Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
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THE EIGHTH BOOK OF THE POLYCHRONICON FROM CAXTON.*. [The marginal references are to Walsingham's History so far as there is anything common to the two, and to the Fasciculus Tempo|rum, one of the authorities to which Caxton acknowledges himself in|debted.]

Capitulum octauum.

IN the yere 1494 were trewes taken bytwene the kyng of Fraunce and the kynge of Englonde for foure yere. Also this same yere, aboute Crystemasse, kynge Rychard wente fyrst in to Irlond. After Wenzelaus, Rupertus alias Robertus was Em|perour nyne yere. This Robertus duk of Bayer and Count Palatyn on the Ryn, a juste and trewe man and a catholyke, he was crowned of the nynthe Boneface the Pope. He entryd in to Ytalye with a grete armye ageynst duk Galyace, but he retorned with grete losse. About this tyme was that cursyd heresye of Iohan Wyclyf in Englond, and Iohan Hus in Bohe|mye, and Ierome of Praghe, which heresye enfected moch peple, and vnder the habyte of a lambe hydynge wolvysshe cruelte had purposed to subverte alle the state of the chirche; and the sklaunderous scysme whiche was in this evyll tyme was a grete helpe to them. Also this tyme the heresyee Adamitarum beganne to growe in Boheme, but it was putte Page  536, vol.8 doune by the Hussytys. That was over grosse and vnshame|fast. For they wente naked, and indyffrently dyde theyr lech|erye with wommen. Petrus de Elyaco and Iohan Gerson his disciple, both doctours of dyvynyte of Parys, were in her floures this tyme. In this yere were merveyllous grete wyndes thre monethes contynuelly, and specially in September, that over|threwe greete trees with fruyte, howses, chymeneyes and steples. And there was seen in Langedok in Fraunce a grete sterre, and fyve lytell sterres assayllynge the grete, and pour|syewed it by the space of an houre, and a voys cryenge fro hevene. And after was seen a man semyng of copper, hold|yng a spere in his handes, by the greete sterre, and smote hit. And after that it was no more seen. In other places were herde the noyse of harneysed men fyghtynge.

