS. and α.] Þat hil, for dyuerse contrees and londes þat streccheþ and recheþ þerto, haþ*. [That hille, by cause it stretcheth to dyuerse contreys and londes, hath, &c., Cx.] many and Page  143, vol.1 dyuers names. Þat hille is hiȝeste in*. [on, Cx.] þe est side, and for whiȝtnesse of snowe þat lieþ alwey þeron he is cleped*. [i-cleped, α.] Mons Caucasus, þat is to menynge a*. [the, Cx.] white hille. Albertus seiþ þat hil is so hiȝe, þat men þat woneþ þerby seeþ þe sonne bemes*. [beme, Cx.] in þe west side þre houres wiþ ynne þe*. [Cx. omits þe.] nyȝt, and so meny houres to fore þe day in þe est side of þat*. [þe, α., Cx.] hille.

Hyrcania þat londe haþ in þe est side þe see Caspius, in þe south Armenia, in þe north Albania, and in þe west Iberia þat lond; and lieþ beside*. [by the syde of, Cx.; beside of, α.] þe mount Caucasus, and haþ þe name of þat wode þat hatte Hyrcania. In þat londe beeþ dyuers wylde bestes and foules, tigris þat beeste,*. [beeste] So Cx.; foul, MS., α.] and pantera also. Þat londe is wyde and large, and haþ foure and fourty manere men. Som tilieþ*. [tyllen, Cx.] lond, and som lyueþ by huntynge, and som eteþ manis flesche. Þere beeþ briddes þat hatte*. [birdes that ben called, Cx., who, however, has heyghte just before.] hircane, hire fetheres schyne by nyȝte.

Hiberia þat lond lieþ*. [lith, α.] vnder mont Taurus, and lith west|ward fast by Pontus, and ioyneþ to Armenye. Albania þat lond haþ in þe est side þe see Caspius, and streccheþ dounward by þe mouthes of þe North Occean anon to þe wateres þat hatte Meotides. And þe men of þat lond beeþ Page  145, vol.1 i-bore wiþ white here and wiþ ȝelowe*. [ȝelew, α.] eyȝen i-peynt, and seeþ better be nyȝte þan be daye. Þe houndes of þat londe beeþ so greete, so grym, and stronge þat þey þroweþ doun boles*. [booles, α.; bulles, Cx.] and sleeþ lyouns. Oon of þilke houndes was sent to kyng Alexandre, and fauȝte wiþynne lystes wiþ a leon and an olyfaunt, and wiþ a wylde bore, and hadde þe maystrie.

Gotha is þe neþer partie of Scythia toward Circium.*. [So α. and Cx.; Cireon, MS.] To þat lond Gotha lieþ þe ilond Gothlandia; þat ylonde haþ plente of al manere marchaundise, and haþ in þe north side Dacia, and in þe southe syde*. [southe syde] So Cx.; norþ, MS. Dacia and þe north occean, α., which agrees with the Latin, and is pro|bably right.] occean, and hatte Gothea of Gos, Iapheþ his sone. Þe*. [So α.; þat, MS.] men of þat lond beeþ rediloker*. [reedloker, α.; redylyer, Cx.] i-cleped Gothy þan Gogi, and beþ wel stronge men and huge,*. [and ben right stronge men, grete, grym, and sturne, Cx.] grym and sterne, and of hem com þe Dacies in Europa, Getuli in Affrica, Amazones in Asia.

Armenia, þat hatte also Ararath, haþ þe name of Arme|nius, Iasons knyȝt, the whiche Armenius, whan he hadde i-lost Iason,*. [α. and Cx. adds his.] kyng of Thessalia,*. [Tessalia, MS., α. (not Cx.)] he gadered knyȝtes þat roiled*. [roillede, α.; royled, Cx.] aboute, and toke Armenia, and woned þerynne. Page  147, vol.1 Þat londe streccheþ by*. [to, Cx.] þe mount Taurus and Caucasus from þe see Caspius anon to Cappadocia,*. [Capadocia, MS. and Cx., and so below.] and haþ in lengþe eleuene hondred þowsand paas, and in brede seuene hon|dred myle. Þere is þat hille mount Ararath, þere Noe is schippe abood*. [abode, Cx.] after Noes flood, and þere is Armenyes tweie,*. [ther be two Armenyes, Cx.] þe more and þe lasse, þe ouer*. [ouerer, Cx.] and þe neþer, and so beeþ tweye Pannonyes also.