Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
Page  [522], vol.8

THE EIGHTH BOOK OF THE POLYCHRONICON FROM CAXTON.*. [The marginal references are to Walsingham's History so far as there is anything common to the two, and to the Fasciculus Tempo|rum, one of the authorities to which Caxton acknowledges himself in|debted.]

INCIPIT LIBER ULTIMUS.

THENNE folowyng this fore wreton booke of Prolicronycon I have emprysed to ordeyne this newe booke by the suffraunce of Almyghty God to contynue the sayd werk bryefly, and to sette in hystoriall thynges, suche as I have conne gete, from the tyme that he lefte, that was in the yere of oure Lord a thousand thre honderde and seven and fyfty, vnto the yere of our sayd Lord thousand four honderd and syxty, and to the fyrst yere of the regne of kynge Edward the fourth.

Capitulum primum.

IN the yere of oure Lord a Thousand thre honderd eyght and fyfty, in October, Robert Knolles, a Capytayne of a greete com|panye of Englysshe men and other, helde and had won many fortresses in Fraunce by Orleaunce in Brytayne and in Nor|mandye. And in the same monethe he lefte his garnysons, and cam tofore Parys, and there bytoke a stronge place named Amblanullers. And they of Parys sente out men of warre ageynste them, but they were anone overthrowen and beten into the toune ageyn. And dayly they assaylled the Frensshmen vnto the yates of Parys, and helde them of Parys soo strayte that atte laste they were constreyned to bye that place of hym, & to yeve to hym large moneye to departe. And after they destroyed many places in Champayne; and in Marche after they toke the Cyte of Anserre and the Castel; at whiche pryse were made thre knyghtes, that is to saye, Robert Knolles, Tomelyn Fonque, and another, whiche thre were Capytaynes of grete foyson of Englysshmen. And they pylled that toune, which was ryche as was sayd, they hadde as moche good and Jewellys, as was valewyd to fyve honderde thousand motons of Golde. And the Raunsonne of prysonners of synguler personnes was an over grete somme. And whan Page  523, vol.8 the Englysshmen had seen the lordes of the toune and had pylled it viij. dayes during, they said they wold brenne the toun, so that they that were left dwelling in the toun agreed to gyve them to save it forty thousand motons of golde, and syxty perles valewyd at ten thousand motons of golde. And that Englysshemen sholde bere aweye with them aboue that as moche goode as they wold, excepte the Jewellys of the chirche of saynt Germayn, the whiche they shold have in pledge for theyr payemente vnto mydsomer, and as to the wallys, they sholde breke them doune, and brenne the gates, and soo they dyde.

In this yere of oure Lorde a thousande thre honderd syxty, and fyve and thyrtty yere of the regne of kynge Edward the thirde, the pees was fynysshed and acorded bytwene bothe kynges of Fraunce and of Englonde, as it is afore sayd. And at Alhalowen tyde after bothe two kynges metten togeder at Caleys with bothe theyr counseyls; and there were shewyd the Artycles and condicions of the pees and acorde, to whiche both partyes agreed, and promysed to observe and kepe, where forthwith was songe a solempne masse. And after the thyrde Agnus Dei vppon Goddes bodye, and also on the myssale, bothe kynges, her sonnes and the grettest lordes of both Royames beyng tho there presente, swore to holde, observe, and kepe the sayd pees and acorde, and alle other covenauntes that were ordeyned bytwene hem.

Aboute this tyme saynt Brygytte, an hooly wydow of the Royamme of Swethen had many revelacions to bee enformed vnto alle thastate of the chirche, and Instytued and founded an ordre newe of women and of men, wherof she is Patrones: her feste is kepte the two and twentyest day of Juyll.

In the same yere were grete and sodayne tempestes and strong lyghtnynge and thondrynge, by whiche howsynge, beestes and trees were perysshed. And the devyl appered in mannys lykenesse to moche peple in dyverse places, and spak to hem.

Also in dyverse places of the worlde were erthe quaves, in soo moche that Basyle the Cyte fylle doune with many Castels aboute hit. That tyme men dwellyd in woodes as beestes, and durste not entre in to Cytees. That tyme were many bataylles, Pestylence and honger in many places. Also in dyverse places the Erthe caste oute whyte water and stynkynge, whiche over|threwe and made to falle Castels and stronge places on many places of the worlde. In this yere, in the feste of Conversion of saynt Poule, kynge Edward helde a parlamente at West|mynstre. In whiche was shewyd the pees and acorde made bytwene the two kynges.

Item.—In the same yere in the Ascencion even was seen Eclypse of the Sonne, wherupon fyll a grete droughte, and Page  524, vol.8 that for defaute of rayn fyll grete derth of corne and heye. Also this same yere the same monethe fylle Rayne in Burgoyne almoost lyke to blood. And a crosse almoost reede was seen in the ayer there. Also in the same tyme was seen in Fraunce, in Englond, and in many other places appyere two castels, oute of whiche yssued oute two hoostes of armed men; that one was clothed in whyte, that other in black. And whan the bataylle was bygonne bytwene them the white overcome the black. And soone after the black overcome the whyte. And thenne they retourned in to theyr castels, and soo vanysshed awey. In this yere was an huge pestylence, and this yere deyde Syre Harry duck of Lancastre. In the same yere Ed|ward prynce of Wales maryed the countesse of Kente, that was Syr Thomas Holandes wyf, which was somtyme dyvorsed fro the Erle of Salysbury for cause of the same knyght. Aboute this tyme a grete company of dyverse nacions assem|blyd theym to gyder, of whome the governours and leders were Englysshmen, whiche dyde moche harme in Fraunce. Anone after aroos another companye of dyverse nacions that were callyd the whyte companye, whiche in the countrayes of Lombardy dyde moche harme. This same yere Syre Johan of Gaunt, sone to kynge Edward the thyrde, was made duk of Lancastre by hys wyf, doughter and heyr of Henry duk of Lancastre that deyde.

Also this yere was a grete wynde which overthrewe houses, Trees, and many a steple in Englond. Item in this yere kynge Edward made Syre Leonel his sonne duc of Clarence, and Edmond his other sonne Erle of Cambrydge. In this yere was ordeyned by a parlament that men of lawe shold plete in theyr moder tongue. In that yere cam in to Englond the kynges of Fraunce, Cypres, and Scotland, which were worshipfully receyved. And after they had ben here long tyme, two of hem wente in to theyr countrayes ageyne. But the kynge of Fraunce, for grete sekenesse that he had, abode stylle in Englond.

SEQUITUR CAPITULUM SECUNDUM. Capitulum secundum.

THIS yere was an huge froste lastyng fro saynt Andrews tyde vnto the fourtenthe kalendas of Apryll. In this yere ther was a scoler whiche slepte contynuelly by the terme of seven yere in Lubyke. And after he awoke and lyved long tyme. Also this year was a grete batayll bytwene Syre Johan of Mountford, duc of Brytayne, and Syre Charles de Bloys, but the vyctorye fylle to syre Johan thurgh helpe and socoure of Page  525, vol.8 Englysshmen. This same yere deyde at the maner of Savoye kynge Johan of Fraunce, and after was caryed to saynt Denys in Fraunce & there buryed. After Innocent, the fyfth Urban was pope eyght yere. This was abbot of Massylyenne of saynt Benettes ordre,doctour of decrees, and reputed an hooly man; he made to be preched grete pardon to warre ageynst the Turkes; vnto him seint Brygytta was sente from Cryst for confermacion of her Rule & ordre. Atte laste he was poysoned and deyde. In this yere seynt Katheryn of Senys was in her floures, an hooly vyrgyn of the ordre of the frere prechours; she had the stygmates in her handes and feete and side: whiche deyde the yere of our lord MCCC. & four score. This yere was or|deyned that Peter pens from thens forth sholde not be payd, whiche of old tyme was graunted for contynuynge of scole in Rome. In this yere was borne at Bourdeaux Rychard, prynce Edwardys sonne; whiche after the deth of his fader and of kyng Edward also was crowned kyng in the enleventhe yere of his age by ryght lygne and assent of al the comunes of the royame. This yere fyl a grete variaunce in Spayn & grete warre bytwene Peter ryghtful kyng of Spayne & Henry his bastarde broder, in soo moche that kynge Peter cam to prynce Edward to Bordeux to axe socour and helpe of hym, on whome he had grete compassion & pyte. And by lycence of kyng Edward his fader he pourveyed for his ayde and helpe. In this tyme was seen thre dayes duryng in the Scottyssh see two Egles, one comyng out of the south and that other out of the north, which fought fyerfly to geder, & the south fyrst scomfyted the north egle, & he than fled home ageyne to his own costys; & anon after were seen many sterrys gadred to geder on one hepe, which fyl doun to therth leming with fire lemes in maner of lightnynges, whos flames brente mens clothes & heris walkyng on the ground. In this yere prince Edward & the duk of Lancastre, his broder, with a grete armee went in to Spayn, and had a batayll at Nazers ageynst Syre Harry the Bastard whiche had putte doune kynge Peter, & wan the bataylle and had the vyctorye, and put the bastard and his men to flyght, and there were slayne a syx thousand of the bastardes partye, and a two thousande prysonners taken, of whome the Erle of Dene, Syre Bertram Claykyn, and many other lordes were prysoners; & the noble Prynce Edward restored the sayd kyng Peter to his Royamme ageyne. In the same yere was seen a blasyng sterre named Cometa bytwene the north & south, with bemes to|ward Fraunce. In this yere sir Leonel, kynge Edwardes sone due of Clarence, wente to Melane and maryed the doughter of Galoys, And in the natyvyte of oure Lady he deyde. In this yere the bastard of Spayne reentryd ageyne, and slewe the kyng Peter, the two and twentyest day of August. Page  526, vol.8

In this same yere the Frensshmen brake the pees rydyng in Guyan and Pontiew, takynge castels and tounes, surmysynge on the Englysshe men subtylly and vntruly that they were cause of the brekynge of the pees. In this same yere deyde the Duchesse of Lancastre, and is buryed at Powlys in London.

Capitulum tercium.

IN this yere, xliiij. of the kynge, was a gete pestylence and a grete moreyn of beestes. And there fylle soo grete waters that it caused greete destruction of corne, in soo moche that the nexte yere followyng a busshel of whete was worth thre schyllynges & four pens. In the laste day of May was holden a parlemente at Westmynstre for the brekynge of the pees of the Frensshmen, and how the wronges myght be redressyd and avengyd. In this sayd yere in thassumpcion of oure Lady deyde quene Philyp, and is buryed at Westmynstre. At myd|somer this same yere the duc of Lancastre and the Erle of Herford with a grete companye of men of warre wente over see toward Fraunce, & on Chalkhylle bytwene saynt Omers & Guynes was an huge hooste of Frensshmen, & the hoost of Englysshe men fast by the same, whiche hadde long leyn there, & dyverse Englysshe men yaf counseyll for to fyght with the Frensshmen, but the lorde & capitaynes wold not. Anone after it happed that therle of Warwyck come thyderward. And whanne the Frensshmen herde of his comynge, er he cam fully to londe, they lefte theyr tentes and pavylons with all theyr vytayl, and fledde theyr weye. And whan therle was londed he hasted toward Normandy, and in his comyng ageyne toward Caleys he deyde on the pestylence.

In this yere at mydsomer was made an hooste, and Syre Robert Knollys was made governour, and whanne they cam in to Fraunce, as longe as they helde hem togeder the Frenssh|men durst not come neygh them. But atte last for envye and covetyse that was among them they discorded and sundryd them in to dyverse companyes, whiche couraged the Frenssh|men in soo moche that they cam frely on our Englysshmen, and for the moste part toke and slewe hem. In the same yere Pope Urban cam fro Rome to Avynyon, purposynge to have made a fynal pees bytwene Englond and Fraunce. But er he beganne his traytye he deyde. Somme saye he was poysoned. After Urban, the enleventhe Gregory was pope eyght yere. This pope was callyd tofore Petrus de Bello forte, he was deken Cardynal, and deyde in Rome in Goddes pees. After hym folowed grete trybulacion in the chirche, which God shewyd by Revelacion to saynt Brygytte for the synnes of men Page  527, vol.8 of the chirche. In the same yere Prynce Edward leynge at Burdeux by thavys of his counseyl byganne to sette Inposi|cions and taxes vpon the duchye of Guyan, wherfore the Cyte of Lymoge rebellyd & fought ageynst hym & other moo also, and torned from hym to the Frensshe kynge. Wherfore he toke and destroyed that Cyte, and slough al that was therynne. Sone after Prynce Edward cam in to Englonde levynge behynde hym in Gascoyne the duck of Lancastre and Syre Edmond, Erle of Cambrydge, with other worthy men of armes. In the parle|ment at Westmynstre was graunted to the kynge a subsydye of fyfty thousand pound to be payd of the laye fee. And thenne in hatered of men of the chirche the lordes putte oute of offyce the chaunceler, the Tresorer, and the pryve Seal, and in theyr sted were putte seculer men. In the eyght and fourtyest yere of the regne of kynge Edward, the duk of Lan|castre and the Erle of Cambrydge, the kynges sones, cam oute of Guyan in to Englond, and were maryed to two susters, doughters & heyres of kyng Peter of Spayne. That same yere Frensshmen besyeged Rochel, wherfore the Erle of Penbroke was sente in to Gascoyn with a greete company of men of armes, And er they couthe entre in the haven of Rochel ther cam vppon hem a stronge navye of Spayne, whiche scomfyted the Englysshe men, and toke the Erle with grete tresour and many other noble men. Thenne the kynge with a grete hoost entryd the see to have revenged the siege of Rochel, but the wynde wold not serve hym, wherfore he taryed longe at the see cost, abydynge after a good wynde, but it cam not, and soo he retourned home ageyne. Thenne the duc of Lancastre with a grete hoost wente in to Flaundree and passyd thurgh Pycardye to Parys and soo thurgh alle Fraunce till he cam to Burdeux withoute ony resystence. Aboute this tyme Wenzelaus, sone of Charles kyng of Boheme, his fader yet lyvyng, was electe and chosen to be Emperour, he beyng a childe, of whiche empyre he toke none heede, ne rought not, wherfore, after he had regned four and twenty yere, and after many warnynges, he was deposed: his lecherous lyf defouled hys noble wytte, and his ende was withoute worshippe, for he was never crowned with a dyademe.

In this yere were sent fro the pope two bisshops, one of Ravenne & one of Carpentras, for to treate bytwene two kynges of Fraunce & of Englond, & day was holden at Brugys in Flaun|dres, & ther were for the kyng of Englond the duc of Lancastre the bisshop of London, and many other; and for the Frensshe kynge, the Duc of Burgoyne, his broder the bisshop of Amyens, and many other, but they concluded no thyng.

Page  528, vol.8

Capitulum quartum.

In the fyftyest yere of kynge Edwardes regne, on Trynyte Sondaye, that yere the eyghte daye of Juyn, deyde the noble Prynce Edward at Kenyngton, and brought to Westmestre, wher he had his obsequye, and fro thens caryed to Caunterburye and there worshipfully beryed besyde saynt Thomas shryne. Aboute this tyme, Bartholus & Baldus, greete doctours of lawe, were in her floures. After the deth of pope Gregory the xj., began the worst scysme that ever was in the chirche, whiche dured xl. yere. For at Rome was Urban the syxthe, chosen by force & strength of the Romaynes. And this dyde the Cardynals for drede, ageynste theyr entente and wyll, therfore they fledde to the cyte Fundorum, saynge hym not to be pope, And chose in his place Robertum de Gebennis the same yere, which was named the seventh Clement. And thus beganne the scysme. In the fyfthe yere the mayre of London Adam Stable was discharged the xxj. day of Marche, and Nicholas Brembre chosen by vertu of a lettre that cam from the kyng. The same yere was a grete parlemente at Westmynstre, in whiche the kynge axyd a grete subsydye, but the Commynes answerd that they myght no lenger bere suche charges, and sayde they knewe wel that the kynge had good ynowgh for hymself and for savyng of his royame yf the royamme were well governed, but it hadde be longe evyl ruled by evyl offycers, that the londe myght not be plentiuous of chaffare, marchaun|dyse ne ryches, & shewyd many complayntes of dyvers officers of the royamme. And namely on the lord Latemer the kynges chamberlayn, and on dame Alyce Pyers, for grete wronges that mysgovernaunce that were done by theyr coun|seylle, desyrynge that they sholde be remevyd, and other putte in theyr stede, suche as were wyse, true, wel proved, and of good governaunce. And soo amonge all other they chees Syre Pyers Delamare, a wyse knyght and eloquent, for to be speker for the commynes. And bycause the same Syre Pyers tolde and publysshed the trouthe, rehersynge the wronges don by dyverse personnes of the kynges hous, anone after the deth of the good prynce Edward he was putte in to perpetuel prysonne. The same yere anone after Candelmasse, durynge the sayd parlement, a subsydye was graunted to the kynge bothe of the clergye and of the temporalyte, that is to saye, of the temporalyte of every persone passynge fourten yere of age he shold have four pens, except poure beggers; And of every man of hooly Chirche benefyced or promoted twelve pens, and vnpromoted foure pens, excepte the four ordres of Freres. The same Rychard, Prynce Edwardys sonne, was made prynce of Wales; And to hym the kynge gafe the Ducherye of Corne|wayle Page  529, vol.8 and the Erldome of Chestre. In the lij. yere of kynge Edwardes regne, the xj. kalendys of Iuyn, the sayd kynge Edward deyde in his maner at Shene, and from thens brought to Westmynstre, and there buryed worshipfully atte southe syde of saynt Edwardes shryne. On whoos soule God have mercy. Amen.

Capitulum quintum.

AFTER kyng Edward the thyrd regned Rychard the second, that was the noble prynce Edwardes sone of Wales; which kyng Rychard was borne at Bourdeux; he was crouned at Westmestre the enleventh yere of his age. In the second yere of his regne the lord Latemer and Syre Rauf Ferys, stryvyng and leyng at debate with Syre Robert Hawle and one Shakleys for the Erle of Dene theyr prysoner, cam in to Westmynstre chirch, and there slough atte hye masse tyme the sayd Hawle, and Shakle was arestyd and putte in the Toure of London. It is sayd that this was done by commaundemente of the duc of Gloucetre, wherfore he cam and was assoylled at Westmynstre, and made greete amendes and gafe grete gyftes and Iewellys therfore to the sayd chirche. Aboute this tyme the fest of the vysytacion of our Lady was bygonne by pope Urban the enleventh, after the forme and also the same pardon that is yeven to the feste of the Sacra|mente, whiche feste is holden the second daye of Juyll. In this tyme the grete maystre of Rhodes entryd in to Turquye with a grete companye, and there by the Grekes that were with the Turkes he was discomfyted and taken, and the remenaunt of his peple deed and taken to fore a castel callid Sayette. In the thyrde yere of his regne cam certayne galeyes of warre oute of Fraunce into dyverse portis of Englond, and robbed, brente, and slue moche peple, in so moche that they cam to Gravysende and brente a grete part of the toune.

In the same yere was ordeyned at a parlement at Westmyn|stre that every man and woman past fourtene yere of age shold paye to the talage four pens, wherfor fyl afterward moch mes|chyef. For in the fourth yere of his regne the comons aroos in dyverse partyes in Englond, and dyde moche harme, and it was callyd the hurlyng tyme. And they of Kente and of Estsex made hem two capytayns callyd Iac Strawe and Watte Tyler. And they assembled on Blacheth, and on Corpus Christi day they cam in to Southwerk, and lete oute all the prysoners of the kynges benche and Marchalsee, and cam in to London and robbed alle the alyens and straungers, and sloughe and made havoke. On the morne after they cam to the Toure of London, where the kynge was presente the same tyme, and toke out the Archebisshop of Caunterbury and the pryour of saynt Iohans and a whyte frere confessour to the kyng, and smote of theyr Page  530, vol.8 hedes atte Tour hyll; thenne come they ageyne to London, and slewe men of lawe and other worthy men in dyverse partyes of the toune. Thenne wente they to the duc of Lancastres place callyd Savoye, and destroyed it doune, and bare awey the goodes that they might fynde, and brente the place; thenne wente they to Westmestre and saynt Martyns the graunt, and delyverd them all oute of sayntuarye that were therynne for ony maner grythe. Thenne cam they to the Temples and to all other Innes of men of lawe, and despoylled and brente theyr bookes. Thenne came they to London ageyne, and toke oute al the prysonners, felons and other, oute of Newgate and both Countours, and de|stroyed theyr bookes. Thenne on the Monday, kyng Rychard sent for the mayr of London, William Walworth, and his alder|men, and they wente to speke and knowe thentencion of thyse rebellous peple. Thenne this Iac Strawe lete make an oye in the felde that all his peple shold come nere and here his crye and wyll. Thenne the lordes, the mayer & aldermen havyng indignacion of his presumpcion and covetyse, and the mayer seenge that he dyd noo reverence to the kynge, starte to hym and slewe the sayd Jac Straw, Capytayne of the Rebellys, and anone his hede was smyten of, and the hede reysed vp that all myght see hit. And forthwith incontynent alle tho Rysers and mysgoverned peple fledde awey. Thenne the kyng forth|with dubbyd the mayer knyght, and fyve of his bretheren Alder|men, that is to saye Syr William Walworth, Mayer, Syre Nychol Brambre, Syr Iohan Phylpot, Syre Nychus Twyford, Syre Ro|bert Laundre, and Syre Robert Gayton. And after this, as they myght take and gete thyse rebellys and mysgoverned people, they henge hem vp by ten, by twelve, twenty, &c. In the fyfth yere was a grete erth quave thurgh oute al the world the one and twentyest day of Maye, of whiche al maner peple was sore aferd. This yere quene Anne cam in to Englond, and was maryed vnto kyng Richard at Westmynstre. In the syxth yere Syre Henry Spencer, bisshop of Norwiche, wente over see with a Croysye in to Flaundres, and gate the townes of Gravenyng, Burburgh, and Dunkyrke. And ther he dyde do lade one and fyfty shippes with pillage and goodes whiche sholde have comen into Englond. But the bisshop lete brenne the shippes with alle the pyllage in the same haven. And he had a grete batayl with the Flemynges at Dunkyrke, and there were slayn an huge multitude of Flemynges. The bisshop with his retenue wente and besyeged Ipre longe tyme, but he couthe not gete it. And by|cause many of his men deyde there of the flux he cam ageyne into Englond.

