Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum quinquagesimum primum.

RICHARD of Burdews, sonne of prince Edwarde, sonne to Edward kynge of Ynglonde, havynge not xj. yere in age, was crownede solennely at Westemonastery into kynge of Symon archebischop of Cawnterbery, in the idus of Iulius, and in the yere of oure Lorde God a M.ccc.lxxvij., archebischoppes, bischoppes, prelates, and mony oþer noble men of the realme presente þer. Within whiche solennite he made iiij. erles, Thomas Wodestok his uncle at Bukkyngham, the lorde Percy at Northumbrelonde, the lorde Moubray at Notyngham, and Sithardus, a knyȝhte of Gascoigne, at Huntyngdon. The men of Fraunce brake the peas abowte the feste of seynte Iohn Baptist, for thei wolde not have peas withowte the acorde scholde have bene to theire pleasure and to þe grete hurte of Ynglonde. In whiche tyme the Scottes brente the towne of Rokysburgh, by the movynge of the erle of Dunbar. Where|fore Syr Henricus Percy erle of Northumbrelonde entrede into Scotlonde with x.Ml men, and brente mony townes lungynge to þe erle of Dunbar, robbynge þer by iij. dayes. After þat men of Fraunce entrede into the yle of Wyȝhte, and did grete hurte; whiche takynge a M. marke for rawnson returnede to þe see, kepynge the costes of Ynglonde, and brennynge mony noble places, sleenge men whom thei cowthe fynde in the sowthe partes, and takynge mony bestes with theyme. For moore hurte was doen in Ynglonde in þat yere, as hit was seide, then in xlti yere afore. Also men of Fraunce made a sawte to þe towne of Wynchelesey, but thei cowthe not entre into the towne, neverthelesse they sende diverse men whiche brente the [folio 401a] towne of Hastinges. Also men of Fraunce entrede in þe same Page  447, vol.8 yere into the towne of Rotyngton, in Sowthesex, where the prior of Lews mette þeim with a lytelle nowmbre of peple, whiche was taken and brouȝhte to theire schippes with oþer ij. knyȝhtes, Syr John Fallsele and Syr Thomas Cheyne, with a sqwyer John Brocas. But a esqwyer borne in Fraunce beynge in servyce with the seide fauȝhte manfully ageyne men of Fraunce, in so moche that his bely kytte, he fauȝhte soore, his bowells remaynynge behynde hym a grete space, and folowede his enemyes. In whiche conflicte a c. Ynglische men were sleyne, and mony moo of the Frenche men; whiche toke the dedde men awey with þeym, other ells thei brente þeire faces with yrne that thei scholde not be knowen, and þat Ynglische men scholde not solace of þeire dethe. Where a man of Fraunce was taken, confessynge afore his dethe that the realme of Ynglonde scholde not have bene trowblede by men of Fraunce if that the duke of Lancastre had be made kynge. Men of Fraunce toke the towne of Arde in this yere by treason of the keper, a lorde born in Alemayne, callede lorde Gumeney. Also ij. bischoppes, ij. erles, ij. barons, ij. baronettes, ij. bachiler knyȝhtes, and oon man of lawe were deputate in that yere, after the coronacion of the kynge, to have governaunce of hym, in that he was tendre of age, by the commune assent. Also hit was ordeynede that the seide men scholde be elect yerely. In whiche yere, soone after Michelmasse, a parliamente was callede at London, durynge allemoste unto Cristemasse, where ij. dymes were grawntede to be payede of þe spiritualite togedre in the Purificacion of oure Lady, and ij. xvte of lay men also, for the defense of the realme. Thomas Wodestoke erle of Bukkyng|ham, the duke of Briteyne, the lorde Latimer, and the prior of the Hospitalle of Seynte Iohn, takynge with þeim a grete hoste, entrede into the see in the same yere, sone after the feste of Alle Seyntes. And in the nyȝhte of seynte Martyn a grete wynde brake as sodenly the takellynges of theire schippes, and compellede theym to take the londe. But the schippes re|pairede thei toke the see, returnynge ageyne abowte Criste|masse, [folio 401b] withowte eny profite, or lytell if eny were off that viage. Pope Gregory the xjthe diede in this yere in the xxvij. day of Marche; after the dethe of whom the cardinalles entrede into a place for eleccion, a grete multitude of peple of the cite of Rome entrede into the palice, cryenge, "A Roman or an Ytalion." The cardinalls dredynge that peple, electe an olde man to be pope, a Roman by nativite; but that olde man refusynge that eleccion, thei electe Bartholomew archebischop Barrensis into pope in the viij. day of Aprile. Which called Urban the vjte was crownede solennely on Ester day, þe xviij. day of Aprile, and consecrate also, and did ryde in his pontificalls unto the churche Lateranense, the cardinalls folowynge hym. Where the masse songe solennely by the pope, he returnede to his palice, Page  448, vol.8 with