Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

De regione Iudœœ. Capitulum quartum decimum.

IVDEA is a kyngdom of Syria a party of Palestyna, and haþ þe name of Iudas Iacobus*. [Iacobs, α. Cx.] sone, and was somtyme i-cleped Cananea of Cam Noe his sone, [o]þere*. [oþer, α.; eyther, Cx.] of þe ten manere of*. [α. om. of.] peple þat þe Iewes putte oute of þat londe. Petrus. Iudea is i-take in many manere; oþer whiles*. [while, Cx., who omits all.] for all þe lond of byheste, and þan he*. [it, Cx., and similarly often.] haþ þe name of þe Iewes and not*. [Om. Cx. (typ. error?)] of Iudas; and so it is i-take in þis speche: "Þe grete Pompeius made Iudea tributaries;" and oþer while it is i-take for þe kyngdom*. [royamme, Cx.] of Iuda; and so it is i-write of Ioseph, þat "whan þey*. [þey] he, Cx.] herde þat Archelaus regnede in Page  105, vol.1 "Iudea he dredde*. [drad, Cx.] for to goo þider;" and somtyme it is i-take onliche for þe lot of*. [So α. and Cx.; for, MS.] þe lynage of Iudas, and so spekeþ Holy Writt and seiþ: "Iudea and Ierusalem drede ȝow*. [ye. Cx.] nouȝt." Gir.*. [Gregor., MS.]Dist. tertia. In þis Iudea þe lond of byheste þe lengþe þerof is from*. [from] fro, Cx., and so below.] Dan to Bersabe, and Ierom seiþ, in epistola ad Dardanum, þat it is scarseliche an hondred and sixty myle in lengþe, and þe brede is from Ioppen to Bethlem scarsliche sixe and fourty myle of þat lond. Bote, secundum librum Numerorum, Iudea is byclipped in þis manere aboute, and haþ in þe souþe side*. [side] om. Cx.] þe Dede se. And þan he streccheþ forþ by Syna and Cades-barne noon*. [anon, α.] to*. [Cades berne vnto, Cx.] þe streem of Egipte þat ȝerneþ*. [eorneþ, α.; renneth, Cx.] westward in to þe grete see, and in þe norþ side þe hulle þat hatte mons Taurus,*. [is named mount, Cx.] and in þe est þe hille*. [þe hille] om. α.] mons Libany [and the byginnynge of the see Tiberiadis, and of þe streem Iordan þat springeþ at þe foot of mont Libany],*. [Added from α.; and so Cx., nearly.] boþe Tiberiadis and Iordan. Þan Iordan renneþ in to þe Dede see and departeþ Iudea and Arabia.*. [Arabie, Cx.] Þe*. [þis, α. Cx.] londe Iudea was byhote*. [byhoote, Cx.] to oure forme*. [forn, Cx.] fadres, but nouȝt al i-had, as Poul seiþ, ad Hebræos, "Al Page  107, vol.1 "þey beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] deed and fenge*. [receyueden, Cx.] nouȝt þe byhestes." And so it moot*. [muste, Cx.] be, þat þere be tweye*. [two, Cx.] londes of byheste, erþeliche and goostlyche. In þe*. [that, Cx. twice, and so often.] oon is heuenly Ierusalem; and in þe*. [that, Cx. twice, and so often.] oþer, erþely Ierusalem; [by the whiche erthly Iheru|salem]*. [Added from Cx., who modernises a little.] þe heuenliche*. [þe] α. and Cx. add Ierusalem.] is bytokened. Þis lond Iudea is riche and fruitful, and haþ plente of wyne and of spicerie, of cedres, of*. [of] So α. and Cx.; and, MS.] cipres, of baume, of olyues, of pomgarnet, of palmes, of figes, of mylk, and*. [α. omits and, (not Cx.)] of hony; and haþ in þe myddel, as it were in þe nauel of þe erþe, þe cite Ierusalem. Isidorus, libro quinto, capitulo primo. Þe Iewes seiþ þat Sem, Noes sone, þat is i-cleped Melchesedek,*. [Melchisedech, Cx. (quid?), but