The same yere was a bataylle done within the kynges palays at Westmynstre, for certayne poyntes of treasoune, bytwene Syre Johan Ansley, knyght, defendaunt, and Garton Squyer, appellaunt, and the defendaunt discomfyted thappellaunt. Page  531, vol.8 Alle this tyme dured the Scysme. For Urban at Rome was chosen Petrus de Thomacellys, and was named Bonefacius Nonus, 13 yere. And after Clemens was chosen in Avynyon Petrus de Luna, whiche was named Benedictus xiij., and he abode pope there two and twenty yere. And after Boneface was Innocencius septimus two yere. And after hym Gre|gorius 12us xij. yere, and after hym Alexander Grecus one yere. And thenne after hym Iohannes visesimus tercius, and thenne at Counseyll of Constance was chosen Martinus quintus: and soo of alle thyse forsayd popes, from Gregorius vndecimus vnto Martinus Quintus, endured the scysme by the space of fourty yere, that it was not knowen who was the very and vndoubted pope.

Capitulum sextum.

IN the eyght yere of kyng Rychardes regne, Syr Edmond of Langely, Erle of Cambrydge, the kynges vncle, wente in to Portyngale with a grete companye of men of armes and archers, in strengthyng and helpyng the kynge of Portyngale ageynst the kynge of Spayne. And there the kynge of Portyn|gale had the vyctorye. That done, the Erle of Cambrydge cam home ageyne with his armye in to Englond. The same yere kyng Rychard helde his Crystemasse at Eltham. The kyng of Ermonye the same tyme fledde oute of his owne londe, and cam vnto kynge Rychard for socour and ayde, for the Turkys had devoured & destroyed moche of his londe. The kyng havyng grete pyte & compassion of his grete myschyef, toke counseyl herupon. And it was concluded that the kyng shold yeve hym some good, for taventure his peple so ferre it were a grete ieopardye. And so the kyng gaf hym gold and sylver and many ryche yeftes, and betaught hym to God, and soo he departed oute of Englond. This same yere kynge Rychard with a grete and puissaunt armee wente toward Scot|land. And the Scottys sente to the kynge, and desyred and made grete laboure for to have a tryeus, soo a tryeus was taken and made; and thenne the kyng retorned to York, and there Syre Iohan Holond, therle of Kentis broder, slewe therlys sone of Stafford, wherfore the kyng was sore meved and retorned to London. In the nynthe yere of his regne was a parlement at Westmynstre, in whiche the kynge made and created two Dukes, fyve Erlys, and a marquys. Syr Edmond of Langley, the kynges vncle, Erle of Cambrydge, was mad duc of York. Syre Thomas of Wodestoke, his other vncle, that was Erle of Bokyngham, was made duc of Gloucetre. Syre Leonel Vere, Erle of Oxenford, was made marquys of Develyn. Harry Bolyngbroke, the dukes sonne of Lancastre, was made erle of Derby. Syre Edward, the dukes sone of York, was made erle Page  532, vol.8 of Ruthlond. Syre Iohan Holond, the Erle of Kentys broder, was made erle of Huntyngdon. Syr Thomas Moubray, erle of Notyngham, was made erle marchal of Englond. Syre Mychel de la Pole, knyght, was made Erle of Suffolk, and Chaunceler of Englond. Atte this same parlement therle of Marche was pro|clamed heyre apparaunte to the crowne of Englond after kynge Rychard. The sayd Erle of Marche wente over see into Irlond vnto his lordship therldome of Ulster, whiche was hys by enherytaunce. And there as he lay on a tyme in a castel of his, there cam vppon hym greete multitude of wylde Irysshe men, and he cam oute of his Castell fyersly with his peple and fought with hem manly, and there he was slayne. In the tenth yere the erle of Arondel went to the See with a greete navye, and there he met an hoole flete comynge fro the Rochel laden with wyn, whiche were enemyes goodes, whiche flete he toke and brought in to dyverse havens in Englond, and somme vnto London, where men myght bye a tonne of Rochel wyn for twenty schyllynges. In the enleventh yere of his regne was tharysyng of certayn lordes in Englond in destruction of rebellys, Syre Rychard erle of Arundele, Syre Richard erle of Warwyk, Syre Harry of Bolyngbroke, erle of Derby, and Syre Thomas Moubray, erle marchal. These fyve lordes vnder|stode the myschyef & governaunce of the kynges counceylle, wherfor they that were that tyme of the kynges counseyll fled out of the londe; that is to saye, mayster Alysaunder Nevel, Arclfebisshop of York, Syre Mychel de la Pole, Erle of Suffolk & chaunceler of Englond, and the marquys of Develyn, Syr Robert le Vere: these thre lordes cam never ageyne into Englond, for they deyde beyonde the see. These fyve lordes above sayd made a parlement at Westmestre, and there they toke Syre Robert Tresylyon, Justyce, Syre Nychol Brembre, knyght and cyteseyne of London, Syre Iohan Salesbury, knyght and Uske sergeaunt, with other moo, whiche were Iuged to deth and were drawe to Tyburn, and there hanged. Also in the same parlement Syre Symon Beverley, knyght of the Garter, Syre Iohan Beauchamp, knyght, styward of the kynges hous, and syr Iohan Berneis were byhedid atte Toure hylle. Also Robert Bealknap, Iohan Holte, Iohan Cary, William Burgh, Robert Fulthorp, and Iohan Lokton, Justyses, were exyled in|to Irlond, ther for to dwelle all her lyf tyme. In the twellifth yere, duryng the sayd parlement, was holden a general Justys in Smythfelde of lordes, knyghtes, and squyers for all maner straungers that wolde come, holdyng open housholde to hem and alle other. And alle they of the kyngys hous were of one sute, theyr cotys, theyr armys, theyr sheldes, and theyr trap|pours were browdrid all with whyte hertis, with crownes of gold about theyr neckes, and cheynes of gold hangyng theron; Page  533, vol.8 whiche hertys was the kynges leverey that he yaf to lordes, ladyes, knyghtes, and squyers, to knowe his houshold pepel from other. Thenne four and twenty ladyes comynge to the iustys ladde four and twenty lordes with cheynes of gold, and alle in the same sute of hertes as is afore sayd, from the tour on horsbak thurgh the Cyte of London in to Smythfeld. To this feste cam many grete lordes, straungers, oute of Fraunce, Henaud, Holond, and of other contreyes: whiche feste and iustes endured four and twenty dayes vppon the kynges cost. Whanne the feste was ended and iustys, the king thankyng the straungers yave to them grete yeftes. And thenne they toke their leve and so departed. In the thirtenth yere was a bataille done in the palays at Westmestre bitwene a squyer of Naverne, that was with the kinge, and a squyer callid Iohan Walssh, for pointes of treasonne that he of Naverne put vppon this Walssh; but in the ende he of Naverne was overcome and disconfyted in the felde, & yelded hym. And anon he was despoylled of his armure, and drawen oute of the palays vnto Tyburne and there hanged.

Capitulum septimum.

IN the fourtenthe yere Sir Iohan of Gaunt, duk of Lancastre, with a grete hooste wente in to Spayne, to clayme and chalenge his right by his wyves tytle vnto the Crowne of Spayne, and he had with hym the Duchesse his wyf and his thre doughters. And therafter grete commynycacion herupon had they were acorded, and concluded that the kynge of Spayne shold marye the duck of Lancastres doughter. And he shold yeve to the duck of Lancastre gold and sylver, whiche was casten in to grete wedgys, and soo many other Iewellys, as moche as eyght chary|ottis myght carye. And every yere after, durynge the lyf of the duc, and his wyf ten thousand marc of gold. Of whiche golde they of Spayne sholde adventure and bere the ieopardye therof, and brynge yerly vnto Bayon to the dukes assygnees by surete made. Also the duc of Lancastre dyde doo marye another of his doughters to the kyng of Portyngale the same tyme. And thenne he retourned and cam ageyne in to Englond with his wyf. In this yere the Turkes made grete warre ageynste Crystendome vnto the cyte of Iene. Wherfore the Ienewayes sente to the kynge of Fraunce for ayde, and also to the kynge of Englond. And soo ther wente oute of Fraunce fyften honderd knyghtes, with the duc of Borbon, and the Erle of Ewe, and other. And oute of Englond went the Erle of Alby, a valyaunt man, with certayne Archers. And they shipped at Marcellis, and wente and besyged Thunes in Barbarye, and made there many skarmuches, and putte oute ofte the Sarasyns: but in thende the Turke fered, and made trewes for a seasonne, Page  534, vol.8 and delyverd alle the Crysten men prysonners, and payd ten thousand ducatis; and soo the Crysten men retorned home ageyne. In the fyftenth yere of kynge Rychardes regne he helde his Crystemas at Wodestok, where therle of Penbroke, a yonge lorde and tendre of age, wolde lerne iuste with a knyght called Syre Iohan saynt Iohan, and rode togeder in the parke, and there the Erle was slayn with the knyghtes spere as he cast it from hym whanne they hadde coped. This yere Iohan Hynde, beynge that tyme mayer of London, & Iohan Shadeworth and Henry Vanner shereves, were dysharged of theyr offyces byfore saynt Iohans day Baptyst, and the kyng seased the fraunchyse and lybertees of the cyte of London, And ordeyned and constitued Syr Edward Dalyngredge wardeyn of the cyte, and endured in his offyce vnto the fyrst day of Juyll the yere xvj. And thenne Syr Bowdwyn Radyngton was made wardeyne to Saynt Symons daye and Iude. The cause therof was for a bakers man beryng a basket with hors brede into Fletestrete, there come a man of the bisshop of Sales|buryes that toke oute an hors loof oute of the baskette, wherfore the bakers man strove with the yoman, so that the Bisshops man brake the bakers mans hede. Thenne neyghbours come aboute to have rescowed hym, and to have arestyd the Bisshops man. But he scope fro hem in to his lordes place. The con|stable cam and wold have had hym out, but they withynne the place kept it that they myght not come in. And thenne come the mayer with moche peple, and sayde they wold have hym oute, or brenne the place and all that were therin. The Bisshop beynge tresorer of Englond, and the archebisshop of Caunter|bury, wente togeder to Wyndesore to the kynge, and made a grete complaynte to the kyng and his counseylle of the cyte of London. And the kynge sente for the mayer and shereves and yaf hem grete rebukes for thoffence that they hadde done ageynst hym and his offycers in his Chambre of London, and deposed the mayer and shereves, and made a wardeyne of the cyte as afore is sayd. In the syxtenth yere the kyng withdrewe his courtes from Westmynstre to Yorke, whiche were there holden and kepte fro the feste of Saynt Iohan Baptyst vnto Crystemasse after. Thenne atte requeste of the goode Quene Anne & of the bisshop of London, thenne callyd Gravesende, the kyng graunted the Fraunchyse and lybertees to the cyte of London; and they of London gaf to seynt Edwards shryne a table of sylver and enameled stondyng on the awter. And after this the mayer, aldermen, and sherevys mette with the kyng, sub|myttynge them humbly to hym as they ought to do, and res|seyvyng the kyng thurgh the cyte with grete tryumphe, and brought hym to Westmynstre. And on the morne after the mayer, aldermen, and shreves presentyng the sayd table & Page  535, vol.8 other yeftes, prayd the kynge of his good and speciall grace to have theyr lybertees and Fraunchyses as they hadde tofore tyme. And soo the kyng graunted to them alle theyr askynge, and wente home ageyne. In this same yere the duc of Lancastre was sente in to Fraunce to demaunde a myllion of scutes whiche was due for the raunson of kyng Iohan, and dyverse places as Peytowe, Rochell and a parte of Guyan. And he was answerd by the counseylle of Fraunce that the men of warre of Englond hadde done harme in Fraunce above the trewes to the somme of thre mylions, whiche oughte to be repayred fyrst, and so departed ageyne. In the sevententhe yere come oute of Scot|lande certayne lordes in to Englonde to gete worship by fete of armes. Therle of Moreyf chalengid the Erle marchal of Englond to iuste with hym on hors back with sharpe speres. And soo they roode to geder certayne courses, but not the full chalenge. For the Scottish Erle was cast, bothe hors & man, & two of his rybbes broken with the same falle, and soo borne home in to his inne, & anone after was caryed homewarde in a littyer, and at York he deide. Syre William Darel, banerer of Scot|lande, and Syre Pyers Courtney, the kynges banerer of Englond, ryden togeder certain courses of warre hitte & assayed. The Scottysshe knyght seyng he myght not have the beter, yave it over, and wold no moo of the chalenge. Thenne one Cokburn Squyer of Scotland, and Syre Nychol Hauberk, rode fyve coursys, and at every cours the Scot was caste bothe hors and man. This same yere the sevententh day of Iuyn deyde the good quene Anne, kynge Rychardes wyf, and lyeth buryed at West|mynstre by saynt Edwardes shryne.

Capitulum octauum.

IN the yere 1494 were trewes taken bytwene the kyng of Fraunce and the kynge of Englonde for foure yere. Also this same yere, aboute Crystemasse, kynge Rychard wente fyrst in to Irlond. After Wenzelaus, Rupertus alias Robertus was Em|perour nyne yere. This Robertus duk of Bayer and Count Palatyn on the Ryn, a juste and trewe man and a catholyke, he was crowned of the nynthe Boneface the Pope. He entryd in to Ytalye with a grete armye ageynst duk Galyace, but he retorned with grete losse. About this tyme was that cursyd heresye of Iohan Wyclyf in Englond, and Iohan Hus in Bohe|mye, and Ierome of Praghe, which heresye enfected moch peple, and vnder the habyte of a lambe hydynge wolvysshe cruelte had purposed to subverte alle the state of the chirche; and the sklaunderous scysme whiche was in this evyll tyme was a grete helpe to them. Also this tyme the heresyee Adamitarum beganne to growe in Boheme, but it was putte Page  536, vol.8 doune by the Hussytys. That was over grosse and vnshame|fast. For they wente naked, and indyffrently dyde theyr lech|erye with wommen. Petrus de Elyaco and Iohan Gerson his disciple, both doctours of dyvynyte of Parys, were in her floures this tyme. In this yere were merveyllous grete wyndes thre monethes contynuelly, and specially in September, that over|threwe greete trees with fruyte, howses, chymeneyes and steples. And there was seen in Langedok in Fraunce a grete sterre, and fyve lytell sterres assayllynge the grete, and pour|syewed it by the space of an houre, and a voys cryenge fro hevene. And after was seen a man semyng of copper, hold|yng a spere in his handes, by the greete sterre, and smote hit. And after that it was no more seen. In other places were herde the noyse of harneysed men fyghtynge.

In the nynetenthe yere of kyng Rychard, he wente to Calays, and maryed there quene Isabel, the kynges doughter of Fraunce. At whiche tyme the Frensshe lordes were sworen on a booke that alle covenauntes, forwardys, and composicions ordeyned and made on both sydes shold be truly holden and kept withoute contradiction or dylaye in ony maner wyse. And whanne this ryal maryage was done and fynysshed, kynge Rychard with dame Isabel his quene cam in to Englond. And the mayer of London with all his bretheren, with grete multitude of the comons of the cyte & the craftys resseyved hem worshipfully atte Blacheth, and brought hem to saynt Georges barre. And there takynge theyr leve, the kynge and the Quene roode to Kenyngton. And after that, withynne a whyle, the quene cam to the Toure of London, at whoos com|yng was moche harme done. For on London brydge were nyne personnes crowded to deth. Of whome the pryour of Typtre was one. And from the Tour she wente thurgh the cyte of London to Westmynstre, and there she was crowned. And after this kyng Rychard by appoyntemente delyvered the toun of Brest to the duc of Brytayne, wherof bygon moche trouble and sorowe, whiche dured vnto his deth. In the twenty|est yere kyng Rychard dyde holde a grete feste at West|mynstre. At whiche feste arryved the sowdyours that hadde kepte Breste, and sate atte dyner in the hall; and after dyner the Duc of Gloucetre sayd to the kynge, "Syre, have ye not seen the felawes that sate at dyner in your halle?" And the kynge demaunded who they were. And he sayd, "these ben youre folk that have servyd yow, and ben come from Breste, and now wote not what to doo, and have ben evyl payd." Thenne the kynge sayd that they shal be payed. Thenne answerd the duc of Gloucetre in a grete furye, "Syre, ye ought fyrste to putte youre bodye in devoyre to gete a toune or a castel by fayt of warre vpon your enemyes, er ye sholde selle or delyver ony tounes that your predecessours Page  537, vol.8 kynges of Englond have goten and conquerd." To the whiche the kynge answerd ryght angrely, "How saye ye that?" Thenne the duk his vncle sayd it ageyn. Thenne the kyng byganne to wexe wrothe, and sayde, "Wene ye that I be a marchaunt or a foole to selle my londe? by saynt Iohan Baptist, nay; but trouthe it is that our cosyn of Britayne hath rendryd and payd to vs the somme that my predecessours hadde lente vppon the sayd toune of Brest; and syth he hath payed, it is reasonne that this toune be delyverd to hym ageyne." Thus beganne the wrath bytwene the kynge and his vncle. And afterward at Arondele was a counseylle of certayne lordes, as the duck of Gloucetre, the Archebisshop of Caunterbury, The Erles of Arondele, Warwyk and Marchal, and other, for to refourme the rewle aboute the kynge; whiche lordes promysed eche to byde by other, and soo departed; and anone after the Erle marchal, whiche was Capytayne of Calays, be|wrayed and lete the kynge have knowleche of all theyr coun|seylle. Wherupon the fyve and twentyest daye of August the duke of Gloucetre was arrestyd at Plasshey in Estsex and brought to the Tour of London, and from thennes sente to Calays, and there murthred and slayne withoute processe of lawe or Justyce, and therle of Arondel, the Erle of Warwyk, Syr Iohan Cobham, Syre Iohan Cheyne, knyghtes, were arestyd and putte in holde. Save therle of Arondel fonde seurte tans|were, and wente at large tyl the parlement tyme. In the one & twentyest yere of kyng Rycharde, at the parlement holden at Westmynstre, therle of Arondel was brought tofore alle the lordes, and there was iuged to deth, that he shold goo on fote fro Westmynstre thurgh the cyte of London to the Tour hylle. And there to have his heede smyten of. And syxe lordes roode with hym to see that execucion sholde be doo, with grete multitude of peple, of men at armes and archers. For they dredde leste he shold be rescowed by men of London. And on the morne tharchebisshop of Caunterbury his broder was banysshed for evermore. And Syre Thomas Mortemer was banysshed also. And Syre Rychard, Erle of Warwyk, cam to fore the parlemente, and was iuged to the same deth, but by cause of his age he was releced to perpetuel prysonne. The Mondaye after, Syre Iohan Cobham and Syre Iohan Cheyne were iuged to be drawen & hanged, but at the instaunce of the lordes that iugement was releced vnto perpetuel prysonne. And this done kyng Rychard made a ryal feste and helde open Courte. In whiche feste he made fyve Dukes, a marqueys and fyve Erles; that is to saye, the Erle of Derby was made duc of Herford; the erle of Ruthlond was made Duc of Aumarle; the Erle of Kente, Duck of Surrey; the Erle Huntyngdon, Duck of Excetre; the Erle Marchal, Duck of Norfolke; the Erle of Somersete, Marqueys of Dorsete; the lorde Spencer, Erle of Page  538, vol.8 Gloucetre; the Lord Nevyll, Erle of Westmerlonde; Syre Thomas Percy, Erle of Worcetre; Syre William Scrope, Erle of Wylshyre; Syre Iohan Montague, Erle of Salysbury. And thus there was a greete feste to al these lordes and to all other that wold come. In the same yere fylle a greete debate and dys|sencyon bytwene the Duck of Herford, Erle of Derby, on that one partye, And the Duke of Norfolke, Erle Marchal, on that other partye, in so moche that they waged bataylle and cast downe theyr gloves, whiche were taken vp byfore the kynge and ensealed, and the daye and place assygned at Coventre. To whiche place the kynge cam; the Duk of Lancastre, and other lordes. And whanne bothe partyes were in the felde redy for to fyghte, the kynge toke the matere in his owne honde, and forthwith he exyled and banysshed the Duke of Herford for ten yere, and the duke of Norfolke for ever. The Duc of Norfolke deyde at Venyse. In the two and twentyest yere of kyng Rychard there were made blank charters, to whiche all the ryche men of the royamme were compellyd to sette to theyr seales. And it was noysed thurgh the royamme that he hadde sette Englond to ferme to Syre William Scrope, Erle of Wylshyre, sir Iohan Busshe, Syre Johan Grene, and sir Johan Bagot; and he or|deyned his vncle Syr Edmond of Langley, duk of Yorcke, to be his lyeutenaunt whiles he shold be in Irlond in his absence. In this yere deyde the due of Lancastre, and is buryed at Powlus in London. Thenne kynge Rychard wente in to Irlonde with many lordes and grete ordenaunce, and there he was wel resseyved; And the wilde Irysshemen cam downe to hym with theyr capytaynes, and yelded them to hym, and swore to be his true lyege men, and dyde hym hommage and feawte. Thus he con|querd Irlond the moost part in a lytel whyle. Whyles kynge Rychard was in Irlond thus occupied, Syre Harry of Bolyng|brooke, Erle of Derby, the duc of Lancastres sonne, whome kynge Rychard hadde made Duk of Herford, and had exyled hym for certayn causes, & with hym tharchebishop also, londed at Ravenspore in the north contre, and by the coloure of his tytle to the Duchye of Lancastre he reysed and assembled the people ever as he wente, in soo moche as he hadde greete multi|tude of peple. For the peple were soo oppressyd with the offycers of kyng Rychard, that almoost all the commyns of the londe were redy to awayte on the Erle of Derby, hopynge to be relevyd by hym. Incontynent tydynges cam to kynge Rychard beyng in Irlond how he was landed, and that the comons drewe faste to hym. Anone he made hym redy and cam over see into Englond with alle his hooste, and arryved in Mylford haven; and there taryed a two dayes for to refresshe hym and his hooste. And in the mene whyle the lordes and mooste part of the peple vnderstode that the Erle of Derby bycam strenger and strenger, began to murmure and to grutche. That seynge Syr Thomas Page  539, vol.8 Percy called them togeder, brake the roode of his offyce, for he was styward, and badde every man goo his wey, vnwetyng the kynge. And so in the nyght every man wente his weye levynge the kynge allone, save two or thre lordes with a fewe men, whiche lordes for sewerte, and by counseyll of the styward, brought the kynge to the castel of Flynt, where he was taken and delyvered to therle of Derby, whiche brought hym to London. And thenne were taken at Brystowe Syre William Scrope, Syr Iohan Bussh, Sir Harry Grene, & Syr Iohan Bagot; but Syre Iohan Bagot escaped. And the other that were take were byheded. And thus as he was comyng to London warde, tydynges cam to the cyte that kynge Rycharde was comen to Westmynstre; And anon the peple of London in their furye and wodenesse, as people maliciously sette ageinst king Richard, their soveraine lorde, roose and purposed yf they myght have founden to have destroyed hym. But the mayer and aldermen with the sadde men of the toune with moche werke tourned hem hoome ageyne to London; yet they toke Syre Iohan Slake, dene of the kynges chapel, and putte hym in Ludgate, and Syre Johan Bagot that escaped from Bristowe was take in Irlond and brought to London and sette in Newegate. Sone after this kynge Rychard was broughte to the Tour of London, and thenne was there a parlement, in whiche kynge Rychard was deposed of his crowne, and kynge Henry chosen and taken for the kynge; to whome kynge Rychard resygned the crowne and the Royamme of Englond. And thenne from the Tour he was had to the castel of Ledes in Kente, and from thennes he was had to the castel of Pountfret.