In the nynetenthe yere of kyng Rychard, he wente to Calays, and maryed there quene Isabel, the kynges doughter of Fraunce. At whiche tyme the Frensshe lordes were sworen on a booke that alle covenauntes, forwardys, and composicions ordeyned and made on both sydes shold be truly holden and kept withoute contradiction or dylaye in ony maner wyse. And whanne this ryal maryage was done and fynysshed, kynge Rychard with dame Isabel his quene cam in to Englond. And the mayer of London with all his bretheren, with grete multitude of the comons of the cyte & the craftys resseyved hem worshipfully atte Blacheth, and brought hem to saynt Georges barre. And there takynge theyr leve, the kynge and the Quene roode to Kenyngton. And after that, withynne a whyle, the quene cam to the Toure of London, at whoos com|yng was moche harme done. For on London brydge were nyne personnes crowded to deth. Of whome the pryour of Typtre was one. And from the Tour she wente thurgh the cyte of London to Westmynstre, and there she was crowned. And after this kyng Rychard by appoyntemente delyvered the toun of Brest to the duc of Brytayne, wherof bygon moche trouble and sorowe, whiche dured vnto his deth. In the twenty|est yere kyng Rychard dyde holde a grete feste at West|mynstre. At whiche feste arryved the sowdyours that hadde kepte Breste, and sate atte dyner in the hall; and after dyner the Duc of Gloucetre sayd to the kynge, "Syre, have ye not seen the felawes that sate at dyner in your halle?" And the kynge demaunded who they were. And he sayd, "these ben youre folk that have servyd yow, and ben come from Breste, and now wote not what to doo, and have ben evyl payd." Thenne the kynge sayd that they shal be payed. Thenne answerd the duc of Gloucetre in a grete furye, "Syre, ye ought fyrste to putte youre bodye in devoyre to gete a toune or a castel by fayt of warre vpon your enemyes, er ye sholde selle or delyver ony tounes that your predecessours Page  537, vol.8 kynges of Englond have goten and conquerd." To the whiche the kynge answerd ryght angrely, "How saye ye that?" Thenne the duk his vncle sayd it ageyn. Thenne the kyng byganne to wexe wrothe, and sayde, "Wene ye that I be a marchaunt or a foole to selle my londe? by saynt Iohan Baptist, nay; but trouthe it is that our cosyn of Britayne hath rendryd and payd to vs the somme that my predecessours hadde lente vppon the sayd toune of Brest; and syth he hath payed, it is reasonne that this toune be delyverd to hym ageyne." Thus beganne the wrath bytwene the kynge and his vncle. And afterward at Arondele was a counseylle of certayne lordes, as the duck of Gloucetre, the Archebisshop of Caunterbury, The Erles of Arondele, Warwyk and Marchal, and other, for to refourme the rewle aboute the kynge; whiche lordes promysed eche to byde by other, and soo departed; and anone after the Erle marchal, whiche was Capytayne of Calays, be|wrayed and lete the kynge have knowleche of all theyr coun|seylle. Wherupon the fyve and twentyest daye of August the duke of Gloucetre was arrestyd at Plasshey in Estsex and brought to the Tour of London, and from thennes sente to Calays, and there murthred and slayne withoute processe of lawe or Justyce, and therle of Arondel, the Erle of Warwyk, Syr Iohan Cobham, Syre Iohan Cheyne, knyghtes, were arestyd and putte in holde. Save therle of Arondel fonde seurte tans|were, and wente at large tyl the parlement tyme. In the one & twentyest yere of kyng Rycharde, at the parlement holden at Westmynstre, therle of Arondel was brought tofore alle the lordes, and there was iuged to deth, that he shold goo on fote fro Westmynstre thurgh the cyte of London to the Tour hylle. And there to have his heede smyten of. And syxe lordes roode with hym to see that execucion sholde be doo, with grete multitude of peple, of men at armes and archers. For they dredde leste he shold be rescowed by men of London. And on the morne tharchebisshop of Caunterbury his broder was banysshed for evermore. And Syre Thomas Mortemer was banysshed also. And Syre Rychard, Erle of Warwyk, cam to fore the parlemente, and was iuged to the same deth, but by cause of his age he was releced to perpetuel prysonne. The Mondaye after, Syre Iohan Cobham and Syre Iohan Cheyne were iuged to be drawen & hanged, but at the instaunce of the lordes that iugement was releced vnto perpetuel prysonne. And this done kyng Rychard made a ryal feste and helde open Courte. In whiche feste he made fyve Dukes, a marqueys and fyve Erles; that is to saye, the Erle of Derby was made duc of Herford; the erle of Ruthlond was made Duc of Aumarle; the Erle of Kente, Duck of Surrey; the Erle Huntyngdon, Duck of Excetre; the Erle Marchal, Duck of Norfolke; the Erle of Somersete, Marqueys of Dorsete; the lorde Spencer, Erle of Page  538, vol.8 Gloucetre; the Lord Nevyll, Erle of Westmerlonde; Syre Thomas Percy, Erle of Worcetre; Syre William Scrope, Erle of Wylshyre; Syre Iohan Montague, Erle of Salysbury. And thus there was a greete feste to al these lordes and to all other that wold come. In the same yere fylle a greete debate and dys|sencyon bytwene the Duck of Herford, Erle of Derby, on that one partye, And the Duke of Norfolke, Erle Marchal, on that other partye, in so moche that they waged bataylle and cast downe theyr gloves, whiche were taken vp byfore the kynge and ensealed, and the daye and place assygned at Coventre. To whiche place the kynge cam; the Duk of Lancastre, and other lordes. And whanne bothe partyes were in the felde redy for to fyghte, the kynge toke the matere in his owne honde, and forthwith he exyled and banysshed the Duke of Herford for ten yere, and the duke of Norfolke for ever. The Duc of Norfolke deyde at Venyse. In the two and twentyest yere of kyng Rychard there were made blank charters, to whiche all the ryche men of the royamme were compellyd to sette to theyr seales. And it was noysed thurgh the royamme that he hadde sette Englond to ferme to Syre William Scrope, Erle of Wylshyre, sir Iohan Busshe, Syre Johan Grene, and sir Johan Bagot; and he or|deyned his vncle Syr Edmond of Langley, duk of Yorcke, to be his lyeutenaunt whiles he shold be in Irlond in his absence. In this yere deyde the due of Lancastre, and is buryed at Powlus in London. Thenne kynge Rychard wente in to Irlonde with many lordes and grete ordenaunce, and there he was wel resseyved; And the wilde Irysshemen cam downe to hym with theyr capytaynes, and yelded them to hym, and swore to be his true lyege men, and dyde hym hommage and feawte. Thus he con|querd Irlond the moost part in a lytel whyle. Whyles kynge Rychard was in Irlond thus occupied, Syre Harry of Bolyng|brooke, Erle of Derby, the duc of Lancastres sonne, whome kynge Rychard hadde made Duk of Herford, and had exyled hym for certayn causes, & with hym tharchebishop also, londed at Ravenspore in the north contre, and by the coloure of his tytle to the Duchye of Lancastre he reysed and assembled the people ever as he wente, in soo moche as he hadde greete multi|tude of peple. For the peple were soo oppressyd with the offycers of kyng Rychard, that almoost all the commyns of the londe were redy to awayte on the Erle of Derby, hopynge to be relevyd by hym. Incontynent tydynges cam to kynge Rychard beyng in Irlond how he was landed, and that the comons drewe faste to hym. Anone he made hym redy and cam over see into Englond with alle his hooste, and arryved in Mylford haven; and there taryed a two dayes for to refresshe hym and his hooste. And in the mene whyle the lordes and mooste part of the peple vnderstode that the Erle of Derby bycam strenger and strenger, began to murmure and to grutche. That seynge Syr Thomas Page  539, vol.8 Percy called them togeder, brake the roode of his offyce, for he was styward, and badde every man goo his wey, vnwetyng the kynge. And so in the nyght every man wente his weye levynge the kynge allone, save two or thre lordes with a fewe men, whiche lordes for sewerte, and by counseyll of the styward, brought the kynge to the castel of Flynt, where he was taken and delyvered to therle of Derby, whiche brought hym to London. And thenne were taken at Brystowe Syre William Scrope, Syr Iohan Bussh, Sir Harry Grene, & Syr Iohan Bagot; but Syre Iohan Bagot escaped. And the other that were take were byheded. And thus as he was comyng to London warde, tydynges cam to the cyte that kynge Rycharde was comen to Westmynstre; And anon the peple of London in their furye and wodenesse, as people maliciously sette ageinst king Richard, their soveraine lorde, roose and purposed yf they myght have founden to have destroyed hym. But the mayer and aldermen with the sadde men of the toune with moche werke tourned hem hoome ageyne to London; yet they toke Syre Iohan Slake, dene of the kynges chapel, and putte hym in Ludgate, and Syre Johan Bagot that escaped from Bristowe was take in Irlond and brought to London and sette in Newegate. Sone after this kynge Rychard was broughte to the Tour of London, and thenne was there a parlement, in whiche kynge Rychard was deposed of his crowne, and kynge Henry chosen and taken for the kynge; to whome kynge Rychard resygned the crowne and the Royamme of Englond. And thenne from the Tour he was had to the castel of Ledes in Kente, and from thennes he was had to the castel of Pountfret.