whom alle the cardinalls dynede þat day, and afterwarde thei made obedience to hym with mony supplicacions, con|tynuynge by a season in pease. But abowte the feste of seynte Iohn Baptist allemoste alle the cardinalls rebellede ageyne the pope, and fledde into þe region of Neapols. Whom the qwene norischede ageyne the pope, seyenge that he was not truly electe, in that he was not elect but for drede of dethe. And so the seide cardinalls electe into the pope a cosyn to the kynge of Fraunce, namynge hym Clemente the vijthe, and sende letters anoon to the kynge of Fraunce for helpe and socoure; whom the kynge of Fraunce fortefiede with alle his myȝhte; and so a grete division was spronge in the hedde of alle churches. Pope Urban create xxti cardinalls and moo, and excommunicate the oþer cardinalles, takynge theire benefices, and inabilitynge þeim to eny benefice afterwarde. The erles of Arundell and of Salisbery takynge with theym a grete multi|tude of men entrede into the see þis yere, returnynge ageyne withowte eny victory of theire enemyes. And in the firste tyme of theire entrenge into the see, ij. breþer, Philippe Courteney and Petyr, fauȝhte ageyne discrecion with enemyes on the see. And soone after a grete schippe of Speyne come ageyne þeim with other diverse. Philippe Courteney wounded soore, and mony of his men sleyne, seenge that he was not able to resiste theyme, fledde, and Petur Courteney his brother, compassede [folio 402a] abowte with schippes, fauȝhte manfully, but at the laste he was taken, allemoste alle þe noble men of Cornewaile and of Devenschire sleyne in his schippe afore. In whiche tyme a noble citesyn and merchand of London, Iohn Philipotte, specially luffer to the realme of Ynglonde, seenge that the lordes did noo goode over the see, ordeynede a fleete of schippes of his awne costes. Whiche entrenge into the see, they mette anoon a vesell of Scotlond whiche hade taken diverse schippes of Ynglonde, and toke hit with moche treasure, and oþer xv. schippes off Speyne that come to helpe that veselle of Scot|londe. Also the erle of Salisbery hade made provision that the kynge of Ynglonde myȝhte sayle to Cheirburgh in Normandy, and kepe hit, to his grete socoure and so hurte of men of Fraunce, so that he wolde pay to þe kynge of Navarria a cer|teyn pension yerely þerfore. Syr Hewe Calverle, capiteyn of Caleys, toke þat tyme the castelle of Merke, and destroyede hit. In the yere nexte folowynge the duke of Lancastre, the erle of Bukkyngham his broþer, the erles of Warwyke and of Stafford, takynge with theyme a myȝhty hoste, saylede into Briteyne, and segede the towne of Seynte Malows allemoste by a monethe. The men of the towne dredynge soore, sende to the duke seyenge thei wolde delyver the towne in this condicion, that theire lyves and goodes scholde be salvede and the towne from brennynge. The duke despisynge that condicion, sende Page  449, vol.8 mony men to take the towne, whom he receyvid ageyne beten truly and withowte eny hepe to recure that towne. In the same yere abowte the feste of seynte Lawrence the sonnes of Beliall entrede into the churche of Westemonastery in the tyme of divine servyce, and pursuede unryȝhteousely ij. es|qwyers fledde from þe towre of London unto that seynctuary, Iohn Schakel and Robert Hauley. Whiche men did sle the seide Robert, resistenge theyme to his powere, afore the stalle of the prior, and hurte a ministre of þe churche movenge theym to leve for reverence of the sacrament. And thei toke Iohn Shakell owte of the seynctuary with theyme, destroyenge the privileges of that place grawnted by mony popes and kynges. Syr Rawfe Fereres, knyȝhte, Syr Alan Buxille, capitan of the towre, were governoures of that wicked peple, that the seyenge of the gospelle myȝhte be verifyede,*. [On the margin is written "a ridiculous application of a texte no where to be founde."] knyȝhtes did that thynge. The seide esqwyers, Iohn Schakel and Robert Hauley, toke the [folio 402b] erle of Deene in the batelle of Speyne at Naser, to whom he toke his son for plegge as for a certeyn summe of money. And his fader ded he was suffrede to departe, and his sonne re|maynede in plegge; and in that the seide esqwyers wolde not delyver that prisoner to the kynge, oon of theyme was sleyne, and the other esqwyer was imprisonede in the towre of London. And hit was to be mervaylede of the seide yonge man that he wolde not knowlege his name, but servede theyme mekely as if he hade bene theire servaunte. But soone after the seide yonge man was brouȝhte to the kynge, moche peple mervaylenge of his constance and mekenesse. In this yere the Scottes toke by fraude the castell of Berwyke, and kepede hit by viij. daies, and in the