Capitulum nonum.

THENNE the duc of Lancastre, Erle of Derby, named Henry Bolyngbroke, was crowned kyng of Englond at Westmynstre on saynt Edwardes day Confessour. Thenne made the kynge his oldest sonne Henry prynce of Wales, Duke of Cornewayle and Erle of Chestre; he made Syre Thomas of Arondel Arche|bisshop of Caunterbury as he was byfour. And he that was made Archebisshop by kynge Rychard, he made hym Bisshop of London, and he made the Erlis sonne of Arondel to be put in possession of all his londes. In the fyrst yere of his regne he helde his Crystemas at Wyndesore. And on the twelvthe even the duk of Aumarle tolde the kyng how the duc of Surrey, the Duc of Excetre, the erle of Salesbury, & therle of Gloucetre, with other of theyr affynyte, were accorded to make a mommynge to the kyng, and soo for to slee hym in the revelynge. Wherfore the kyng the same nyght cam prively to London, and anon these lordes that had purposed to have Page  540, vol.8 made this mommery, vnderstode that theyr counseylle was be|wrayed, anone with theyr people wente westward. And at Sysseter the duke of Surrey and the erle of Salesbury were taken and biheded, & their heedes sette on London brydge; and at Oxenford were taken two knyghtes, Blount and sir Benette Sely, and Wintercele a squyer, whiche were byheded and quartred, and their heedes sette on London bridge, and the quartres sente to other goode townes. And at Prithwell in Estsex, Sire Iohan Holonde, Duck of Excetre, was taken with the comons of the countreye, and his heede smyten of, and sente to London, and sette on London bridge. Also at Bristowe was take the lorde Spencer, that was made by kinge Richard erle of Gloucetre, and biheded, and his heede sent to London and sette on London bridge. In the same yere Sire Bernarde Brokeis, Sir Iohan Selley, Syr Iohan Mawdelyn and Syr William Ferby were taken and sette in the Tour. And after by iugemente were hanged and byheded, and theyr heedes sette on London bridge. Whanne kyng Henry sawe that these lordes thus hadde rysen, and assemblyd greete peple to have putte hym to deth, and for to restore kynge Richard ageyne to his crowne and to his royamme, thoughte teschue suche peryls, anone commaunded Sir Pyers of Exton that he shold goo strayte to Pountfreyte and delyver the worlde of kynge Rychard. And soo he departed fro the kynge, and wente to the castel of Pountfret, where as kynge Rychard was in prysonne, the whiche was sette at table for to dyne. And anone after Syre Pyers cam in to the chambre where the kynge was, and eyghte men with hym, and eche man an axe in his hond. Trouth it is, whan the kyng sawe Sir Pyers with his felaushippe entre in to the chambre defensably arayed, he shoof the table from hym, and sprange into the myddes of hem, & raughte an axe oute of one of theyr hondes, and sette hym self valyauntly at defence. And hym self defendynge, he slowe foure of the eyghte. And whanne the sayde Syre Pyers sawe the kynge soo defende hym, he was soore abasshed and gretely aferde. And forthwith sterte vpon the place where as kyng Rychard was wonte to sytte. And as kynge Rychard foughte and defended hym self goynge bacwarde, the sayd Syre Pyers smote hym on the heede with his axe that he fyll to grounde. Thenne cryed kynge Rychard God mercy. And thenne he gafe hym yet another stroke on the heede, and soo he deyde. And thus was thys noble kynge slayne and murthred. And whanne the kynge was deede the knyght that hadde thus slayne hym sette hym doune by the deede bodye of kynge Rychard, and byganne to wepe, saynge, "Alas! what thynge have we doone? we have putte to deth hym that hath ben oure kynge and soverayne lord two and twenty yere. Now have I lost myn honour. Ne I shal never come in place but Page  541, vol.8

I shal be reproched. For I have done ageynst myn honour." After this the twelvest daye of Marche was the bodye of the noble kyng Rychard broughte thurgh London to Powlus, whiche corps was leyd on a charyotte coveryd with black and four baners, wherof tweyne were of the armes of saynt George, and tweyne of the armes of Saynt Edward. And there were an honderd men clothed in black, eche berynge a torche. And the cyte of London hadde thyrtty men in whyte, eche beryng also a torche. And the corps was leyd open the vysage, that every man myght see and knowe that it was hys body, and that he was soo deede. For many men bylevyd it not. And from thennes he was caryed to the Frerys at Langley, and there he was buryed. On whoos sowle God have mercy. Amen.

The comyn oppynyon of Englysshmen is that kynge Rychard deyde not after the maner a foresayd, but that he deyde other wyse. That is to wete that whanne he herde saye that his brother the Duc of Excetre, the Duc of Surrey, the Erle of Salysbury, and the other lordes were deede, he was soo angry and soo sorowfull that he swore that he wolde never eete meete, and soo abode foure dayes withoute etynge as they saye. And whanne that kynge Henry vnderstode that he wolde not ete, he sent to hym two prelates for to comforte hym. And whan they were come he confessyd hym to one of them, the whiche gaf hym in penaunce that he sholde ete his mete. And whanne he supposed to have eten, the meete myght not goo doune ne avale in to his stomake; For the conduytes of his bodye were shronken to geder And thenne sayde the noble kynge Rychard that it was done, and that he muste nedes deye; and soo he deyde. But certes, whether he deyde this waye or that other, certaynly he deyde, and was buryed at Langley. God have mercy on his sowle. Amen.

And thenne was kynge Harry peasly kyng. Thenne he fonde in kynge Rychardes tresorye nyne honderd thousande noblis, withoute iewellys and vessels, whiche was as moche worth or more. And ther was founden in the tresorers kepynge of Englonde an honderde and fyfty thousand nobles, and iewels and vessell as moche or more. And thus kynge Henry hadde all his goodes.

Item. This same yere kynge Harry sente hoome ageyne kynge Rychardys wyf Quene Isabel vnto the kynge of Fraunce, her fader, and he putte her from her dowayre.

Capitulum decimum.

IN the second yere of kynge Harry the fourth, Sire Rogyer of Claryngton, knyght, and two of his men, and the priour of Page  542, vol.8 Launde with eyght frere mynours, were drawen and hanged for treasonne. In this yere beganne a grete debate in Walys bytwene the lorde Gray Rethyn and Ewayn of Glyndor, Squyer of Wales. This Ewayn reysed grete nombre of Walsshmen, and kepte the countrey with strength, and dyde moche harme, and destroyed the kynges townes and lord|shippes in Walys, robbyng and sleyng the kynges peple, whiche contynued longe tyme. And toke the lord Gray prysoner, and made hym to marye his doughter, and helde hym stylle there with his wyf; and sone after, the lord Gray deyde. Thenne kynge Harry with a grete power wente into Wales for to take and destroy the sayd Ewayn; but he and all his company fledde to the montayns, where the kyng myght not hurte hem for the montaynes. And soo the kynge retourned and cam ageyn in to Englonde, for losynge of his men. In the same yere was a grete scarcete of whete in Englond; a quarter was worth sixten shyllynges, wherfor marchandise was sente in to Normandy for whete, and from thennes cam grete plente. Also Syre William Sawtry, preest, was degraded of his prest|hode. Aboute this tyme the Duc of Orleaunce sente an herowde of armes with lettres vnto kynge Harry, by whiche he chalengyd for to fyght with hym withynne lystes at Bour|deux, or in some other metely place, with an honderd gentyl|men withoute reproche ageynste as many gentyll men with|oute reproche. Wherto the kynge answerd ageyne by lettres worshipfully, rehersynge that at suche tyme as it shold plese hym he wolde come with suche nombre as it apperteyneth to a kynge, and conquere his ryght; at whiche tyme he shold be answerd atte full. And soo the mater fynysshed. In the thyrde yere was kynge Henry wedded to dame Jane, Duchesse of Britain. And they were maryed at Wynchestre, and fro thens she cam to London, and so forth to Westmynstre, And there she was crowned Quene. In the same yere was dame Blaunche, oldest doughter to kynge Harry, wedded in Coleyn to the dukes sonne of Bayer with grete solempnyte. In the seventh yere was seen a sterre that is called stella Comata, and anone after was the batayl of Shrewesbury on Mary Magdalens even, in whiche bataylle was slayne Syre Harry Percy, and Syr Thomas Percy taken, and kept two dayes, and after he was hanged, byheded and quartred, and his heede sette on London brydge. And in thys batayl was the prynce shotte in to the heede with an arowe. And the Erle of Stafford was slayne vnder the kynges baner. And many other lordes, knyghtes, squyers and gentyls were put to deth in the sayd batayl. In the fourth yere cam the Emperour of Constantynople with many grete lordes and knyghtes in to Englond, to see the kynge, the peple, and the royamme and the commodytees therof. The same yere the lord Castel, with a grete multitude Page  543, vol.8 of Brytons & of Normans, landed a myle out of Plymouthe, on saynt Laurence day at after none, and cam in to the toune on the bakhalf; and there they abode al that day and al that nyght till it was on the morne ten of the clock, and robbed and despoylled al that was in the toune, and bare hit awey at her owne wylle. In the fyfthe yere was a grete bataylle on the see at Blackpole, two myle oute of Dertmouth, bytwene Englysshmen & Brytons, where, thanked be God, Englysshe|men had the vyctorye, & there were taken, slayne, and drowned moo than fyve honderd gentyls of Frensshemen and Brytons, On whome the lord Castel was pryncipal leder and Capitayne, which there was taken and slayne. Also this same yere Wil|liam Serle, the whiche was one of hem that murtherd the good duke of Gloucetre at Caleys, was taken in the marche of Scotlande, and broughte to London, and there he was drawen, hanged and byheded, and his heede sette on London brydge, and his quarters sette vp in foure good townes. In the syxthe yere was a iustys in Smythfeld bytwene the Erle of Morryf in Scotland and Syre Edmond Erle of Kente, vpon a chalenge made by therle of Morryf to iuste certayn courses of warre with sharp sperys on horsbak. And the Erle of Kente had the felde, and gate hym there grete worship. This same yere Syre Rychard Scrope, Archebisshop of York, and the lorde Moubraye, that was Erle marchal of Englond, assemblyd grete power ageynst kyng Harry. And the kyng met with hem and toke hem, and smote of bothe theyr heedes. And soone after God shewyd and wrought many myracles for the worthy clerke Archebisshop of Yorke, that was soo putte to deth. In the seventh yere the mayer of London, Iohan Wode|cok, and the comynalte dyde do brake vp al the weerys that were bytwene Medewey and Kyngeston, bycause they were sette ageynst the fraunchyse of the cyte of London. In the eyght yere of kyng Henry, dame Lucye, the dukes suster of Melayn, come into Englonde, and soo forth to London, and there was she ryally maryed to Syr Edmond Holond, Erle of Kent, in the pryory of saynt Marye Overayes in Southwerk. The same yere syr Robert Knollys, knyght, a grete warryour in his tyme, dyde doo make the brydge at Rochestre, and a chapel atte brydges fote: the whiche Syre Robert deyde, and lyeth buryed in the whyte freres in London, by his wyf dame Constaunce. In the same yere Syr Thomas Rampton, kyght, constable of the Tour of London, was drowned at London brydge as he come fro Westmynstre toward the Tour in a barge. The same yere dame Phelyp, the yonger, doughter of kyng Henry, was maryed to the kyng of Denmark. In the same yere a man that was callyd the Walssh clerk, appelled a knyght callyd Syre Percyval of treasonne. And they fought within lystes in Smythfeld, where the knyght scomfyted the clerk, and there the clerk Page  544, vol.8 was despoylled of his armure, and drawen out of the feld to Tyburn, and there hanged. In the same yere Syr Henry Percy erle of Northumberland, and the lord Bardolf, comyng oute of Scotland togeder with a grete company, were taken by them of the north, that fought with them, and smote of theyr heedes and brought hem to London, and sette hem on London brydge. In the ix. yere was Syre Edmond Erle of Kente made Ameral of the see, whiche kepte the see worthyly with many ryall shippes. And atte laste he londed at the Costes of Brytayne, in the Ile of Bryak, and besyged the castel and sawted hit, and with a quarel he was slayne, but nevertheles the Castel was goten. And thenne his meyne come home ageyne with therles body, whiche was buryed with his Aun|cestryes worshipfully. Also this same yere was a grete frost that duryed fyftene wekys; whiche frost destroyed for the moost parte alle the smal byrdes.

Capitulum undecimum.

THIS yere, Lowys duc of Orleauns was slayn meschevously at Parys atte commaundement of the duc of Burgoyne. For it was soo that the duc of Orleaunce hadde ben to vysyte the Quene. And as he retorned to his Inneward, certayne per|sonnes ordeyned by the sayd duc of Burgoyne laye in awayte, and fylle on him and slewe hym cruelly, smytynge the brayn oute of his heede; and one of his gentylmen was slayne with hym: wherfor on the morn was a grete counseyll, and the yates of Parys were closed, and alle the grete lordes thenne beyng at Parys were assemblyd. Among whome was the sayd duc that commysed this murdre, and there was gyven strayte commaundemente to the prouost of Parys that he shold make strayte serche to knowe who hadde commised this grete murdre. For as soone as the murdres hadde slayne the duk they sette an hous a fyre. And whyle the people cam for to staunche the fyer, they had their horses redy, and soo escaped, and roode in to Flaundrys. And on the nexte daye, whanne al the lordes were reassembled, there was moche axynge and serchyng, who myght doo this murdre. Thenne the sayd Duc of Burgoyne stode vp and sayde that he hym self hadde doo putte hym to deth for certayne causes whiche he wold justyfye, and forthwith he departed oute of the counseil and wente to his lodgyng, and toke his hors with a pryvy meyney, and rode strayt to Lyle; and after cam al his other meyny, and so de|parted he from Parys. Wherupon after cam the duchesse of Orleaunce his wyf, the Dukes doughter of Melan, with her sonnes, and her oldest sones wyf, suster to the kyng, whiche had ben tofore quene of Englonde, kynge Rychardys wyf, and requyred humbly iustice of the kynge, whiche thenne was in Page  545, vol.8 gode heele, and sate in the chayer of iustyce. To whome the kynge sayde that he wold doo iustyce on them that commysed that horryble crysme on his seul and only broder, and that they sholde veryly knowe it in al hast possible. Thenne after this the duc of Burgoyn made requestys that he myght come to fore the kyng and his counseyll for to justyfye the deth of the duc of Orleaunce, whiche was graunted, and soo cam with a grete armye into Parys. And there tofore the Dolphyn and al the counseylle of the kynges in playn parlemente, by a doc|tour of dyvynyte callyd mayster Iohan Petyte, he made his justificacion. And after at another daye assygned, the duchesse of Orleaunce dide by another doctoure of divinite make a replicacion. And so that mater henge longe; whiche mater was occasion of infynyte sorowe in the royamme of Fraunce. Aboute this tyme the counseylle of Pyse was, in which was bygonne the maner to make unyon in the chirche, but it prevayled not. In the tenth yere cam the Seneschal of Henawd with many other gentil men in to Englond for to doo armes and to geete honoure and worship. The Seneschal chalengyd therle of Somersete. And therle delyverd hym manly of his chalengys, and wanne thonoure of the felde. The next day after cam in to the felde another man of the Senes|challys partye, & ageynst hym cam Syre Rychard of Arondele, knyght. And the Henewer had the better of hym, for he brought hym on his knees. The thyrdde day cam in another, and ageyne hym cam Syre Iohan Cornewayle, knyght, and manly quytte hym in the felde, and hadde the beter of his adversarye. On the fourth day cam in to the feld another Henewer, and ageynste hym cam Syre Iohan Cheynes sonne, and he cast doune hors & man. And therfor the kyng dubbyd hym knyght. The fyfthe daye cam in another Henewer, and to hym cam Syre Iohan Styward, knyght, whiche quytte hym manly and hadde the better. The Syxthe daye cam another Henewer, and to hym cam William Porter, Squyer. And he hadde the better of the Henewer, and the kyng dubbyd hym knyght. The seventhe day cam in another Henewer, and to hym cam Iohan Standysshe, squyer, and he hadde the better, and the kynge dubbyd hym knyght. The same day cam another Henewer, and to hym cam a squyer of Gascoyne, whiche hadde the better and was dubbed knyght. The eyght daye cam in two Henewers, and to hem cam two sowdyours of Calays that were bretheren, whiche had the better in the felde. And thus ended this chalenge with moche worship. The kynge thenne fested the straungers ryally, And at theyr departynge yafe hym ryche yeftes; and soo they departed and wente home. In the enleventh yere was a batayll done in Smythfelde bytwene two squyers, one callyd Gloucetre, and that other Arthure, whiche well and manly foughte togeder Page  546, vol.8 longe tyme. And the kynge for theyr manlynes toke theyr quarel in to hys honde, and made hem goo oute of the felde to|gyder attones. And soo they were dyvyded of theyr bataylle, and the kynge yaf hem grace.

This same yere the comons putte vp a bylle in the parle|ment to the kynge as for the temporalytees beynge in the handes of the spirituelte; but there was none answer gyven at that tyme, for the kyng wold be advysed. After Rupertus, Sygis|mundus was electe and chosen emperiour this same yere, and was emperour seven and twenty yere. This Sygysmundus was kynge of Hongary, whiche was a very crysten and meke man, also devoute and hooly, and after thoppynyon of somme persones worthy to be canonysed. This was a special socour to hooly chirche, whiche he fonde soore afflycte and desolate by the scysme; but he by his merveyllous wysedome and indus|trye socoured it gretely. For he spared not hym self, ne his, vnto the tyme that there was a very and full unyon in the chirche. He hadde nyne bataylles ageynst the Turkes, which he al gate tryumphyng. What shal I saye more, but alle the lawde that hath be gyven to Constantyn, Theodosio, to Charles, to Ottone, and all other emperours worthy to be preysed, maye surely be applyed to this Sygysmunde: he was crowned of Eugenye. After this the royamme of Boheme was a grete parte destroyed by Sygismunde and the prynces of Almayne for the heresye of the Hussytes. And the pope gaf oute a croysye ageynst them. A croysye gyven by the pope is whanne he giveth playne indulgence to them that make warre ageynste hethen men, Turkes or heretykes, or them that be not obedyente to the chirche of Rome. In the same yere Iohan of Badby, a fals Lollar and heretyke, was brente in Smythfeld, whiche bylevyd that the Sacrament was not Goddes bodye.

