Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum quinquagesimum primum.

The bischop of Norwiche did londe in this yere at Calys with his hoste in the feste of the apostoles Petyr and Paule, havynge with hym Syr Hewe Calverly and but fewe moo men, proved and experte in batell, but the nowmbre of men of armes and specially of foote men encreasede dayly. For mony reli|gious men, chanons, monkes and freres, and oþer benefycede men, wente to hym after hys departynge. Whiche bischoppe wente anoon to the towne off Gravenynge, and layde sege to hit; but þe men inhabitynge hit seide utterly thei wolde not delyver hit, for thei did not holde with pope Urban, and resiste myȝhtely the bischoppe and his hoste. But the bischoppe pre|vaylede, and entrede into the towne, and did sle alle men in hit; and after þat he wente to Dunkyrke, and recurede that towne also in schorte space. And as sodenly XXX. M. of the communes of Flaundres come into the pleynes nye to the seide towne erly, with certeyne capiteyns and governoures, whiche hade inten|dede to have taken the bischop sodenly, and to have sleyne hym and his hoste. But as God wolde, the bischop hade knowlege by a lytelle space that þei cowthe unnethe make theym redy in theire armore afore theire commynge. Whiche conflicte begunne a M. men of Ynglonde were not þer in nowmbre, but the moste parte of þeim were archers, but the nowmbre encreasede; whiche men spende theire arowes so that thei causede that other hoste to flee, folowynge theym allemoste unto nyȝhte. And after þe Page  465, vol.8 estimacion of men of Ynglonde, men off Flaundres were sleyne allemoste unto the nowmbre of xj. M., and xv. men of Ynglonde were sleyne in that conflict. That doen thei toke the towne of Neuport with v. oþer townes and the goodes in theyme, whereby men of Ynglonde beynge þer gate grete habundance off goodes. Mony men in diverse partes of Ynglonde understondynge that the hoste there gate so grete goodes, a grete multitude of men wente to that cuntre. Whiche commyn into those costes wolde [folio 412a] not be governede, and departede unto diverse costes; whiche peple were sleyne or taken. The bischop of Norwiche wente to the towne of Ypres sone after with his hoste, and brente the subarbes of that towne, and spoylede theyme; whiche hade re|curede that towne also, but that diverse men of his hoste were corrupte with money of his adversaryes. Whiche thynge was lyke to be tru, for diverse of theym were convicte in Ynglonde after afore the kynge; and so moche labor wastede, the bischop departede from the sege. That doen the bischop wente to Gra|venynge and repayrede hit, taryenge þer with a certeyn nowmbre of men with hym; and the marescall and constable wente to the towne of Burbourghe, whom thei hade taken also, taryenge for moore helpe to be sende from Ynglonde. But theire hoste de|creasede and departede to Ynglonde for the salvacion of goodes that thei hade geten þer. And soone after the kynge of Fraunce come with a grete hoste, and fixede his tentes ageyne the towne of Burburghe and sette fyre in the towne, whiche fyre was so fervente that hit brente and consumede whatsoever thynge that hit towchede. That doen the duke of Briteyn, governoure of the fyrste warde, oppugned that towne soore, but the seide men of Ynglonde resiste hym manfully, and did sle and wounde mony of his warde, for they were disposed rather to dye manfully then to be sleyne cowardly by that cursede kynge of Fraunce. But that duke of Bryteyne seenge the manhode of theyme was lothe that thei scholde be put to dethe; whiche duke had maryede to his wife the suster of the kynge of Ynglonde. Wherefore he was mediator betwene the kynge of Fraunce and þeim, unnethe gettynge grawnte of theire lyfes. And the bischop beynge in the towne of Gravenynge was commaundede to avoide from hit by the kynge of Fraunce by a certeyn tyme prefixede, and so he did, but he destroyede utterly þat towne before; and so that viage was ended with schame, and after that thei saylede to Ynglonde. In whiche tyme the Scottes toke the castell of Werke on the water of Twede, and robbede hit and sette fyre in hit. Wherefore hit was ordeynede by þe commune assente that the kynge scholde entre into Scotlonde with a regalle hoste, and depresse the pryde of the Scottes. Kynge Richarde did holde a parliamente at Westemonastery in that yere in the Moneday nexte afore the feste of Alle [folio 412b] Page  466, vol.8 Seyntes. In whiche parliamente oon halfe*. [halfe di] MS.] dyme was grawn|tede to the kynge by the clergy, and and halfe a xvthe of lay peple, to be payede in the begynnynge of the monethe of Marche, and as moche after Ester on a condicion. Pope Urban perceyvynge that Edmund Bromfelde, monke of Bury, of whom mencion is made of afore, cowthe not obteyne the favor of the kynge to be abbot of þe seide monastery, ȝafe hym an other monastery of the Holy Crosse at Burdews, sendynge powere to the bischop of London to blesse that monke electe at Bery into abbot by the convente. But the seide Edmund wolde not receyve that benefice grawntede to hym by the pope, ne noon oþer, and so he was keped at Wyndeshore. In whiche yere abowte the Annunciacion off oure Lady, John duke of Lancastre, Thomas Wodestoke, brother to hym and erle of Bukkyngham, wente to Scotlonde with a myȝhty hoste. But the Scottes hydde theyme in woodes, other ells saylede over the Scotte see, knowynge that theire hoste scholde peresche, what thro hungre and thro colde; and soe the seide lordes returnede ageyne to Ynglonde, mony of their hoste loste and destroyede, withowte eny frute or victory. That viage doen, a parliamente was holden at Salisbery, in whiche parliamente that other halfe dyme grawntede in the parliamente afore on a con|dicion was grawntede to be payede sone after the feste of seynte Michell absolutely withowte eny condicion. In whiche parlia|ment a frere of the ordre of Carmelites, John Latimer by name, bachiler in divinite, come to þe kynge and spake with hym secretely, sayenge that the duke of Lancastre and oþer communes of the cite of London and of oþer diverse townes in Ynglonde hade conspirede his dethe, and that he scholde prove. Wherefore the kynge callede the duke to hym, and expressede this communicacion to hym, the frere stondynge secretely behynde a curtyn. The duke denyede utterly that accusacion, submyttynge hym to suffre accordynge to that offense as ageyne his sovereigne lorde, if that accusacion cowthe be provede tru. The frere herynge that, come furthe boldely afore the kynge, affermynge þose thynges rehersede of the duke to be tru, sayenge that he scholde prove those thynges to be tru in what|soever maner hit scholde please the kynges goode grace to assigne hym, adjectynge þerto and sayenge the lord Sowche [folio 413a] of Harneworthe to be wyttenesse and knowynge of these pre|misses. This doen the frere was committe to warde, and the lorde Sowche was sende for, whiche commyn afore the kynge afermede openly þat he herde never of that treason afore that tyme, whiche treason the frere seide that he scholde knowe. The frere seenge that he cowthe not be helpede by hym, seide Page  467, vol.8 that an oþer noble esqwyer of Oxenfordeschire was wittenesse of the seide premisses. Whiche presentede to the kynge excusede hym by an othe lyke as the lorde Sowche did. The frere seenge that he myȝhte not performe his purpose feynede hym as alienate of mynde and distract. But the seide ffrere was hongede with a grete peyce of lede tyede and made faste with a strynge to his prive membres and to his feete also, and a grete fyre under theyme, and soe he was tormentede a grete space, and drawen and heded afterwarde. But hit is to be mervaylede what cruellenesse scholde move the frere to ex|presse suche thynges. In whiche tyme Syr John Philipotte, knyȝhte and merchaunte of London, dyede, a trusty and specialle luffer to the realme of Ynglonde, and relevede moche the kynge and the realme, levynge but fewe men after hym of nobilite so feithefull to þe realme as he was. In whiche yere John of Northampton, a cytesynne of London, was convicte at Radyng in the presence of the kynge and of mony oþer noble men, by the accusacion of his awne preste, for grete and grevous offenses; where he was condempnede to perpetualle prison, and his goodes were eschete to the use of the kynge. Mony men say that cytesynne was ac|cused falsely by the meanes of Nicholas Bambri, cytesynne of London also, and that he ȝafe a grete summe of goode to that preste to accuse his maister. In whiche tyme maister William Cowrtenay, metropolitan of Ynglonde, purchasede licence of the pope that he myȝhte visite certeyne diocyses in the pro|vince of Cawnterbery, whiche auctorite scholde endure oonly by the space of ij. yere. And so soone after Ester he began to visitte the bischop of Excestre, whiche visitacion the bischoppe admitte; but he began to resiste the archebischoppe, in that he ȝafe ordres within his diocyse within the tyme of the seide visitacion, and so a grete discorde was movede betwene theyme. [folio 413b] For a man bryngynge a letter from the archebischop was com|pellede to eite the letter and seale also; and a man longynge to þe bischop of Excestre was compellede to eite the crawcows and leder of his schoone. Whiche thynges were doen, the archebischop and the bischop knowynge not of þeim, and pease was reformede betwene þeim by labor of theire frendes, and the bischop submitte hym mekely to þe visitacion of the metro|politan. That doen, the metropolitan contynuate his visitacion by the diocyse of Exestre, of Bathe, and of Worcestre, whom he visitte after personally, and departed at that tyme to Lon|don to the parliament. In tyme of whiche visitacion an oþer dissencion was movede betwene hym and the abbot of Evisham, by his men the enemys of peas. For the seide abbot mette the archebischop afore he come to his monasterye, preyenge hym entierly to vent his pleasure at a maner place of the seide monastery: that thynge grawntede by the archebischop he de|partede. But soone after his departynge, diverse men longynge Page  468, vol.8 to the archebischop seide the abbot intended fraude, and wolde not admitte utterly that visitacion by certeyne privileges grawn|tede to hym by the lawe. Neverthelesse the seide archebis|choppe commynge to that monastery was receyvede by the abbot and convente of þat place with grete solennite at the northe durre of that churche, where thabbot expressede openly that hit was not his wylle ne intencion to resiste the visitacion of his sovereyn and metropolitan in that monastery of Evis|ham, neiþer in eny oþer churche longynge to hit. And so the archebischop entrenge into that churche, and makynge his preyers afore the hye awter departede from that place unto that towne to his ynne. Also kynge Richarde began to holde his parliamente at London in the same yere in the day folow|ynge the feste of seynte Martyn, whom he contynuede by a certeyn season. In whiche parliamente the clergy of Ynglonde grawntede to þe kynge at his peticion halfe a dyme to be payede after Ester, and an oþer halfe dyme in this condicion, [folio 414a] that he wold go in his awne person to depresse the pride of men of Fraunce, and] the lay peple grawntede ij. xvthe in the seide condicion. In whiche tyme a conflicte of ij. men was made þer betwene Iohn Walische esqwiere and a man of Navarria, but the seide man of Navarria faylenge in the pro|bacion of his accusacion was drawen and hongede. Abowte whiche tyme the castelle of Berwyk was taken by treason of a Scotte, whiche dwellede with the capiteyn, a sqwyere of Yng|londe; whom the Scottes kepede myȝhtely ageyne men of Ynglonde. The erle of Northumbrelonde seenge that hyt cowthe not be delyverede withowte grete charge and costes, dredynge also the indignacion of the kynge, promysede to þeim a M.li. in this condicion, that thei wolde departe and delyver þe castelle withowte eny hurte. The Scottes receyvynge that summe departede from the castelle. Neverthelesse this mater objecte ageyne theym in a trety that thei brake pease and promyse of truse taken betwene þe realmes of Ynglonde and of Scotlonde, thei seide that men off Ynglonde brake promyse afore by takynge diverse of theire schippes on the see; where|fore thei seide thei wolde sette that oon ageyne that other. The duke of Andegavy, principalle enemy of the churche of Rome and of the realme of Ynglonde, dyede excommunicate and inpenitent, as hit is seide, þe xxti day of þe monethe of September in this yere, of the pestilence. In whiche yere kynge Richarde intended and ordeynede to holde a parliamente at Waltham, unto whom lordes were callede, unto whiche cownsaile and parliament the duke of Lancastre was desyrede to comme as chiefe cownseilloure to the kynge. But diverse men beynge nye to the kynge, and luffynge the seide duke, sende wrytynge to hym secretely that he scholde absente hym from þat parliamente, for an if he come thyder he was but a dedde man. The duke of Lancastre herynge that, sende wry|tynge Page  469, vol.8 to the kynge, besechynge his hihenesse to holde hym excusede if hit were his pleasure as for that tyme. But the kynge*. [Sic in MS.] to hym on his ligence that he scholde comme in eny wyse. The duke willynge to kepe his ligence and lyfe also, toke with hym a myȝhty hoste, and come to the kynge bese|chynge the kynges hyenes not to be displeasede in that he come with so moche peple, sayenge that he dredde to dye. Where the kynge made a protestacion by the confirmacion of an othe that he hade never knowlege of that treason afore [folio 414b] that tyme. And after that in Lente maister William Court|eney, archebischop of Cawnterbery, rebukede the kynge for his insolent lyfe and ylle governaunce in the realme longe con|tynuede, as hit longede to the seide metropolitan to do, sayenge withowte he applyede hym to sadder governayle, somme incon|venientes wolde folowe with ynne schorte space, bothe to hym and to the realme. The kynge havynge grete indignacion þerof, wolde have smyten the archebischop, but that Thomas Wodestoke, uncle to the kynge, causede hym to refreyne that passion of wrathe. Neverthelesse the kynge rehersede mony wordes of obprobry to the archebischop, and conceyved ageyne hym grete indignacion, and so the archebischop departed and wente into ferre costes from the kynge. Wherefore the seide archebischop apperede not at diverse cownsailes where that eny subsidy schole be grawntede to the kynge. In whiche yere and feste of seynte Thomas of Cawnterbery, archebishop and martir, the organ of the develle, the myrroure of ypocrites, the sawer of discorde, the promptnary of adulacion, maister Iohn Wiclif, was taken with a palisy horribly thro alle his body; neverthelesse he sende furthe his fals spiritte in the day of seynte Silvesters, and by meritte, for he hade despysede hym ofte with his tonge. In whiche yere Syr Edwarde le Bowser was made capiteyne of the cite Gaudanense, for the peple of that cite desyrede of kynge Richarde a capiteyne of Ynglonde; þro the prudence and circumspeccion of whom men of Fraunce were confusede, the oþer men not vexede in eny wyse. In whiche yere abowte the feste of Pentecoste, pope Urban the vjte degraded vj. cardinalles: the cardinalle of Venyse; the cardinalle of Ynglonde, Syr Adam Aston, somme tyme monke of Norwiche; and the cardinalle of Janua; wor|schipfulle religious men and professors in divinite. Also the cardinall Zang, the cardinalle Corsiensis, and the cardinalle Tarentyn, men of noble bloode; and the vij. cardinalle was of Reatinensis, whom the pope seide to be mover and causer of alle that grete trowble. But withowte dowte that cardinalle was seide to have be a man of grete prudence and a doctor of lawes, also chieffe cownseloure of Charls of Peas, kynge of Page  470, vol.8 Sicille. And soone after a grete discorde was movede betwene the seide kynge and the pope, in that the pope keped not [folio 415a] certeyn promisses made to that kynge; and the noble cite of Liceria, into whom the pope was fledde, was segede and taken and brente, the castelle excepte, into whom the pope was fledde. And so the pope was coacte to comme furthe, wheþer he wolde or nay, and to desyre pease of the seide kynge, whom he obtened with grete difficulte, and so he was suffrede to departe. In whiche yere Syr Robert Stretton, bischop of Coventre and off Lichefelde, dyede; whom maister Walter Shirawe, doctor of decrees, and bearer of the kynges prive seale, succedid by eleccion of chanons of Lichefelde and of monkes of Coventre. Whiche was consecrate solennely in the same yere, in the Sonneday nexte folowynge the festes of Hillarius and Remigius, of the archebischop of Cawnterbery at Westmonastery, with xij. oþer bischoppes assistent, kynge Richarde, the kynge of Armeny, with the qwene of Ynglonde, mony dukes, erles, lordes, and oþer noble men presente. In whiche yere a grete dissencion was movede betwene the kynge and the duke of Lancastre, by the instincte of yonge men drawynge to the kynge conspirynge into the dethe of the duke. But the seide duke havynge knowlege þerof, with|drawede hym, and wente to his castelle of Powntefret, whom he instaurede with armes and vitells: whiche dissencion was reformede by the laudable labor of lady Iohan, moder to the kynge. In whiche yere a grete movynge of erthe was made abowte myddenyȝhte of þe Invencion of the Holy Cross. In the same tyme a conjuncion of Jupiter and Saturn folowede in the monethe of May. Also abowte this tyme the Scottes hatynge pease, sende to the kynge of Fraunce, with whom thei be prompte ageyne the realme of Ynglonde, desyrynge helpe of hym, promittynge to hym moore then they were able to per|forme, seyenge that and if thei hade a lytelle helpe thei scholde destroye the kynge of Ynglonde. Wherefore the kynge of Fraunce sende to þeim a M. and V. c. speres, with thynges necessary to theyme, and, as hit was seide, the Scottes and men off Fraunce gedrede togedre were X. M. in nowmbre, and so thei intendede to have entrede into the northe costes of Ynglonde, and the kynge of Fraunce in the sowthe partes of Ynglonde, with an oþer hoste. Richarde kynge of Ynglonde understondynge þerof, made grete haste unto Yorke, taryenge þer unto that his hoste were gedrede, and by the tyme that kynge Richarde hade entrede into Scotlonde, [folio 415b] the hoste of men of Ynglonde was seide to excede the nowmbre of a c. M. Where the kynge causede his baner to be displayede, makynge þer allemoste iij. c. knyȝhtes, and anoon the men of Fraunce and Scottes were dispersede; somme of theyme lay in woodes and in marras, folowynge the hoste of men of Ynglonde, Page  471, vol.8 oþer while sleenge men goynge for vytells and takynge diverse men of Ynglonde also. The residu of men off Scotlonde were fledde over the Scottes see and to mownteynes, and the kynge wente unto the Scottes see, and brente theire townes, corne and herbage, with the towne of Edinburghe and the abbey of Meuros of the ordre Cisterciens; and mony men movede the kynge to have goen over the Scottes see, but he wolde not in eny wise, in that thei hade not vitells for the hoste, and so the kynge returnede into Ynglonde. In whiche viage toward Scot|londe Syr R. Stafforde, sonne and heire of þe erle of Stafforde, was sleyne by treason by John Holand, broþer to the kynge by reason of his moder. The kynge havynge knowlege þerof, was trowblede, takynge