ixthe day thei were sleyne by Henricus Percy erle of Northumbrelonde, and so Ynglische men occupiede þat castelle ageyne. Abowte this tyme a grete dissension was movede betwene the kynge of Fraunce and gentilmen off Briteyne Armoryke, in that the seide kynge wolde have hade all the castells and towres of that cuntre delyverede to hym. But the gentylmen not consentynge þerto, somme were sleyne, and somme of theym were hongede. And mony of theym fleenge were salvede, whiche wolde not drawe afterwarde to þe kynge of Fraunce; and this was þe firste cause that men of Briteyne turnede as sodenly to Syr Iohn Mounteforte theire naturalle lorde. Kynge Ricardus began to holde a parliamente at Glou|cestre in þis yere, in the xij. kalendes of November; for diverse lordes dredynge men of London for þat grete offense doen in Westemonastery, movede the kynge that he scholde not kepe his parliament at London, that thei myȝhte have theire purpose ageyne the libertes of churches. In whiche parlia|ment Page  450, vol.8 princes and lordes acompanyede to þeim diverse doctors and clerkes to consente to theym, intendynge utterly to destroy þe privilege of churches. For thei were so cruelle that þer was not oon man in that parliamente that durste speke oon worde for thabbote of Westemonastery. But allemyȝhty God, whiche grownded his churche on so sure a fundacion, wolde not suffre theym to prevayle longe, and causede his tru peple to ryse ageyne þeim and to make resistence. And God movede so the herte of the seide kynge that he suffrede þat churche to [folio 403a] enjoye his libertes, immunites, and privilege, and confermede theym by his chartour. Iohn Brynkeley abbot of Seynte Edmondbury diede in this yere, and soone after the pope ȝafe that monastery to Edmunde Brumfelde, monke of the same monastery, professor of holy divinite, and proctor of the ordre of blake monkes of Ynglonde in the cowrte of Rome; whiche provision causede grete hurte to that monastery. A parlia|mente was kepede at London abowte the feste of the Annun|ciacion of oure Lady, in whom a subsidy was grawntede to the kynge, that the dukes of Lancastre and of Briteyne scholde pay to þe kynge eiþer of þeim x. marke, and archebischoppes as moche; erles and bischoppes vj. marke. And also every abbot for every broþer of the place iij.s. and iiii.d. And so noo man of worschip escapede, but he payede to that subsidy. And in the same yere, abowte the fest of seynte Iohn Baptiste, the cursed pope Clement fleynge from Ytaly come to Avinion, kepynge his cowrte þer with the cardinalls excommunicate. Syr Iohn Harlaston, knyȝhte, and keper of the towne of Cheir|burghe, with Syr Gefray Burle, knyȝhte, hade a grete victory ageyne men of Fraunce, vijxx of theym sleyn, and takynge prisoners of the seide men of Fraunce unto the same nowmbre. In the same yere Hewe of Calverly, knyȝhte, and Syr Thomas Percy, broþer of the erle of Northumbrelonde, made admiralles of the see occean, after the takynge of mony schippes of theire adversaryes, come ageyne to Ynglonde with gladde tythynges, that the Briteynes Armoryke were turnede to Syr Iohn Mownte|forte, theire naturalle lorde. In whiche tyme the archebis|choppe Cassellens come from the cowrte of Rome, and denowncede the kynge of Fraunce excommunicate, and so mony men or women as supported that fals pope Clement. And specially in that the kynge of Fraunce made a proclama|cion thro alle his realme that whatsoever were obediente to pope Urban scholde lose his lyfe and goodes. Fals men of Flandres toke by treason a barge of the towne of Fawey, and did sle alle men in hit, oon grome excepte, whiche fledde into theire schippe and hidde hym under hacches, while that oþer men did fiȝhte. These men of Flaundres commynge to londe to utter theire merchandyse, mony merchauntez of Ynglonde wente to theire schippes to by somme of theire ware. That Page  451, vol.8 grome herynge the voyces of men of Ynglonde, cryede preyenge theym of helpe. The men of Ynglonde spekynge with that [folio 403b] grome, and understondynge the falshede of the Flemmynges, toke theym and sende theym to be imprisonede at London. Iohn Mownteforte, duke of Briteyne, takynge with hym Syr Hewe Calverle and Syr Thomas Percy, saylede into Briteyne, where he was receyved with grete honor, in so moche that barons, knyȝhtes and other noble men induede with precious clothes mette hym in the see, wadynge in hit unto the chynne, to receyve theire naturalle lorde. And hit is to be mervaylede that the seide lorde beynge from that cuntre mony yeres, the olde and holle dewte of the proventus were reservede to hym, and*. [as is written above in a later hand.] if he hade taryede amonge theyme. In whiche tyme a noble merchaunde