Capitulum Duodecimum.

IN the twellyfth yere of kyng Harry was taken a Squyer of Wales that hadde ben a rebelle and supporter of Owen of Glyn|dor, and he was iuged to deth at London, where he was drawen, hangyd, & quartred, & his four quartres sette vp in four gode townes, and his hede on London brydge. In the thyrtenth yere of his regne deyde Sire Iohan Beauford, Erle of Somersete, capytayne of Calays, and lyeth buryed in the Abbaye of the Tour hylle. The same yere cam the am|bassatours of Fraunce from the duc of Burgoyne to the prynce kynge Henryes sonne for helpe and socour ageynst the duc of Orleaunce. Thenne wente over the Erle of Arondele, the Erle of Kyme, and the lord Cobham, with many other knyghtes and squyers, and had a grete retenew ageynste the duc of Page  547, vol.8 Orleaunce. And at Sayntclo, besyde Parys in Fraunce, they mette and had vyctory of the Frensshmen, and of the Army|naks. And the duc rewarded rychely our Englyssh men, and they come ageyne. Not longe after the duc of Orleaunce sente ambassatours to kynge Harry to have helpe and socour ageynst the duc of Burgoyne. At whiche tyme the kynge made Thomas his sonne duc of Clarence, and Iohan his sone duc of Bedford, and his sonne Umfrey Duke of Gloucetre, Syre Thomas Beauford Erle of Dorsete. And the duc of Anmarle he made Duck of York. Thenne he ordeyned the Duc of Clarence, and the Erle of Dorsete, and Syre Iohan Cornewayle with a grete retenue to passe over in to Fraunce to helpe and strengthe the duck of Orleaunce, and thenne the lordes with theyr retenue sayled in to Normandye. And at theyr londynge mette ageynste hem the lord Hambo with seven thousand men of armes of Frensshmen, whiche were putte to flyght, and taken of hem seven honderd men of Armes of Frensshmen, and toke many prysonners. And soo they rode forth thurgh Fraunce, takyng castels and townes, and slewe moche peple of Frensshmen, and toke many prysonners, and soo passed forthe tyll they come to Bourdeux, there restyng them a whyle. And sette the countray in peas and reste, and thenne come hoome ageyne. In this yere the coyne was lyghted both of golde and of silver, and weyed lasse syn than it dyde before. In the xiiij. yere of the regne of kynge Harry ther were made galeys of warre, for the kynge purposed to have passed the see, and soo forth vnto Ierusalem, but God vysyted hym with grete and fervent infyrmytees, and on a day he was brought to saynt Edward shryn to make his offryng and to take his leve. And there beynge, he becam soo seeke that they were about hym supposed he shold have deyd there; & thenne they toke & bare hym in to the abbots place in to a fayre large chambre, and leyde hym vppon a paylet to fore the fyre. And whanne he was comen to hym self ageyn, and wyst not where he was, he axyd of his chamberlayn where he was, and how the chambre was callyd that he was inne. And he told hym that he was in thabbots place, and that the chambre was named Ierusalem. Thenne he sayde that his tyme was come, and that it was prophecyed of hym that he shold dye in Ieru|salem, and there disposed hym to Godwarde and made hym redy, & sone after deyde in the same chambre. On whoos soule God have mercy. Amen. Thenne was the bodye caryed from thennes in a barge by water to Feversham, and from thennes to Caunterbury by londe, & there by saynt Thomas shryne in Cristys chirche he is buryed. Thus ended kyng Harry the fourth aboute mydlente Sonday, in the yere of oure Lorde a thousand four honderd and twelve.

Page  548, vol.8

Capitulum xiij.

AFTER kynge Harry the fourth regned Harry his sonne, borne at Monmouthe in Walys. This Harry, whiche was the fyfth, after the Conquest, was a noble and wyse man. For after his faders dethe, whanne he hadde take vpon hym to be kynge, he chaunged al his condicions, and was sodenly chaunged, and lefte al his olde wyld maners, and charged alle them that had ben conversaunt in his wylde lyvynge that they shold avoyde his presence and come no more therynne. This man dyde many greete thynges in his dayes, and regned not fully ten yere. For in the tenth yere of his regne, and syx & thyrtty yere of his age, he deyde, and is buryed worshipfully at West|mynstre. In his fyrst yere, anone after he was crowned, whiche was the nynthe day of Apryll, he sente to the Frerys at Langley, where the body of kyng Rychard was buried, and lete the body take oute of therth ageyne, and dyde do bryng it to Westmynstre in a ryal chare coverd with black velvet and baners of dyvers armes about. And alle the horses in the chare were coverd with blac, and beten with dyverse armes, and many a torche brennyng by the chaar till they cam to Westmynstre. And there he lete make a ryall terment, and buryed hym by quene Anne his wyf, as his desyre was. Aboute whoos sepulcre ther stande foure grete tapers con|tynuelly brennynge. And one day in the weke perpetuelly he hath a Dirige with nyne lessons. And on the morne a masse, bothe by note solempnly, on whiche day is gyven also wekely in pens to poure peple enleven schyllynges & viij.d., all or|deyned by this kyng vpon grete payne. And on the day of his annyversary is yerly gyven twenty pond in pens to pour peple. Also this kynge ordeyned by his lyf and founded the Chartrous at Shene. And the hous of Syon of saynt Brygyttes ordre, and dyde moche good to the newerke*. [Sic.] of Westmynstre, where he lyeth buryed, and ordeyned thre masses perpetuelly to be songen over hym dayly, & also certayne lyghtes dayly to brenne atte hye masse and at evensong, & twenty pound to be deled in pens yerly at his annyversarye. Al this ordeyned he by his lyve besyde all his warre in Fraunce and other greete actes. On whoos sowle Ihesus have mercy. Amen.

Also in this fyrste yere Syre Iohan Oldecastell, lord Cobham, was take and dampned for an heretyk by al hooly chirche, and commyted to the Tour, and from thennes he brake prysonne and escaped. And anone after, he and his complyses con|spyreden the kynges deth and his bretheren, and also the destruction of hooly chirche, For they hadde purposed to have assemblyd by nyght in saynt Gyles felde for tachyevyd Page  549, vol.8 theyr evyll purpose. But blessyd be God, the kynge and lordes had knowleche of theyr entente, and toke the felde to fore them, and awayted on theyr comyng, and toke many preestes, clerkys, and other lewd men that were of theyr sect fro alle the partyes of Englond, wenyng to have founden theyr Capitayne there, Syre Iohan Oldecastel, but they were deceyved. For there were take many of them, and nyne and thyrtty were hanged on one day vppon a newe payr galowes new made fast by the same felde by the hye waye. And seven of the gretteste heretykes were brente hangyng on the galowes. And anone Syre Rogyer Acton knyght was taken, drawe, and hanged vppon the same galowes for the same cause. In the seconde yere of his regne byganne the generall counseylle at Coun|staunce for the unyon of hooly Chirche, and for to depose theym that were scysmatykes, and to chose one very heede and undubytate pope. Also the same yere Iohan Claydon, skynnar, and Rychard Baker of Lombard strete, were brent in Smythfelde for heresye. Also this same yere by thadvys of hys counseyle, the kynge sente lettres vnto the kyng of Fraunce that he shold rendre & delyver to hym his enhery|taunce whiche his predecessours had holden and had to fore hym, or ellys he wolde do his devoyre to geete it by the helpe of God and of his subgettys with the swerde. To whome it was answerd that the kyng was over yong and tendre of age to vse the warre ageynste hem, and in derysyon sente to hym a tonne full of tenyse balles to playe with. And whanne the kynge vnderstode his answer, anone he lete doo calle a counseylle, and there shewed them this mater. And there it was concluded by the sayd counseylle, and in especiall by the spirituelte, that he sholde goo and geete Normandye, and they wold helpe hym to theyr power. It is sayde that the spyritualte fered soore that yf he hadde not hadde to doo withoute the londe, that he wolde have laboured for to have taken fro the chirche the temporal possessions. And therfor they concluded amonge hem self that they shold stire hym for to goo and make warre over see in Fraunce for to conquere his ryghtful enherytaunce. And soo it was concluded and acorded that the kynge and lordes with al theyr power sholde mete at Southhampton at Lammasse next after. And soo the eyghtenth day of luyn the kyng roode thurgh London with all his hooste ryally toward Southhampton. And there beynge redy for to passe, and alle his lordes assembled, there was taken and arestyd for hye treasonne Syre Rychard, Erle of Cambrydge, brother to the duc of York, the lord Scrope, Tresorer of Englond, and Syre Thomas Gray, knyght, whiche sholde ymagyne the kynges deth. For whiche cause they were iuged and dampned to deth. And there the nyne and twentyest day of Iuyll they were byheded. And thenne the kyng and alle the lordes with theyr armee Page  550, vol.8 toke the see with fyften honderd sayllys, and arryved at Kyd|kaws in Normandy. And fro thennes went and leyd syege to Harflete be lande and by water, and leyd his ordenaunce to the toune. And the twoo and twentyest daye of September the toune was gyven over to hym. Thenne ordeyned he there capytayne his vncle the Erle of Dorsete, and putte oute the Frensshmen, and stuffyd it with Englisshmen. Thenne the kynge sente in to Englond, and lete crye in every good towne that what crafty man wolde come theder for to dwelle and en|habyte the toune there sholde have hows and houshold to hym and his heyres for evermore. Thenne come theder many craftes men and enhabyte them there. The kynge seynge the toune wel stuffyd with vytaylle and men, he passyd forthe by lande toward Calays. Thenne the Frensshmen heerynge of his comyng brake the brydges, that he sholde not come over the ryver of Somme. Thenne the kynge wente soo fer vp|ward that he gate over and cam in to Pycardye. And thenne were the Frensshmen at Agyncourt, Rolandcourt and Blangy, wyth all the ryal power of Fraunce, excepte the duc of Bur|goyne, whiche wolde not come theder, ne suffre his sonne the lord Chareyles to come theder. And whanne the kynge sawe that he myght not passe, he toke his felde with suche peple as he hadde, whiche were not passynge seven thousand fyght|ynge men. And the mooste parte of hem were seeke of the flyxe, and the yemanry hadde theyr hosen terven or bounden bynethe the knee, havynge long iackys. But every man had a good bowe, a sheef arowys, and a swerd. Thenne he sette his felde, and sette the duc of York in the vauntward, and ordeyned in the nyght tofor the bataylle, that eche man sholde make a stake sharp on both thendes, and pytche it a slope in the grounde to fore hym. And soo on the morne he hadde his confessour, that made hem to saye a general confession, and gaf them general absolusion. And thenne the kynge roode thurgh the felde and comforted hem, promysynge to them that he wold rather deye that day than yelde hym. And thenne every man toke good herte and courage, and soo abode the comynge of Frensshmen, whome they resseyved on her stakys, stomblynge and fallynge doune hors and man, in suche wyse that our men shotte on hem, and soo fought that thurgh the grace of God the vyctorye abode with the kyng, and the Frensshmen overthrowen, and were slayn of them enleven thousand and moo, and many grete lordes and gentyls take prysonners. And whanne the kynge hadde thus goten the felde, tydynges cam that ther was comynge a newe batayll of Frensshmen towardes hym. And thenne he dyde doo crye, and comaunded that every man shold slee his prysonners. And whanne the duc of Orleaunce herde that, and other greete lordes, they sente worde to the Frensshmen that yf they cam Page  551, vol.8 on they shold be slayne. And thenne the Frensshmen for savacion of the prysonners lyves withdrewe them. And soo the kynge hadde and kepte the felde, and wanne the worshippe of the bataylle. And there were slayne in the felde thre Dukes, nyne Erlys, and Barons nyghe an honderde, and gentylmen in cote armoure xlv. C. And of the Englysshe partye, the Duc of Yorke and therle of Suffolke, and not twenty personnes moo, blessyd be God; the duc of Braban was taken alyve, but whan the kynge commaunded that every man shold slee his prysonner, he was slayne, on whos sowle and alle other God have mercy. Amen. Thus by the helpe of Almyghty God, the kynge of Englond with vij. M. Englysshmen won the felde vpon the Frensshmen, whiche were nombred moo than foure score thousand men, with all the ryall lordes of Fraunce except the kynge and Dolphyn. And whanne al was done, the kynge demaunded the herowdes the name of the next place to the felde. And they answerde, Agyncourt. Thenne sayd he, we wille that the bataylle be callyd and named the bataylle of Agyncourt. Thenne the kynge kepynge the felde with his hoost al nyghte after, on the morne departed towarde Caleys with his prysonners, that is to wete, the Duck of Orleaunce, the Duck of Borbon, the erles of Ewe and of Vendon, Bur|cicaught the marchal of Fraunce, with many other lordes and gentill men, whome he brought alle in to Englonde with hym, where he was receyved in every place worshipfully with alle the honoure, ioy, and solempnyte that myght be. And the foure and twentyeste daye of Novembre the kyng cam to Lon|don; and it is to wete that every Englisshman that had ben in that bataylle gate good prysoners or good iewellis. For the Frensshmen were richely and costlew arrayed, wherof oure peuple had good pyllage.

Capitulum 14.

IN the thyrde yere of his regne the emperour of Almayne, Sygysmund, cam in to Englonde, and was receyved worship|fully at Dover by the duc of Gloucetre. And the cyte of London as the mayer, aldermen, and alle the craftes in the moost best wise resseyved hym at Blackheth the seventhe daye of Maye. And at saynt Thomas wateryng the kyng him self with his lordys mette hym and welcomed hym in the moost goodlyest wyse, and toke hym by the honde, and roode forthe with him thurgh the cite, and offrid at Powlis, and thenne rode forth vnto Westmestre, where the king lodged him in his owne palays, and there abode a grete whyle at the kinges coste.

Thenne come the Duc of Holonde in to Englonde, whome the king resseived worshipfully, and lodged him in the bisshop Page  552, vol.8 of Elyes place in Holburne. Whanne the Emperour hadde seen the manere of this londe and the commodytees therof, he was electe and chosen to be a broder of the garter, whiche he toke and receyved gladly, and ware it ever after. And thenne the kynge brought hym to Calays. And theder cam to hym the duk of Burgoyne for to doo hommage to themperour for the counte of Alst in Flaundres, whome the kynge receyved worshipfully. And thenne after themperour toke leve of the kynge, and departed, and soo eche toke leve of other, and the kyng retourned ageyne in to Englond. And the Emperour wente to Zierixsee in Zeland, and thenne into Dordrecht in Holonde.

In the fourthe yere the duc of Bedford, therle of Marche, and other certayne lordes, with theyr retenue, foughten on the see ageynst seven carryks of Gene, and fyfty other vessels, as hulkes, barges, galeys and galyetis. Of whome were taken thre grete caryks with the patrons, and drowned a grete hulke callyd the black hulk of Flaundres; and the remenaunt fledde aweye; and this was done on our Lady day Assumpcion. Also this yere at a parlement holden at Westmynstre was graunted to the kynge an hoole fyftenthe, and a dyme to mayntene with his warrys. And this yere the kynge sayled with al his rete|newe over see in to Normandye ageyne, and landed on Lammas day at Toke; and there at landynge the kynge made eyght and fourty knyghtes. And anone the kynge wanne the toune of Toke and the castel withoute strooke; and he made Syre Iohan Kygley capytayne therof. And thenne the kynge sente therle marchal vnto Louers, whiche they sawted, and anon it was yolden, and therle brought the keyes to the kynge, and the kyng delyverd hym the keyes ageyne, and made hym capy|tayn of Louers. Thenne the kyng wente to Cane and besyeged it, and with asawte entryd the toune and gate it; but the castel helde, and the capytayne desyred respyte of fourten dayes for tabyde rescows, and yf none cam than to delyvere it. The kynge graunted it hym, and vnder the same apooyntement was the cyte of Bayows, with other townes and fortresses vnto the nombre of fourtene: vppon the hyll to fore the castel of Cane the kynge pyght alle his tentes and pavyllons, whiche semed a toune as moche as Cane. And whanne tydynges cam that noo rescowes wolde come, at fourten dayes ende the capytayne delyverd the keyes and castel vnto the kynge. And in lyke wyse was Bayous with other fourtene townes delyverd also. Of whiche townes and castels the kynge made the duk of Clarence capytayne and governour. In Cane the kyng heelde his feste of saynt George, where he made fyftene knyghtes of the bathe. And thenne, er he departed, he gate Valeys, and sente the duc of Gloucetre to Chyrburgh for to geete it, whiche he besyeged, and lay long there. And thus the kyng sente to dyverse Page  553, vol.8 townes, and gate dayly many townes, in soo moche that he gate alle the tounes, castels, pyles, strengthes, and abbeyes vnto Pount Alarche, and fro thens to Roan. Aboute this tyme contynued the counseylle of Constaunce, in whiche was ended the scysme of fourty yere, and ther was dampned the heresyes, and two heretyks, that is to wete, Iohan Hus and Iherome, were brente. And many good thynges institued and ordeyned; there was determyned decreed by the hooly synode that the counseyll lawfully gadred and assembled, representyng the chirche, hath vnyversal power immedyatly of Cryst. To whome every astate, aswel the papal astate as other, is bounden and holde to obey in tho thynges that toucheth the general reformacion of the chirche, that is to wete, in feyth and maners, as wel in the heede as in the membrys. Item, that from thenne forth on, sholde alwey the general counseyl be holden fro ten yere to ten yere. In this counseyll was chosen for to be pope Martyn, whiche was Martinus quintus, and was pope fourten yere. And there was the vnyon which was desyred long yhad for the defence of the feyth. This was a myghty Pope, above alle other ryche, and a man of grete iustyce; he helde the stretes and the weyes sewrly and in pees. He destroyed here|tyks; he dyde many goode thynges by helpe of the noble Emperour Sygysmunde. And for to recover the Holy lond, he gadryd moche tresoure, but by deth that cam vpon hym, it was lette, and a lytel to fore his deth ordeyned a general counseyll to be assemblid in Basyle. In the fyfth yere of the regne of kynge Harry the fyfthe, Syre Iohan Oldcastel, lord Cobham, was taken and convycte by the clergye for heresye, and dampned to fore the temporal iuges for tresonne. And soo he was drawen and hanged in saynt Gyles felde vpon a newe payr of galows, with a cheyne of yron; and vnder the galewes was made a grete fyre whiche brente galowes and alle. In the syxthe yere the kyng besyged the cyte of Roan, whiche endured half yere and more, and atte laste the cyte beyng in grete famyne, putte oute moche peple, as women and children, whiche deyde for honger, moo than thyrtty thousand; & also seyng that noo rescowe cam, appoynted with the kyng, & gaf over the toun vnto hym, which he receyved. And anone after that Roan was goten, Deepe and many other tounes in Baas Normandye gaf them over withoute strook or syege, whanne they vnderstode that the kynge had goten Roan.

Capitulum xv.

ALSO this same yere hadde ben a pees made and sworne bytwene the duc of Burgoyne and the Dolphyn, whiche were sworn vpon our Lordes body, that they shold love and assyste eche other ageynst theyr enemyes. And after this, contrary to this othe, the Duc Iohan of Burgoyne was slayne and Page  554, vol.8 pytously murthred in the presence of the Dolphyn. Wherfore the Frensshemen were gretely devyded and of veray necessyte labouryd to have a trayte with the kynge of Englond. For the kynge of Englond wanne dayly on them townes, castels, and fortresses. Also this same yere was Quene Iane arestyd and brought to the castel of Ledys in kente. And one Frere Randolf, a doctour of divynyte, her confessour, whiche after|ward was slayne by the person of the Tour fallynge at wordes and debate. And afterward Quene Iane was delyverd. In the seuenth yere both kynges of Fraunce and of Englond were acorded, and kyng Harry was made heyr and regente of Fraunce, And wedded dame Kateryne the kynges doughter of Fraunce, atte Troyes in Champayne, on Trynyte Sondaye. And this was made by the meene of Phelyp, newely made duke of Bur|goyne, whiche was sworne to kynge Harry, and for tavenge his faders deth he was become Englysshe. And thenne the kyng with his newe wyf wente to Parys, where he was ryally receyvyd. And from thens he with his lordes and the duc of Burgoyne and many other lordes of Fraunce leyd syege to dyuerse townes and castels that helde of the Dolphyns partye, wan them, but the toune of Melun helde long, for therin were good defendours. In the viij. yere the kyng and the quene cam ouer see, & londed on Candelmasse by the morow at Douer, & the xiiij. day of Feverer the kyng cam to London, & the xxj. day of the same moneth the quene cam, & the xxiiij. day of the same she was crowned at Westmestre. Also the same yere anon after Ester the kyng helde a parlement at West|mestre, at whiche parlement it was ordeyned that the gold in Englysshe coyne shold be weyed, and none resseyved but by weyght. And anone after Whitsontyde the king sayled to Caleys, and passyd soo forth in to Fraunce. And in Marche the two and twentyest daye byfore the king cam over, the duc of Clarence was slayne in Fraunce, and dyverse other lordes taken prysoners, as the erle of Huntyngdon, the erle of Somer|sete, with dyverse other. And al was bycause they wold not with hem Archers, but thought to have doo with the Frensshmen them self withoute them. And yet whanne he was slayn tharchers cam and rescowed the body of the duc, whiche they wold have caryed with them. God have mercy on his soule, he was a valyaunt man. And the same yere bytwene Crystemasse and Candelmasse the toune of Melun was yolden to the kynge. In the nynth yere on saynt Nycholas day in December was borne Harry the kynges first begoten sonne at Wyndesore, whoos godfaders at fontstone was Harry, bishop of Wynchestre, and Iohan duke of Bedforde, And the duchesse of Holond was godmoder; and Harry Chychely, arche|bisshop of Caunterbury, was godfader atte confermyng. And in the tenth yere the cyte of Mews in Brye was goten, whiche Page  555, vol.8 had ben longe besyeged. And this same yere the Quene shipped at Hampton, and sayled over to the kynge in Fraunce, where she was worshipfully receyved of the kyng, and also of the kyng of Fraunce her fader, and of her moder: and thus kyng Harry wan faste in Fraunce, and helde grete astate, and sate at dyner at a grete feste in Parys crowned, and the quene also, whiche hadde not ben seen tofore; and alle peple resorted vnto his courte. But as to the kyng of Fraunce, he helde none astate ne rule, but was left almoost allone. Also this yere the whethercock was sette vpon Powlus steple at London.