from his broþer alle londes, rentes, offices, and dignites; and the seide John Holand fledde to Beverlay to enjoy the privilege of that place. After that the kynge sende letters to his moder, commaundenge her that sche scholde not supporte John Holande here son, neiþer norische hym in eny wise. Wherefore the seide lady moder to the kynge toke soe grete sorowe that sche dyede with ynne þe space of iij. or iiij. dayes folowynge, and was beryede at Stafforde. The kynge of Fraunce disposede to have entred into the realme of Ynglonde, hade knowlege that men of the cite Gaudanense hade taken the towne of Ledam, in whom þei founde moche vitells and a M. and lxxxti tunnes of wyne, and so the purpose of the kynge of Fraunce was chaungede. Whiche kynge come with his hoste unto the seide towne, and segede hit, makynge mony sawtes ageyne the men in hit. The peple in hit seenge thei cowthe not prevayle, committe the kepynge off the towne to olde men and women whiche were in hit; and the men of the cite Gauda|nensis brekynge the tunnes, departede prively unto theire cite, that oþer hoste havynge noo knowlege of þat departynge. The [folio 416a] kynge of Fraunce entrede into that towne, perceyvede welle that he was mokede, for hit was as vacante or voide. Abowte the feste of the Exaltacion of the Holy Crosse, the schippes of the kynge of Fraunce commynge from Flandres were dis|persed and broken by an horrible tempeste in the see, and revede in diverse places longynge to Ynglonde. For men of Caleys toke v. c. men that were commyn to londe and salvede. And in the thryd day folowynge, men of Caleys fauȝhte soore ageyne lxxijti schippes of men off Fraunce, and toke xviij. of theire schippes and oon grete barge in whom lxx. men of armes were sleyne and taken. And in the thrydde day folowynge the seide conflicte, men of Caleys fauȝhte ageyne xlv. schippes returnynge from Scluse, and causede alle theyme to fle, ij. schippes excepte and oon carykke, whom they toke with grete goodes, in whom ij. cardinalles off Fraunce were with cc. and xxvj. schippe men and sawdyours. In whiche yere also Bar|nabo the lorde Mediolanense was taken and committe to Page  472, vol.8 prison by his sonne in lawe, whiche childe schewede grete liberte to þe peple of þat cuntre, and destroyede a grete multi|tude of dogges, whom ryche men of þat cuntre and poore men also did fynde to the use of his fader, whereby he was luffede moche of that peple. In whiche tyme þe kynge of Portyngall dyede, whiche was poysenede by hys qwene, and the maister of the Hospitall, a noble knyȝhte, was electe to be kynge ageyne his wylle, doynge mony grete victoryes ageyne the kynge of Speyne by helpe of fewe Ynglische men. But the kynge of Speyne knowynge men of Ynglonde to luffe golde, corrupte mony of theyme to betray the kynge of Portyngall. The seide treason expressede to the kynge of Portyngall, men of Ynglonde were taken and putte into prison. In whiche tyme pope Urban the vite was segede by Charls Pease, kynge of Sicille, whom the Ianuense did delyver, and brouȝhte hym to Ianua with grete honore. But thei wolde not suffre hym to departe from that cite untill that he hade payede to theym an inestimable summe of golde, whiche delyverede hym raþer for hit then for the luffe of God. The kynge of Speyne havynge with a pagan kynge of Garnade with a infinite multitude en|trede [folio 416b] into Portyngall to ȝiffe batell to the kynge, in that he norischede men of Ynglonde. Wherefore the kynge of Portyn|gall dredde soore to ȝiffe batell to theym with so fewe men as he hade in that tyme with hym. Neverthelesse men of Yng|londe comfortede hym moche, and desirede to have þe vowarde of that batelle, and so thei hade unnethe vj. c. men in nowm|bre. The grete and myȝhty hoste of Speyne and of the Pagans seenge so fewe peple ageyne þeim, come hastily ageyne theyme; but men of Ynglonde spende theire arowes welle at that batell, in so moche that the kynge of Speyne was feyne to fle, xx. M. of his hoste sleyne afore. And soone after, the seide kynge of Portyngall hade a glorious victory ageyne the seide hoste of Speyne, sleynge of theyme unto the nowmbre of xv. M. men. In whiche yere sawdyours of Caleys entrenge into the see in the monethe of September toke xxij. schippes moore and lesse of men of Fraunce goynge to Scotlonde and returnynge from that cuntre, and the men in theym taken, sleyne, other drownede, of whom somme were chargede with vitells, somme with marchandyse, and somme with men of armes. Kynge Richarde began to holde his parliamente at Westemonastery in the xiij. kalendes of the monethe of November, in whiche parliamente a new dignite was create not seene in Ynglonde afore that tyme. For the kynge wil|lenge to preferre the erle of Oxenforde, made hym markesse of Oxenforde, oþer mony noble men of the londe havynge grete indignacion þerof, in that he excellede not oþer noblemen in bloode, wisdome, neiþer in manhode. In whiche parliamente the kynge ordeynede also that the seide markesse scholde go to Page  473, vol.8 Yrlonde with a grete powere to conquere alle Yrlonde from Yrysche men, and to make the londe subiecte to hym, and to gette what he myȝhte, reservynge to the kynge superiorite. Also the kynge did grawnte that the seide markesse scholde receyve of hym towarde his costes by v. yere folowynge in every yere v. M. marke. In whiche parliamente newe dukes were create. Also thauȝhe the kynge hade ȝiffen to theym that name in the precincte of Scottelonde. Thomas Wodestoke erle of Bukkyngham was callede duke of Glocestre, and syr [folio 417a] Edmund Langley, erle of Cantebrigge, was callede duke off Yorke, ȝiffenge to either of londes and rentes unto the valoure of a M.li., willynge and grawntynge to theyme that theire heires male scholde be calede dukes for ever. Syr Michell Atte Poole, whiche was chaunceller of Ynglonde, was made erle of Sowthefolke, to whom the kynge ȝafe to þe valoure of a M. marke, a man moore apte to marchandyse then to chevallery. In whiche parliamente oon dyme was grawnted to the kynge of the clergy to the supportacion of his men, and oon xvthe and a halfe of seculer and lay men. In whiche tyme þer was a gentylle man at Cudlynton, Thomas Compereworthe by name, infecte with the erroure and heresy of doctor Wyclif, not usynge to pay tythes to the churche neiþer to be confessede. This gentille man was accusede to the bischop of Lincolne of the seide heresyes and errours, whom the bischop pursuede, but he cowthe not fynde hym in eny wise. Wherefore the seide bischop purchased of the kynge by his letters patent that what so ever man myȝhte take hym scholde make hym sure in the nexte castelle. The abbot of Oseney herynge that, made grete labor to take hym, in that he wolde not pay his tythes to the seide abbotte by mony yeres afore; whom the seide abbot toke at the laste in his awne place at Cudlynton, and causede hym to be brouȝhte to the castelle of Bannebery, where he taryede longe excommunicate, a competent processe made ageyne hym. Neverthelesse, a deliberacion hade betwene the archebischop of Cawnterbery and a bischop of Lincolne, the mater and charge and examinacion was committe to the chaunceller of Oxenforde and to oþer doctors. Afore whom the seide esqwyer apperede in the day prefixede at Oxenforde, whiche answerede to the inquisicions made to hym after the oppinions of maister Wyclif; and so he was convicte þer as an heretike of his awne confession. Whiche esqwyer brouȝhte afore the iugges did see mony of his secte and of his movers to that heresy, but they were dombe and durste not speke, and departede. The esqwyer perceyvynge that, thouȝhte veryly that thei hade inducede into a wronge way, whiche was a specialle cause of his conversion to the unyte of the churche, and to take pen|aunce for his offense. Wherefore he abiurede the thynges usede by hym afore as erroneous and full of heresy, promis|synge [folio 417b] Page  474, vol.8 that he wolde not sustene eny oppinion erroneus after that tyme. Where he was condempnede in xltili to be payede to the abbot of Oseney for his expenses, whiche summe was pardonede by the abbot for x.li. But the seide gentilman brouȝte his tythes to the place of the seide abbot with in ij. dayes after that he come to his place. Also hit was injoynede to hym in parte of penaunce that he scholde go afore the generalle procession in the ende of the terme with a cerge or taper of wexe in his honde. But that penaunce was not fulle|fyllede, for he dyede longe afore þat tyme, what þro infirmite causede by sorowe and what for schame. In the somer folow|ynge the kynge of Armeny come into Ynglonde to trete for pease betwene the realmes of Ynglonde and of Fraunce, but truly þer was noo thynge doen þer to eny effecte, but that the seide kynge receyvede a M. marke of þe kynge of Ynglonde, and hade the letters patent of the same kynge that he scholde have a M. marke yerely by the tyme of his lyfe. For, as men seide, the kynge of Armeny was expulsede from his realme by the Tartarous, and so by that occasion he gate grete goodes of mony Cristen kynges, and lyvyde moore meryly then and if he hade bene in his awne realme. Charls de Pease, kynge of Sicille, doynge grete persecucion ageyne the pope, dyede in this yere excommunicate, whiche sentence of vengeaunce the pope usede moche that tyme, but withowte he wolde have venged hym by temporalle, if he hade accompanyde and geten a nombre of men sufficient. Somme men say that kynge of Sicille was sleyne by treason by a knyȝhte as he sate at meyte, in the day and howre in whom he hade intendede to have sleyne the pope. In whiche tyme Iohn duke of Lan|castre obtenynge licence of the pope, toke with hym an hoste of men of Ynglonde to ȝiffe batell ageyne the kynge, for that realme was dewe to hym by reason of his wife, eldeste doȝhter of Petyr, some tyme kynge of Speyne. Wherefore the pope grawntede to alle mene goynge in that viage with hym plener remission of theire synnes, in that the kynge of Speyne was a pagan, havynge the seide privilegys grawntede to hym by the pope lyke as the bischop of Norwiche hade afore. But men hade lytelle devocion in that tyme to ȝiffe eny goodes to go in that viage, in that pardon was so habundant. [folio 418a] Neverthelesse the seide duke toke his iourney to the see, but he was coacte to tary for pennury of wynde untille that he hade waste allemoste goodes brouȝhte with hym. And soone after thei hade a wynde whiche brouȝte theym into Briteyne nye to the castelle of Breste, where the Britons erecte ij. municions to prohibite the passage of the seide duke. Never|thelesse the seide duke of Lancastre was comfortede by his knyȝhtes, for diverse of theym goynge furthe with parte of that hoste, and toke that castell and oþer places of defense with Page  475, vol.8 grete goodes, and destroyede theyme. Whiche goodes departede, and the wynde arysenge, they londede in the secunde tyme in Speyne in the haven of Groyn, in the vigille of St. Laurence, with alle theire schippes; whiche taryenge þer did noo thynge worthy commendacion, but that allemoste alle the lordes of Ynglonde toke theire leve þer and dyed, and lxxxxti knyȝhtes dyede þer of the flixe. And soone after that the duke returnede into Aquittanny with the residu of his peple, taryenge in the province Baiocense, abydenge for a condicion off pease to be made betwene hym and the kynge of Speyne: the prolocutor as for þat mater was syr Thomas Percy. In whiche yere maister Iohn Harewell dyede, and maister Walterus Sharlowe, bischop of Lichefelde, reioycede that seete of Bathe, and maistyr Ricardus Scrope, doctor of lawes, was consecrate solennely into the bischop of Coventre and Lichefeld. Also in the same*. [Sic., yere should no doubt be supplied.] in the duchery of Austrye fortune schewede mutabilite in victoryes betwene the duke and the communes of that cuntre. For the seide duke was a covetous man and contrarious to pope Urban, havynge envy that pilgremes scholde come by his costes to Rome, and so he wolde not suffre pilgremes to have passage by his cuntre withowte they payede to hym a tribute importable for þeim. The peple of that cuntre seynge that pilgremes myȝhte not comme thro that cuntre, by whom thei hade grete lucre, compleynede to the duke, preyenge hym that thei myȝhte enioye the liberte hade afore in the tyme of oþer men. Whiche despisede of the duke wente to theire places, and come with a grete hoste and ȝafe batelle to the duke; but the commune peple not experte in batell was taken, sleyne, and put into captivite unto a grete nowmbre. Neverthelesse the commune peple wolde not [folio 418b] leve by that conflicte, but thei gedrede a newe hoste, and come to ȝiffe batell to the duke ageyne. That duke trustynge moche in the victory hade afore, come boldely unto theyme, where he was sleyne anoon with alle the states of that cuntre. Abowte whiche tyme kynge Richarde hade wrytynge that the kynge of Fraunce intendede to sege Caleys, wherefore he sente to that towne of Caleys syr Henricus Percy, callede of þe Scottes for his manhode syr Henricus Haatespur, with a grete multitude of peple of the realme of Ynglonde. Whiche wente anoon into Pikardy, and toke grete prayes, and did grete hurte to that cuntre; whiche havynge knowlege that the kynge of Fraunce wolde entre into the realme of Ynglonde and not to sege Caleys, returnede to the realme of Ynglonde, that he myȝhte mete the kynge of Fraunce þer. Men of London perceyvynge for trawthe that the kynge of Fraunce hade ordeynede a myȝty hoste and fleete of schippes to entre into the realme of Ynglonde, began to drede, and to seche places of refute, and Page  476, vol.8 mony to hyde þeim, as and if the kynge of Fraunce hade be at the cite with his hoste. They did renne abowte lyke madde men, and pullede downe and destroyed howses contiguate or ioynede to the walles, when hit was so that noo man of Fraunce hade entrede schippes to comme to Ynglonde: whiche citesynnes schewe a grete mustre in pease not worthy to be commended in batell. But after that, men of Ynglonde kepynge the see, toke nye to the haven of Sandewich, of the enemyes of Yng|londe, v. grete schippes and vj. carrykes. And the Ianuenses so taken desyrede helpe of Michell Attepole chaunceller of Ynglonde, moore apt to marchandyse then to þe use of cheval|ery, whiche ȝafe to þeim for amendes a grete summe of the kynges treasure, and suffrede theym to departe. Whiche sayl|enge into Scluse, did sle mony pilgremes of Ynglonde, whiche hade entrede into theire schippes, and hade ȝiffen to theym certeyn wages to brynge theym to places of theire pilgremages. And soone after that, men of Ynglonde toke ij. grete schippes longynge to the kynge of Fraunce, in whom a grete parte of the [folio 419a] walle of tre was whom the kynge of Fraunce hade intendede to have piȝhte in Ynglonde. Also the maister of that werke was taken also, whiche was a man of Ynglonde, and mony gunnes with grete plente of powdre; whiche walle of tre was sette up at Sandewiche ageyne men of Fraunce, whom they ordeynede to sette ageyne men of Ynglonde. And at the feste of seynte Michell folowynge a parliamente was holden at London; to whom men of armes and archers come from alle the costes of Ynglonde that they myȝhte be redy to resiste the kynge of Fraunce, whiche was redy with xij. dukes and xxvj. erles and oþer lordes to have entrede into Ynglonde, but allemyȝhty God schewede resistence, and did lette that iournay. In whiche parliamente kynge Ricardus made syr Robert le Vere, somme tyme erle of Oxenford, in that tyme markesse of Dub|lyn, into duke of Yrlonde, and afterwarde to be kynge, if fortune wolde favor, mony noble barons and governoures of the realme havynge grete indignacion þerof, in that he ex|celled not oþer men in nobilite of bloode, neiþer in prudence, neiþer in manhode. Michael Atte Pole, chaunceller of the realme, was convicte of the knyȝhtes of the parliamente of diverse articles of treason ageyne the kynge and the realme, for whiche cause he was deposede from the office of chaun|cellary and multed in xx. M. marke to be payede to the kynge, and was iuggede worthy dethe by iuggemente of the parlia|mente. But these doen were gretely ageyne the pleasure of the kynge, insomoche that he annullede that processe hade in the parliament ageyn Michell Atte Pole. Also the seide Michell hade intended by sovereigne supportacion to have desyrede his accusers unto a soper at London, and to have sleyne theyme sodenly with the duke of Glocester also. In Page  477, vol.8 whiche tyme the kynge of Armeny, havynge experience of the liberalite of the kynge of Ynglonde, intendede to have com|myn into the seide londe for a trety of pease betwene the realmes, when hit was so þat the kynge of Fraunce was redy to have entrede into the realme of Ynglonde. But with owte dowte he desyrede and luffed money moore then peas, and [folio 419b] golde moore then the kynge or the realme. Wherefore the noble men of the realme wolde not condescende to the kynge that he scholde comme into the realme, knowynge that he was but a tryfuller. The kynge of Fraunce lyenge at the haven of Scluse from the kalendes of the monethe of Auguste unto þe vigill of Alle Seyntes, to tary for wynde, entrede into the see in the same vigill with a pleasant wynde, and departede from that haven. And when the schippes were in the grete see as xxti myle from that haven after estimacion, a contrarious wynde did aryse and compellede theyme to returne, causynge mony of the schippes to be broken in entrenge into that haven of Scluse. Thro whiche occasion Ynglonde was delyvered from trowble, and the kynge of Fraunce made soory, blasphe|mynge God and the holy seyntes in hevyn, in that they wolde not suffre hym to performe his wickede purpose. Unto this tyme the parliamente expressede afore was contynuede for these grete causes assignede, in whom oon halfe dyme was grawntede to the kynge by the clergy, and the halfe parte of oon xvthe by the lay peple. In whiche parliamente syr Thomas Arundell and bischop of Ely was made chaunceller of Ynglonde, a man preferrynge gold afore ryȝhteousenesse. And syr Thomas Fordham, bischop of Dirham, was deposede from þe office of the treasurye; and Iohn Gilberte, frere of the ordre [of] Prechours, and bischoppe of Herforde, was subrogate into that office, a man that hade moore thryfte in tonge then in feythe. That doen, þe kynge causede Michael Attepole to dwelle in his cowrte with the duke of Yrlonde and Alex|ander Nevylle, archebischop off Yorke, ageyne the wylle of mony noble men of þe realme. After whiche tyme the seide lordes drawynge to the kynge, movede hym ageyne the noble lordes of the realme, seyenge that he was not kynge but oonly by name, and oþer lordes governede the realme. The kynge toke credence to theire sayenge, and began to have the lordes suspecte, and so from that tyme he eschewede theire company, and wente and toke his disportes with the archebischop of [folio 420a] Yorke and with the duke of Yrlonde, and oþer diverse of that wicked cownesayle. In whiche yere in the monethe of Aprile Richard erle of Arundell, and Thomas erle of Notyngham, toke the see with a ryalle hoste, and soone after thai ȝafe a sore conflicte to a grete navy of schippes of Speyne, of Fraunce, and of Normandy. And the seide erle of Arundell Page  478, vol.8 with his hoste reioycede the victory, and toke lxxxti schippes, mony men of armes