Melchisedech below.] also made and bulde*. [buylded, Cx.] þe citee Ierusalem after Noes flood, and cleped*. [cleped, woned, cleped] Replaced in Cx. by called, dwellyd, named, and so often.] hit Salem, but aftirwarde a peple þat were i-cleped Iebusei woned*. [cleped, woned, cleped] Replaced in Cx. by called, dwellyd, named, and so often.] þerynne and cleped*. [cleped, woned, cleped] Replaced in Cx. by called, dwellyd, named, and so often.] þe citee Iebus. Of*. [So of, α. and Cx. (which is perhaps better).] þilke tweye names Iebus and Salem is i-made oo*. [one, Cx.] name Ieru|salem. Afterward Salamon cleped þe*. [þat, α.] citee Ierosolyma,*. [Iherosolyma, Cx., who also al|ways prints Iherusalem.] and poetis þat spekeþ*. [α. adds þerof.] schortliche clepeþ þe citee Solyma Page  109, vol.1 in her schort speche. And after þat Aelius*. [Helius, and Helia, MSS. and Cx.] Adrian þe Em|peroure cleped þat citee Aelia,*. [Helius, and Helia, MSS. and Cx.] and walled hit, and made it more aboute; so þat oure Lordes sepulcre, þat was somtym wiþ oute þe citee, is now*. [nowe closed, Cx.; now i-closed, α.] wiþ ynne. ℞. Neuerþeles*. [Netheles, Cx.] it semeþ þat Hieronymus, in epistola ad Evangelium*. [Evangelistum, Cx. See note on text.] presby|terum, wil seie, þat Salem oþer Salim, þat Melchisedek made and woned ynne, was anoþer citee þan Ierusalem. Þere he seiþ þat Salem is a toun beside Scythopolim,*. [Sitopolym, MS.; Sicopolim, Cx. α.] þat ȝit hat*. [hat] is called, Cx. (as usual).] Salem; and þerynne is i-seie þe paleys of Melchesedek and þerof spekiþ Holy Writt, Genesis; and seiþ þat Iacob wente into Salem þe citee of Sichem, þat is in þe londe of Chanaan. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. No welle is wiþ ynne Ierusalem, but watres be i-gadred, and i-kept in cisternes; for þe citee is so i-sette þat he haþ in þe north side þe mount*. [α. and Cx. add of.] Syon, and is disposed þat þe water, þat falleþ dounward and souþward wiþ þe pendaunt*. [dependaunt, Cx.] toward Ierusalem, takeþ no defoul,*. [fylthe, Cx.] but is clene i-now, and renneþ into þe citee, and no fen makeþ, and*. [and maketh no fylthe, but, &c., Cx.] renneþ into cis|ternes, as*. [as þey, α.; as though, Cx.] it were lakes and welle stremes. And somme Page  111, vol.1 þerof renneþ into þe brook þat is i-cleped torrens Cedron, and makeþ þe brook torrentem Cedron wexe and bewel*. [be wel (divisim), MS. and Cx. and α.] þe more. In þe top*. [toppe or sommet of the, Cx.] of mont Syon was a real*. [ryal, Cx.] toure*. [α. adds y-made.] for feiren[e]s*. [fayrenes, Cx.] and defens. In þe side of mont Syon was þe temple as it were in þe myddel bytwene the toure and þe citee; þe citee was lower þan þe toure, and þerfore ofte Holy Writt clepeþ*. [For this once Cx. has left clepeth in his own text.] Ierusalem þe douȝter of Syon. For as a*. [α. omits α. (not Cx.)] douȝter is meynteyned and defended by þe moder and sogett*. [subgette, Cx., and so below.] to the moder; so þe citee was lower and sogett to þe temple and to þe tour. Also*. [Also] Given as the last word in the previous sentence in α. and Cx.] þe grete Constantinus arered þere somtyme þe chirche of þe Holy Sepulcre. Mys|byleued men mysdede neuere þat chirche; and þat is, as me troweþ,*. [as men suppose, Cx.] for euery ȝere an*. [an] on, Cx., who has euen.] Ester eue comeþ fire from*. [fro, Cx.] heuene, and tendeþ and liȝteþ þe lampes þerynne; but whan þat miracle bygan first, hit is vncertayne and vnknowe.