And this yere in the moneth of August kynge Harry wexe seke at Boys de Vyncent. And whanne he sawe he sholde deye, he made his testament, and ordeygned many thynges nobly for his sowle, and devoutly resseyved alle the ryghtes of hooly chirche, in soo ferforth that whanne he was enoynted he sayd the seryvyse with the preeste; and whanne the vers of the Psalme, Miserere mei, Deus, &c., that was Benigne fac, Domine, in bona voluntate tua Syon, vt edificentur muri Ierusalem, was sayd, he bade tarye there, and sayd thus: "O good Lord thou knowest that myn entent hath ben and yet is yf I myght lyve to reedefye the wallys of Ierusalem," and thenne the preest proceded forth and made an ende. And anone after this mooste noble prynce, vyctoryous kynge, flour in his tyme of Crysten chyvalrye, whome all the world doubted, gaf his soule into the handes of God, & deyde & made an ende of his naturel lyf atte sayd Boys de Vyncent besyde Parys, the syx and thryttyest yere of his age: on whoos soule god have mercy, Amen. Thenne was the bodye enbamed and cered and leyde in a ryall chare, and an ymage lyke vnto hym was leyde vpon the corps open, with dyvers baners and horse covered rychely with tharmes of Englonde and Fraunce, And also the old armes, as saynt Edwardys, saynt Edmonds, and other; with grete multitude of torchys; with whome wente the kyng of Scotlande and many other lordes, whiche accom|panyed the body till it cam vnto Westmynstre by London in Eng|londe. And in every toune by the waye he hadde solempnly his dirige atte even and masse on the morn, and moche Almesse was gyven to poure people. And the seventhe daye of No|vembre after the corps was brought thurgh London with grete reverence and solempnyte vnto the monasterye of Westmynstre, where as he nowe resteth. On whoos tombe is a ryche ymage lyke hym self of sylver and gylt, where he is dayly remembrid and praid for. On whoos sowle, and all Crysten, God have mercy. Amen.

Capitulum decimum sextum.

HERE is to be noted that this kynge Harry the fyfthe was a moche noble prynce after he was kyng and crowned. How be Page  556, vol.8 it to fore in his yongthe he hadde ben wylde, recheles, and spared nothyng of his lustes ne desyres, but accomplisshid them after his lykynge. But as soone as he was crowned, enoynted, and sacred, anone sodaynly he was chaunged into a new man, and set al his entente to lyve vertuously in mayntenynge of hooly chirche, destroyng of heretykes, kepynge iustyce, and defendynge his royamme and subgettis. And for as moche as his fader hadd deposyd by his labour the good kynge Rychard, and pytously made hym to deye, and for thoffence doo to hym ageynst his lyegeaunce he hadde sente to Rome to be assoylled therof. For whiche offence the pope oure hooly fader enioyned hym to make hym be prayd fore perpetuelly; and lyke as he had done to be taken from hym his naturell lyf, therfore he sholde doo founde four tapers to brenne perpetuelly aboute his body; that for the extynction of his bodyly lyf his sowle may ever be remembryd, and lyve in heven in spyrytuel lyf. And also that he sholde every weke on the daye as it cometh aboute of his dethe have a solempne masse of requiem, and on the even to fore a dirige with nyne lessons, and a dole to pour people alwaye on that daye of enleven schyllynges eyght pens, to be delyd penymele. And ones in the yere at his annyversarye his terment to be holden in the moost honest wyse, and to be deled that day twenty li in pens to pour peple, and to every monke to have twenty schillynges: whiche alle these thynges performed this noble kyng for his fader. For kynge Harry the fourth his fader performed hit not duryng his lyf, whome, as it is sayde God touchyd, and was a lepre er he deyde. Also thenne this noble Prynce leete doo calle alle thabbottes and pryours of saynt Benets ordre in Englond, & had them in the chapytre hous of Westmynstre for the reformacion of thordre, wherynne he had comynycacion, and also with Bisshoppes & men of the spyritualte, in soo ferforth that they doubted soore that he wold have had the temporaltees oute of their handes; wherfor by thadvis, labour and procuring of the spyrytualte encouraged the kynge to chalenge Normandy and his ryght that he hadde in Fraunce, to thende to sette hym a werke there that he sholde not seeke occasions to entre in to suche maters. And soo alle his lyf after he labouryd in the warrys in conquerynge grete parte of the royamme of Fraunce, that by thagrement of the kynge Charlys hadde alle the governaunce of the Royamme of Fraunce, And was proclamed regent and heyr of Fraunce. And soo notwithstandyng alle this grete warre that he had, yet he remembryd his soule, and also that he was mortal and must deye. For whiche he ordeyned by his lyf the place of his sepulcre where he is now buryed, and every day thre masses perpetuelly to be songen in a fayr chapel over his sepulcre. Of whiche the myddel masse and the fyrst and the laste masse Page  557, vol.8 shal be as it is assygned by hym, as it appereth by thyse verses folowynge:—

Henrici misse quinti sunt hic tabulate,
Que successive sunt per monachos celebrate.
Die dominica.
Prima sit assumpte de festo virginis alme
Poscit postremam Cristus de morte resur|gens.
Feria ij.
Prima salutate de festo virginis extat.
Nunciat angelicis laudem postrema choreis.
Feria 3.
Esse Deum natum de virgine prima fatetur,
Commemorat natam sic vltima missa Mariam.
Feria 4.
Prima celebretur ad honorem neupmatis almi,
Ultima conceptam denunciat esse Mariam.
Feria 5.
Semper prima coli debet de corpore Cristi,
Ultima sit fata de virgine purificata.
Feria 6.
Condecet vt prima celebretur de cruce sancta,
Atque salutate fiet postrema Marie.
Sabbato.
Omnes ad sanctos est prima colenda supernos,
Vltima de requie pro defunctis petit esse;
Semper erit media de proprietate Dei.

And yet this noble kyng Harry the fyfthe founded two howses of relygion: One callyd Syon, besyde Braynford, of the ordre of saynt Brygytte, both of men and wymmen; And on that other syde of the ryver of Tamyse an hows of monkes of the Chartre|hous, in whiche two places he is contynuelly prayd fore nyghte and day. For ever whanne they of Syon rest they of the Chartrehous done theyr servyce; And in lyke wyse whanne they of the Chartrous rest, the other goon to: and by the ryngyng of the bellys of eyther place, eche knoweth whanne they ende theyr servyse: whiche ben nobly endowed; and done dayely there grete almesse dedes, as in the Chartrehous certayne children ben founde to scole, and at Syon certayne almesse gyven dayly. And yet besyde all this he hath founded a recluse, whiche shal be alwey a preeste, to praye for hym by the sayde Chartrehous, whiche preeste is wel & sufficiently endowed for hym and a servaunt. Loo here maye all prynces take ensample by this noble prynce, that regnynge so lytel tyme, not fully x. yere, dyd so many noble actes, as wel for his sowle to be per|petuelly remembryd & prayde fore, as in his wordly conquestys; and he beynge in his moost lusty age despysed and eschewyd synne, and was vertuous and a grete iustyser, in soo moche that alle the prynces of Crystendom dradde hym, & also of hethenes. And had determyned in hym self, yf God wolde have sparyd hym, that he wold have warryd agayne the Sarasyns: and for to knowe the ayde of other prynces, & all the passages in Page  558, vol.8 that iourney, he sent a knyght of Henawd, named syr Hugh de Lanoye, vnto Jerusalem, but er he retorned he deyd at Boys du Vincent in the xxxvj. yere of his age: on whos soule God have mercy.

HOW KYNG HARRY THE SYXTH REGNED, BEYNGE A CHILDE NOT ONE YERE OF AGE, AND OF THE BATAYLLE OF VERNOYL IN PERCHE.

Capitulum 17.

AFTER kyng Harry the fyfthe regned Harry his sonne, a childe, and not fully a yere old, whoos regne began the fyrst daye of September the yere of our Lord a thousand four honderd and two and twenty. This kyng beyng in his Cradel, was moche doubted and dradde by cause of the grete Conquest of his fader, and also the wysedome and guydynge of his vncles, the duck of Bedford and the duc of Gloucetre. This yere the xxj. day of Octobre; deyde Charles kyng of Fraunce, and lyeth buryed at saynt Denys; and thenne was the duc of Bedford made regent of Fraunce, and the duc of Gloucetre was made pro|tectour and defendour of Englond. And the fyrst day of Marche after was Syr Wylliam Tayllour, preest, degraded of his preesthode, and on the morne after he was brente in Smythfeld for heresye. This yere Syre Iames Styward, kynge of Scottes, maryed dame Iane, the duchesse doughter of Clarence, of her fyrst husbond therle of Somersete, at saynt Mary Overays. Also this yere, the sevententh day of August, was the bataylle of Vernayl in Perche, bytwene the duc of Bedford, regent of Fraunce, and the Duc of Alaunson, whiche was a greete bataylle. The duc of Bedford hadde on his syde with hym therle of Salesbury Mountagu, the lord Talbotte, and alle the power that they coude make in Normandy, the garnysons kepte, and also many Capytayns with moche peple of the duc of Burgoyns. And on that other syde was the Duc of Alaunson, the duc of Turon that was therle Douglas, therle of Bougham, with many lerdes of Fraunce, and greete companye of Scottes and Army|nakes. And thenne therle Douglas callyd the duc of Bedford Iohan with the leden swerde, and he sente hym worde ageyne that he shold fynde that daye that his swerde was of stele. And soo the bataylle ioyned on bothe sydes, and fought longe, that ther wyst no man who shold have the better a grete whyle; but at last, as God wold, the vyctory fyll on thenglysshe partye. For ther were slayne therle Douglas, whiche a lytel byfore was made duc of Turone, therle of Bowhayn, therle of Almarre, the erle of Tonnar, therle of Vauntedore, and the vysecounte of Nerbonne, whiche was one of them that slewe duk Iohan of Burgoyne knelyng to fore the Dolphyn, and many mo vnto the nombre of ten thousand and moo. And ther was taken pry|sonner Page  559, vol.8 the duc of Alaunson and many other lordes and gentyls of Fraunce; but Scottys that day were slayne doune ryght the substaunce of them alle. In the thyrde yere of kyng Harry the syxth the duke of Gloucetre maryed the duchesse of Holond, and wente over see with her in to Henawde for to take possession of his wyves enherytaunce, where he was honorably receyvyd, and taken for lord of the lond. But soone after he was fayne to retorne hoome ageyne, and lefte his wyf and his tresour that he brought with hym in a toune callyd Mounse in Henawd, whiche promysed for to be trewe to hym. Not with|standyng they delivered the lady to the duc of Burgoyne, whiche sente her to Gaunt. And from thens she escaped in a mannes arraye, and came into Zeland to a toune of her owne callyd Zierixee; And from thens she wente to a toune in Holond called the Ghowde, and there she was stronge ynough, and wythstode the sayd Duc of Burgoyne, and sone after this the duc of Gloucetre sente over in to Zeland the lord Fytzwater, with certayne men of warre and archers, for to helpe and socour the sayd duchesse of Holond, whiche londed at a place in Zeland callid Brewers haven, where the lordes of the countre cam doune and fought with hym, and in conclusion was fayne to withdrawe hym and his meyne to the see ageyne, but yet he slewe and hurte divers lordes and moche peple of the countreye, and soo retorned home ageyne and prevayled noo thyng. Also this same yere therle of Salysbury, therle of Suffolke, the lord Wylby and the lord Scalys, with theyr retenue, leyd syege to the Cyte of Mauns, the whiche Cyte was yolden to them in shorte tyme, with many other stronge townes and Castels to the nombre of syx and thyrtty. This tyme all Normandye and a grete parte of Fraunce vnto Orleaunce was vnder thobeysaunce of the kynge of Englond. And alle the remenaunt of Fraunce was in grete trybulacion and meschyef.

Capitulum xviii.

IN the fourth yere, the same nyght that the mayer of London Johan Coventre had taken his charge, was a grete watche in London, for affraye that was bytwene the bisshop of Wynchestre and the duc of Gloucetre, protectour. For the mayer with the peple of the cyte wold abyde by the duc of Gloucetre as pro|tectoure of the royamme, but by labour of lordes that wente bytwene, and in especial by the labour of the prynce of Portyngale, ther was appoyntement taken that there was no harme don. And after the bataylle of Vernoyll in Perche, the Duc of Bedforde cam over in to Englond. And on Whitson|daye this yere, at Leyceter, he dubbed kynge Harry knyght; And forthwith the sayd Harry dubbed alle these knyghtes whoos Page  560, vol.8 names folowe, that is to wete: Rychard duc of York, also the sone and heyr of the duc of Norfolk, therle of Oxenford, therle of Westmerlond, the sone and heyr of therle of Northumber|lond, the sonne and heyr of therle of Urmond, The lord Roes, Syr Iames Buteler, the lord Matravas, Syr Harry Gray of Tan|kervyle, Syr William Nevyl lorde Fauconbrydge, Syr George Nevyl lord Latymer, the lord Wellys, the lord Barkley, the sonne and heyr of the lord Talbot, Sir Rauf Gray of Werk, Syr Robert Veer, Syr Rychard Gray, Sir Edmond Hongerford, Syr Robert Wynkefeld, Syre Iohan Boteller, Syr Raynold Cobham, Syr Iohan Passhely, Syre Thomas Tunstal, Syr Iohan Chydyock, Syre Rauf Langford, Syre William Drury, Syre William Ap|thomas, Syre Rychard Carbonel, Syre Rychard Wydenvylle, Sire Iohan Shyrdelowe, Syr Nychol Blonket, Syre Rauf Ratte|clyf, Syre Edmond Trafford, Syre William Cheyne, Syre William Babyngton, Syre Iohan Iune, Syr Gilbert Beauchamp. Item, In the fyfthe yere the duc of Bedford with the duchesse his wyf wente over see to Calays, and a lytel to fore wente over Harry Bisshop of Wynchestre. And on our Lady day Annun|ciation in our lady chirche at Calays, the Bisshop of Wynchestre, whanne he had songe masse, was made Cardynal. And he knelyng to fore the hye auter, the duc of Bedford sette the hatte on his heede, and ther were his bulles redde, as wel of his charge as the reioysyng of his benefyces spirituel and temporel. Also this yere was greete habundaunce of rayn, that the sub|stance of heye and corne was destroyed, for it rayned almoost every other day. This yere the goode erle of Salesbury, Syre Thomas Montagu, leyd syege vnto Orleaunce. At which syege he was slayne with a gonne whiche cam oute of the toune. On whoos sowle God have mercy, Amen. For syth that he was slayne Englisshmen never gate ne prevayled in Fraunce, but ever after beganne to lese lytel and lytel tyl all was loste. Also this same yere a Breton murthred a good wydowe in her bedde withoute Algate, whiche wedowe fonde hym for almesse, and he bare awey al that she hadde. And after this he toke the gryth of hooly chirche at seynt Georges in Southwerke, and there toke the crosse and forswore this lond. And as he wente it happened that he cam by the place where he dyde this cursyd dede in the subarbys of London. And the women of the same paryssh cam oute with stones & canel dunge, and slewe and made an ende of hym, notwithstandynge the conestables and many other men beyng there present to kepe hym, for ther were many women, and had noo pyte. Also this yere the duck of Norfolk, with many gentilmen and yomen, toke his barge the eyght day of Novembre, at saynt Mary Overayes, for to have goon thurgh London brydge; and thurgh mysguydyng of the barge it ouerthrewe on the pyles, and many men drowned; but the duc hym self with twoo or thre leepe vpon Page  561, vol.8 the pyles, and soo were saved with helpe of men that were above the brydge, which cast doune Ropes by which they saved hem self. This yere, on saynt Leonards daye. kynge Harry, be|ynge seven yere of age, was crowned at Westmynstre; at whos Coronacion were made syx and thyrtty knyghtes. This yere, on saynt Georges day, he passyd over see to Calays toward Fraunce. Aboute this tyme and afore, the Royamme beynge in grete myserye and trybulacion, the Dolphyn with his partye beganne to make warre and gete certayne places and make destrusses vpon Englysshmen, by the mene of his capytaynes, that is to wete, La Heer and Poton de Sentraylles, And in especial a mayde which they named La Pucelle de Dieu: this mayde roode lyke a man, and was a valyaunt capytayne among them, and toke vpon her many and grete enterpryses, in soo moche that they had a byleve to have recoverd al theyr losses by her. Notwithstandyng at last, after many grete feates, by helpe and prowesse of sir Iohan Luxemburgh, whiche was a noble capytayne of the dukes of Burgoyne, and many En|glysshmen, Pycardys and Bourgoygnons whiche were of oure partye, byfore the toune of Compyne, the thre and twentyest daye of Maye, the sayd Pucelle was taken in the felde armed lyke a man, and many other capytayns with her, and all brought to Roan, and there she was putte in prysonne, and there she was iuged by the lawe to be brente. And then she sayd that she was with childe, wherby she was respyted a whyle; but in conclusion it was founde that she was not with childe, and thenne she was brente in Roan. And the other capytaynes were putte to raunsonne, and entreated as men of warre ben acustommed. This same yere, aboute Candelmasse, Rychard Hounden, a wolle packer, was dampned for an heretyke, and brente at Tourhylle. And aboute Midlente Syr Thomas Baggely, preeste and vycary of Mavenden in Estsex besydes Walden, was disgrated and dampned for an heretyke, and brente in Smythfeld. Also in this yere, while the kyng was in Fraunce, ther were many heretykes and Lollars that hadde purposed to have made a rysyng, and caste bylles in many places: but blessyd be God, the capytayne of hem was taken, whoos name was William Mandevyle, a wevar of Abendon and bayly of the same toune, whiche named hym self Iak Sharp of Wygmorysland in Wales. And afterward he was byheded at Abendon, in the Whitson weke, on the Tewisdaye.

This yere, the seuenth day of December, kynge Harry the syxthe was crowned kyng of Fraunce at Parys, in the chirche of our Lady, with grete solempnyte, there beyng present the Cardynal of Englonde, the Duc of Bedforde, and many other lordes of Fraunce and of Englonde. And after this Coro|nacion and grete feste holden at Parys, the kyng retourned from thens to Roan, and soo towarde Calays, And the Page  562, vol.8 nynthe daye of Feverer londed at Douer, whome alle the Comyns of Kente mette at Beramdoun, bytwene Caunterbury and Dover, alle in reede hoodes, and soo cam forth till he cam to Blackheth, where he was mette with the mayer Iohan Wellys with alle the craftys of London cladde alle in whyte. And soo they brought hym to London the one and twentyest daye of the same moneth. This yere was a restraynt of the wollys at Calays made by the sowdyours, by cause they were not payed of their wages, wherfor the duc of Bedford, regente of Fraunce, being thenne capitayn, cam to Caleis the Tewsday in the Esterweke, & on the morne after many sowdiours of the toun were arested and putte in warde. And in the same weke he roode to Terewyn, And by the mene of the bisshop of Terewyn he wedded therles doughter of saint Poul, and cam ageine to Caleis. And the enlevenst daye of Iuin, on saint Barnabes daye, there were foure soudyours of Calays, that were chyef causers of the restraynt, byheded, that is to wete, Iohan Maddeley, Iohan Landaye, Thomas Palmer, and Thomas Talbot, And an CX. banysshed the toune that same tyme, And byfore were banysshed sixe score soudyours. And on mydsomer even after cam the lord Regent and his wyf to London.

Capitulum 19.