taken and sleyne. From whiche conflicte diverse schippes fledde, whom the seide erle pursuede ij. dayes, and toke theyme and brouȝhte theyme to the schippes of Ynglonde. And so they toke schippes moore and lesse unto þe nowmbre of vxx, which, were chargede with wynes and specially with whyte wynes, which, causede grete solace in mony costes to whom the erle of Arundell sende those wynes, The hoste of men of Ynglonde comme to gedre, and fresche men wagede for men that were sleyne and woundede, crossede theire sayles unto the castell of Breste, whiche is the keye of Briteyne, ageyne whom men of Fraunce hade erecte oon de|fense or municion, and were besy to erecte an other moore myȝhty and stronge þen those municions were whom the duke of Lancastre destroyede in the laste yere afore goynge towarde Speyne. Whiche municions the seide erle toke and de|stroyed, and departede to Ynglonde with blissynges of mony peple. But the peple beynge with the kynge, as the duke of Yrlonde, Michael Atte Pole and Walterus Burley, depraved theire actes, seyenge that thei hade not doen eny thynge on the see worthy commendacion, but that they hade escapede certeyne merchauntez, sayenge that hit hade bene better to the realme of Ynglonde to have hade theire luffe then theire malyce. After that a certyne season paste, the seide cown|selle procurede that Henricus Percy, sonne of the erle of Northumbrelonde, scholde be sende to the see to defende and repelle the irrupcions of enemyes, whiche were redy in the see for hurte doen to theym by men of Ynglonde but late afore. To whom thei assignede not a sufficiente nowmbre, neither dewe favore, but thei hade grete envy that the seide Hen|ricus [folio 420b] Percy hade geten so noble a name bothe in Scottelonde and in Fraunce. The seide Henricus Percy not underston|dynge theire fals ymaginacion, other ells despisynge hit, toke that iourney, and come ageyne withowte eny hurte. And, as mony men seide, diverse of that wickede company made letters to the kynge of Fraunce that he scholde have taken lyȝhtely Henricus Percy; whiche letters were de|lyverede to syr Iohn Beauchamp off Holt, steuard to the kynge, but the seide knyȝhte sende not the letters ageyne Henricus Percy. Abowte whiche tyme þer was a frere in Ynglonde of þe ordre of the Carmelites, late confessor to the duke of Lancastre, Walterus Disse by name, whiche wente not into Speyne with the duke, as hit schalle be schewede and þe causes þerof. Pope Urban the vjte knowynge the realme of Speyne to be of grete rychesse, thouȝhte veryly that he scholde reioyce mony commodites if the duke of Lancastre myȝhte reioyce that realme, grawntede to hym a newe pardon by the Page  479, vol.8 seide frere Walter Disse, whereby goodes were taken to þat pardon as innumerable. This frere made oon specialle privi|lege, whom he toke to a ffrere of þe ordre of Austynes named Petyr Pasteschull. The frere havynge þat liberte, began to drawe soone to the folowers of maister Iohn Wiclif, whom somme men callede Lollardes. Amonge whom he lernede that he did welle in that he lefte a private religion and toke hym to a commune lyfe, whiche was moore holy and moore sure. And at the laste, what by the malice off theym and pre|sumpcion of that ffrere, he was movede to preche openly the vices and synnes usede amonge ffreres. This ffrere come to the churche of Seynte Christofor in London, allemoste a c. of the Lollardes folowynge hym, where he expressede so moche of the lyfe of ffreres þat peple were aschamede to here theym expressede. And somme men presente þer at that prechynge went to the ffrere Austyns, and expressede to theym of that processe made ageyne theyme. And anoon xii. or xiii. of þe freres wente to here that sermon, whiche commynge to that churche and herynge that ffrere expresse so wickedely ageyne theyme, were trowblede gretely, and oon of theym seide openly that he seide falsely of that religion. The Lollardes bytoke [folio 421a] that ffrere and trode hym under theire feete and bete hym surely, and put the oþer freres owte of the churche, and wolde have sleyne þeim utterly but that thei fledde, seyenge and cry|enge, "Lete us departe these mansleers, let us brenne those Sodomites, and let us honge those traytours to the kynge and to þe realme." And so thei had entendede to have sette the place of ffreres on fyre, but they were lette by the meanes of frere Thomas Ascheborne and of his felawe, bothe professors in divinite. Also mony noble men of the cite movede theyme to departe to theire places; but the seide Lollardes kepynge that frere with theyme, movynge hym, in that he was trowblede in a sermon but late, that he wolde drawe the articles in a byllet, and moo then he expressed if that he cowthe. This frere folowynge the sensualite of theyme, made a wrytynge in whom he accusede somme of his breþer off the dethe of diverse of that convent, assignenge the names of the freres whiche were sleyne and þe names of the freres that did slee þeim, and the places in whom thei were sleyne, and where they were beryede. Also he callede theyme Sodomytes, and traytours off the realme, and mony moo articles were wryten in that bylle, Þis wrytynge was sette openly on the churche dore at Seynte Paule in London unto the moore confusion of ffreres. In the begynnynge of whiche wrytynge the frere seide he thonkede pope Urban the vjte that he was delyverede from the neste of the develle, and that he myȝhte avoide the unhappy company of theym by the helpe of his ffrendes. Mony knyȝhtes of the same secte redynge that wrytynge seide utterly that thei were tru, and toke the copy of Page  480, vol.8 the seide articles. The names of þe knyȝhtes folowe: William Nevyle, Candawicus Clifford, Iohn Clenbow, Ricardus Sturry, Thomas Latimer, and specially Iohn Mountegu; whiche putte awey alle ymages owte from his chapell, and putte theym in secrete places, but that oon ymage of seynte Kateryne hade a prerogatyve to stonde þer. And soone after a preste, oon speciall causer and governoure of þe Lollardes, knowynge that he scholde dye, compunct and penitent for his grevous offenses doen ageyne Allemyȝhty God, desyrede to have a preste to [folio 421b] whom he myȝhte be confessed. Diverse men heynge nye to hym mervaylede þerof, and seide, "What is hit that ye desyre? have not ye prechede alle confession exterialle to be super|fluous, seyenge that hit was sufficient oonly to be confessede to God." To him he seide, "I errede and did wronge, but y beseche yow now that y may have a preste." Hit happede that tyme that Nicolas Herforde, doctor of divinite, was pre|sente, to whom alle men of that wickede secte drawede after maister Iohn Wicliff. The seide doctor commynge to hym seide: "What meanes þow? what desires þow? confesse thy synnes to God, whiche hathe moore powere to lose and bynde then oþer prestes have, and þat confession is sufficiaunte to the. Thow hase doen offense to hym, and not to the preste, and he awe to forȝiffe and remitte to whom the offense was doen." The seide preste desyrynge to be confessede con|tynually, seide to the doctor: "I beseche Allemyȝhty God that the perell may falle to yow if that y dye afore that y speke with a confessor;" and þerwith he dyede. In whiche tyme Robert Veer, prowde of his promocion by the kynge, refusede his wife, a noble gentylwoman, borne of noble blode, of Isabell doȝter of noble Edwarde, and maryede the doȝhter of a sadeller, as hit was seide, whiche come with þe qwene of Boemia into Ynglonde, the name of whom, after the langage of þat cuntre, was called Lamicecena; by which mariage grete dis|claunder of hurte come. And specially the duke of Gloucestre and mony other noblemen hade grete indignacion þerof, for the seide duke was uncle to his wyfe, whom Robert Veer hade re|fused; wherefore the duke of Gloucestre thouȝhte to venge hym on the duke off Yrlonde. Neverthelesse the duke of Yrlonde by sovereigne supportacion intended to destroy the duke off Gloucestre, ffor kynge Ricardus wente with the duke of Yrlonde as to brynge hym to his schippes into Wales, that þer scholde be noo discorde betwene lordes. But moore truly the kynge kepede hym þer, havynge communicacion togeder how that þei myȝhte putte to dethe the duke of Gloucestre, the erles of Arundell, of Warwyke, of Derby, and of Notyngham, and oþer trew men to the realme These men folowynge movede the kynge to the dethe of the seide lords: Michael Attepole, Robert Trisilian, iustice Alexander Nevile arche|bischop Page  481, vol.8 of Yorke, and mony oþer. A grete tyme paste the kynge returnede to Notyngham with the duke of Yrlonde and the other lordes, also that they myȝhte make a finalle conclusion [folio 422a] how they myȝhte destroye the true lordes of the realme. And abowte the nativite of seynte Iohn Baptiste the kynge com|maundede mony off the citesynnes of London whom he knewe to be mutable schereffes and iustices of þe realme, causynge theyme to appere, that he myȝhte knowe what powere he myȝhte make ageyne barons and oþer noble men of the realme, and that thei scholde not suffre eny knyȝhte of towne or schire to be electe to the parliamente but whom hit pleasede the kynge. Then the schireffes seide to the kynge that the commune peple favorede moche the oþer lordes, seyenge that hit was not in theire powere to gedre an hoste þerto, and as for knyȝhtes to be electe to the par|liamente, they seide peple wolde reioyce theire olde con|suetude. This answere ȝiffen, the schireffes were suffrede to departe, and the iustices were callede. Robert Tresilian, chiefe iustice, and Robart Belknap, chiefe iustice of the commune banke, Iohn Holt, Roger Fulthrop, and William Burgh, knyȝhtes, iustices and felawes of the seide Robert Belknap, mette to geder at Notyngham in the xxvti day of the monethe of Auguste, the kynge requirede of theym by the feithe and ligence made to hym that thei scholde answere to certeyne questions movede by the kynge after trawthe and after the lawe. The firste question wheþer that newe statute, ordina|cion, and commission made and hade in the laste parliament at Westmonastery, derogate the regaly and prerogatyve of the seide kynge, ffor he hade ȝiffen a commission to the duke of Glocestre and to the erle of Arundell in a parte con|trarious to his wille, as hit was seide þer, to inquire here and to iugge as for certeyne offenses. The iustices answerede seyenge, that thei derogate the regaly of the kynge in that hit was ageyne the kynges wylle. An other question how those men awe to be punyschede whiche procurede the statute, ordi|nacion and commission of the seide thynges. They seide that they were worthy dethe, withowte the kynge wolde grawnte to theyme grace. An other question how they were worthy to be punyschede that excitede þe kynge to consente to the seide thynges. Thei seide that thei were worthy dethe also. An oþer question how thei awe to be punyschede that compellede the kynge to that ordinacion or statute. They seide þai awe to be punyschede as traytors. An other question, how men [folio 422b] awe to be punyschede whiche did lette the kynge that he myȝhte not exercyse thynges longynge to his regaly. They seide as traytours. An other question: If the parliament congregate, and causes of the seide parliament expressede by the kynge, the lordes and communes procede on oþer causes, Page  482, vol.8 and not on the articles limite to theym by the kynge, untille that a diffinicion were made of theire peticions and articles, notwithstondynge that they were commaundede by the kynge to do the contrary, wheþer þe kynge awe to have governayle in that parte, and that they awe to procede firste in these articles commaunded to theym by the kynge or nay? Other ells wheþer that lordes and the commune peple awe to have an answere of the kynge afore of certeyn articles movede by theym? Those iustices answerede, sayenge that the kynge awe to have governayle of the parliamente in that parte untille that hit were finischede, and if eny man did contrary he were worthy to be puneschede as a traytor. An oþer question wheþer the kynge may not dissolve a parliamente at his pleasure, and commaunde the lordes and communes to departe thens. The iustices seide that the kynge hade powere soe to do, and if eny man made eny processe as of the parliamente after that tyme, he awe to be punyschede as a traytor. An other question, how those men awe to be punyschede, whiche movede in the parliamente that the kynge scholde sende for a statute of Edward Karnarvan, by the inspeccion of whom a newe statute, ordinacion and commission were conceyvyde þerby. They seide that the mover and brynger of that statute to þe parliament were to be punyschede as traytors. An oþer question wheþer the iuggemente in the laste parliamente ageyn Michael Atte Poole was erroneus and revocable or nay. They answerede and seide that the iuggemente was revocable. In the testimony of alle whiche thynges the iusticiaryes afore|seide, and Iohn Labenton, servaunte to the kynge, put to þese presentes theire seales, Alexander Nevile and Robert, archebis|choppes off Yorke and of Dublyn, Iohn bischop of Dirham, Thomas bischop of Chestre, Robert duke off Yrlonde, Michell erle of Sowthefolke, Iohn Ripen, clerke, and Iohn Blike, es|qwyere, wittenesse. This doen, the kynge and the duke of Yrlonde sende mony messyngers into diverse costes of Yng|londe [folio 423a] to hire a grete multitude of peple, that thei scholde be redy to wayte on the kynge if that oþer lordes made eny resis|tence. This processe knowen amonge the duke of Glocestre and oþer noble men of þe realme were soory in that the kynge was movede so ageyne theym, and thei not gilty. Wherefore the duke of Glocestre, uncle to the kynge, wyllynge to mitigate his wrathe, made an othe afore the bischop of London over a masse booke, mony oþer noble men of the realme presente, that he ymagined not eny thynge to the hurte of the kynge in alle his lyfe. The bischoppe of London goynge to the kynge expressede that processe, and hade causede luffe and unyte, but that the erle of Sowthefolke causede the contrary. To whom the bischop seide in the presence of the kynge, "O Michael, hit semethe not thow that art a man condempnede Page  483, vol.8 to dethe to speke, for hit is the kynges grace that thow hase lyfe." The kynge herynge that was movede soore, and commaundede þe bischop to departe, whiche expressede to þe duke lyke as he hade herde, whereof rancor and grete tribulacion growede. Wherefore the duke of Glocestre sende worde to the erles of Arundell, of Warwyke and of Derby, how the ymagi|nacion of theire dethe was intendede by the kynge, and oþer lordes. Whiche lordes gedrede anoon a myȝhty hoste, and the kynge laborede how he myȝhte destroye the seide lordes, or that thei scholde erecte eny powere, sendynge men to the castell of Reygat to areste the erle of Arundell and the erle of North|umberlonde, syr Henricus Percy. Whiche commynge to that castelle, and seenge þer a grete multitude of peple, returnedde ageyne to the kynge, not fullefyllynge þeire commission. After the partynge of whom the erle of Arundell did ryde myȝhtely with his hoste, untille that he come to the woode of Harnegey, where he founde the duke of Glocestre and the erle of War|wyke with a grete hoste. The kynge knowynge these lordes to have a grete hoste, askede cownsaile what he scholde do to sease theire malice. Somme men seide that hit were beste to entrete theym in feire and honeste wise. Somme men seide that the kynge scholde gedre a myȝhty hoste and ȝiffe batell to theyme. But at the laste the kynge inquirede of a foole callede Hewe of Lynne what he scholde do ageyne the gentyll|men whiche were gedredde at Harnegey parke. The seide foole seide to the kynge with a hasty spiritte, "Lete us go and [folio 423b] slee every moders son of theym, and that doen, by the eien of God, thow hase sleyne alle the tru men of the realme of Ynglonde." But after that, by mediators, hit was brouȝte to this effecte, that the lordes scholde comme to Westemonas|tery and expresse theire greves afore the kynge, the bischop of Hely makynge promyse that there scholde be noo treason, but that thei scholde comme in suerte and go in suerte from the kynge. These lordes made redy to comme to London, the bischop of Hely sende worde to theym þat peple made wacche for theym at a place callede Muwes, nye to London, and þerfore thei cownsaylede thei scholde not comme to London but with a grete powere. The lordes herynge that, wolde not comme to the kynge, wherefore the kynge inquirede of the bischop of Ely why the lordes kepede not promisse. The bischop seide to the kynge that a M. men of armes keprede the way to have sleyne þeim. That treason avoided, the kynge sende to theyme the secunde tyme, promisynge to theym sure passage withowte trowble, whiche come anoon to Westmonastery with a grete powere, the kynge sittynge in the halle of Westemonastery in regalle apparaile, with his sceptre in his honde. These lordes entrede into the halle, the bischop of Ely and chaunceller off Ynglonde expressede this sentence: "The kynge underston|dynge Page  484, vol.8 that ye were gedrede at Harnigey parke oþerwise þen ye awe to have doen, and abhorrenge the effusion of bloode, wolde not gedre an hoste; for with owte dowte, and if hit hade bene to the pleasure of the kynge, he scholde have hade a moore myȝhty hoste. Wherefore the kynge de|sirethe to knowe the cause þerof." The lordes seide they mette þer for the utilite of þe kynge and of the realme, and to expelle traytours abowte the kynge from the realme. These were the men whom thei callede traytours, Robert Veer duke of Yrlonde, Alexander Nevyle archebischop of Yorke, Michael Pole erle of Sowthefolke, Roberte Trisilian, a fals iustice, and Nicholas Brambre, a fals knyȝhte, castynge theire gloves to prove the seide men traytours. Then the kynge seide that thei scholde not doe soe, but this mater scholde be discussede in the nexte parliamente, bothe parties beynge presente. This doen, the kynge with a bostynge and braggynge contenaunce seide to theym, "Ye supposede to have made me afrayede with youre hoste. Truly I sette noo moore price thereby then [folio 424a] y do by the laweste grome of my kechynne." And after that he toke the duke of Glocestre up from the erthe, whiche hade knelede unto that tyme, and commaunded oþer men to aryse. That doen, he toke theym to his chambre, where thei drunke frendely to gedre, and toke the duke of Yrlonde into his howseholde, and the duke of Gloucestre also, commaundynge theym that thei scholde not presume to gedre eny hoste afore the tyme prefixede by the kynge. These lordes returnede from the kynge wolde not departe in eny wyse, knowynge the mutabilite of the kynge and the falsenesse of the traytours abowte hym. For soone after, by consente off the kynge, the duke of Yrlonde gedrede a grete hoste of the costes off Chestre and of Wales, the governoure of whom was Thomas Molynes, constable of Chestre. But that treason was knowen soone after amonge the oþer lordes, how that the duke of Yrlonde come towarde London with a grete hoste. Neverthelesse the seide lordes sette men in diverse wayes, by whom thei supposede that the duke wolde comme. The seide duke of Yrlonde enhawnced in pride lyke Lucifer, and lookynge a lytelle on syde, see a grete hoste taryenge hym in a vale, and þerwith his herte began to drede, and seide to his men, "My frendes, as y