*. [vnknowen, Cx.] Salamon þe kyng wallede þis citee somtyme wiþ þre walles al aboute; neuerþeles nouȝt onliche for strengþe, but for distinccioun*. [So α. and Cx.; destruccioun, MS.] of dyuers manere men þat woned þere; þe*. [þe] So Cx.; þat, MS.; α. has some omissions here.] preostes and clerkes þat serued in þe temple, also*. [and also, Cx.] þe kyng Page  113, vol.1 and his mayne woneþ*. [dwelleden, Cx. (the preterite seems right,) and similarly below.] wiþ ynne þe firste wal by þe mount*. [mount of, α. and Cx.] Syon. Wiþ ynne þe secounde wal woned prophetes and myȝty men and stalworþe; so spekeþ Holy Writt, þat Elda*. [Olda, Cx.] prophetissa woned in Ierusalem in þe secounde distinccioun.*. [So α. and Cx.; destruccioun, MS.] Wiþ ynne þe þridde woned þe comoun peple and craftes men*. [men of crafte, Cx.] in þe wal.*. [α. and Cx. omit in þe wal.] [℞.]*. [℞. added from α. and Cx.] Faste by Ierusalem, in þe norþ side of þe temple, is þe mount of Olyuete for plentee of olyues. Seynt Austyn super Iohannem clepeþ it þe hulle of crisma*. [crisme, Cx.] and of vnccioun, þe hille of liȝt and of fatnes, þe hille of medicyne and of fedynge; for þe fruit*. [fruyȝt, α.] of olyue is ful of liȝt, likynge, and vnctuous; and it was specialiche þe hille and þe mont of liȝt, for it was beschyne wiþ*. [wiþ] by, α.] liȝt of þe sonne al day and wiþ liȝt of the temple al nyȝt. In þat hille Salamon, whan he wax*. [wax] wexe, Cx.] mad and al by schrewed for loue of wommen, he bulde temples in*. [in] and, Cx.] hiȝe places for mametrie; so seiþ Holy Writ, secundo Regum, decimo capitulo.*. [So MS. and α.; but Cx. absurdly has Romanos 2o, 1o capitulo.] Out of þat mount Crist steihe*. [steiȝ, α.; ascended, Cx., who omits vp.] vp into heuene; and in þat mount he schal Page  115, vol.1 deme þe worlde at þe laste.*. [at laste, Cx.] At þe foot*. [atte foote, Cx.] of þe*. [that, Cx.] mount springeþ þe brook torrens Cedron, and eorneth*. [renneth, Cx.] in to þe valey of Iosephat. Bytwene þe brynke of torrens Cedron and þe mount was þe orcheȝerde þat Criste went ynne ful ofte*. [wel ofte, α.] for to bidde*. [bidda, α.] and praye; in þat orcheȝerde*. [orcherd, α.] Crist was i-take, by þe whiche was a þrope*. [a thorpe, Cx.] þat hiȝt*. [heet, α. and Cx.] Geth|semany. In þat mount was þe litel strete of preostes, þat heet*. [heyght, Cx.] Be[th]phage.*. [Bethfage, α. and Cx.] In þe side of þe hille was þe yn*. [toun, α. and Cx.] of Laȝarus,*. [Lazar, Cx.] of Martha, and of Marie Mawdeleyn; þat toun hiȝt*. [hiȝt] was named, Cx.] Bethania. Hugo. In þe norþ side of mount Syon is þe mount Caluerie;*. [mont of Caluary, α. and Cx.] (þar*. [So α.; þat, MS.; there, Cx.] Crist deide on þe rode;) and is i-cleped Golgotha in þe longage*. [langage, α. and Cx.] of Syria. Golgotha is to menynge a baar scolle. For whan þeues and mysdoeres were þere byheded,*. [byheueded, α.] þe hedes were i-left þere, and so at þe laste þe sculles wexen al bare. Oþre wondres of þe temple loke in libro Regum. Isidorus, libro quintodecimo, capitulo primo. Also in þe reem*. [royamme, Cx.] of Iuda is þe see of wildernesse þat is Page  117, vol.1 þe Dede see, and from Ierusalem two hondred forlonges; þat makiþ fyue and twenty myle, and departeþ Iudeam, Palestinam, and Arabiam.