ABOUTE this tyme Pope Martyn deyde, and after hym Eugenye the fourthe was pope. This was pesybly chosen in Rome by the Cardynals, and was very and indubytate pope. But shortly after he was putte and expulsed oute of Rome in such wyse that he was fayne to flee naked. In this tyme was the counseylle of Basyle, to whiche counseylle he was cyted to come, and bycause he cam not they deposed hym; but he rought not ne sette not therby, but gate the cyte of Rome, and abode stil pope seventene yere. This yere, aboute Whitsontyde, the Heretyks of Praghe were destroyed For at two iourneyes there were destroyed of them moo than two and twenty thousande with her capytayns, that is to wete, Procapius, Saplico, and Lupus presbiter. Also ther was taken alyve mayster Pyers, clerk, an Englysshman and heretyke. Also this same yere was a grete froste and a stronge duryng enleven wekes, for it beganne on saynt Katheryns even, and lasted vnto saynt Sco|lasticais day in Feverer, in which tyme the vyntage that cam from Bordeux came over Shoters hylle. This yere was the counseyl of Aras, and a greete traytye bytwene the kyng of Englonde and the Frensshe kynge. Where was assemblyd grete many of lordes of bothe partyes. At whiche counseylle was offryd to the kyng of Englond many grete thynges by the moyen of a legate that cam from Rome, which was Cardynal of saynt Crosse, which offres were refused by the Cardynal of Page  563, vol.8 Englond and other lordes that were there for the kyng; wher|for the duke of Burgoyne, whiche had ben longe Englysshe, worne forsoke oure partye, and retourned Frensshe by the meene of the same legate, and made a pees with the Frenssh kyng, receyvynge of the kynge, for recompensynge of his faders deth, the counte of Pontieu, the lordship of Macon, with moche other, as is specyfyed in the sayd trayttye. And soo oure am|bassadours cam hoome ageyne in werse caas than they wente. For they lost there the duc of Burgoyne, whiche had ben with his Bourgonyons and Pycardes a syngler helpe in all the conquest of Normandy and of Fraunce. This same yere was a grete batayll on the see bytweene the Ieneweys and the kyng of Aragon, of whiche bataylle the Ieneweys had the vyctorye. For they toke the kyng of Aragon, the kyng of Nauern, and the greete mayster of saynt Iames in Galyse, with thre honderd knyghtes and squyers, and moche other peple. And this was on saynt Domynyks day. This yere were seen thre sonnes attones, and anone folowyd the threfolde rule and gouernaunce in the chirche, that is to wete, of Eugenye, of the counseyle, and of the neutralyte. Also this same yere, 1434, was a passyng grete wynde, by whiche steples, howses, and trees were over|throwen. Aboute this tyme was an hooly mayde in Holond callyd Lydwith, whiche lyved long only by myracle, not etyng ony mete. This yere the duc of Burgoyne byganne his ordre at Lyle of the Golden Flyes, and ordeygned certayne knyghtes of thordre, and made statutes and ordenaunces moche acord|ynge vnto thordre of the Garter. Also this yere the Frenssh|men hadde enterprysed to have stolen Calays in the fysshyng tyme. For many bootys of Fraunce had sauf conduytes to come to Calays for to take heeryng. And the soudyours of the toune hadde a customme to come to the chirche and leve theyr stavys stondynge at the chirche dore, whiche stavys the Frenssh|men, which were arayd lyke fysshers, hadde purposed to have taken soo theyr wepen, and wynne the toune; but one of them laye with a comyn woman the nyght byfore, and told to her theyr counseylle; And she on the morne told the lyeutenaunt, whiche forthwith commanded that every man shold kepe his wepen in his hond, sacryng tyme and other. And whanne they apperceyved this, that they were myspoynted, they sayled strayte to Depe, and stale and toke that toune. And on New yers euen after they toke Harflete. And thus Englysshmen byganne to lose a lytel and a lytel in Normandye.

Capitulum visesimum.*. [Sic.]

THIS yere was a grete noyse thurgh al Englond, how the duck of Burgoyne wolde come and besyege Calays: wherfor Page  564, vol.8 the Erle of Mortayn, with his armye that he hadde for to have goone with in to Fraunce, was countremaunded, and charged that he shold go to Calais, whiche was at that tyme wel vitailled and manned. For sire Iohan Ratclif was lyeutenant of the kynge in that toune, and the baron of Dudeley lyeutenaunt of the castel; and the nynthe daye of Iuill the duke of Burgoyne with al the power of Flaundres and moch other peple cam before Calais, and sette his syege aboute the toune; and every toune of Flaundres had their tentes by them self. And this syege endured thre wekes. In the mene while the duc of Gloucetre, beyng protectour of Englond, toke the moost parte of the lordes of Englond, and wente over the see to Calays for to rescowe the toun, or to fyghte with the duke and his hoost, yf they wolde have byden. This tyme London and every good toune of Englond sente ouer see to this rescowe certayne peple well arayd, of the best and chosen men for the warre. And the second day of August the sayd duke of Gloucetre areyved at Calays with alle his armye and fyve shippes and moo. And the duke and alle his hoost that laye in the syege, as sone as they espyed the sayllys in the see, before they approched Calays haven, sodaynly in a mornynge departed fro the syege, levyng behynde them moche stuffe & vytalle, and fledde in to Flaundres and Pycardye, and in lyke wyse dyde the syege that laye to fore Guynes. Where as they of Guynes toke the grete gonne of brasse whiche was called dygeon, and many other grete gonnes and serpentyns. And thenne whanne the duke of Gloucetre was arryved with all his hoost he wente in to Flaundres, and was therynne enleven dayes, and dyde but lytel harme, excepte he brente two fayr vyllages, Poperyng and Belle, and other howses, whiche were of no strengthe, and soo retourned home ageyne. Also this same yere the kyng of Scottys besyeged Rokesburgh with moche peple, but sir Rauf Gray departed fro the castel, and ordeyned for rescows; but as sone as the kynge vnderstode his departyng, he sodaynly brake his syege, and wente his weye, levenge moche orde|naunce behynde hym, where he gate no worship. This yere, the second daye of Ianyver, quene Katheryn, whiche was the kynges moder, and wyf to kynge Harry the fyfthe, deyde and departed oute of thys worlde, and there lyeth buryed wor|shipfully in oure Lady chapel. Also this same yere, the four|tenthe daye of Ianyver, fyl doune the gate with a toure on hit on London brydge, toward Southwerk, with twoo arches and all that stode theron. This yere was a grete trayttye holden bytwene Gravenyng and Calays, bytwene the kyng and ducke of Burgoyne; where for the kyng was the Cardynall of Englond, the duck of Norfolke, & many other lordes; and for the ducke was the Duchesse, havyng full power of her lord as regent and ladye of his londes; where was taken by thadvys Page  565, vol.8 of bothe partyes an abstynence of warre for a certeyne tyme in the name of the Duchesse, and not of the duke, by cause he hadde goon from his oth and lygeaunce that he had made to kyng Harry; therfor the kynge never wolde wryte ne appoynte ne have to do with hym after, but all in the duchesse name. Also this yere quene Iane deyde, the second daye of Iuyll, whiche had ben kynge Harry the fourthys wyf, and was caryed fro Bermondesey vnto Caunterbury, where she lyeth buryed by kynge Harry the fourth her husbond. This yere deyde alle the lyons in the Toure of London, the whiche hadde not be seen in many yeres byfore oute of mynde.

Capitulum 21.

IN the xvj. yere of kyng Harry deyde Sygysmund Empe|rour of Almayne and knyght of the garter, whose terment the kynge kepte at Pawlys in London ryally, where was made a ryal herse, and the kynge in his astate cladd in blewe was at even at dirige, and on the morne at masse. And after hym was elect & chosen Albert duke of Ostryche, whiche had wedded Sygysmundus doughter, for to be Emperour. This was taken and resseyved to be kyng of Boheme and Ungary by cause of hys wyf that was Sigismundus doughter, whiche lefte after hym none other heyer. This Albert was emperour but one yere, for he was poysond, and soo he deyde; somme saye he deyde of a flyxe, but he was a vertuouse man and pytefulle, soo moche that alle the peple that knewe hym sayde that the worlde was not worthy to have hys presence. In this yere was the kyng of Scottys murthred in his chambre by nyght pytously, whiche kynge had be prysoner xv. yere in Englonde; And they that slewe hym were taken afterward & had cruel iustyce: this yere one Owayn, a squyer of Wales, a man of lowe byrthe, whiche had many a day to fore secretely weddyd quene Kathe|ryn, & had by her thre sones & a doughter, was taken and commaunded to Newgate to prysonne by my lord of Gloucetre, protectour of the royame. And this yere he brake pryson by the mene of a preest that was hys chappelayn: and after he was taken ageyne by my lord Bemond, and brought ageyne to Newegate; whiche afterward was delyverd at large, and one of his sones afterward was made Erle of Rychemond, & another erle of Penbroke, and the thyrde a monk of West|mynstre; whiche monke deyde sone after. This yere also on newyersday at Baynardys castel fyl doune a stak of wode so|deynly at after none, and slewe thre men meschyvously, and foule hurte other. Also at Bedford on a shyreday were eyghten men murthred withoute stroke by fallynge doune of a steyr, as they cam oute of theyr comyn halle, and many foule hurte. In the eyghtenth yere sir Rychard Beauchamp, the good erle of Page  566, vol.8 Warwyck, deyde at Roan, he beynge that tyme lyeutenaunt of the kyng in Normandye; and from thennes his bodye was brought to Warwyk, where he lyeth worshipfully in a newe chapel on the south syde of the quyre. Also this yere was a grete derthe of Corne in al Englond, for a busshel of whete was worth fourty pens in many places of Englond, & yet men myght not have ynough; wherfor Steven Broun, that tyme mayer of London, sente into Pruse, and brought in to London certayne shippes laden with rye, which easyd and dyd moche good to the peple. For corne was so skarce in Englond that in some places of Englond poure peple made hem brede of fern rotes. This yere the general counseyle of Basyle deposed pope Eugenye; And they chese Felyx, whiche was duc of Savoye. And thenne byganne the scysme whiche endured vnto the yere of our lord MCCCC. & xlviij. This Felyx was a devoute prynce, and sawe the sones of his sones, and after lyved a devoute and hooly lyf, and was chosen pope by the counseylle of Basyle, Eugenye deposed, and soo the scysme was long tyme; and this Felyx had not moche obedyence bycause of the neutralyte; for the moost parte and wel nygh al Cristendom obeyed & reputed Eugenye for veray pope. God knoweth who was the veray pope of them both, for both occupyed durynge the lyf of Eugenye.

This yere Syr Rychard Wiche, vycary of Hermettesworth, was degrated of his prysthode at Powlys, and brente at Toure hylle as for an heretyk on saynt Botolphus day. How well at his deth he deyde a good Cristen man, wherfore after his dethe moche people cam to the place where he hadde be brente, and offryd and made a heepe of stones, and sette vp a crosse of tree, and helde hym for a saynt, till the mayer and shreves, by commaundement of the kynge and bisshops, destroyed it, and made there a donghyll. Also this same yere the shreves of London fette oute of Saynt Martyns the graunte the sayntuarye fyve personnes, whiche afterward were restored ageyne to the sayntuarye by the kynges Iustyces. After Alberte, the thyrde Frederyk was chosen Emperour. This Frederyk duke of Ostryche was longe Emperour, and differyd for to be crowned at Rome by cause of the scysme, but after that vnyon was had, he was crowned with Imperyal dyademe, with grete glorye and tryumphe, of pope Nycholas the fourth. This was a man pesyble, quyete and of synguler pacyence, not hatyng the chirche: he wedded the kyng of Portyngales doughter.

Capitulum 22.

IN this yere dame Elyanore Cobham, duchesse of Gloucetre, was arestyd for certayne poyntes of treasonne leyd ageyn her; wherupon she was examyned in saynt Stevens chapel at West|mynstre Page  567, vol.8 byfore tharchebisshop of Caunterbury, and ther she was enioyned to open penaunce, for to goo thurgh Chepe, berynge a taper in her honde, and after to perpetuel prison in to the Ile of Man, vnder the kepynge of sir Thomas Stanley. Also that same tyme was arestyd mayster Thomas Southwel, a chanon of Westmynstre, mayster Iohn Hum, a chappellayn of the sayd ladyes, mayster Rogyer Bolyngbroke, a Clerk vsynge nygro|mancye, and one Margery Iurdemayn, callyd the wytche of Eye, besyde Westmynstre. These were arestyd as for beyng of counseyll with the sayd duchesse of Gloucetre. And as for mayster Thomas Southwel, he deyde in the toure the nyght before he shold have be reyned on the morne. For soo he sayd hym self, that he shold dye in his bedde, and not by Iustyce. And in the yere twenty mayster Iohan Hum and mayster Rogyer Bolyngbroke were brought to the guydhalle in London, and ther byfore the mayer, the lordes, and chyef Iustyce of Englond were rayned and dampned to be drawen, hanged, and quartred; but maystre Iohn Hum had his chartre and was pardoned by the kynge; but mayster Rogyer was drawen to Tyburne, where he confessyd that he deyde gyltles, and never had trespaced in that he deyd fore. Notwithstand|yng he was hanged, heded and quartred; on whos soule God have mercy. And Margery Iurdemayne was brente in Smyth|feld. Also this yere the lord Talbotte had leyde syege to Dyepe, but the Dolphyn rescowed it, and wan the bastyle that Englysshmen had made. Also this yere was a greete effraye in Fletestrete by nyghtes tyme, bytwene men of Courte and men of London, and dyverse men slayne and somme hurte; and one Herbotel was chyef cause of the mysgovernaunce and effraye. Also this yere, at the chesyng of the mayer of London, the comons named Robert Clopton and Rawlyn Holond, Taylour. And the Aldermen toke Robert Clopton & brought hym at the ryght honde of the mayer, as the customme is. And thenne certeyne tayllours and hande crafty men cryed, "nay, naye, not this man, but Rawlyn Holonde:" wherfore the mayer that was Padysley sente tho that cryed to Newgate, where they abode a grete while, and were punysshed. In this yere were dyverse ambassadours sente in to Guyan for a maryage for the kynge for the erles doughter of Armynak, whiche was concluded, but by the mene of therle of Suffolk it was lette & put a part. And after this the sayd erle of Suffolk wente ouer the see in to Fraunce, and there treated the maryage bytwene the kynge of Englond and Margarete, the kynges doughter of Secyle and of Ierusalem. And the next yere it was concluded fully that maryage, by whiche maryage the kynge shold delyver to her fader the Duchye of Angeo and the Erldome of Mayne, whiche was the keye of Normandye. Thenne departed the Erle of Suffolk with his wyf and dyverse Page  568, vol.8 lordes and knyghtes, in the moost ryal astate that myghte be, oute of Englonde, with newe chares and palfrayes, whiche wente thurgh Chepe, and soo wente over the see, and resseyved her, and syth brought her in the Lente after to Hampton, where she landed, and was ryally resseyved. And on Candelmasse even byfore, by a greete tempeste of thonder and lyghtnyng at after none, Paulus steple was sette a fyre on the myddes of the shaft in the tymbre, whiche was quenchyd by force of laboure, and specially by the laboure of the morowe masse preeste of the Bowe in Chepe, whiche was thought inpossyble, sauf only the grace of God. This yere was the erle of Stafford made and create Duke of Bokyngham; the Erle of Warwyck, Duk of Warwyck; therle of Dorsete, marquys of Dorsete; and the erle of Suffolk was made marquys of Suffolk.

Capitulum 23.

IN this yere kyng Harry maryed at Southwerke quene Margrete; And she cam to London the eyghtenth day of Maye; And by the waye alle the lordes of Englonde resseyved her worshipfully in dyverse places, and in especial the duc of Glou|cetre. And on Blackheth the mayer, Aldermen, and alle the craftes, in blewe gownes browdred with the devyse of his crafte that they myght be byknowen, mette wyth her with reede hoodes, and brought her to London, where were dyverse pagentis and countenaunces of dyverse historyes shewyd in dyverse places of the cyte ryally and costlewe. And the thyrttyest daye of Maye the sayd quene was crowned at West|mynstre. And there was Iustys thre dayes duryng within the sayntuarye to fore thabbay. This yere the pryour of Kyl|mayn appeled therle of Urmond of treasonne, whiche hadde a day assygned to them for to fyghte in Smythfeld, and the lystys were made and feelde dressyd. But whanne it cam to poynt the kynge commaunded that they shold not fyghte, but toke the quarels in to his owne honde; and this was doone at the instaunce and labour of certayne prechours & doctours of London, as mayster Gylbert Worthyngton, parson of saynt Andrews in Holborne and other. Also this yere cam a grete ambassate in to Englonde oute of Fraunce, for to have con|cluded a perpetuel pees; but in conclusion it torned vnto a triews of a yere. Aboute this tyme deyde saynt Bernardyn, a gray frere, whiche beganne the newe reformacion of that ordre in many places, in so moche that they that were reformed ben callyd observauntes, whiche observauntes ben encreaced gretely in Italye and in Almayne. This Bernardyn was canonysed by pope Nycholas the fyfthe, in the yere thousand foure C. and fyfty. Iohannes de Capestrano was his disciple, whiche Page  569, vol.8 prouffyted moche to the reformacion of that ordre, for whome God shewyd many myracles also. Here is to be noted that from this tyme forward kyng Harry never prouffyted ne wente forward, but fortune beganne to tourne from hym on all sydes, as well in Fraunce, Normandye, Guyan, as in Eng|londe. Somme men holde oppynyon that kyng Harry gaf commyssion plenerly to sire Edward Hulle, Syre Robert Roos, the dene of saynt Seueryns & other, to conclude a maryage for hym with therle of Armynaks suster, whiche was promysed as it was sayd and concluded. But afterward it was broken; for by the mene of the marquys of Suffolke it was broken, and he wedded Quene Margrete as afore is said, whiche was a dere maryage for the royamme of Englonde. For it is knowen veryly that for to haue her was delyverd the duchye of Angeo, and the erldom of Mayne which was the keye of Normandy for the Frensshmen tentre. And above this the sayd marquys of Suffolke axyd in playne parlement a fyftenth and an half for to fetche her oute of Fraunce. Lo what a maryage was this as to the comparysone of that other maryage of Armynak! For ther sholde have ben delyverd so many castels and townes in Guyan, and so moche good sholde have ben yoven with her that all Englond shold have ben therby enryched; but contrarye wyse fylle. Wherfore every grete prynce ought to kepe his promyse. For bycause of brekyng of this promyse, and for maryage of quene Margrete, what losse hath hadde the Roy|amme of Englond, by losyng of Normandye and Guyan, by dyvysion in the royame, the rebellyng of comons ayenst theyr prynce and lordes, what dyvysyon among the lordes, what murdre & sleyng of them, what feldes foughten & made! In conclusion that many a man hath lost his lyf, the kyng de|posed, the quene with her sone fayne to flee into Scotland, and from thens into Fraunce, and so to Lorayn, the place that she cam first fro. Many men deme that the brekyng of the kynges promyse to the suster of therles of Armynack was cause of this grete losse and adversyte.

Capitulum 24.

IN the yere xxv. of kynge Harry was a parlement at Bury, callyd saynt Edmondesburye, aboute whiche was commanded alle the comyns of the contre to bee there in theyr most defen|sable araye for to awayte vpon the kyng. To whiche parle|ment cam the duc of Gloucetre, Hunfreye, the kynges vncle whiche hadd ben protectour of Englonde alle the nonage of the kyng. And anone after he was in his lodgyng, he was arestyd by the vysecounte Bemond, the conestable of Englonde, whome accompanyed the Duc of Bokyngham and many other lordes. And forthwith alle his servauntes were comaunded Page  570, vol.8 for to departe fro hym, and two & thyrtty of the chyeef of hem were also arestyd and sente to dyverse prysons. And v. or vj. dayes after this sayd arest the sayd duke was deede, on whoos sowle God have mercy; But how he deyde and in what manere the certaynte is not to me knowen. Somme sayde he deyde for sorowe; somme sayde he was murthred bytwene two fetherbeddes; other sayd than an hote spyt was putte in his fundament: but how he deyde God knoweth, to whome is no thyng hydde. And thenne whanne he was soo deed, he was leyd open that al man myght see hym. And so both lordes and knyghtes of the shyres with bourgeyses cam & sawe hym lye deede, but wounde ne token coude they not perseyve how he deyde. Here may men marke what this world is. This duk was a noble man and a grete clerke, and hadde worshipfully ruled this Royamme to the kynges behoef, and never coude be founde fawte with hym: but envye of them that were gover|nours, and hadde promysed to delyver the Duchye of Angeo & the Erldome of Mayn, caused the destruction of this noble man. For they drad hym that he wolde have enpesshyd that delyveraunce. And after they sente his body to saynt Albons with certayne lyghtes for to be buryed. And soo Syre Gervays of Clyfton hadde the charge to conveye the corps, and soo it was buryed at saynt Albons in thabbay. And fyve persones of his houshold were sent to London, and ther were rayned and iuged to be drawen, hanged, and quartred, of whome the names were Syre Rogyer Chamberlayne, knyght, and Myddelton, Squyer; Herbard, a squyer; Arthur, a squyer, and Rychard Nedham: whiche fyve personnes were drawen from the Tour of London thurgh Chepe vnto Tiburne, and there hanged and lete doune quyck, and thenne strypt for to have ben heded and quartred. And thenne the marquys of Suffolk shewyd ther for them the kynges pardon vnder his grete seal; and soo they were pardonned of the remenaunt of the execucion, and had theyr lyves; And soo they were brought ageyne to London, and after frely delyverd. Thus beganne the trouble in Englond for the deth of this noble duke. Alle the comons of the royamme beganne for to murmure, and were not content. After that pope Eugenye was deed, Nycholas the fyfth was electe pope. This Nycholas was chosen for Eugenye yet havyng the scisme, Notwithstondyng he gate the obedyence of all cristen roy|ammes. For after he was electe and sacred pope, certayne lordes of Fraunce and of Englond weere sente in to Savoye to pope Felyx for to entreate hym to cesse of the papacye. And by the specyall labour of the bisshop of Norwyche, and the lord of saynt Iohans, he cessyd the second yere after that Nycholas was sacred; and the sayd Felyx was made legate of Fraunce and cardynal of Savoye, and resygned the hoole papacye to, and after lyved a hooly lyf, and deyd an hooly Page  571, vol.8 man. And, as it is sayd, God shewyd myracles for hym. This was the thre and twentyeste scysme bytwene Eugenye and Felyx, and dured sixtene yere. The cause was this: the gene|ralle counseylle of Basylle deposed Eugenye, whiche was only pope and indubytate, for as moche as he observed not and kept the decrees and statutes of the counseylle of Counstance, as it is sayd, nether he rought not to gyve obedyence to that general counseyll; wherof roose a greete altercacion amonge wrytars of this mater pro and contra, whiche can not acorde vnto this day. One partye seyth that the counseylle is above the pope; that other party sayth Nay, but the pope is above the counseyll. God blessyd above alle thynges gyve and sende his pees in hooly chirche, spouse of Cryst. Amen. This Nycholas was of Iene, comen of lowe byrth, a doctour of dyvynyte, an actyf man; he reedefyed many places that were broken and ruynous, and dyde do make a grete walle aboute the palays, and made the walle newe aboute Rome for drede of the Turkes. And the peple wondred of the ceesynge and resygnynge of Felyx to hym, consyderyd that he was a man of so lowe byrthe, and that other was of affynyte to alle the moost part of Crysten prynces; wherof there was a verse pub|lysshed in Rome in this maner: Lux fulsit mundo; cessyd Felyx Nycholao.