thenke, hit is beste to me to flye and escape for a season, for theire hoste is moche more then this hoste; wherefore or that we mete to gedre y wylle returne, for thei desire me, and not yow. For and if y were departede thei wolde suffre yow to escape lyȝhtely." But somme of the knyȝhtes of that hoste seide to hym, "Thow movede us to goe from oure cuntre: we be redy to fiȝhte with the and gette the victory, if fortune be favorable, or ells to dye manfully with the." Neverthelesse the seide duke returnede, but the seide Page  485, vol.8 Thomas Molynes disposede hym to batell, for that tyme þer were noo lordes commyn to that place, but Henricus erle of Derby, son of the duke of Lancastre. And when they hade fauȝhte a certeyn season, a knyȝhte, syr Thomas Mortymare by name, seide to Thomas Molynes, "Take thyne horse, or withowte dowte thow schalle dye in the water." Then Thomas Molynes seide, Wille þou save my lyfe and if y do so." The knyȝhte seide, "Y wylle not make that promyse;" and so as the seide Thomas Molynesse toke his horse, the knyȝhte toke aweye his salette, and persede his breyne with a dagger. [folio 424b] The duke of Yrlonde fleynge, come to Rotcotebryge nye to Bampton, and that brygge was broken that he myȝhte not escape. And after that he wente to an other brygge, where archers were redy, and wolde not suffre hym to come by that brygge. Wherefore the seide duke toke þat water with his horse and escapede, in that hit was nye to nyȝhte; but his horse was founde with his breste plate and gantelettes, causynge mony men to suppose he hade bene drownede. But his ordi|naunce and trussynge cofres were taken þer, in whom thei founde letters directe to hym by the kynge, contenynge that he scholde make haste and comme to London with a myȝhty hoste, and the kynge was redy to dye or to lyve with hym. These letters schewede to the lordes an evidente inconstance of the kynge and mutabilite. Michael Attepoole in that trowble fledde to Caleys by the governayle of a knyȝhte callede William Attehoo, whiche commyn þider brouȝte bryddes to be solde untylle that he comme to þe ȝates of the castell of Calys, where Edmund Attepole his broþer, under capiteyne of Calys, was; whiche wolde not receyve hym untylle that he hade licence of William Bel|camp, chief capiteyne of Calis. Also Alexander Nevile arche|bischop of Yorke, and Robert Tresilian, iustice, dredynge the duke of Glocestre with his companye, fledde from the kynge. Abowte whiche tyme a messynger sende from the kynge of Fraunce, Lustracius by name, was taken, whiche brouȝhte wrytynge to the kynge of Ynglonde, that he scholde come to Bolony with the duke of Yrlonde and oþer certeyne men, where the kynge of Fraunce scholde have hade Caleys delyverede to hym and alle oþer castells and towres over see longynge to the crowne of Ynglonde. This knowen amonge the noble men, they made grete haste to London, where the kynge scholde kepe his Cristemasse, thenkynge that he myȝhte kepe the towre off London surely for alle his enemyes. And in the day of seynte Steven the lordes schewede theire hoste of xlti M. men in aray. In whiche tyme men of London were in grete dredde how they scholde dispose theym to please the kynge and the seide lordes. At the laste, the mayre wente to the duke of Glocestre, promysynge to him and to his hoste fre entre into the cite, and alle thynges necessary to theyme, with|owte [folio 425a] Page  486, vol.8 fraude or treason, and ȝafe to the hoste brede, wyne, and chese; whiche thynge causede grete profite to the cite. The kynge herynge this processe, dissimilate as if he sette noo price by the multitude, seyenge to the archebischop of Cawnterbery, and to oþer men that laborede for the reformacion of peas, in this wyse: "Lete theym lye here with theire hoste in the name of God untille that they have dispende theire goodes; and that paste, y schalle speke with oon of theym after an oyer." The lordes herynge this communicacion, made a protestacion that thei scholde not departe untille that thei hade spoken with the kynge; and so thei sende a grete nowmbre of men to kepe Thamys, that the kynge scholde not departe that way and skorne theyme. The kynge seenge that he was compellede abowte by theyme, began to speke moore mekely, seyenge þat he wolde trete with the lordes; whiche sende worde to the kynge that he scholde comme in the day nexte folowynge to Westmonastery, where thei wolde expresse diverse maters. The kynge seide he wolde not entrete with theyme at West|monastery, but in þe towre. The gentyllemen sende worde to the kynge that the towre was a place suspecte as for treason. Neverthelesse a certeyn nowmbre of the hoste hade licence to entre into the towre, and to serche and to see that þer scholde be noo treason in the towre. That doen, the duke of Glocestre entrede into the towre, and havynge schorte communicacion with the kynge, entrede into his chambre, where they rehersede his conspiracion hade ageyne theyme, and schewede his letters, whom he directe to þe duke of Yrlonde, that he scholde brynge an hoste to London; and letters also how that he wolde have solde Calys unto þe kynge of Fraunce, where by his honore scholde have decreasede moche, and the realme also. The kynge, herynge þis processe rehersede, was gretely confusede; neverthelesse they departede from the kynge, this condicion made and promysede to be performed, that the kynge scholde comme in the morowe folowynge to Westmonastery, to here and trete of certeyne thynges for the honoure and profite of þe realme. Whiche thynge he promisede to fullefylle, kepynge the erle of Derby at soper with hym that nyȝhte as a token off luffe. But the purpose of the kynge was chaungede afore he wente [folio 425b] to bedde. The noble men, understondynge that þe kynge wolde not come to Westmonastery, were soory, and sende worde to the kynge, seyenge that and if he wolde not kepe his pro|myse they scholde electe a kynge whiche scholde obtemperate the cownsayle of lordes. The kynge havynge that in ure come to Westmonastery in the morowe folowynge, where the noble men of the realme seide to hym, that hyt were to his honour to avoyde fals traytours from his presence, and to take tru men to hym. The kynge grawnted. The noblemen movede that these men, the names off whom folowe, scholde be avoidede from his Page  487, vol.8 cownsaile: Alexander Nevyle, archebischop off Yorke, Iohn Fordham bischop off Dirham, frere John Rushok, confessor to the kynge and bischop of Chichestre. Also thei expelled the lorde Sowche of Harmworthe, Albrede Veer, Baldewyn Berford, Richardus Addurbury, Iohn Wurth, Thomas Clifforde and Iohn Lovell, knyȝhtes, not utterly dimitte, but to appere n the nexte Parliamente, and the lady off Powyggus, wife of John Wurth, as unprofitable to the courte. That doen they areste Symon Burle, William Chircham, Iohn Beuchamp of Holte, Iohn Salisbery, Thomas Trivette, Iamys Bermers, Nicholas Dagwurthe and Nicholas Brambre, knyȝhtes. Also thei toke Ricardus Clifforde, Iohn Lincolne, Ricardus Myd|forde, and Nicholas Schak, decan of the kynges chapelle, and Iohn Blake, apprentice of lawe; whiche knyȝtes and clerkes thei sende to diverse castells to be kepede suere to the nexte parlia|mente. The parliamente was begunne at London after the Purificacion of oure Lady, whom the kynge wolde have avoided and if hit wolde have bene; to whiche parliamente the lordes rehersede afore come with a grete hoste, dredynge treason. Whiche parliament was contynuede unto Pentecost; in whom Robert Tresilian was taken firste and drawen and honged by iuggemente of the lordes, and after that Nicholas Brambre, knyȝhte, suffrede dethe in lyke wise. This doen Iohn Salis|bery and Iamys Bermers, ij. yonge knyȝhtes and ij. traytours, were drawen and hongede by iuggemente of þe parliamente. After þat Iohn Beauchamp of Holt, stuarte to the kynge, fals to kynge Edwarde of Wyndeshore, and to Leonell his sonne, [folio 426a] duke off Clarence, was drawen and hongede by iuggement of the parliamente. Iohn Blake, esqwyer, beynge gretely ageyne the seide lordes at Notyngham, was heded. Also Symon Burle was heded, thauȝhe that the erle of Derby laborede gretely for hym, whereby a grete dissencion was movede betwene the erle of Derby and the duke of Glocestre, but they were reduced soone to an unyte. The seide Symon Burle was keper of the castell of Dovor, whom he was redy to have delyverede to men off Fraunce at the commaundement of the kynge; whiche was an oppressor of poore men, a lechoure and an open advouterer. Also Roger Belknap, Iohn Holt, Robert Fulthorpe, and William Bourgh, iusticiaryes, were putte to exile, a certeyne summe grawntede to theim to theire exhibicion. And after the feste of Pentecoste the erle of Arundell wente to kepe the see with a myȝhty hoste, whiche fauȝhte nobly on the see, and toke, drownede, and brent lxxx. schippes. After that he entrede into the yle of Baas, whom he spoylede and brente, and the yles of Us, of Ree, of Lemnstre, of Rochele, of Olum, and of Olerum; in whom he spoylede and brente mony townes also, and takynges rawnson of mony townes, havynge victory ageyne men of Fraunce or of Briteyne that made eny resistence to hym; Page  488, vol.8 returnynge to Ynglonde with grete ffelicite. In whiche tyme men of Fraunce, impaciente of peas, entrede the cuntre of the duchery of Gelre with a hoste as innumerable, causede specially in that the seide duke was a trusty frende to þe realme of Ynglonde. Neverthelesse the seide duke, havynge mony of Ynglonde with hym, ȝafe batell to the men of Fraunce, where noon of men of Fraunce escapede, but thei were other take or sleyne. Where men of Fraunce hadde experience that hit was perellous to wake an olde dogge from slepe. Also men of Flandres did sle in that tyme a grete multitude of men of Fraunce. And in the same yere, abowte the nativite of seynte Iohn Baptiste, the Scottes entrede into Ynglonde, brennynge townes in theire wey, withowte they were redemed by money, commynge nye to the Newe Castell on Tyne, and sette theire tentes þer; in whiche towne syr Henricus Persy þe yonger and syr Rawfe Persy, his broþer, were that tyme; but the Scottes dredde specially this syr Henricus Persy for his noble manhode. The seide sir Henricus havynge grete indignacion of þat presumpcion of the Scottes that they prevokede hym [folio 426b] to fiȝhte promysede to mete with theym within thre dayes folowynge. And the seide syr Henricus Persy, takynge with hym but a lytelle nowmbre of men, come sodenly on þat grete hoste, and made a grete murdre of þeym, and did sle also with his awne hondes the Scotte of Scottes, William Duglas. But that doen, the erle of Dunbar come with a grete hoste, and toke syr Henry Percy with syr Rawfe his broþer; but allemoste alle the noble bloode of Scotlonde was sleyne by syr Henricus Persy afore. A parliamente was kepede at Cantebrigge after the Purificacion of oure Lady, in whom newe statutes were ordeynede of the wages of servaunteȝ, of beggers, of armes not to be borne, of disportes not to be exercised excepte archery, and of the staple to be reducede from Mirbonrach to Caleys, and off laborers not to be receyvyde in an oþer towne withowte a seale of the hundrede. Also hit was ordeynede þer that men of þe churche scholde not go from this londe to laboure for eny benefice, with charge or withowte charge, withowte he have licence of the kynges awne person; and if thei brake this statute thei scholde not reioyce the proteccion off þe kynge. These statutes and mony oþer were made þer, whiche were not observede unto this tyme; but a tallage was grawntede to the kynge in the ende of the parliamente, oon dyme of the clergy and oon xvte of the lay peple. Sir Thomas Trivette rydynge in glorious pryde in the tyme of this parliamente with the kynge unto his ynne at Barnewell, and spurrynge his horse gretely, hade a grete falle, in so moche that his horse braste the interialle partes of his body. Neverthelesse this knyȝhte lyvede unto þe day nexte folowynge, whiche tyme was ȝiffen to hym to pennance if that he wolde take hit; whos dethe causede Page  489, vol.8 grete gladdenesse amonge moche peple, for as hit was seide he was fals to the bischop of Ely in that viage made by hym ageyne the enemyes of the churche. Also hit was seide that he movede the kynge moche ageyne the noble lordes of the realme in the yere laste afore. In whiche parliament Iohn Holande, broþer to the kynge by reason his moder, commyn late from Speyne from the duke of Lancastre, was made erle of Hun|tyngdon. In whiche yere the pope did translate Thomas Arundel, bischoppe of Ely, to be archebischop of Yorke, Alexander Nevyle, [folio 427a] traytour, beynge at Seynte Andrewes in Scotlonde; Iohn Ford|ham, bischop of Dirham, unto the sete of Ely; Walterus Shir|lowe from the seete of Bathe unto the seete of Dirhem; maister Rawfe Ergon from Salisbery unto Bathe; and confermede Iohn Waltham, clerke of the prive seale, unto bischop of Salisbery. Mayster Walterus Shirlowe, bischop of Dirhem, Iohn Clen|bowe and Nicholas Sagworthe, knyȝhtes, were sende on ambas|siate unto the kynge off Fraunce, for peas or truse to be taken betwene the realmes of Ynglonde and of Fraunce, taryenge longe in þose costes withowte effecte. At the laste thei hade a finall answere that thei wolde not take truse withowte men of Speyne and Scottes scholde be contened in that same truse; and so that iourney was suspende, for men of Ynglonde seide that Scottes were subiecte to the kynge of Ynglonde, and lige men to hym, whiche hade causede grete trowble ageyn the kynge, wherefore thei awe to be punyschede as transgressors after the pleasure of the kynge of Ynglonde and of his cown|sayle. The Scottes, despisynge the malyce of men of Yng|londe, entrede into Northumbrelonde, sleenge moche peple þer, takenge mony men and grete prayes with theym into theire cuntre. In whiche tyme syr Thomas Mombray, erle of Notyngham, was sende to depresse the malice of Scottes, but hit profite not, in that his nowmbre of peple was not egalle unto theire hoste. In whiche yere the kynge, movede by the cownsayle of adulators, callynge and commaundynge mony noble men of the londe to appere afore hym, entrede as sodenly into the cownsaile howse, where gentylmen did tary for hym. Whiche sette þer inquirede of the noblemen how mony yere he hade in age, where hit was answerede he hade xxti yere in age. Then the kynge seide, "By that y may con|clude that y am of fulle age to governe my selfe, my howse|holde, and my realme, for me thenke hit is not ryȝhtefull that y scholde be of moore vile condicion then eny person in my realme. For every heire of my realme havynge xxti yere in age after the dethe of his fader is permitte to governe hym selfe and his londes." The barons seide that the kynge scholde reioyce alle thynges dewe to hym, and pertenynge to the crowne. The kynge seide, "Beholde ye knowe y have be governede unto this tyme by lordes and tutors that y myȝhte Page  490, vol.8 not do eny thynge withowte theym; wherefore from this tyme y ammove theyme from my cownsayle, and y wylle take to my cownsayle men after my wylle and pleasure as an heire of lawefull age. Wherefore y commaunde firste [folio 427b] that the chaunceller resigne to me his seale." The arche|bischop of Yorke delyverynge hit, the kynge putte hit in his bosom and wente furthe, returnynge soen ageyn. That doen he toke that seale to syr William Wikham bischop of Wyn|chestre, makynge hym chaunceller ageyne his wylle; where he create also mony newe officers, usynge and folowynge his propre sensualite, expellynge from his cownsayle the duke of Glocestre, the erle of Warwyke, and mony oþer noble men. In this yere, abowte the feste of the nativite of seynte Iohn Bap|tiste, truse as for iij. yere was taken betwene the realmes of Ynglonde and of Fraunce; Iohn Clenbowe, knyȝte, and Ricardus Ronhalle, clerke, receyvynge an othe of the parte of the kynge off Fraunce. And sone after, abowte the feste of seynte Laurence, the erle of Seynte Paule, whiche hade maryede the suster of kynge Ricardus, come into Ynglonde to receyve an othe of the kynge of Ynglonde for that truse to be kepede truly on his parte. In whiche tyme the Scottes entrede into Ynglonde, and did grete hurte abowte the costes of Tynne|mowthe, desyrynge to speke with the capiteyn of the castell. Whiche commynge to theym, and promysynge to pay a certeyne summe to salve that towne, the Scottes wente sodenly and sette fyre in that towne. The sawdiours of the castelle, seenge that, schotte at the Scottes, and hurte soore oon grome amonge the Scottes, whereby the capiteyne was lyke to be sleyne, but that he promisede to norische that Scotte, and to sende hym to Scottelonde of his costes also, if that he recurede. That pro|mysede the capiteyne was suffrede to departe. In whiche tyme somme off the messangers sende from Fraunce into Ynglonde wente to Scottelonde, ȝiffynge eleccion to the Scottes wheþer thay wolde be conclusede under the seide truse or be excludede utterly from the proteccion of the kynge off Fraunce. The noble men of Scottelonde seide that thei wolde kepe the seide truse, but hit wolde be harde to move the commune peple þerto. Wherefore thei preyede the messangers off Fraunce that thei wolde go with þeim and see what ordinaunce thei hade made for batell. The seide messangers off Fraunce goynge furthe, come to that hoste off the Scottes, and founde theyme sette in an ordre, and kepynge theire wardes as and if thei scholde have ȝiffe batell in þat tyme. The Scottes, havynge knowlege of the comynge off men of Fraunce, and the cause of theire com|mynge, seide openly that thei wolde not loose that grete coste for whom thei hade solde alle theire goodes. Neverthelesse [folio 428a] the seide melancoly was mitigate by men of Fraunce, and specially by the lordes in Scottelonde, whiche seide openly afore Page  491, vol.8 the commune peple that thei wolde not be theire governoures into Ynglonde; and if thei wolde goe nedely into Ynglonde thei scholde make governoures amonge theym selfe and stonde to theire owne aventure. And so the Scottes condescende to the seide truse taken. Abowte whiche tyme the feste of the dedicacion of the churche of Seynte Marye at Cantebrigge happede abowte the feste of the commemmoracion of seynte Paule, to the honoure of whiche feste the body of Criste was borne thro that peresche in procession in a schryne or pix, whom a childe of vij. yere in age myȝhte have borne with|owte eny grevaunce. The prestes bare the seide sacramente thro the seide towne untylle that thei come afore a place off freres Austyns, nye to market place of the towne, where the seide schryne, beynge on theire schulders, began to departe from theym violentely, and was so hevy that unnethe thei myȝhte berre hit, neiþer gette hit downe to theire schulders. The prestes were vexede soore, and preyede seculer men to putte to theire hondes, whiche commynge to hyt felede þer as noo weiȝhte. This trowble of the prestes indurede as so longe as thei wente afore the place of the seide freres, and that place apaste the schryne descended unto theire schulders, and was lyȝhte as hit was afore. In whiche tyme an unhappy man began to lepe and dawnce afore þe sacramente, and in that dis|porte he felle downe to the erthe and was dedde. The cause of these mervellous thynges were interpretate diverse wayes, whom we omitte at this tyme, levynge