*. [So α. and Cx.; Abraham, MS.]Isidorus, Eth. libro tertiodecimo. Þat lake*. [So Cx.; lakes, MS. and α.] streccheþ from þe endes*. [ende, Cx.] of Iudea noȝt fer from Ierico anon to þe Zores*. [Ierico vnto ȝores, Cx.] of Arabia seuene hondred forlonges and foure score, þat*. [þat] the whiche, Cx.] makiþ foure score myle and fourtene. Þat lake is*. [So Cx.; lakes is, α. The MS. omits is, but has lakes.] in brede seuene score forlong and ten,*. [an honderd and fyfthy furlonges, Cx.] and streccheþ nyh*. [neyȝ, α.] to þe contrees*. [contrayes, α.] of Sodoma. Þat lake is i-cleped lacus Salinarum, for salt is i-made þere. Also þere is moche glew in þat contray; and þerfore it meueþ*. [moeueth not with, Cx.] nouȝt for wyndes, for þe glew wiþstondeþ alwey: for water þat haþ glew stondeþ stille, and þat lake susteyneþ no schip ne non oþere matere, but it be glewed. Petrus, capitulo quinquagesimo. Noþyng may vndo þe glewe of þat place, but onliche þe blood þat is i-cleped sanguis menstruus. Isidorus, libro tertio decimo. It is*. [α. and Cx. place also after is.] i-cleped also þe Dede see, for þat see bryngeþ forth no þing þat is quyk and on*. [olyue, α.; a lyue, Cx.] lyue;*. [α. adds also þat se may fonge noþing þat is quyk and on lyue. Cx. agrees with MS., except in having it receyueth for he fongeþ.] so þat he fongeþ noþer water foules, noþer fisshes; so þat what quik þing*. [α. omits þing.] þat it be*. [þat it be] om. Cx., who has dippeth.] þat duppeþ þerynne, anon it Page  119, vol.1 lepeþ vp aȝen; and alle dede þinges it swelewith*. [he swolweþ, α.] so fer forþ, þat a lanterne wiþ lyȝt fleteþ and swymmeth aboue.*. [aboue] om. Cx.] And ȝif þe liȝt is*. [is] be, Cx.] i-queynt, it duppeþ doun and dryncheþ. Iosephus, libro primo. Þat was assaied and i-knowe in þat grete princes tyme Vespasianus*. [Vaspasianus, MS., α, and Cx.] be tweie men þat were i-bounde hir hondes by hynde hem and i-cast yn þere, but anon þey were i-cast vp aȝe. Isidorus, libro nono, capitulo tertio. Þat kyngdom hatte*. [hatte] is called, Cx.] Pentapolis*. [So α. and Cx.; Pentapolus, MS., and so below.] also, for fyue wicked citees þat þere were a-dreynt and i-brent to asshes. Þat was*. [was] were, Cx., who has no stop after asshes.] som tyme more riche and more plentevous þan Ierusalem; for saphire*. [ȝaphires, α.; saphirs, Cx.] and oþer wel precious stones and golde also were i-founde among þe cley of þat londe, as Iob witnessiþ, vicesimo quarto capitulo. But now þere semeþ somer schadue*. [schadowe, α.] and liknesse of fuyre boþe in ves|selles*. [herbis, Cx.] and in trees. For apples*. [appolis, α.] þat þere groweþ semeþ so faire and so ripe, þat who þat hem seeþ hym wilneþ*. [wylleth, Cx.] for to ete; but þilke apples þat to*. [to] αβγ; om. Ms.] falleþ to asshes*. [thylke appels fallen anon to asshes, Cx.] anon as þey ben*. [beeþ, α.] i-handeled, and smokeþ*. [So α.; smoked, MS.; smoken, Cx.] as þei afire were. ℞. But þere is anoþer Pentapolis in Affrica.