Capitulum 24.

IN the yere of kyng Harry xxvij., beynge trewes bytwene Fraunce and Englond, a knyght of the Englysshe partye named Sir Fraunceys Aragonys toke a towne of Normandy named Fogyers, ageynst the trewes, of whiche takynge byganne moche sorowe and losse. For this was the occasion by whiche the Frensshe men gate all Normandy. This yere a squyer of Englond named Chalons dyde armes with a knyght of Fraunce named Syre Lowys de Buyel to fore the Frensshe kynge, and ranne the Frensshe knyght thurgh with a spere, and slewe hym in the felde.

In the yere xxviij. was a parlement holden at Westmynstre, and from thennes adiourned to the black Frerys at London, and after Crystemasse to Westmynstre ageyne. And this same yere Robert of Cane, a man of the west contre, with a fewe ships toke an hole flote of shippes comynge oute of the baye laden with salt, whiche shippes were of Pruys, Flaundrys, Holand, and Zeland, and brought hem to Hampton. Wherfor the mar|chauntis of Englond beynge in Flaundres were arestyd in Brugys, Ipre, and other places, and myght not be delyvered ner theyr dettys dyscharged till they had made apoyntement for to paye for the amendes and hurtes of tho shippes, which was payd by the marchauntes of the staple every peny. And in lyke wyse Page  572, vol.8 the marchauntes and godes beyng in Danske were also arestyd and made grete amendes. This same yere the Frensshmen in a mornynge toke by a trayne the toune of Pountal arche, and therynne the lord Fawconbrydge was taken prysonner. And after that in Decembre Roan was taken and lost, beyng therynne the duc of Somersete, Edmund therle of Shrewsbury, whiche by appoyntement left pledgys, and lost all Normandye, and cam home. And duryng the sayd parlement the duck of Suffolk was arestyd and sente in to the Tour, and ther was a monethe, and after the kyng dyd doo fetche hym oute. For whiche cause alle the comyns of Englond were in a grete rumour, what for the delyveraunce of Angeo and Mayn, and after for losynge of al Normandye, and in especial for the deth of the good duke of Gloucetre, in soo moche that in somme places men gadred to geders and made hem capytaynes, as Bleweberd and other, whiche were resysted and taken, and had iustyce and deyd. And thenne the sayd parlement was adiourned to Leycetre. And thider the kyng brought with hym the duke of Suffolke. And whanne the comon hows vnderstode that he was oute of the Tour and comen theder, they desyred to have execucion on them that were cause of the delyveraunce of Normandy, and had ben cause of the deth of the duc of Gloucetre, and had solde Gascoyne and Guyan; of whiche they named to be gylty the duc of Suffolk as chyef, the lord Saye, the Bisshop of Saslebury, Danyel, and many moo. And for to pease the comons, the duck of Suffolke was exyled oute of Englond fyve yere. And soo durynge the parlement he wente into Norfolke, and there toke shippyng for to goo oute of the royame in to Fraunce. And this yere as he sayled on the see a shippe of warre callyd the Nycholas of Towr mette with his ship, and fonde hym therin; whome they toke oute and brought hym into theyr shippe to fore the mayster and capytayns. And ther he was examyned, and atte last iuged to the deth. And so they putte hym in a cabon, and his chappellayne for to shryve hym. And that done they brought hym in to Dover roode, and there sette hym in to the boot, and there smote of his heede, and brought the bodye a londe vpon the sondes, and sette the heede therby. And this was done the fyrst day of Maye. Loo what avayleth hym now this delyveraunce of Normandye. And here ye may see how he was rewarded for the deth of the duck of Gloucetre. Thus beganne sorowe vppon sorowe, and deth for deth.

Capitulum 26.*. [25 is omitted in the numbering.]

THIS yere of our Lord a thousand four honderd & fyfty was the grete grace of the Iubilee at Rome, where was greete Page  573, vol.8 pardonne, in soo moche that from alle places of Crystendome grete multitude of peple resorted theder. This yere Syre Thomas Cryell was overthrowen at Fermygny, and many Englysshemen slayne and taken prysonners. This same yere was a grete assemblyng and gaderyng togeder of the comons of Kente in greete nombre, and made an insurrection and rebellyd ageynste the kynge and his lawes, and ordeyned hem a capytayne callyd Iohan Cade, an Irysshe man, whiche named hym self Mortymer, cosyn to the ducke of Yorke. And this capytayne helde these men togeder and made ordenaunces among them, & brought hem to Blackheth, where he made a bylle of petycions to the kyng and hys counseyll, and shewyd what inyuryes and oppressions the poure comyns suffryd, and alle vnder coloure for to come to his aboue. And he had a grete multitude of peple. And the sevententh day of Iuyn the kynge with many lordes, Capytayns, and men of warre wente towarde hym to the Blackheth. And whan the captayne of Kente vnderstode the comyng of the kynge with so grete a puyssaunce, he withdrewe hym with his peple to Sevenok, a lytil vyllage. And xxviij. daye of Iuyn, beynge withdrawen and goon, the kynge cam with his armye sette in ordre and enbataylled to the Blackheth, and by advys of his counseyll sente sir Umfrey Stafford knyght, and William Stafford Squyer, two valyaunt capytains, with certayne peple to fight with the capytayne and to take hym, and brynge hym and his acces|saryes to the kynge; whiche wente to Sevenok, and there the capytayne with his felauship mette with hem, and fought ayenst hem, and in conclusion slewe them bothe and as many as abode and wolde not yelde hem nor flee. Duryng these scarmuche fyll a grete varyaunce among the lordes men and comyn peple beyng on Blackheth ageynst theyr lordes and capytayns, sayng playnly that they wolde goo to the capytayne of Kente to assyste and helpe hym, but yf they myghte have execucion on the traytours beyng aboute the kyng: wherto the kyng sayd nay. And they sayd playnly that the lord Saye tresorer of Englond, the Bisshop of Salysbury, the abbot of Gloucetre, Danyel and Trevylyan, and many moo were traytours, and worthy to be ded; wherfor for to plese the lordes meyne, and also somme of the kynges hows, the lord Saye was arestyd and sente to the Toure of London. And thenne the kynge herynge tydynges of the dethe and overthrowynge of the Staffords withdrewe hym to London, and fro thennes to Kyllyng|worth; for the kyng ne the lordes durste not truste theyr owne houshold meyne. Thenne after that the capytayne had hadde this victorye vpon the Staffordes, anone he toke sire Umfrayes salade and his brygantyns smyten ful of gylt nayles, and also his gylt spores, and arayed hym lyke a lord and a capytayne, and resorted with al his meyne, and also mo than he had to Page  574, vol.8 fore, to the Blackheth ageyne, to whome cam tharchebisshop of Caunterbury and the duck of Bokyngham to the Blacketh, and spake with hym. As it was sayde they fonde hym wytty in his talkyng and his requestys, and so they departed. And the thyrdde day of Iuyll he cam and entryd in to London with alle his peple, and there dyde make cryes in the kynges name and his that no man shold robbe ne take noo mannes good, but yf he payd for it, and cam rydynge thurgh the cyte in grete pryde, and smote his swerde vpon London stone in Canwyck strete; and he beyng in the cyte sente to the Tour for to have the lord Saye, and soo they sette hym and brought hym to the Guyldhalle before the mayer and Aldermen, where he was examyned, and he sayd he wold and ought to be iuged by his peres. And the comons of Kent toke hym by force from the mayer and offycers that kept hym, and toke hym to a pryeste to shryve hym. And er he myght be half shryven they brought hym to the standard in Chepe, and there smote of his hede; on whoos soule God have mercy, Amen. And thus deyde the lord Saye, tresorer of Englond. After this they sette his heede on a spere, and bare it aboute in the cyte. And the same day at Myle ende Crowmer was byheded. And the same day byfore at after none the capytayne with certayne of his mayne wente to Phelyp Malpas hows, and robbyd hym, and toke away moche goode. And fro thennes he wente to saynt Margrete patyns to one Gherstys hows, and robbyd hym also. At which robbyng dyverce men of London of theyr neyghbours were at it, and toke part with theym. For this robbyng the peples hertes fyll from hym, and every thryfty man was aferd for to be servyd in lyke wyse. For ther was many a man in London that awayted and wolde feyne have seen a comyn robberye, whiche God forbede. For it is to suppose yf he hadde not robbed he myght have gon fer er he had bee with|stonde. For the kyng and alle the lordes of the Royame were departed, excepte the lord Scales, that kepte the Toure. And the fyfthe day of Iuyll he dyde do smyte of a mans heede in Southwerke. And the nyght after, the mayre of London, the aldermen, and the comons of the cyte, concluded to dryve awey the capytayne and his hooste, and sente to the lord Scales, to the Tour, and to Mathew Gogh, a capytayne of Normandye, that they wolde that nyghte assayle the capytayne with them of Kente. And so they dyde, and cam to London brydge in to Southwerke, er the capytayne had ony knowlege therof. And they fought with them that kepte the brydge. And the Kentysshmen wente to harnoys, and cam to the brydge, and shot and fought with hem, and gate the brydge, and made them of London to flee, and slowe many of hem. And this endured all the nyght to and fro tyll nyne of the clock on the morne. And atte laste they brent the drawe|brydge, Page  575, vol.8 where many of them of London were drouned. In whiche nyght Sutton an alderman was slayne, Rogyer Bey|saunt, and Mathew Gogh, and many other. And after this the chaunceler of Englond sente to the capytayne a pardone general for him, and another for alle his meyne. And thenne they departed from Southwerke, every man home to his hows. And whanne they were al departed and goone ther were pro|clamaciones made in Kente, Southsex, and in other places, that what man coude take the capytayne, quyck or deede, should have a thousande marck. And after this, one Alysaunder Iden, squyer of Kente, toke hym in a gardyn in Southsex, and in the takynge the capytayne Iohan Cade was slayne, and after byheded, and his heede sette on London brydge. And anone after thenne the kyng cam in to Kente, and dyde his iustyces sytte at Caunterbury and enquyre who were accessaryes and chyef cause of this insurrection. And ther were eyght men iuged to deth in one day, and in other places moo. And fro thennes the kyng wente in to Southsex, and in to the weste countre, where a lytell byfore was slayne the bisshop of Salys|bury. And this same yere were so many iuged to deth that thre and twenty hedes stode on London bridge attones.

Capitulum 27.

IN the yere thyrtty the duck of York cam oute of the march of Wales with therle of Devenshyre and the lord Cobham with grete puyssaunce, for reformacion of certayne iniuryes and wronges, and also to have iustyce on certayne lordes beynge aboute the kyng, and toke a felde at Brentheth besyde Dertford in Kent, whiche was a stronge felde; for whiche cause the kyng with alle the lordes of the lande went vnto the Blackheth with a grete multitude of peple armed and ordeyned for the warre in the best wyse. And whanne they had musteryd on the Blackheth, certayne lordes were sente to hym for to treate and make appoyntement with hym, whiche were the Bisshop of Ely and the Bisshop of Wynchestre, and the erles of Salysbury and of Warwyk. And they concluded that the duck of Somer|sete sholde be hadde to ward, and to answere to suche artycles as the duk of York sholde putte to hym, And thenne the duc of York shold breke his felde and come to the kyng, whiche was all promysed by the kyng. And soo the kyng commaunded that the duke of Somersete sholde be had in warde. And thenne the duck of York brake vp his felde, and cam to the kynge; and whanne he was come, contrary to the promyse a fore made, the duke of Somersete was presente in the felde awaytyng and chyef aboute the kyng, and made the duke of York ryde tofore as a prysoner thurgh London, and after they Page  576, vol.8 wolde have putte hym in holde, but a noyse aroos that the erle of Marche his sonne was comynge with ten thousande men to London warde, wherof the kynge and his counseyl fered, and thenne concluded that the duc of Yorke sholde departe at his wyl. About this tyme byganne greete dyvysyon in Spruse bytwene the grete maystre and the knyghtes of the Duche ordre, whiche were lordes of that countre. For the comons and townes rebellyd ageynste the lordes, and made so grete warre that at last they callyd the kynge of Pole to be theyr lord, whiche cam and was receyvyd, and layde syege to the castel of Maryenburgh, whiche was the chyef castel and strength of alle the lond, and wanne it, and droofe oute the mayster of Danske, and alle other places of that lond. And so they that had ben lordes many yeres lost all theyr seygnorye and possessions in tho landes.

In the yere of oure lorde a thousand four honderd and thre and fyfty, the cyte of Constantynople, themperyal cyte of Grece, was taken by the Turke, the Emperour slayne, and in|numerable Crysten peple destroyed and put in captyvyte; by whiche pryse Crysten feyth perysshed in Grece, and the Turke enhaunced gretely in pryde. And the yere of our lord a thousand four honderd and thre and fyfty, on saynt Edwardes day, the quene Margaret was delyverd of a fayre prynce, whiche was named Edward. That same day Iohan Norman was chosen for to be mayer of London. And the day that he shold take his othe at Westmynstre, he went thyder by water with alle the craftes; where afore tyme, the mayer, aldermen and al the craftes rode a horsback, whiche was never vsyd after. For syn that tyme they have ever goone by water in barges. Ye have wel vnderstande tofore how that, contrarye to the promyse of the kynge and the duke of York at Brentheth, the duke of Somersete wente not to ward, but abode about the kyng, and hadde grete rewle, and was made capytayne of Calays, and rewlyd the kynge and the royamme as he wolde; wherfore the grete lordes of the royamme and also the comons were not plesyd; for whiche cause the duke of York, the Erles of Warwyck and of Salysbury, with many knyghtes and squyers and moch peple, cam for to remeve the sayd duke of Somersete and other fro the kynge. And the kynge, heryng of theyr comyng, thought by his counseylle for to have gone westward, and not for to mete with hem. And hadde with hym the Duke of Somersete, the Ducke Bokyng|ham, the erle of Stafford, therle of Northumberlond, the lord Clyfford, and many other. And what tyme that the Duk of York and his felawship vnderstode that the kynge was de|parted with these sayd lordes from London, anone he chaunged his wey, and costed the countrey, & cam to saynt Albons the thre and twentyest daye of Maye, and ther mette Page  577, vol.8 with the kyng; to whome the kyng sente certayne lordes and desyred hem to kepe the pees and departe; but in conclusion, whiles they treated on that one syde, therle of Warwik with the Marche men and other entrid the toune on that other, and fought ageynst the kyng and his partye, and soo byganne the bataylle and fyghtyng, whiche endured a good whyle; but in conclusion the duck of York obteyned and had the vyctorye of that Iourneye. In whiche was slayne the duke of Somersete, therle of Northumberlond, the lord Clyfford, and many knyghtes and squyers, and many moo hurt. And on the morne after they brought the kyng in grete astate to London, whiche was lodged in the bisshops palays of London. And anon after was a grete parlament. In whiche parlement the duke of York was made protectour of Englond, And therle of Warwik Capy|tayne of Calays, And therle of Salysbury chaunceler of Eng|lond, and alle suche personnes as had the rewle to fore aboute the kynge were sette apart, and myght not rewle as they dyde to fore. In this yere deyde pope Nycholas the fyfthe, and after hym was Calyxte the thyrdde. This Calyxte was a Catalane, & an old man whanne he was chosen, and continuelly seke; wherfor he myghte not performe his zele and desyre that he had ageynste the Turkes conceyved; and the cause of lettynge therof was his age and sekenesse. This Calyxte institued and ordeyned the feste of the Transfyguracion of our Lord to be halowed on saint Sixtes day in August, by cause of the grete vyctorye that they of Hungary had ageynste the Turkes that same day: he was chosen pope the yere of our Lord thousand four honderd and fyve & fyfty, And deyde the yere thousand four honderd and eyght and fifty, that same day that he ordeyned the feste of the Transfyguracion to be halowed. In this yere fyll a grete affraye in London ageynst the Lombardes. The cause bygan bycause a yong man toke a daggar from a Lombard and brake it; wherfor the yong man on the morn was sente for to come to fore the mayer and aldermen; and there, for the offence, he was commytted to warde. And thenne the mayer departed from the Gyldhalle forto goo home to his dyner, but in Chepe the yonge men of the mercerye, for the most parte prentyses, helde the mayer and shreves styll in Chepe, and wold not suffre hym to departe vnto the tyme that theyr felaw, whiche was commytted to warde, were delyverd; and soo by force they rescowed theyr felawe from prysonne, and that done the mayer and shrevys departed, and the prysoner delyverd, which yf he had be put to pryson had ben in ieopardy of his lyf, & thus beganne a rumour in the cyte ageynst the Lom|bardes; and the same evenyng the handcrafty peple of the toune aroos, and ranne to the Lombardes howses, and despoylled and robbed dyverse of hem: wherfor the mayer and aldermen cam with the honest people of the toune, and droof them thens, Page  578, vol.8 and sente somme of them that had stolen to Newgate. And the yong man that was rescowed by his felaws sawe this grete rumour, affraye and robberye ensiewed of his fyrst mevyng to the Lombard, departed and went to Westmynstre to sayntuarye, or ellys it had costed hym his lyf. For anone after cam doune one Oyer determyne, for to doo iustyce on alle them that soo rebellyd in the cyte ageynst the Lombardes; on which satte with the mayer, that tyme William Marowe, the duke of Bokyngham and many other lordes for to see the execucion done. But the comyns of the cyte secretely made them redy, and dyde arme them in theyr howses, and were in purpose for to have rongen the comyn belle, whiche is named Bowe belle. But they were lette by sad men: whiche cam to the knowleche of the ducke of Bokyngham and other lordes, and incontynent they aroos, for they durste noo lenger abyde. For they doubted that the hoole cyte wolde have arysen ageynste them. But yet nevertheles, two or thre of the cyte were iuged to deth for this robbery, and were hanged at Tyburne. And anone after the kynge, the Quene, and other lordes rode to Coventre, and withdrewe hem from London for these causes. And a lytel to fore the duke of Yorke was sente fore to Grenewych, and there was dyschorged of the protectourshippe, and my lord of Salysbury of his chauncelership. And after this they were sente fore by prevy seal for to come to Coventre, where they were almoost deceyved, and therle of Warwyck also, and shold have ben destroyed yf they had not seen well to, &c.

Capitulum 28.

THIS yere were taken four grete fysshes bytwene Eerethe and London: that one was callyd mors maryne, the second a swerd fysshe, the other tweyne were whales. In this yere, for certayne effrayes done in the north countre bytwene the lord Egremond and therle of Salysburyes sones, the sayd lord Egremonde whom they had taken, was condempned in a grete somme of money to the sayd erle of Salysbury, and therfor commysed to prison in Newgate in London, where whanne he hadde ben a certayne space, brake pryson, and thre prysoners with hym, and escaped, & went his way. Also this yere therle of Warwyk and his wyf wente to Calays with a fayr felawship & toke possession of hys offyce. Aboute this tyme was a grete reformacion of many monasteryes of relygyon in dyverse partyes of the world, whiche were reformed after the fyrst institucion, and continued in many places. Also about this tyme the crafte of enpryntyng was fyrst founde in Magounce in Almayne, whiche crafte is multyplyed thurgh the Page  579, vol.8 world in many places, & bookes ben had grete chepe and in grete nombre by cause of the same craft.