that iuggemente to oþer men. But thys y dar say of trawthe, that a pestilence to be mervaylede folowede soone after at Cantebrigge, causynge moche peple to dye as sodenly as madde men withowte the sacramentes of the churche. Abowte which tyme the freres Precheours in Fraunce kepede theire olde oppinion, sayenge and prechynge oure lady seynte Mary to have be conceyvede in originall synne: whiche freres were exalte so into pryde that thei wolde not obbey the bischopps puttynge theym to silence, neiþer the kynge ne oþer gentillemen of þe realme. Where|fore thei were expulsede from the proteccion of the kynge of [folio 428b] Fraunce, and prohibite to go into that cuntre and preche, leste they scholde induce the commune peple into erroure. Also thei were compellede that thei scholde not passe þeire places, but lyve by the labor of theire hondes on peyne off dethe. The promptuary of falsenesse, the sawer of discorde, the arti|ficialle detractor, Michael Attepoole, somme tyme erle of Sowthe|folke and chaunceller of Ynglonde, but he was a wikkede and malicious cownseilloure, dyede in this yere at Parisius; the rychesse of whom Robert Veer his felowe hade, somme tyme duke of Yrlonde, whiche were þer in exile to gedre. Pope Urban the vjte considerynge this tyme the age of men to decrease, ordeynede this yere to be the yere of iubile, willynge Page  492, vol.8 that hit scholde contynue in every xxxti yere folowynge. The Lollardes and folowers of maister Iohn Wyclif were excite into soe grete presumpcion and boldenesse that theire prestes create oþer prestes after the consuetude of the gentyles, whiche seide that every preste hade so grete powere to solve and bynde as the pope. And mony create so by theyme seide masse, and execute other ministerys of the sacramentes; but at the laste oon of the prestes create by theyme was confessede to the bischoppe of Salysbery at his maner of Sunnynge, expressynge to hym the seide erroure. In whiche tyme the seide heretykes prechede that pilgremages scholde not be usede, and specially to Walsyngham and to the crosse at the northdore of Seynte Paule at London, seyenge þat þer was noo thynge of Godhede þer, but that thei were roten stokkes. Bischoppes of þe realme herde this com|municacion, but somme of theyme stoppede theire eieres, lev|ynge theire schepe with owte eny keper, that thei myȝhte be devourede off wulfes, the bytenges of whom were violente and dedely. But truly there was not oon dogge that wolde breke ageyne those vulfes but the bischop of Norwiche, whiche suffrede not his flok to be infecte with that wikkede peple. For he made a protestacion that and if eny of theyme prechede with ynne his diocyse thei scholde be hongede or brente. And so there was not oon of the seide heretykes that durste pre|sume to comme to his diocyse and suffre martyrdome, and so the feithe off Criste was not contaminate in alle that province. In whiche tyme to the confirmacion of tru peple mony myracles were schewede at a crosse erecte in the hye way nye to the priory of Wynnemudham. Also there was in that same tyme [folio 429a] in the place of Chanons at Bridlynton, in the diocyse of Yorke, suche open manifestacion of miracles schewede at the tumbe of seynte Iohn, somme tyme prior of that place, that alle peple of Ynglonde merveleyde of the seide miracles. For as mony men say he walkede on the see in his lyfe, schewynge mony miracles in his lyfe, insomoche that thro his preyer cornes or greynes semynge not to suffice that place by a monethe wolde be sufficiaunte by oon yere and moore. Abowte whiche tyme maister William Courteney, archebischop of Cawnterbery, visitte his province; whiche intendynge to visitte monkes of the blake ordre at Oxon, sende to the seide studentes that thei scholde be alle at the seide visitacion a certeyn day assignede. The scolers of monasterys exempte and not exempte were trowblede soore, in that thei see never afore; neiþer herde of suche an oþer visitacion; but the seide monkes laborede this processe folowynge to lette the seide visitacion. The abbot of Seynte Alban did wryte to the archebischop, preynge and movynge hym to chaunge his purpose as for that visitacion. The arche|bischop receyvynge the letters, toke þeim with goode chere, and causede the monke of that place, brynger of the seide Page  493, vol.8 letters, to tary and to dyne with hym. And after meyte the bischop callede that monke to hym, and seide that he wolde mony thynges for the favor of þat prelate his specialle frende, but he wolde not derogate the privilege of his churche, and if the kynge of Ynglonde laborede þerfore, and seide, "Is not þer a college? have ye not a prior that may kepe a chapitre and a commune chapell?" The monke answerede and seide that there was noo colege þer of þeire ordre, sithe that the monkes beynge þer hade noo conventuall seale, and that place was not possessede with temporalites and spiritualites, and mony other thynges did wante whiche were requirede to a college. To whom the archebisschop seide, "We wylle comme and see, and inquire how hit stondethe with yow." The monke seide, "My lorde, and if ye comme þer ye have noo iurisdiccion to inquire of such thynges, but in monkes not exempte, and thei be visitte in theire propre monasterys, wherefore they awe not to be visitte by yow in the secunde tyme." The archebischop seyde "Hit is certeyne that thei were not visitte by us in theire awne [folio 429b] monasterys, ffor thei were excusede by theire abbottes, in that they were at the universite, wherefore we intende to visitte theym in that universite." A monke a Cawnterbery commynge with the archebischop seide, "My lorde, ye may visitte monkes exempte þer so longe as they be in the universite, for they be under the iurisdiccion of the cawnceller." That other monke of Seynte Alban answerede, that monkes exempte hade grete privilege þer, and were not under the iurisdiccion of eny bischop but of the pope of Rome, oþer of a legate a latere sende from þe pope. The archebischop seide, if hit were so, he wolde not trowble theym in eny thynge. And on the day of seynte Tecla virgyn, maister Symon Sowtherey, monke of Seynte Alban, apperede afore the metropolitan, preyenge and besechynge that he wolde chaunge his purpose from the seide visitacion, but he wolde not be in eny wyse. And in the Sonne|day nexte folowynge, the seide Symon apperede afore the archebischop in the churche of Seynte Frydeswyde, with alle monkes exempte and not exempte, after þe goynge downe of the sonne. The archebischop seenge theym, inquirede wheþer that thei come to submitte theyme. They seide they come to obtene his ffavor and benevolence, and for noon oþer submission. The archebischoppe seide, "And y have yow excusede, and y intende not to vexe yow after þis tyme in eny thynge;" and here was the ende of the seide visitacion. And in the departenge of the archebischop of Cawnterbery, beynge at Dunstaple soone after, the abbotte of Seynte Alban sende the prior of his monastery to Dunstaple to the archebischop, to desire hym to solace hym in the seide monastery, and to tary þer alle nyȝhte. The archebischop condescende and come to that monastery, and taryede there by that nyȝhte at the costes of thabbotte, and Page  494, vol.8 departede in the morowe folowynge. And pope Urban the vjte dyede in the same yere in the monethe of September; whom the cardinalle Neapolitan succedid by eleccion of the cardinalls, and was callede Boneface the ixthe. Lorde Iohn duke of Lan|castre come to Ynglonde in this yere abowte the begynnynge of the monethe off Novomber, after that he hade taryede by iij. yere in Speyne, Aquitanny and Gascoigne. Whiche suf|frede mony infortunys in Speyne in the begynnynge, but after that he come to grete felicite: ffor in the begynnynge vitayles [folio 430a] begynnynge to fayle, the hoste of Ynglische dyede off the pestilence and flix, insomoche þat xc. famose knyȝhtes of Yng|londe dyede þer miserably. Wherefore the residu of Ynglische men coacte by necessite lefte the duke of Lancastre and wente to the hoste of men off Fraunce, whiche were þer to helpe the kynge of Castell, where they were grete noryschede and cheryschede. The kynge of Portyngale beynge þer that tyme with a grete hoste, seenge men of Ynglonde to have de|partede from theire lorde, seide to the duke, "Beholde youre men of Ynglonde how thei have departede from yow and be goen to youre adversaryes. I schalle goe and ȝiffe batelle to theyme, and y schalle not leve oon of theyme in lyfe." The duke of Lancastre seide to the kynge, "O my lorde, ye schalle not do soe, for y knowe that thei do soe for theire lyvynge, and not for treason." That seide, the duke began to wepe in his herte, and preyede allemyȝhty God to be his gyde, promy|synge to remembre his Maker afterwarde better then he did afore; and so Criste acceptynge his herte contrite, causede for|tune to enioy and encrease to hym from that tyme. For his adversary the kynge of Castelle dredde not the powere men, but he was compellede by the dredde of God to trete with the duke for peas. Where hit was brouȝhte to this conclusion, that the kynge scholde mary the doȝhter of the duke of Lancastre to his sonne, the frute of whome scholde enioye the realme of Speyne, and if thei hade noo yssue that realme scholde be reioycede by the frute of the duke of Yorke, broþer to the duke of Lancastre, whiche hade maryede the doȝter of the kynge of Castell. The convencion made sure, the duke re|ceyvede of the kynge of Castelle XX. M.li., and for a certeyne summe not payede, diverse borowes or plegges were taken to hym, that he scholde receyve of the seide kynge yerely the tyme of his lyfe endurynge X. M.li., and to lady Constaunce his wife iiij. M.li., for whiche summe of moneye to be payede iiij. goode townes were assignede to the seide lady Constaunce. Kynge Richarde kepede his Cristemasse in that yere with qwene Anne at the maner off Wodestoke. In whiche tyme the erle off Penbroke, of xvij. yere in age, wyllynge to disporte and iuste with a spere, was smyten of an oþer knyȝhte metynge hym in the flanke, his interialle partes were broken, and [folio 430b] Page  495, vol.8 dethe folowede anoon; for the dethe of whom lordes and moche peple of the realme were soory. For that erle was liberalle, affable, meke, and ientyll to alle peple, excedynge alle oþer yonge lordes of his age in the realme. And hit is to be mer|vaylede of the auncesturs of that erle, for from Emery erle of Penbroke, oon of the assessours and iugges on the dethe of seynt Thomas of Lancastre, unto this Iohn Hasting, noon of the erles of Penbroke see ever theire fader, ne þe fader þe sonne. A parliamente was holden at Westemonastery in the Mooneday nexte folowynge the feste of seynte Hillary, in whom the commune peple desyrede that lyverys of lordes myȝhte be putte awey, for mony men werynge the lyverys of lordes usede grete extorcion and oppression of poore peple. Where the lordes and gentilmen made grawnte that noo man scholde have of theire clothynge with*. [Sic., probably should be without.] he were of theire private howseholde, and toke a certeyne summe of þeim in þe yere. In whiche parliamente diverse men of Kente distrow|blynge peas were taken, drawen, and hongede. Also a statute was made that noo man scholde passe this realme to Rome for provisions in churche, or in churches to be geten and purchased, and if that he did, he schold be imprisonede as a rebellion to the kynge. Also a statute was made þer þat the kynge scholde not graunte his chartre to thefes, robbers, or murdrers of men, and if eiþer duke or archebischop laborede for eny man of that disposicion, thei scholde pay to the kynge a M.li., a bischop or erle a M. marke, a knyȝhte v. c. marke, oþer men XX.li. Also hit was grawntede to the kynge in this parliamente that he scholde receyve for customes of wolle for every sakke þat men of Ynglonde hade 1.s., and of straunge peple iij.li. Iohn Gawnte, duke of Lancastre, was erecte in this parliamente to the duke of Aquitanny; and Edward, son of the duke of Yorke, was made erle of Rutlonde, to whom the kynge ȝafe the castell of Okam. The duke of Gellerior come to London in the same yere, and in the monethe of Iulius, whiche was receyvede with grete honoure, and made hym oon of the knyȝhtes of the Garthur at Wyndeshore. Kynge Ricardus come to Leicestre in the same monethe of Iulius, where, at the instance of Iohn duke of Lancastre, Iohn [folio 431a] Northampton, citesynne of London, and his felawes, banyschede but late afore, were restorede to theire state afore and liberte. In whiche tyme mony noble men come from Fraunce, from Selande, from Alemanny, and from oþer cuntres to the kynges courte for grete iustynges usede þer in that tyme, bryngynge with theyme ryalle horses and armor pertenynge þerto, where the noble lyverey of the white herte, with a chene of golde, was ȝiffen firste. The kynge havynge cownsayle to schewe his Page  496, vol.8 excellent regaly to the lordes of straunge cuntrees, kepede the feste of seynte Edwarde at Kennynton, solennely crownede in that day, bothe at masse and meyte, and the qwene also. At whiche solennite the erle of Seynte Paule was, with his wife, suster to the kynge, and the erle of Ostrenaut, whiche was made þer knyȝhte of the Garthur. A parliamente was holden at London in Westmonastery, the xxti day of the monethe of November, unto whom Damianus de Cathenesia, messanger of þe pope, for a revocacion of the statute made ageyne provisions of churches to be laborede; but the seide messanger reioycede not his purpose, neverthelesse the kynge made graunte that the pope scholde ȝiffe alle benefices vacant in the courte of Rome. A bushell of whete was solde in thys yere at London for xx. d. and ij s. commynly, where hit was wonte to be solde for v. d. or vi. d. And Thomas Arundell, archebischop of Yorke, was made chawnceller of Ynglonde, and Iohn Waltham, bischop of Salisbery, treasurer of Ynglonde, in the begynnynge of October, and the erle of Stafforde maryede in that yere the doȝhter off þe duke of Glocestre. A parliament was holden at Westmonastery in the thrydde day of the monethe of November, and durede unto December; in whom hit was ordeynede that alle possessions, londes, and tenementes of religious men scholde be escheate withowte thei were deducte unto a dedde honde afore the feste of seynte Michell nexte folowynge. Kynge Richarde kepede that tyme his Cristemasse at Langley, to whom men of Aquitanny come, seyenge that thei were wonte to be governede by the kynge of Ynglond, or by the prince his sonne, and by noon oþer, seyenge also that they wolde not take the duke of Lancastre as theire chiefe lorde, but as a governoure under the kynge. Iohn duke of Lancastre come to Ynglonde from Aquitanny in the vijthe day of the monethe of Maii, whiche was receyvede of the kynge with grete honore. A grete cownsayle was keped at Stanforde in the xxvthe day of þe monethe of Maii, where mony thynges [folio 431b] were ordeynede; and amonge oþer constitucions, that gentyl|men havynge londes unto þe valoure of xltili. by yere scholde be knyȝhtes. Truse was taken betwene the kynges of Yng|londe and off Fraunce in this cownsaile for certeyne yeres, and alle the kynges courtes were translate from London to Yorke. That doen the kynge sende a wrytte to þe mayre of London, that he scholde appere at Notyngham with the shireffes with xxiiijti aldermen, and mony oþer noble men of the cite to answere afore the kynges cownsayle to thynges obiecte ageyne theyme. Iohn Hende, mayre of London, was deposede in the xjthe day of the monethe of Iulius folowynge, and sende to the castell of Wyndeshore, and the shireffes were deposed also, and oon was sende to the castell of Walyngforde, and that oþer to the castelle of Okam, Edwarde Dalkigbrugge havynge gover|nayle Page  497, vol.8 of that cite ffor the tyme. The duchesse of Yorke dyede in the same yere þe xxiijti day of the monethe of November, whom the kynge causede to be beryede at Langeley with grete solennite. Also in the same yere, the xxti day of the monethe of Ianivere, a parliamente was holden at Wynchestre, in whom syr Ambrey Veer was made erle of Oxenforde, and syr William Scroope was made chambreleyn of the kynge, and syr Thomas Persy stuarde of the kynge. And in the vij. day of Februarius folowynge, thefes brake the chapell of Oure Lady of Pewe at Westemonastery, and toke awey grete goodes with theyme. And in the vijthe nyȝhte folowynge thei brake the churche of Seynte Iohn at Clerkenwell, and did grete hurte þer, and somme of those thefes were taken and honged at Oxenforde. Solenne diriges were hade in this yere at Seynte Paules churche in London for the sawle of Anne empresse, moder of Anne qwene of Ynglonde. Anne qwene of Ynglonde dyede in this yere at Schene, þe vijthe day of þe monethe of Iunius, on the day of Pentecoste; the dethe of whom the kynge sorowede insomoche that he causede the maner there to be pullede downe, and wolde not comme in eny place by oon yere folowynge where sche hade be, the churche excepte; whiche was beryede in the churche of Westemonastery, in the feste of seynte Anne nexte folowynge, with grete honoure and solennite. That qwene [folio 432a] Anne purchased of the pope that the feste of seynte Anne scholde be solennysede in Ynglonde. The dethe of this qwene Anne induced grete hevynesse to noble men and to commune peple also, for sche causede noo lytelle profite to the realme. But mony abusions comme from Boemia into Englonde with this qwene, and specially schoone with longe pykes, insomoche that thei cowthe not go untylle that thei were tyede to theire legges, usenge that tyme cheynes of silvyr at the pykes of theire schoone. Kynge Ricardus toke his iourney to Yrlond abowte the feste of seynte Mathewe, taryenge þer in wynter with his hoste. And in the meane tyme the duke of Yorke kepede a parliamente at Westmonastery soone after the feste of seynte Hillary, to whiche parliamente the kynge sende his uncle, Thomas duke of Glocestre, to desyre of the clergy oon dyme, and oon xvthe of lay men, where that peticion was grawnte. Bartholomewe de Namera, messanger of þe pope, come to this parliamente for þe revocacion of the statute made afore ageyne provisors of churches, but he profite not of his message. Also maister Iohn Bloxham, governoure of Mertyn colege at Oxenforde, and doctor of divinite, was accusede of ij. felawes of the seide college in the same parliamente openly of a cryme not to be expressede, whiche men were movede to accuse hym by mony lordes of that parliament. But thei prevaylede not ageyne hym, in that thei cowthe not make sufficiaunte probacion. The kynge understondynge after of Page  498, vol.8 þat wickede mater was movede soore ageyne the lordes and his accusers. Henricus Wakefelde, bischop of Worcestre, departede from that parliamente, dyede at Blokley in the monethe of Marche, whom Tidemannus, bischopp Landavense, did succede. Kynge Ricardus, makynge mony knyȝhtes of Yrlonde, ȝafe to theym grete fees to be receyvede of the chekker yerely to þeim, and oþer grete ȝiftes, and departede into Ynglonde with his hoste. The kynge departede from that cuntre thei were moore maliciously disposede then thei were afore, and did sle a noble knyȝhte of Ynglonde þer, syr Roger erle of Marche. And in that somer folowynge Constaunce duchesse of Lancastre dyed, and Mary cowntesse of Derby, and were