This yere was a grete batayll in the marches bytwene Hongary and Turkye at a place callyd Septegrade, where innumerable Turkes were slayn, more by myracle than by mannes hond. For only the honde of God smote them; Seint Iohn of Capestrane was there presente, & provoked the cristen peple, beyng thenne aferd to poursiewe the Turkes, where an infynyte multitude were slayn and destroyed: the Turkes sayd that a grete nombre of armed men folowed them, that they were aferd to tourne ageyne; they were holy angels. This yere the prysonners of Newgate in London brake theyr prysonne, and wente vpon the leedes, and fought ageynst them of the cyte, and kept the gate a long while; but atte last the toune gate the prysonne on them, and than they were put in fetherys and yrons, and were soore punysshed in ensample of other. In this yere also was a grete erthquave in Naples, in soo moche that there perysshed fourty thousand peple that sanke there in to therthe. Item, In the yere six and thyrtty saynt Osmond, somtyme bisshop of Salys|bury, was canonysed at Rome by pope Calyxt; And the sixtenthe daye of Iuyll he was translated at Salysbury by the Archebisshop of Caunterbury and many other bisshops. And in August after, Syre Pyers de Bresey, seneschal of Normandy, with the capitayne of Depe, and many other capytaynes and men of war, went to the see with a grete navye, and cam in to the downes by nyght; and on the morne erly byfore day they londed, and cam to Sandwyche both by land and water, and toke the towne and ryfled and despoilled it, and toke many prysoners, and left the toune al bare, whiche was a ryche place and moche good therynne, and ladde with hem many rych prysoners. In this yere in many places of Fraunce, Almayne, Flaundres, Holond, and Zelond, children gadred them by grete companyes for to goo on pylgremage to saynt Mychels mount in Normandye, whiche cam fro fer contreyes, wherof the peple merveylled, and many supposyd that somme wycked spryte mevid them to soo doo: but it endured not longe by cause of the longe way, and also for lack of vytayll as they wente. In this yere Raynold Pecok, Bisshop of Chychestre, was founden an heretyke, and the thyrrde day of December was abiured at Lambhyth, in the presence of the Archebisshop of Caunterbury and many Bisshops and doctours and lordes temporall, and his bookes brente at Poulus crosse. Ye have herde to fore how certayne lordes were slayne at saynt Albons, wherfore was alwey a grutche and wrath had by the eyres of them that were soo slayne ageynst the Duke of Yorke, the Erles of Warwyck and of Salysbury, wherfor the kyng by thadvys of his counseylle sente for them to London. To whiche place the Duke of York Page  580, vol.8 cam the syx and twentyest day of Ianyver with four honderd men, and lodge at Barnardys castel in his owne place. And the fyftenth day of Ianyver cam therle of Salysbury with five honderd men, and was lodged in therber in his owne place. And thenne cam the dukes of Excetre and of Somersete with eyght honderd men, and lay withoute Tempelbarre. And the Erle of Northumberland, the lorde Egremond, and the Lord Clyfford with fyftene honderd men, and lodged withoute toun. And the mayer that tyme Gefferey Boleyn kept grete watche with the comyns of the cyte, and rode aboute the cyte by Holburn and Fletestrete with a fyve thousand men wel armed and arayd for to kepe the pees. And the fourtenth day of Feverer therle of Warwyck cam to London from Calays, wel beseen and worshipfully, with six honderd men in reede iaquettys browdryd with a ragged staf behynde and afore, and he was lodged atte grey Freres. And the sevententhe day of Marche the kynge cam to London and the quene, and there was a concorde and pees made amonge these lordes, and they were sette in pees. And on oure Lady day, the xxv. day of Marche a thousand four honderd and eyght and fyfty, the kyng, quene, and all these lordes wente on procession at Powlus in London; and anone after the kynge and lordes departed. In this yere was a grete affray in Fletestrete bytwene men of court and men of the same strete. In whiche affray the quenes attorney was slayne.

Capitulum 29.

ALSO this same yere, as the Erle of Warwyk was at a coun|seyll at Westmynstre, alle the kynges houshold meyny gadred them to geder for to have slayne the sayd erle; but by helpe of god and his frendes he recoveryd his barge, and escaped theyr evyll enterpryse. How wel the coques cam rennynge oute with spyttes and pestels ageynst hym. And the same day he roode toward Warwyk, and sone after he gate hym a commyssion, and wente ouer see to Calays. Sone after this therle of Salys|bury, comyng to London, was encountrid at Bloreheth with the lord Audeley, & moche other peple ordeyned for to have des|tressid him; but he havynge knowleche that he shold be mette with, was accompanyed with his twoo sonnes, sir Thomas and Johan Neuyll, and a greete felawship of good men. And soo they mette and foughte togeders, where therle of Salysbury wanne the feld. And the lord Audeley was slayn, and many gentill men of Chesshyre, and moche peple hurte. And therles twoo sonnes were hurte, and goynge homeward afterward they were taken, and had to Chestre by the quenes meyne. After Calyxte, Pius was pope, and was chosen this yere 1458. And he was callyd to fore Eneas, an eloquent man and a poete Page  581, vol.8 laureate. He was Ambassatour of the Emperours afore tyme, and he wrote in the counseylle of Basylle a noble trayttye for thauctoryte of the same.

Also he canonysed saynt Katheryne of Senys. This pope ordeyned grete Indulgences and pardonne to them that wolde go warre ageynst the Turke, and wrote an epystle to the grete Turke, exortynge hym to become Crysten. And in the ende he ordeyned a passage ageynst the Turke at Ankone, whiche moche peple drewe out of all partyes of Crystendome; of whiche peple he sente many hoome ageyne by cause they suf|fysed not. And anone after he deyde at the same place of Ancone, the yere of our Lord a thousand four honderd and lvij., the xiiij. day of August. In the yere eyght and thyrtty of kyng Harry, the duke of Yorke, the Erles of Warwyck and Salysbury, sawe the governaunce of the royamme stode moost by the quene and her counseylle, and how the grete prynces of the londe were not callyd to counseylle, but sette aparte; & not only soo, but that it was sayd thurgh the royame that tho sayde lordes shold be destroyed vtterly, as it openly was shewed atte Bloreheth by them that wold have slayne the Erle of Salesburye. Thenne they for savacion of theyr lyves, and also for the comyn wele of the royame, thought for to remedye thyse thynges, assemblyd them to gyder with moche peple, and toke a feld in the West countray, to whiche the Erle of War|wyck cam from Calays with many of thold soudyours, as Andrew Trollop and other, in whos wysedomes as for the warre he moche trusted; and whanne they were thus assemblyd and made theyr felde, the kynge sente oute his commissyons and prevy sealys vnto alle the lordes of his royamme to come and awayte on hym in theyr mooste defensable wyse; and soo every man cam, in suche wyse that the kynge was strenger and hadde moche more peple than the duc of York and the Erles of Warwyck and Salysbury. For it is here to be noted that euery lord in Englond at this tyme durst not dysobey the quene. For she rewlyd peasybly all that was done aboute the kynge, which was a good symple and innocent man. And thenne whanne the kyng was comen to the place where as they were, the duck of Yorke and his felawship had made theyr feld in the strengest wyse, and hadde purposed veryly to abyden and have foughten. But in the nyght Andrew Trollop and all the olde Soudyours of Calays, with a greete felawshippe, sodaynly departed oute of the dukes hooste, and wente strayte vnto the kynges felde, where they were resseyved ioyously. For they knewe the entente of the other lordes, and also the maner of theyr feld. And thenne the duck of York with the other lordes, seynge them so deceyved, toke a counseylle shortly in that same nyghte, and departed from the felde, levynge behynde them the mooste part of theyr people to kepe the felde till on Page  582, vol.8 the morne. Thenne the Duke of Yorke with his seconde sonne departed thurgh Walys toward Irlond, levynge his oldest sone, therle of Marche, with the Erles of Warwyck and of Salesbury, which, togeder with thre or foure personnes, roode strayte in to Devenshyre, and there by helpe and ayde of one Denham, a squyer, whiche gate for them a shippe, whiche coste enleven score noblys, & with the same shippe sailed fro thens in to Garneseye, and there refresshyd them, and from thennes sayled to Calays, where they were receyved in to the castel by the postern er they of the toune knewe of hit. And the duk of Yorke toke shippynge in Wales, and sayled over in to Irlond, where he was well resseyved.

Capitulum trisesimum.

THENNE kynge Harry beynge with his hooste in the felde, not knowynge of this sodayne departynge, on the morne fonde none in the felde of the sayde lordes, sente oute in all haste men to folowe and poursiewe after to take hem, but they mette not with them, as God wold; and thenne the kyng wente to Lud|lowe, and dispoylled the castel and the toune, and sent the duchesse of York with her children to my lady of Bokyngham her suster, where she was kepte longe after. And forthwith the kynge ordeyned the duc of Somersete capytayne of Calays. And these other lordes, soo departed as afore is sayd, were proclamed rebellys and grete traytours. Thenne the duke of Somersete toke to hym alle the soudyours that departed fro the felde, and made hym redy in alle haste to goo to Calys and take possession of his offyce. And whanne he cam he fonde the Erle of Warwyck therin as capytayne, And therles of Marche and Salysbury also. And thenne he londed by Scales, and wente to Guysnes, and there he was resseyved. And it fortuned that somme of tho shippis that cam over with hym came in to Calays haven by theyr free wylle, for the shipmen ought more favoure to the Erle of Warwyck than to the Duke of Somersete.

In whiche shippes were taken dyverse men, as Ienyn Fynk|hyll, Iohan Felaw, Kaylles and Purser, whyche were byheded sone after in Calays. And after this dayly cam men over see to thyse lordes to Calays, and byganne to wexe strenger and strenger. And they borowed moche good good*. [Sic.] of the staple. And on that other syde the duc of Somersete beyng in Guysnes gate people to hym, whiche cam oute and scarmusshed with them of Calays, and they of Calays with them, whiche endured many dayes: duryng thus this dayly scarmuchynge, moche people dayly cam over vnto thyse lordes. Thenne on a tyme Page  583, vol.8 by thadvys of counseylle the lordes at Calays sente over Mayster Denham with a grete felawship to Sandwyche, whiche toke the toune, and therynne the lord Ryvers and the lord Scales his sonne, and toke many shippes in the haven, and brought hem alle to Calays, with whiche shippes many maronners of theyr free wylle cam to Calays to serve the Erle of Warwyck. And after this the Erle of Warwyk by thadvys of the lordes toke alle his shippis and mannyd them wel, and sayled him self in to Irlond for to speke with the duke of Yorke, and to take his advys how they sholde entre in to Englond ageyne. And whanne he hadde ben there and done his erandes, he re|tourned ageyne toward Calays, and brought with hym his moder the Countesse of Salysbury. And comyng in the west countraye vpon the see, the duk of Excetre, admyral of Englond, beyng in the Grace a Dieu accompanyed with many shippes of warre, met with therle of Warwyck and his flote, but they fought not. For the substaunce of the peple beynge with the duke of Excetre ought better wyll and more favour to therle of Warwyck than to hym. And soo they departed and cam to Calays in saefte, blessyd be God.

Thenne the kynges counseylle seynge that these lordes had goten these shippes from Sandwiche to abyde and kepe the toune, and made one Mountford capytayne of the Toune, and that noo man ne vytaylle ne marchaunt that sholde goo in to Flaundres shold not goo to Calys. Thenne they of Calays seynge this, made out mayster Denham and many other to goo to Sandwiche. And soo they dyde, and assaylled the toune by water and by lande, and gate it, and brought Mountford theyr Capytayne over see to Rysebank, and there smote of his heede. And yet dayly men cam over to them oute of alle partyes of Englond.

Capitulum Trisesimum Primum.

AND after this the sayd erles of Marche, Warwyk, and of Salysbury cam over soe to Dover with moche peple, and there landed, to whome al the countray drewe, and cam to London armed. And for to late the lordes of the kynges counseylle knowe theyr trouth, and also theyr entente, assemblyd them and told them, that they entended no harme vnto the kynges personne, sauf that they wold putte fro hym suche persones as were aboute hym. And soo departed fro London with a grete puyssaunce toward Norhampton, where the kynge was accom|panyed with many lordes, and had made a stronge felde with|oute the toun. And there both partyes mette, and was foughten a grete bataylle. In which batayll were slayne the duck of Bokyngham, therle of Shrowesbury, the vysecounte Beamond, the lorde Egremond, and many knyghtes and Squyers and other Page  584, vol.8 also. And the kyng hym self taken in the felde, and after|ward brought to London. And anone afterward was a parla|ment at Westmynstre, duryng whiche parlament the duck of York cam oute of Irlond with therle of Rutland, rydyng with a grete felawship in to the palays at Westmestre, and toke the kynges palays, and cam into the parlament chambre, and there toke the kynges place, and claymed the croune as his propre enherytaunce and ryght, and cast forth in wrytyng his tytle, and also how he was ryghtful eyer; wherfore was moche to doo, but in conclusion it was appoynted and concluded that kynge Harry sholde regne and be kyng durynge his naturel lyf, for as moche as he had ben so long kyng, and was possessyd. And after his deth the duke of Yorke shold be kynge, and his eyres after hym, and forthwith shold be proclamed eyr appa|raunt, and sholde be also protectour and regente of Englonde durynge the kynges lyf, with many other thynges ordeyned in the same parlament. And if kyng Harry duryng his lyf wente from this appoyntement, or ony artycle concluded in the sayd parlement, he shold be deposed, & the duke sholde take the crowne and be kyng: all whiche thynges were enacted by thauctorite of the sayd parlament. At whiche parlament the comons of the royamme beyng assemblyd in the comon hows comenynge and treatyng vpon the tytle of the sayd duc of Yorke, sodaynly fyll downe the crowne whiche henge thenne in the myddes of the sayd hows, whiche is the fraytour of thabbay of Westmynstre, whiche was taken for a prodyge or token that the regne of kyng Harry was ended: and also the crowne whiche stode on the hyest tour of the stepel in the castel of Dover fyll doun this same yere.

Capitulum 32.

THENNE for as moche as the quene with the prynce was in the northe, and absented her from the kyng, and wolde not obeye suche thynges as was concluded in the parlement, hit was ordeyned that the duck of York as protectour shold go norward for to brynge in the quene, and subdue suche as wold not obeye; with whome wente the erle of Salysbury, Syre Thomas Nevylle his sonne, with moche peple. And at Wakefelde in Crystemasse weke they were alle overthrowen and slayn by the lordes of the quenes partye, that is to wete the duk of York slayn, therle of Rutland, Syre Thomas Nevyll and many moo. Therle of Salysbury was taken a lyve, and other, as Iohan Harow of London, capytayne of the foote men, and Hanson of Hulle, whiche were brought to Pountfret, and there after byheded and theyr hedes sente to Yorke and sette vpon the yates. And thus was that noble prynce slayne the duke of Yorke, on whoos sowle & on alle Crysten sowles God have Page  585, vol.8 mercy, Amen. And this tyme therle of Marche beyng in Shrewesbury, heeryng the deth of his fader, desyred assistence and ayde of the toune for to avenge his faders deth. And from thennes went to Walys, where at Candelmasse after he had a batayl at Mortemers crosse ageynst therles of Pen|broke and of Wylshyre, where the erle of Marche had the vyctorye. Thenne the quene with tho lordes of the north, after they had distressyd and slayne the duck of Yorke and his felauship, came southward with a grete multitude and puyssaunce of peple for to come to the kynge, and defete suche conclusions as had ben taken byfore by the parlement. Ageynste whoos comynge the Duke of Norfolke, the erle of Warwycke, with moche peple and or[dena]unce, wente vnto saynt Albons, and ladde kyng Harry with hem. And there encountryd to geder in such wyse and foughte, that the duke of Norfolke and therle of Warwyk with other of theyr partye fledde, and lost that iourneye; where kynge Harry was taken, and wente with the quene and prynce and his sonne, whiche tho had goten that felde. Thenne the quene and her partye beynge at theyr aboue sente anone to London, whiche was on Assh Wednesday, the fyrste day of Lente, for vytaylle; whiche the mayer ordeyned by thadvys of the aldermen that certayne cartes laden with vytaylle shold be sente to saynt Albons to them, And whanne the cartes cam to Crepylgate, the comons of the cyte that kepte that gate toke the vytaylles from the cartes, and wold not suffre it to passe. Thenne were ther certayne aldermen and comeners appoynted to goo to Barnet for to speke with the quenes counseylle, for to entrete that the northern men shold be sente home ageyne into theyr countraye ageyne. For the cyte of London dredde soore to be robbed and de|spoylled, yf they had come. And thus duryng thys trayttye tyd|ynges cam that the Erle of Warwyk had mett with therle of Marche on Cotteswold comyng oute of Wales with many Wallshmen, and that they both were comyng to Londonward. Anone as these tydynges were knowen the trayttye was broken, for the kyng, quene, prynce, and all the other lordes that were with hem departed from saynt Albons northward with alle theyr peple: yet er they departed they byheded the lord Boneyle and Syr Thomas Cryel, whiche were taken in the iourneye done in the Shroftewysday. Thenne the duchesse of Yorke beyng at London, and herynge of the losse of the felde of saynt Albons, sente over see her twoo yonge sonnes, George and Rychard, whiche wente to Utrecht. And Phelyp Malpas a ryche marchaunt of London, Thomas Vaghan squyer, and mayster Wylliam Hatteclyf, and many other feryng the comyng of the quene to London, toke a shippe of Andwerp for to have goone in to Zeland. And on that coost were taken of one Colompne a Frensshman, a shippe of warre, and he toke hem prysoners, Page  586, vol.8 and brought hem in to Fraunce, where they payd grete good for theyr raunsonne, and ther was moche good and rychesse in that shippe.

Capitulum Trisesimum Tercium.

THENNE whanne the Erle of Marche and therle of Warwyk hadde mette to geder on Cottiswold, incontynent they con|cluded to go to London, and sente worde anone to the mayer and to the cyte that they shold come. Anone the cyte was gladde of theyr comynge, hopynge to be relyevyd by them. And soo they cam to London: and whanne they were comen and hadde spoken with the lordes and astates, thenne beyng there, concluded, for as moche as kynge Harry was gone with them northward, that he had forfayted his crowne and ought to be deposed, acordyng vn to the actes made and passed in the last parlement. And soo by thadvys of the lordes spirituel and temporel thenne beynge at London, the erle of Marche Edward, by the grace of God oldest sone of Rychard duke of Yorke, as ryghtful heyr and next enherytour to his fader, the fourthe day of Marche the yere of oure lorde Lix., toke possession of the royamme of Englond at Westmynstre in the grete halle, and after in the chirche of the abbay, and offryd as kynge, berynge the septre royall; to whom alle the lordes, bothe spirituel and temporell, dyde hommage and obeyssaunce as to theyr soverayne, lyege, and lawful lord and kynge. And forthwith it was pro|clamed thurgh the cyte, kyng Edward the fourthe of that name. And anone after the kyng rode in his ryall astate norward with all his lordes for to subdue his subgettis that tyme beyng in the north, and tavenge his faders deth. And on Palmsonday after he hadde a grete bataylle in the northe countrey, at a place callyd Towton, not fer fro Yorke, where, with the helpe of God, he gate the felde and had the vyctorye; where were slayne of his adversaryes xxx. thousand men & moo, as it was sayd by men that were there. In whiche bataylle was slayne the erle of Northumberlond, the lord Clyfford, Syr Iohan Nevyll, the Erle of Westmerlandes brother, Andrewe Trollop, and many other knyghtes and squyers. Thenne kyng Harry that had ben kynge, beynge with the quene and prynce at Yorke, heerynge the losse of that feld and soo moche peple slayn and over|throwen, anone forthwith departed al thre, with the duc of Somersete, the lord Roos and other, toward Scotland. And the next daye kynge Edward with all his armye entryd in to Yorke, and was there proclamed kyng, and obeyed as he ought to be. And the mayer, aldermen and comyns sworne to be his lyege men, and whanne he hadde taryed a while in the north, and that alle the countrey there had tourned to him, he retorned south|warde, levynge the Erle of Warwyck in tho partyes for to kepe and governe that countrey. And about mydsomer after, the yere Page  587, vol.8 of oure Lord God a thousande four honderd and syxty, and the fyrste yere of his regne, he was crowned at Westmynstre, and enoynted kynge of Englond, havynge the hoole possession of all the hoole royamme: whome I praye God save and kepe, and sende hym thaccomplysshement of the remenaunt of his rightfull enherytaunce byyonde the see, and that he may regne in them to the playsyre of Almyghty God, helthe of his sowle, honoure and worshippe in this presente lyf, and wele and prouffyte of alle his subgettis; and that there may be a veray fynal pees in al crysten royames, that the infydeles and myscreauntes may be withstanden and destroyed, and our feyth enhaunced, whiche in thyse dayes is sore mynnysshed by the puyssaunce of the Turkes and hethen men, and that after this presente and short lyf we maye come to the everlastyng lyf in the blysshe of heven: Amen.

And here I make an end of this lytel werke, as nygh as I can fynde after the forme of the werk tofore made by Ranulph monk of Chestre. And where as ther is fawte, I beseche them that shal rede it to correcte it, for yf I coude have founden moo storyes I wold have sette in hit moo; but the substaunce that I can fynde and knowe I have shortly sette hem in this book, to thentente that such thynges as have ben done syth the deth or ende of the sayd boke of Polychronycon shold be had in remembraunce and not putte in oblyvyon ne forgetynge; prayenge all them that shall see this symple werke to pardone me of my symple and rude wrytynge. Ended the second day of Iuyll, the xxij. yere of the regne of kynge Edward the fourth, & of the incarnacion of oure Lord a thousand four honderd four score and tweyne.

Fynysshed per Caxton.