beryede at Levercestre. Henricus erle of Derby gate of Mary hys wife iiij. sonnes, Henricus, Thomas, Iohn, and Umfrey, and ij. doȝhters, Blanche and Mary. And in succession of tyme Iohn of Gaunt, duke of Lancastre, maryede into his wyfe [folio 432b] Kateryne Swynford, whom he kepede longe, his wife beynge in lyfe, of whom he gate iij. sonnes, Iohn Bewford, erle of Somer|sete, Henricus Bewford, bischop of Lincolne, Edmund Bewford, and ij. doȝhters, oon of whom was cowntesse of Westemar|londe, that oþer was cowntesse of Somersete; and alle these sonnes and doȝhters of Iohn duke of Lancastre were legitti|mate by the pope. In whiche yere, the vijthe day of the monethe of Auguste, Ricardus kynge of Ynglonde, purposynge to mary the doȝhter of the kynge off Fraunce, saylede unto Calys with a noble hoste, dukes, erles, barons, and mony oþer noblemen, taryenge þer unto the feste of Symon and Iude. Wherefore abowte the seide feste the kynges of Ynglonde and off Fraunce mette, with þe noble men of eiþer realme, on a pleyne nye to the castelle of Gynes, spekynge of the seide matrimony betwene kynge Ricardus and Isabelle doȝhter of the kynge of Fraunce, havynge viij. yere in age. And so at the laste the seide Isabell was delyverede to the kynge of Ynglonde; that doen, kynge Ricardus, takynge leve off the kynge of Fraunce, returnede to Calys with his companye, whom he maryede þer with grete solennite, in þe presence of the seide lordes, in the xthe day of the monethe of November. That doen thei come to Ynglonde with grete ioye and gladdenesse; but diverse of his schippes were drownede, havynge in theym moche clothe of Arras and mony other thynges for the apparayle of the kynges halle. This qwene come to London the xxiij. day of monethe of November, thro Sowthewerke unto Kenyngton, to whom mony peple wente to see, and in returnynge mony men and women were oppressed to dethe, amonge whom a prior of Estesex was oppressede to dethe, and a noble woman of Corun|hell. This qwene was brouȝhte ageyne the thrydde day off the monethe of Ianiver by London brygge, by the Bruggestrete, thro the Towre strete and unto the towre, and in the morowe Page  499, vol.8 folowynge sche was ledde thro Chepe unto Westmonastery, where sche was crownede with grete solennite in the vigill of the Epiphany by the archebischop of Cawnterbery. And a cownsayle was callede at Westmonastery in the monethe of February nexte folowynge, but the duke of Glocestre and the erle of Arundell, cited to appere there, excusede theym that infirmite oppressynge theym wolde not suffre his wylle to be [folio 433a] performede. The kynge herynge that was movede soore ageyne theyme, whiche folowynge þe cownsayle of yonge peple malicious and indiscrete, and specially of Iohn Busch, commaunded Ricardus erle of Arundell to be areste, and Thomas erle of Warwyke, puttynge theyme in suere kepynge. That doen, the kynge takynge with him Iohn Busche and a certeyne nowmbre of men of armes, come to Plesch, and areste in his awne person his uncle, Thomas duke of Glocestre, beynge in bedde and laborynge in grete infirmite. Notwith|stondynge the preyer of the duke, with mony teres of his wife and of his men, he was sende in the nyȝhte to Tyllyngborne, after þat to Dovor, and soe to Calys, to the erle of Norfolke capiteyne there, that he scholde be sleyne, as hit schal be schewede hereafter. Maister William Courtenay, archebischop of Caunterbery, dyede in the same yere, the kalendes of Auguste; whom Thomas Arundelle, archebischop of Yorke, did succede. In whiche yere also William Mountegu, erle of Salis|bery, dyede also, a noble man, tru to the kynge and to the realme, and fortunate in batell; Thomas Holand, erle of Kente, dyede in that yere also. In whiche tyme a pagan kynge of Turkeye reignede þer, Ambrot by name, ageyne whom mony men of Ynglonde, of Fraunce, and of other regions were gedrede; whiche were taken and sleyne þer in that þei were dispersede, and kepede not an ordre after the consuetude of batell. The kynge revolvynge in mynde how that he was coacte afore to graunte a certeyn commission to certeyne lordes to governe hym and the realme, thenkynge hym selfe of fulle age and discrecion, desirede gretely to do persecucion to theym. Wherefore the kynge thenkynge that he cowthe not punysche theyme withowte a parliamente were holden, sende messan|gers and wrytynge into þe costes of Ynglonde in the monethe of Iulius, that alle men scholde come to the parliamente that awe to be þer with owte eny excuse. Unto whiche parliamente a grete multitude of peple come, whiche began in October in the day of seynte Lambert, and contynuede untyll the conver|sion of seynte Paule. This parliamente was kepede in the myddes of his palyce at Westmonastery, where he made an halle betwene the towre and the dorre of the grete halle, that the seide kynge myȝhte appere in his solennite; whiche place [folio 433b] was taken awey after the parliament. In the firste day of that parliament the bischop of Ely and chauncellor of Ynglonde Page  500, vol.8 made a pronunciacion in the maner of a sermon, begynnynge with this proposicion, "Rex unus erat omnibus," and con|cludynge at alle tymes that the powere of the kynge awe to be unyte and annexed to hymselfe, and men causynge the contrary be worthy to be punysched after the lawe. But this parliament was ordeynede to make inquisicion of those persons that trowbled þe regaly, and that trowble and discorde scholde not have predominy afterwarde. That col|lacion finisched, the kynge commawnded the communes that thei scholde acorde of the speker of the parliamente, and pre|sente the man electe to hym in the day nexte folowynge. In whiche parliament þe kynge ȝafe pardon to alle peple that hade doen eny offence to hym, those persons excepte that scholde be correct in that parliament. And in Tyseday nexte folowynge syr Iohn Busche, knyȝhte, was chosen speker of þe parlia|mente and presentede to the kynge, whom þe kynge did accepte. The seide syr Iohn Busche, dewe protestacions made afore, expressed these wordes afore the kynges hihenesse:—"O, my lorde kynge, we desyre that we may expresse þe names of men causynge trowble ageyne your regaly. Firste, Thomas duke of Glocestre, Ricardus erle of Arundell, whiche causede yow to grawnte to þeim, in the ixthe yere of youre reigne, oon soore commission, by the meanes of Thomas Arundell, chauncellor of Ynglonde, to governe you and þe realme of Ynglonde to þe preiudice of youre regaly." And that commission grawnted was revocate and anni|chilhate in that parliamente, with alle thynges depend|ynge of hit; neverthelesse a speciall grace and pardon was grawnted by the kynge to Ricardus erle of Arundell at þe instance of þe metropolitan, broþer to hym. Where the seide syr Iohn Busche spake, sayenge that þe seide pardon is as infecte with treason, and that the seide bischop purchasynge hit awe to iuggede as a traytour. The bischop willynge to aryse and answere to þat mater, was prohibite by the kynge. Neverthelesse that archebischoppe off Cawnterbury apperede [folio 434a] not þer after that tyme. Also hit was ordeynede in this parlia|mente that the excesses of prelates scholde be terminate in the parliamente, and so licence hade þe prelates did departe with hevy chere. But in Wednesday nexte folowynge the seide statute ageyne prelates was revokede, where the seide prelates were charged, on peyne of the losse of þeire temporalites that thei scholde ordeyne a proctor in that day to condescende in theire names to thynges expedient in þat parliamente. And on Thursday nexte folowynge the archebischop of Cawnter|bery come to þe kynges palyce to have apperede at þe parlia|mente. But the kynge sende to hym by the bischop of Caerliel þat he scholde returne ageyne to hys ynne. The prelates ȝafe to syr Thomas Percy, stywarde of the kynge, theire plener Page  501, vol.8 powere, and made hym theire proctor, promysynge to fulle|fylle alle thynges grawntede by hym in theire names in þat parliamente. This proccy redde and expressede, syr Iohn Busche, speker of the parliamente, rehersede þese wordes to the kynges, "My lorde, hit is so nowe that the secunde article awe to be fullefyllede of þe peyne put to men trowblynge youre regaly. Wherefore y beseche your hihenesse of speciall pardon that y may goe and comme in suerte with my felawes to prosecute by the weye of appellacion and of impeticion ageyne certeyne persons." That grawntede by the kynge, the speker of the parliamente seide, "I accuse Thomas Arun|dell, archebischop of Cawnterbery, of thre maners and articles of treason. In the firste of the commission of the realme to hym, to Thomas duke of Glocestre, and to his broþer Ricar|dus erle of Arundell. In the secunde for the seide lordes did holde solenne parliamentes by usurpacion of that pro|ditorious commission into the grete preiudice of youre regaly. In the thrydde, in that thei did slee proditoriousely Iames Brueis and Symon Burle, your tru knyȝhtes and lige men, by the seide usurpacion. Wherefore we yonr tru lige men desyre your hihenesse to fulminate a sentence ageyne the seide archebischoppe condigne to suche a traytoure." The kynge ansuerede and seide that he wolde take deliberacion as in þat mater, for the excellence of his person, unto the day folowynge. And on Friday nexte folowynge that tyme, on [folio 434b] the feste of seynte Mathewe, the duke of Rotland, the erle of Kente, the erle of Huntyndon, the erle of Notyngham, the erle of Somersette, the erle of Sarisbery, the lorde Despenser, and syr William Scrope entrede into the parliamente in a sute of gownes of redde sylke, brawdrede with white sylke and letters of golde, purposynge to the kynge the appellacion made but late afore at Notyngham. Where thei accusede Thomas duke of Gloucestre, Ricardus erle of Arundell, Thomas erle of War|wyke, and Thomas Mortymare knyȝhte, of treason and insur|reccion made ageyne the kynge at Harnegay parke, promys|ynge afore the kynge to prosecute the seide appellacion. When Ricardus erle of Arundell was brouȝhte to the parlia|mente in a roobe of scarlet, whiche was taken from hym by commaundemente of Iohn duke of Lancastre. And the articles of treason rehersede, the seide erle denyede utterly that he was a traytour, desyrynge his pardon grawntede by the kynge myȝhte have execucion. Then Iohn duke of Lancastre seide, "O þow traytour, þat pardon is revokede." To whom the erle seide, "Y am noo traytour, ne have not bene a traytour." Then the duke of Lancastre seide to hym, "If þow were not a traytoure whereto desyres þow pardon?" The erle seide, "To depresse thy fals langage and oþer moo." Then the kynge seide to hym, "Answere to thyne appellacion." The erle seide, "Y am Page  502, vol.8 noo traytour," desyrynge ofte to reioyce that pardon grawn|tede to hym by þe kynge. Iohn Busche, speker of the parlia|mente, seide to hym, "That pardon is revoked nowe by oure lorde þe kynge, the lordes of þe realme, and by us his tru lige men." Then the erle seide, "Where be the tru commune peple and his lige men: y knowe the welle and thy felawes, for þow hase bene a traytour longe intendynge and ymaginynge my dethe." Then Henricus erle of Derby did aryse, rehersynge this sentence: "Seide not þow to me at Huntyndon, where we mette firste to make insurreccion, 'Lete us goe firste and take the kynge'?" The erle of Arundell seide, "Thow lyes, y seide not of the kynge in eny wyse but þat was for his honore and worschippe in eny thynge to the or unto eny other." Then the kynge seide to hym, "Seide not þow to me [folio 435a] in the tyme of thy parliamente, in a bathe behynde the white halle, that Symon Burle was worthy dethe for mony causes? and y seide to þat tyme that y cowthe not fynde eny cause of dethe in hym. Neverþeles y and my qwene preyenge for his lyfe, thow putte hym to dethe falsely and lyke a tray|toure, and despiseste my preyere." Then the kynge seide to the stuarde, "ȝiffe to hym his iuggemente." Then the duke of Lancastre seide in this wyse: "Richarde, I Iohn stywarde of Ynglonde iugge þe a traytoure, and condempne that thow be drawen, honged, and quartert, and alle thy londes taylede and not taylede to be applyede to the use of the kynge for ever." Neverthelesse the kynge grauntede that he scholde be but heded, for the reverence of his blode, and so he was brouȝhte to Chepe and heded þer, and beryede after at the freres Austyn in London. And on Seturday nexte folowynge, at proclamacion was made that syr Thomas Mortymare scholde presente hym to the kynge within vj. [dayes folowynge im|mediately, in peyne of treason and perpetuall exile. And in Monday nexte folowynge a certificatory sende from Caleys from the duke of Sowthefolke, that tyme capiteyne þer, was redde. In whom hit was contenede that that Thomas duke of Glocestre myȝhte not appere afore the kynge, in that he was dedde in kepynge. Neverthelesse the same sentence was ful|minate ageyne hym lyke as hit was to the erle off Arundell; and the goodes temporall of Thomas Arundell archebischop of Cawnterbery eschete, he was putte into exile. And in the Tyseday nexte folowynge the cowntee of Chestre was exaltede unto a duchery and augmentede by the hondes of Ricardus erle of Arundell. Also hit was ordeynede in that day that alle men ȝiffynge comfort, cownsayle, or helpe to the sonnes of men dampnede in þat parliamente, and to be dampned, that thei scholde suffre dethe as traytours. Also an ordi|naunce was made in this parliament, that alle lordes spirituall and temporall scholde swere that thei scholde observe alle Page  503, vol.8 thynges ordeynede in the seide parliamente. And on Fryday nexte folowynge Thomas erle of Warwyke was presentede; whiche herynge that appellacion made ageyne hym wepede soore, and denyede hit not, submyttynge hym to the mercy and [folio 435a] grace of the kynge. Then the kynge inquirede of hym by whom he was movede þerto. The erle answerede and seide by Thomas duke of Glocestre, by thabbot of Seynte Alban þat tyme, and by a monke reclused in Westemonastery, besechynge with grete wepynge þe kynge of mercy and of grace. The noblemen beynge presente and seenge hym to make so grete lamentacion movede the kynge to schewe grace to hym. And so the kynge grawntede to him lyffe, and sende hym to the yle of Man, grawntynge to hym and to his wyfe v.c. marke, to be payede yerely. In whiche tyme Henricus Lancastre, erle of Derby, was made duke of Herford, and Thomas Holand, erle of Kente, into the duke of Surrey, Iohn Holande, erle of Hun|tyndon, into duke of Excestre, Thomas Mowbray, erle of Notyngham, into the duke of Northefolke, Iohn Bewforde, erle of Somersete, into markesse of Dorsette, lorde Thomas Despenser into þe duke of Glocestre, lorde Rawfe Nevyle in to the erle of Westemarlond, syr Thomas Percy into erle of Wor|cestre, and William lorde Scrope into the erle of Wylteschire. This doen the parliamente was contynuate with alle lordes spirituall and temporalle, and to be terminate at Schrobbesbury by consente of the parliamente at the feste of seynte Hillary nexte folowynge; and so the kynge ȝafe licence to alle peple that thei scholde departe to theire cuntre. But in the feste of seynte Ierom the lordes spirituall and temporall made an othe by commaundemente of the kynge afore the schryne of seynte Edwarde that thei scholde holde and sustene alle statutes, iuggementes, and ordinaunces made in that parliamente; that doen, thei wente unto the hye awter, where the prelates seide, "We, the prelates and ordinaryes of the provinces of Cawnter|bery and of Yorke, ordeyne, monysche, and require that the seide provinces, on peyne of the grete sentence of excommu|nicacion, to procede ageyne men that breke hit." After that the kynge made a grete feste to his lordes spirituall and tem|porall metynge at Schrobbesbury in the tyme assignede to finische þe seide parliamente; where hit was ordeynede that the heires male or female of the lordes condempnede afore scholde not reioyce eny of theire londes, taylede or not taylede, but thay scholde be excluded for ever from eny accion to hyt or theyme or eny other clayme; and so Thomas Arundell, son of Ricardus somme tyme erle of Arundell, was sende over see into exile; and the heire of Thomas somme tyme duke of Glou|cestre, putte into the towre of London, was taken þens pri|vely by a merchaunte and brouȝhte over see. Also hit was ordeynede in that parliamente on Tyseday nexte folowynge Page  504, vol.8 that the heires of theyme whiche were convicte of hye treason scholde not ioye eny londes or possessions of theire progenitors, but thei scholde be excluded from theym for ever. This was the firste article, if eny man of whatsoever condicion or dignite hade ymagined the dethe of the kynge. The secunde, if eny man hade laborede to depose the kynge in eny wise. The thrydde if eny man hade ryden in armoure in the realme to move eny gwerre ageyne the kynge. The iiijthe, if eny man disclamede the homage of the kynge. In whiche tyme Iohn lord Cobham was presented to answere to ij. articles obiecte ageyne hym. The firste article was that he ȝafe cownseile to make the foreseide commission ageyne the kynge and his astate, and also that he usede the seide commission in iuggementes in his awne person ageyne the pleasure off the kynge and of his regaly grete preiudice. The secunde article was that the seide lorde Cobham sate in iuggement to iugge Symon Burle and Iamys Berners, knyȝhtes, in the absence of the kynge and ageyne his wylle; wherefore he was convicte and sende to the yle of Gersey, to be kepede þer by the tyme of his lyfe. And in the Wednesday nexte folowynge, hit was ordeynede that an if eny man did agene the promisses and statutes made in the seide par|liamente he scholde be iuggede as a traytour. And in Thursday nexte folowynge alle lordes spirituall and temporalle þer at that tyme did swere on the crosse of Cawnterbury that thei scholde observe the statutes, constitucions, and ordinaunces made in that parliamente durynge the tyme of theire lyfe after theire powere. And the statutes made sommetyme ageyne syr Hewe Despenser were redde and revokede by þe wylle of the kynge and consente [folio 436b] of the lordes and oþer peple in that parliament. In whiche parliamente oon xvthe and the halfe of an oþer xvthe was grawntede to be payede to the kynge, at Michellmasse nexte folowynge oon parte, that oþer parte at Ester nexte folowynge, the thrydde parte at Michelmasse after, and ltis. for a sakke of wolle of men of Ynglonde as for custom, and iij.li. of aliaunteȝ. And the kynge grawntynge a generall pardon to alle peple þer, that thei scholde not be in dowte as for eny thynge doen afore that tyme unto his person, ȝafe theyme licence to departe, and so that terrible and grete parliamente was dissolvede. And Thomas Arundell, archebischop of Cawnterbery, was deposede by that parliamente, and sende to exile into Scotlonde, abowte the feste of the purificacion of oure Lady; whom Iohn Walden, treasurer of Ynglonde, did succede. This parliamente doen, the kynge visitte mony costes of Ynglonde, as Herforde, Worcestre, Hanley, Hayleys, Wynchecombe, Gloucestre, and Bristowe, where he made listes for a conflicte to be made betwene an esqwyer of Ynglonde appellynge and a knyȝhte borne in Scotlonde, but he was sworn to be tru to Ynglonde, defend|ynge that appellacion. And so the man refusynge his appel|lacion Page  505, vol.8 was drawen and hongede. And in the same yere abowte the feste of Ad vincula sancti Petri, the kynge caused myȝhty lystes to be made at Cowentre for an oþer conflicte to be hade betwene the duke of Herforde and the duke of Northfolke. And this was þe mater and cause: these duke rydynge to geder, and havynge communicacion of the kynge, the duke of Northfolke seide to that other duke, "Beholde how mutable and variable the kynge ys; y drede that he wylle peresche us hereafter lyke as he hathe doen oþer lordes afore." Then the duke of Herford seide, "Y have noo diffidence in the wordes of my sovereign, and y wylle not withdrawe me from his presence tylle that y be commaunded by hym, for y have not doen eny thynge to the displeasure of my sove|reigne." [folio 437a] These wordes were rehersede to the kynge, where|fore the kynge inquirede of theyme to knowe the trawthe; oon of theym affermede that hit was soe, that other of theyme seyde nay; and so the day of theire fiȝhte was assignede to be in the feste and day of seynte Lamberte bischop and martir. In whiche day a grete multitude of peple come to see that conflicte. These dukes beynge with ynne lystes and redy to fiȝhte, the kynge beynge in his tente in regall apparayle, commaunded theyme to sease, and toke that mater in his iuggemente, commaundynge a proclamacion to be made that Henricus duke of Herforde scholde be putte into exile for certeyne inobedience doen ageyne the kynge by x. yere. And Thomas Mowbray, duke of Northfolke, scholde be in exile by the tyme of his lyfe, receyvynge yerely to his exhibicion a M. marke untylle that the towne of Calys were repayrede. For the seide duke was capiteyne by certeyne yeres of the towne of Calyȝ, and did hurte to the towne, doynge lytell reparacion or noon on hit, and puttynge hit in grete dette. And in the feste of seynte Michel nexte folowynge, the kynge commaundede xvj. schires in Ynglonde to be condempnede, and eiche of theyme payede to the kynge a M. marke or a M.li., puttynge theire bodyes in the grace off the kynge. Also alle religious men, gentylmen, and other commune peple thro alle the realme putte to theire seales on white chartres made by the com|maundemente of the kynge. Mony men suppose that thynge to be doen for money to be gedrede, for diverse men drawynge to the kynge movede hym to gette goodes, seyenge that and if he hade goodes sufficiaunte he scholde not have eny cause to drede, but alle men scholde drede hym. And so he borowede of lordes and of prelates a summe of goode as innumerable, whiche was not payede ageyn after. But O thou covetyse, moder of vices, that never dose replete the appetite of men desyrynge þe, comparable to a man havynge the dropesy, whiche is moore athurste after that he hathe drunke, and so in lyke [folio 437b] wyse a man havynge grete treasures is infecte þe moore with Page  506, vol.8 avaryce. Iohn Gawnte, duke of Lancastre, dyede in this yere at Cristemasse, at the castelle of Leycestre, and was beryede with grete solennite at the churche of Seynte Paule in London, Henricus his sonne beynge that tyme in exile over see. Kynge Richarde kepede this Cristemasse at Lichfeld, with whom mony straunge lordes were, as the broþer of the emperoure of Con|stantinopole and syr Petyr de Bristo, with the bischop Aquensis, messanger of the pope, sende into Ynglonde for the revocacion of the statute made ageyne provisours of churches, and for oþer diverse causes. Whiche hade powere to dispense with alle prestes entrede to theire benefices by symony, and to grawnte or ȝiffe the seide benefices newly to theyme, and mony other privilegys, by the pretexte of whom he gate treasure as innumerable. In this Cristemasse grete iustyngges were hade in every day, where so grete a multitude of peple hade resorte that xxviijti, oxen or xxvijti ccc. schepe, and wildefooles as innumerable were spende dayly. And after the feste of Pentecoste, kynge Ricardus toke his iourneye to Yrlonde with a grete glory and multitude of peple, thenkynge noo man so myȝhty; but fortune ȝafe hym a grete falle soone after. For abowte the feste of seynte Iohn Baptiste he hade worde that Henricus duke of Herforde, þen duke of Lancastre by the dethe of his fader, whom he hade put into exile, was commen into Ynglonde. The kynge made grete haste with his hoste to mete hym, thenkynge to have hade victory lyȝhtely. The seide kynge commynge from Yrlonde londed in Wales at Hertlouȝhe, nye to þe castelle, abowte the feste of seynte Iames apostole, taryenge by a lytelle season in that castell, depart|enge from that place to Chestre, that he myȝhte take with hym men of that cuntre, in whom he hade moste confidence and truste. But the seide kynge hade worde for a trawthe that alle castelles from the costes of Bristowe unto the northe partes of Ynglonde were delyverede to the seide duke. And also that alle lordes spiritualle and temporall and the com|munes of Ynglonde did aryse with hym ageyne the kynge, and how syr William Scrope, erle of Wilteschire and treasurer of Ynglonde, syr Henricus Grey, and syr Iohn Busche, [folio 438a] knyȝhtes, were hevede at Bristowe. The kynge herynge that sorowede moche, commaundynge the hoste, whiche was of xx. M. men in nowmbre, to comme afore hym, to whom he ȝafe licence to departe. But that hoste comforte the kynge moche, seyenge that thei wolde not leve hym, but they scholde lyve or dye in his parte ageyne the seide duke. Neverthelesse he toke with hym the bischop of Kaerliel, the erle of Salys|bery, and oþer persons unto the nowmbre of xxti, and wente in the nyȝhte prively from his hoste unto the castell of Flynte. The marcialle of the hoste understondynge of þe departynge of the kynge, brake his rodde afore the hoste into a signe of Page  507, vol.8 hevynesse þat men scholde departe, but the seide hoste was spoylede or that thei cowthe departe from Wales, after that hyt was dispersede, insomoche that mony knyȝhtes were feyne to go home on foote unto theire cuntres. But what schall the kynge do nowe with alle his treasure and rychesse, for whom he hathe vexede moche the costes of Ynglonde, truly hit schall not cause hym to avoide perelle folowynge. The seide duke of Herforde and heire of Iohn Gawnte, late dedde, somme tyme duke of Lancastre, come to Ynglonde, as hit is seide afore, abowte the feste of seynte Iohn Baptiste, with lx. persons in nowmbre. Amonge whom Thomas archebischop of Cawnterbery was putte but late afore into exile; Thomas, heire of the erle of Arundell, the confessor of þe kynge, the lorde Cobham, Thomas Herpyngham, and Thomas Remston, knyȝhtes; Iohn Norbury, Robert Waturton, Franciscus Court, esqwyers, and oþer moo, whiche londed in the northe costes of Ynglonde in Yorkeschyre, betwene Hull and Brydlyngton. Whiche were receyvyde with gladde chere of the lordes and communes of þat cuntre, and gedrenge a grete hoste þer made grete haste unto the sowthe partes of Ynglonde, turnynge by Evysham unto Berkeleye, where alle castells longynge to the kynge were delyverede to hym with in thre dayes. Then [folio 438b] Edmund Langley, duke off Yorke, and uncle to hym, gedrede a multitude of men, but þer was not oon of theym that wolde fiȝhte ageyne the duke off Lancastre. This duke of Yorke wente towarde Wales, abidynge the commynge of the kynge from Yrlonde, taryenge at Berkeleye; but the duke of Lancastre commynge with myȝhty men and with a grete hoste, the seide dukes spake togedre and were acordede abowte the feste of seynte Iame in the churche with owte the castelle of Berkeley. And the bischop of Norwich, the lorde of Berkeley, and of Seymor, and mony other knyȝhtes come with the duke of Yorke, Thomas Arundelle, archebischop of Cawnter|bery, the abbot of Leicestre, the erle off Northumbrelonde and of Westmarelonde, the heire of Ricardus erle off Arundell, late dedde, the baron of Greystocke, the lorde Wilby, and the lorde Roos, with mony other knyȝhtes, come with the duke of Lancastre. And in the same day the bischop of Norwyche was areste, syr William Elman and syr Walterus Burtley, knyȝhtes, Lawrence Dren, and Iohn Golafre, esqwyers, and were putte in streyte kepynge. That doen the seide dukes toke theire iourneye to Bristowe, schewynge theire hoste afore the towne and a castelle of a c.M. peple in nowmbre. In whiche tyme syr William Scrope, erle of Wilteschire, lorde Henricus Grey, and syr Iohn Busche, speker of the laste par|liamente, specialle cownsaillour of þe kynge, intendynge the de|struccion of the realme; whiche were taken at the laste and brouȝte into the feldes to theym arestede firste, and after pre|sented Page  508, vol.8 to the iugges, the constable, and marciall, where thei were convicte and heded for treason and ylle governaunce of the realme. And in the nexte day folowynge the duke of Lancastre toke his iourney towarde Berkeley, and the duke of Yorke taryede at Bristowe, and after that the duke of Lancastre toke his iourney towarde Schrobbesbery, where syr Iohn Alye and syr Roberte Alye, knyȝhtes, mette hym, preyenge hym to schewe favor to the province of Chestre in that thei submitte theym holly to his governayle. After that he removede to the cite of Chestre, where he schewede his hoste afore the cite, whom alle the religious men of that cite receyved with solenne procession. The seide duke sende anoon over see for the sonne and heire of Thomas somme tyme duke of Glocestre, but allas that noble yonge man was drownede in the see or he myȝhte gette to londe. The duchesse of Glocestre and moder to hym, herynge of his dethe, toke so grete sorowe that sche dyed also [folio 439a] with in fewe dayes folowynge. The kynge beynge in the castell of Flynte, sende Iohn Holand, duke of Excestre, to Chestre, to entrete for peas with the duke of Lancastre to the duke of Amnarlye, the duke of Surrey, syr Thomas Percy, erle of Worcestre. The lorde Lovell and syr Iohn Stanley come in that tvme. And in the Sonneday nexte folowynge the Assumpcion of oure Lady Thomas Arundell, late archebischop of Cawnterbery, the erle of Northumbrelonde, the erle of West|merlonde, and syr Henricus Percy, wente to the kynge from the parte of the duke of Lancastre, and spake with him, ȝiffynge hym an answere of the purpose of þat duke. That doen the kynge was brouȝte to the stronge castell of Conwey, where the seide duke of Lancastre apperede, schewynge his hoste that the kynge myȝhte see hym and the towne also. After that the duke lyȝhte of his horse and wente over the brygge, taryenge in the firste warde of the castell tylle that he did see the kynge. The bischop of Caerliel comme þat tyme with the kynge, the erle of Salisbery, and syr Steven Scrope berynge the kynges swerde, with fewe oþer men, syttynge in a place ordeynede for hym. The seide duke seenge the kynge ȝafe honor to hym onys, twyes, and in the thrydde tyme the kynge toke hym up. To whom he seide, "My lorde kynge, my commynge into the londe at þis tyme is to reioyce oure enheritaunce and patri|mony by youre licence." The kynge seide, "Dere cosynne, y grawnte that ye reioyce hit in fulle prosperite with owte eny contradiccion." This doen thei drunke a bolle of wyne togedre. And so thei toke theire horses and did ryde to Chestre, and so to London, and so faste as thei cowthe, inso|moche that kynge Ricardus was not suffrede to chaunge his clothes, but rode in symple apparayle thro the cuntre: and hit is seide that this kynge Ricardus hade oon garmente of golde, perles, and of precious stonys, havynge in valoure iij. M. marke. Page  509, vol.8 But, O goode Iesu, thy coote was not of soe grete price, and hit was moore vertuous and moore precious! The kynge was brouȝhte to Westmonastery, and the duke was receyvede of the cite of London with grete solennite, taryenge in the palyce of the bischop of London. In the morowe nexte folow|ynge, [folio 439b] the kynge was brouȝte to the towre of London and put in sure kepynge. That doen the seide duke of Lancastre ordeynede that a parliamente scholde be kepede thro the cownsaile of lordes drawynge to hym in the name of kynge Richarde. Wherefore wrytynges were sende thro the realme that alle peple longynge to be at þe parliamente scholde appere at Westmonastery in the day nexte folowynge the feste of seynte Michael. In whiche parliamente and in the firste, the kynge resignede his crowne, title, and ryȝhte, absolvynge arche|bischoppes, bischoppes, alle lordes spiritualle and temporall, and alle þe peple of Ynglonde, from his ligence and obedience made to hym in eny maner of wyse, makynge a solenne pro|testacion on a masse booke, and swerynge that he wolde never desire ne labor prively ne openly to reioyce the crowne of Ynglonde, confessynge by his awne person that he was worthy by his demerytes and insolente lyfe to be deposede. That doen he kyssede the masse booke, wrytynge under the resignacion his submission, in whom he did submitte hym to his trusty cosyn Henricus duke of Lancastre, and to reverende faders Thomas Arundelle archebischop of Cawnterbery, Ricardus archebischop of Yorke, Iohn bischop of Herforde, and to oþer noble men, Henry erle of Northum|brelonde, Ricardus erle of Westmerlonde, Thomas Arundell, and mony other barons and knyȝhtes. Also the seide kynge Richarde desirede that he myȝhte reioyce certeyne lyvelode bouȝhte afore, whiche he intendede to distribnte for his sawle to the monastery of Westmonastery. Whiche kynge desyrede and seide openly that hit was his wylle that the seide duke of Lancastre, cosyn to hym, scholde succede in that realme of Ynglonde and reioyce his crowne. That resignacion redde openly in the parliamente and admitte by the lordes and com|mune peple also, kynge Ricardus deposede and the trone vacante, þe lordes movenge for the successioun of þe realme, the commune peple cryede and desirede Henry duke of Lan|castre to be kynge. The duke herynge that did aryse and ascended unto the kynges trone, and makynge a crosse seide in this wyse:—"I Henricus, duke and lawefulle heire of the [folio 440a] honorable fader Iohn late duke off Lancastre, clayme and take in the name of þe Fader, and the Sonne, and of the Holy Goste the kynges trone and the crowne of Ynglonde with the pertinence as by lawefull enheritaunce and linealle de|scence from kynge Henricus the thrydde." This doen he sate downe in the seete, havynge this communicacion:—"I Page  510, vol.8 thonke my God and Kynge, my frendes alle, oþer lordes spirituall and temporall, and the commune peple also, that ye have exaltede me unto so excellente a governayle as unable þerto. Neverthelesse y intende thro youre hollesome cown|sayle and supporte that the realme schalle contynue in pease and tranquillite, whiche hathe bene longe in trowble for fawte and wontynge of sadde governayle. Where y wylle that alle men knowe that my wylle was not in eny wyse to expelle eny man from his enheritaunce, but men that wolde have destroyede the sadde governayle of the realme." And so this parliamente was dissolvede in the same day, and a newe parliamente assignede to be kepede in the name of kynge Henricus þe iiijthe, whiche scholde begynne in the day folowynge the feste of the translacion of seynte Edward Confessor. In whiche day kynge Henricus, the iiijthe after the conqueste, was crownede with grete solennite, syr Henricus Persy, erle of Northumbrelonde, presente, and mony other noblemen of the londe. And in the day nexte folowynge thei wente into the parliamente, where a certificacioun was hade of the dethe of Thomas somme tyme duke of Glocestre, how maliciously he was put to dethe by Thomas Moubray, duke of Northefolke, and capiteyne that tyme of Calys, by commaundemente of kynge Richarde. Whiche story we schalle expresse here in parte, whiche was taken at Plesch by kynge Ricardus and sende to Calys, as hit is schewede afore. But a mervellous processe folowethe nowe and a wickede, how he was putte to dethe; for hit is to be mervaylede that a kynges sonne, a noble knyȝhte, and so gentylle a duke scholde dye in so vile a dethe. This duke laborynge in grete infirmite was brouȝhte to Calys and [folio 440b] put into streyte kepynge with grete peynes and mony, ffor the kynge sende to Calys oftetymes prively that thei scholde schorte his dayes with owte effusion of bloode. And at the laste they brouȝhte hym furthe in a nyȝhte unto a chambre with owte eny lyȝhte, where they hade made redy a feþer|bedde, seyenge to hym "Make haste and dispose for thy sawle, for the tyme of thy dethe drawethe nere, by the precepte of kynge Richard." The duke seide: "Allas, frendes! God have mercy on yow; wylle my lorde and kynge that y dye in this wyse lyke a swyne? Neverthelesse y take me to the wylle and mercy of Criste my maker, preyenge yow that y may ȝiffe certeyn lawde to hym afore my dethe." That doen, he seide, "Performe that ye have intended: y truste in the Trinite, y schalle not drede whatsoever thynge that a man dothe to me." Then thei toke and put hym on a feder|bedde, puttenge on hym an oþer, and tredynge on hym unto the tyme that he was dedde; and þer were v. men at the puttynge of hym to dethe, whiche escapede not withowte vengeaunce, God be thonkede! And the body of the seide duke was sende Page  511, vol.8 to Ynglonde, and beryede at London in the churche of Seynte Paule with grete honoure. Thomas Arundell, archebischop somme tyme of Cawnterbery, was restorede to that seete by the pope, and Iohn Walden was deposede; and alle lordes erecte by kynge Ricardus in þe xxj. yere of his reigne into markesse, dukes, or into erles, were redacte in this parliamente unto theire olde state. And Thomas late erle of Warwyke was callede from exile to his enheritaunce, and Thomas Arundell, sonne and heire of Ricardus erle of Arundell, was restorede to his londes and enheritaunce. Also the lorde Cobham, putte to exile in to þe yle of Gersey, was restorede to his enheritaunce; and alle oþer lordes putte into exile in þe xxjti yere of þe reigne of kynge Richarde were restorede unto theire enheritaunces, excepte that thei scholde not make eny cleyme ageyne the occupyers of theire possessions in the meane tyme. And that parliamente of kynge Ricardus was made voyde and as of noo valoure, with alle thynges dependynge of hit. Also kynge Henricus þe iiijthe made a constitucion that eny man resortynge to hym from his commynge into Ynglonde unto þe tyme and [folio 441a] day of his coronacion, for eny dethe of man, trespasse, or offense, in the kynges presence or absence, scholde not be vexede or grevyde in eny wyse. But he commaunded that and if eny man hade doen eny offence after the tyme of the coronacion of the kynge, withowte he hade a specialle precept of the kynge.*. [Sic in MS.] After a constitucion was made in the same parliamente that archebischop, bischop, abbot, prior, or eny other spirituall lorde or temporall of whatsoever condicion or state, that he scholde not ȝiffe eny lyvery of clothe but to peple of the private howseholde, and to men of theire cownsayle which be instructe in the lawes, whiche statute was ordeynede to take vertu and begynnynge at the feste of the Purificacion of oure Lady nexte folowynge. In whiche parliamente the commune peple desyrede instantely diverse lordes to be iuggede for treason and wykked governaunce of the realme and of the kynge; but the kynge preyede the peple to suffre as for a sea|son. That parliament dissolvede, diverse lordes hade ymaginede to have sleyne kynge Henricus prively, the names of whom schall be expressede soon after [it].*. [Sic in MS.] Neverthelesse, the mayre of London havynge certeyne knowlege þereof wente in grete haste to Wyndeshore to þe kynge, and causede hym to comme to London, and so he escapede þeire hondes. And abowte the Epiphanye nexte folowynge, the erle off Kente and the erle of Salisbery sorowede moche that thei myȝhte not performe theire purpose, and thenkynge if þey myȝhte in eny wyse that thei wolde delyver kynge Ricardus from prison. And so thei come to Farinton, into Barkeschire, movynge the peple to aryse and to Page  512, vol.8 helpe theire kynge from prison, goynge to Cirencestre that same day, where thei made the same proclamacion. But the men of that towne tru to the kynge and to the realme fauȝte soore ageyn the lordes and theire men, where the lordes were taken and putte in sure kepynge in the monastery. Then the seide lordes dredynge the seide peple, commaundyd diverse of þeire men to sette fyre in diverse places of the towne, thenkynge þat the men of the towne wolde avoide from þeim, and by þat thei myȝhte escape. But men of that towne knowynge þat treason toke the lordes from the monastery and causede theyme to be hedede in the markete place in the thrydde day after þe Epi|phany. In whiche tyme a knyȝhte of the northe, syr Rawfe [folio 441b] Lumpney, was heded þer also. And syr Thomas Despenser was heded in the nexte weke folowynge in this maner. The seide lorde Despenser beynge in his castell at Kaerdef, the kynge sende a certeyne nowmbre of peple to those costes that thei scholde brynge hym to London wheþer he wolde or nay. But he knowynge hym selfe suspecte fledde with his goodes into a schippe, intendynge to fle into Fraunce. But the maister of the schippe corrupte with money hade hyddc prively in the body of þe schippes under hacches a xxti men of armes. And so thei saylynge in the myddes of þe water the maister of þe schippe inquirede whider he intended to sayle; the lorde seide into Fraunce; the maister of the schippe seide, "Truly þe moste sayle to Bristowe." The lorde seide, "Pre|sume not to do so, for thow schalle dye raþer with thys swerde." The men beynge under hacches did aryse and come to take the seide lorde. Neverthelesse the seide lorde fiȝht|ynge soore, and woundynge mony of theyme, was taken at the laste and brouȝte to Bristowe, and putte hym in the mayres prison. And in the secunde day folowynge the peple come to the mayre, cryenge and seyenge, "Brynge furthe that traytour to the kynge and to the realme, that he may be sleyne." And so at the laste they drawede hym from prison and heded hym at the crosse in the market place; the hedde of whom was sette on London brigge, beryede afterwarde at Tewkysbery at the instaunce off his moder. And soone after Iohn Holant, erle of Huntyndon, broþer to kynge Ricardus by reason of his moder, was taken at Plaschet in Estesex by the cowntesse of Herford, and was heded; and after that syr Walterus Brocas, knyȝhte, and oþer ij. clerkes, were drawen and hongede at London. Also the bischop of Karliell was convicte and condempnede for treason, and so by grete laboure he was suffrede to departe to his monastery, whiche cowthe not reioyce eny benefice in the tyme of kynge Henricus þe iiijthe. But O thow fortune, whiche scheweste pleasaunte aspecte to men in prosperite and chaunges thy whele in so schorte tyme, suffrenge men to falle from hye places to lawe! what Page  513, vol.8 presumpcion of audacite causede these lordes beynge in tran|quillite in the northe partes to come to the sowthe and suffre [folio 442a] dethe there. But a man may answere and say that they did aryse ageyne theire hedde and kynge, wherefore thei loste theire hedes by theire demerytes. Kynge Richarde herynge of the dethe of those lordes in whom alle his confidence was, dyede in prison for sorowe in the feste of seynte Valentyne, in the yere of oure Lorde Godde a M.CCC.XCIX. But y suppose that the oppinion of commune peple is moore tru whiche re|hersethe that he dyede in prison for hungre, and by the iuste iuggemente of God, wyllynge that he scholde dye with the swerde of hungre, whiche hade causede mony noble men to be sleyne insolentely with a swerde materiall in his tyme. This kynge Ricardus was of a commune stature, with yelowe heires, white in face lyke to a woman, havynge a grete impedimente in eloquency; inconstant of promysses, despysynge the cown|saile and company of olde men, drawynge to yonge men, ex|cessive in pride, ȝiffen gretely to lecchery, infortunate in batell, takynge in alle his lyfe mony taxes and tallages of the peple of his realme, excedynge in festes and in ȝiftes. But alle the goodes that he myȝhte gette were unnethe sufficiaunte to hym, for thei were spende by grete insolence. Neverthelesse the seide kynge luffede the churche of God, and promotede men of the churche, specially monkes of the blake ordre, and ȝafe to þe of Westmonastery unto the valoure of v. c. marke by yere to pray for hym: on the sawle of whom Iesu have mercy, Amen. And abowte the feste of þe Annunciacion of oure Lady, the kynge sende letters to diverse places of the northe that all men of the churche, freres excepte, scholde appere in armes defensive afore certeyne prelates ordeynede to see þeyme. Whiche answerede and seide that they were redy at all tymes to fullefyll the pleasure of the kynge. And abowte the feste of seynte Iohn Baptiste nexte folowynge, the kynge toke his iourneye towarde Scottelonde, but that iourneye prevaylede lytell or nouȝhte, a certeyne truse and fals pease taken betwene the realmes for a certeyne season. And so the kynge returnede from Scottelonde and commen to Leicestre herde straunge tythynges, how that men of Wales were gedrede in a grete multitude, and hade erecte into theire prince an esqwyer Owyn Glyndor by name, and trowbled the pease. The cause of that insurreccion folowethe. When that the kynge wente into Scottelonde, he sende letters to the seide Owyn Glyndor, in that he was a esqwyer of grete fame, that he scholde comme to hym in eny wise. The lorde Grey of Ruthyn was assignede [folio 442b] to bere the letters, whiche delyverede not the letters to the seide Owen untylle the day afore that the kynge toke his iourney unto Scotlonde. The letters taken and redde he excusede hym, seyenge that he hade not a competente monicion Page  514, vol.8 for suche a iourney. And so the lorde Grey levynge hym in Wales made grete haste unto the kynge, þat tyme in Scotte|londe, sayenge to hym that the seide Owyn despisynge his letters wolde not come in eny wyse. And so the kynge beynge stylle as for the tyme, made provision to go to that cuntre after his departynge from Scottelonde. And so the kynge entrede into Wales cowthe not fynde hym and his men, for they were hydde in caves and in mowntanes. Then the kynge seenge that he cowthe not prevayle, and þat his hoste pereschede for hungre, ȝafe to the lorde Gray the tenementes and londes of that esqwyer Owyn Glyndor, and returnede into Ynglonde. But the grawnte of þat londe caused grete trowble and hurte, as hit schalle be schewede hereafter, ffor after the departynge of þe kynge from Wales, Owyn Glyndor did aryse with his companye and wente to Ruthyn, a towne in Wales longynge to the seide lorde Gray, whom he spoylede firste, and that doen he destroyede hit utterly by fyre. Grete insolence of vesture began to encrease in the begynnynge of this kynge, and specially of gownes with longe pokus, made in the maner of a bagpype, usede indifferentely by ryche men and poore, whiche myȝhte be callede welle the receyvynge places of the develle; for men hydde in theym that they myȝhte gette, for somme of theyme were so longe that they were extente unto the grownde, and somme to þe knees. Whiche were demersede and maide moiste when men scholde serve theire lordes of potage or of sawce, tastynge of that liquore afore theire lordes, wherefore men say God to have punyschede and to punysche unto this tyme the realme of Ynglonde for insolente pride by Scottes, by men of Fraunce, and by men of Wales. Neverthelesse, peple awe to drede that with owte thei returne from pride inordinate that God wille schewe to theyme moore vengeaunce. A parliamente was holden in this yere after the feste of Cristemasse at Westemonastery, where a man, Walterus Sawtry by name, a Lollarde, and after his abiuracion detecte in [folio 443a] heresy, was brente miserably. In whiche yere the emperoure of Constantinopole come into Ynglonde, desirynge helpe of the kynge ageyne the paganes; whiche taryenge with the kynge by a certeyne tyme, and gretely rewardede, departyde unto his awne cuntre, desyrynge and besechynge the helpe of God, for he wonted the helpe of man; preyenge also that God wolde schewe somme token unto the Cristen sleyue in that batell, whereby they myȝhte be knowen. And so in the nyȝhte afore the day of batelle a voyce apperede to hym, and bade that he scholde not drede, for God hade ordeynede a glorious victory to hym. The hostes mette to gedre on Goode Friday, and as innumerable peple of the pagans were sleyne, and oþer causede to flee. That batelle doen, the emperoure wente into the felde to see the peple that were sleyne of his parte, whiche founde Page  515, vol.8 Cristen men sleyne þer lyenge on theire ryȝhte syde, and an hoste in theire mowthe, in a signe of the blissede communion, sende from hevyn by the powere of God. The emperoure seenge þat enioyede gretely, ȝiffenge grete lawde to allemyȝhty Godde, commaundynge þeim to be beryede after the maner of Cristen peple: whiche narracion y committe to the wylle of þe reder as to the credence of hit, neverthelesse scripture afferm|ethe alle thynges to be possible to a man belevynge, and eny thynge is not impossible as anendes Godde. The kynge purposynge to correcte the men of Wales, causynge grete trowble come in the same yere to Evisham in the secunde tyme with a grete companye of knyȝhtes and oþer peple, taryenge þer into the thrydde day after dyner, and after that to Worcestre, and so into Wales. Whiche taryenge þer by a monethe, profite lytelle for the cause of his commynge, but that he did sle oon man of Wales whiche promysede to brynge the kynge to Owen Glendor, and he performede not his promyse. The man in|quirede why that he fullefyllede not the promise made to the kynge, answerede sayenge he hade lever suffre dethe then to detecte the secrete cownsayle of the seide Owyn, in that he had ij. sonnes with hym. In whiche tyme the kynge made poore þe monastery of Stretflur, insomoche that he lefte not oon monke in hit; where oon of the monkes was heded in that he bare armoure ageyne the kynge and pease. Neverthelesse the kynge see not the seide Owyn Glyndor neiþer hade under|stondynge where he was or in what place; and so certeyne [folio 443b] men putte in diverse castells of Wales, the kynge returnede to London with his hoste. Owyn Glyndor understondynge the departynge of the kynge, spoylede a towne callede Poole, and did grete hurte, and brente mony places of hyt. Tidemannus bischop of Worcestre diede in this tyme, whom Ricardus Clifford succedid by eleccion. And Isabell, wife of kynge Ricardus, and somme tyme qwene of Ynglonde, departede from Ynglonde to the kynge of Fraunce, her fader, abowte þe nativite of seynte Iohn Baptiste. A grete derthe of cornes was in this tyme in Ynglonde, insomoche that a buschell of whete was solde by oon yere for ij. s., or oþer while for ij. s. vj. d. Also the kynge goynge to his bedde at Westemonastery abowte the Nativite of oure Lady, founde an horrible instrumente wher|with he scholde have bene sleyne if that he hade goen to bedde hastely. But as God wolde he escapede with owte eny hurte, schewynge hit to mony peple, and seyenge, "Beholde, frendes, y am beholden to my Lorde Godde, whiche wolde not that y scholde dye ȝitte in suche dethe." The smyth was taken anoon by commaundemente of the kynge, whiche inquirede by the kynge wheþer þat he made þat instrumente, confessede openly that he made that instrumente by the meane and movynge of a man longynge to Isabell the qwene. That man was areste anoon, whiche denyede utterly that he commaundede Page  516, vol.8 to make that instrumente, and soe by longe continuacion a verey prove cowthe not be hade in that mater, wherefore the kynge grawntede to þeim bothe theire lyves, and were suffrede to departe. The kynge intendynge to destroye the seide Owyn Glyndor wente towarde Wales in the thrydde tyme, and come to Evysham, taryenge þer by thre dayes, and after that he wente to Worchestre in the viijthe day of October, taryenge þer by ix. dayes. Neverthelesse hit was not seen afore that tyme, a kynge of Ynglonde to have taryede thryes in þat monastery in oon yere afore that tyme. Where diverse noble men movede the kynge that he scholde commaunde lordes and oþer gentyll men that hade eny lyvelode þer to kepe þat cuntre for theire awne avayle; that doen the kynge departede unto London. A [folio 444a] blasynge sterre was seene in the weste in this yere abowte the feste of the Purificacion of oure Lady, contynuynge and ap|perynge in diverse tymes unto Ester nexte folowynge. And in the same yere in Lente the lorde Gray of Ruthyn, beynge in his castelle at Ruthyn in Wales, hade knowlege that Owyn Glyndor was nye to hym with fewe men, and so he made hym redy with a certeyne nowmbre of men, and wente to fiȝhte with hym. The seide Owyn Glyndor seenge hym, fledde untylle þat he was by a certeyne space from the castell, that the lorde scholde not escape, for he lade mony men of Wales secretely in diverse places, and so that lorde Grey was compas|sede abowte by his enemyes, and taken and bownde faste in cheynes and brouȝhte unto Snawdon hilles. And so the seide lorde Grey intendynge to have hade a grete pray, was made a pray to his adversaryes. Also syr Edmund Mortymere, knyȝhte, was taken by the seide Owyn Glendor; for the seide knyȝhte beynge in Ludlowe hade worde that the seide Owyn Glyndor was on a hylle nye to Ludlowe, with a fewe men in his companye. Wherefore the seide knyȝhte sende to his tenaunteȝ of Milenythe in Wales, that thei scholde comme to hym in armes in alle haste. Those men commen the knyȝte wente to that hille boldely, and ȝafe batell to þeim, but the seide men of Wales that come with hym returnede to Owyn Glendor, and fauȝhte ageyne theire lorde, and so he was taken þer and mony other with hym. But þer was oon man of Wales þer soe myȝhty and cruell, that was callede Rees, a Gythe, whiche did sle, wounde, or take into captivite every man þat ȝafe resistence to hym. In whiche conflicte iiij. men of Ynglonde were sleyne, and iiij. knyȝhtes: where men lay dedde in theire awne bloode under the feete of horses, and were prohibite to be beryede by a certeyne season. And a certeyne signe schewede in the byrthe of the seide syr Edmunde semede to be fullefyllede in that tyme, for when he come into this worlde from the wombe of his moder, the horses in the stable stode in bloode unto the knees. Neverthelesse Owyn Glendor entretede hym lyke a gentylman, thenkynge Page  517, vol.8 that he scholde reioyce the crowne of Ynglonde after kynge Henricus þe iiijthe. And from that tyme Owyn Glendor en|creasede [folio 444b] in powere and in myȝhte, and the power of men of Ynglonde decreasede. Blanche, the firste doȝhter of kynge Henricus, saylede over see in this yere to be maryede to the sonne of the emperoure of Alemayne, for whiche mariage the kynge desyrede and hade xxti s. of every knyȝhtes see in Ynglonde. In whiche yere a prior at Lawnde deposede for his demerite, and after chapeleyne to the pope, havynge ix. freres of þe ordre of Minors with hym, prechede openly that kynge Ricardus was on lyve, to excite the peple ageyne kynge Henricus; wherefore thei were drawen and honged at West|monastery, and ij. oþer freres at Leicestre for þe same mater. Edmund Langley, duke of Yorke, dyede abowte the feste of the Assumpcion of oure Lady. And kynge Henricus wente into Wales ageyne with a grete powere abowte the feste of the Decollacion of seynte Iohn Baptiste, and taryede þer xxti dayes, losynge mony men of his hoste, and returnede into Yng|londe with owte eny victory. And in the same yere abowte the feste of the Exaltacion of the Holy Crosse, the Scottes, luffynge trowble and gwerre, were gedred in xij. or xiij. M. in nowmbre, and xxxti spere men of Fraunce, intendynge to spoyle the northe costes of Ynglonde, but as God wolde thei hade a grete falle. For men of Ynglonde havynge knowlege þerof, were gedred unto the nowmbre of xxti M. of speeres and archers, the capiteynes of whom were the erle of Dunbar, the erle of Northumbrelonde, syr Henricus Persy the elder, and syr Henricus Persy the yonger, the lorde Fiȝhehewy, syr Rawfe Ewre, and the baron of Greystok, noble men and ex|perte of marte or batell. The hostes mette, men of Ynglonde spende theire arowes well, after the cownsayle of the erle of Dunbarre, naylynge faste the salettes of the Scottes to theire hedes, insomoche that v. erles were taken þer with in the space of an howre, the erles of Duglas, of Vyf, of Murrey, of Anguys, and of Orkeneye. Also viij. barons and baronettes were taken. lorde Thomas Erskyn, þe lorde Mungumrey, Iohn lorde Sty|warde of Andrenethe, the lorde Patryk of Graym, syr Iames Duglas of Daweth, syr Robert Logan of Bestabrythe, Adam Forster, and syr William Styward, a man of Ynglonde and a traytoure, and xxxti knyȝhtes, with ix. c. men of armes and xxxti speeremen of Fraunce. In whiche conflicte syr Iohn [folio 445a] Swynton, knyȝhte, of Gurdon, with oþer vij. c. men, were sleyne, whom men of Ynglonde pursuede into Scotlonde, where a M. Scottes were drownede, as hit was reportede, and v. men of Ynglonde were sleyne in this conflicte. A parliamente was begunne þis yere at Westmonastery in the firste day of the monethe of October, and was contynuede unto the feste of seynte Kateryne, in whom oon dyme and an halfe was grawn|tede Page  518, vol.8 to the kynge by the cleregy, and oon xvthe of the commune peple, to be payede at thre tymes by egall porcions, at Ester, at Myddesomer, and at the feste of seynte Michael nexte folow|ynge. Also H. Bowette bischop of Bathe, was amovede from the office of the treasury in this parliamente, and the bischop of London was subrogate into that office. But þer was noo provision made in this parliamente for men of Wales, causynge moche peple to mervayle, in that thei supposede the subsidy to have bene askede þerfore. And in the same yere, abowte the feste of seynte Martyne bischop, the seide Grey of Ruthyn was delyverede from Owyn Glendor, v. M. marke payede afore, and ij. of his sonnes lefte in the kepynge of the seide Owyn for oþer v. M. marke to be payede to hym. In whiche yere syr Edmund Mortymere, of whom we have made mencion afore, maryede the doȝhter of Owyn Glendor abowte þe feste of seynte Andrewe thapostle, with grete solennite; and so that knyȝhte turnede holly to men of Wales, as hit was seide. In whiche yere on þe xvij. kalendes of Ianuarius, the schryne of Hayles was robbed, in whom the precious bloode of Criste was putte, havynge hurte doen þer unto þe valoure of a M. marke, after the estimacion of men; for hit was accompted at that tyme the rycheste schryne in Ynglonde, that schryne of seynte Thomas of Cawnterbery excepte. And soone after the shryne of seynte Edward at Westmonastery was spoylede of grete rychesse and iewells, and specially of oon table of golde.