of Ianuense was sleyne by men of London, in that he seide he scholde selle wynes and spices for lesse price then men of London usede to do. Also þer was in this yere in somer a grete dethe of pestilence, and specially in the northe partes of Ynglonde; the bestialle peple of Scotlonde, havynge noo compassion, putte sorowe on sorowe, rydenge thro that cuntre and sleynge men laborynge in pestilence, and chasynge from that cuntre men that were not seke, insomoche that thei hade allemoste destroyede þat cuntre. Iohn Schakell esqwyer was taken to the kynges grace abowte this tyme, the sonne and heire of the erle of Deen delyverede to hym afore, and kynge Ricardus promysede to the seide esqwyer certeyne londes or a certeyne summe of money for the injuryes doen to hym. The erle of Flandres begynnynge to desire of his peple exaccions inconsuete ageyne the liberte of his peple, was ex|pulsede from that cuntre, not to returne into that cuntre ageyn withowte he wolde avoide from his servyce his cownsellours whiche movede hym unto that symplenesse. Edmunde Brom|felde, monke of Bery, comme to Ynglonde abowte this tyme from the courte of Rome, and with in fewe dayes he drawede and causede xiij. monkes to assente to hym, by cownsaile and helpe of whom he was taken and installed there. The prior of the seide monastery and oþer breþer, seenge that, com|pleynte to þe kynge, whiche commaunded the seide Edmund to be taken and brouȝte to hym. That doen, the seide doctor convicte, in that he entrede into that office withowte consent of the kynge, and that he did ageyne the statutes of the parlia|mente made abowte the yere of kynge Edward the thrydde [folio 404a] þe xxvti, was directe to the toure of London to be kepede þer, and oþer monkes that ȝafe assente to hym, ij. or thre except that fledde, and soone after thei were directe to diverse monas|terys to be kepede streytely. And so by this eleccion grete hurte and losse of goodes were causede, and specially to þat Page  452, vol.8 monastery. Also grete altercacions were causede betwene the kynge and þe pope for that eleccion, for the kynge wolde not in eny wise the provision of the man electe, but his confirma|cion. Wherefore the seide kynge sende embassiatours to þe pope, commawndynge theym to say to the pope that his wylle scholde not be flexible in that mater. But the kynge havynge not in ure of the seide promisse, in the meane tyme causede the monke electe into abbot to be blissede of the bischop of London after the forme wryten to hym afore by the pope, at whiche solennite the kynge and the qwene were with mony oþer noble men. But the pope did wryte bothe to the bischop of London and to the convente of that place also, annullynge that eleccion and benediccion, commaundynge theym to go to a newe eleccion, and to chose ageyne the seide man electe by hys cownsaile, whiche eleccion the seide bischop of London scholde conferme by auctorite of þe pope. Whiche thynges were complete abowte the yere of oure Lorde a M. ccc. lxxxv., and a certeyne pension of that lyvelode was assignede unto the susten|tacion of the seide Edmund, doctor, yerely to be payede to hym. Whiche doctor was releschede from prison by the kynges grace, an othe made afore that he scholde not go over the see in eny wyse with owte licence of the kynge. But he brake soone þat othe, and wente to the pope, where he was made reder of the holy palyce, and hade in grete favour and honoure in that cowrte. In the same yere, in the monethe of December, Iohn Arundell, broþer to the erle of Arundell, takynge with hym a certeyne nowmbre of men, entrede into the see to have saylede into Briteyne. But a tempeste to be mervaylede was movede as sodenly in the see, whiche dispersed theire schippes, somme to Yrlond, somme to Wales, somme to Cornewaile, and somme to oþer diverse costes, and were broken and destroyede. In whiche tempeste the seide Iohn Arundell, governoure of that hoste, was pereschede, and mony oþer noble men, bothe knyȝhtes and esqwyers in diverse partes and costes, theire horses and goodes drownede also. For as hit is seide, the seide Iohn [folio 404b] Arundell and his men also, taryenge at Plymmouthe for weder, to have vexede the peple of that cuntre, takynge theire goodes and payenge nouȝhte þerfore, usynge grete ryet with women þer, and with theire doȝhters. Also hit is seide that they entrede into a place of myncheons, and toke diverse myncheons, and synnede with theyme, and toke with theyme unto theire schippes diverse gentylwomen, sende to that place for to lerne vertu and connynge. Also hit is seide that thei toke a woman from her howsebonde in the firste day of theire mariage, and to have doen sacrilege also in takynge awey a chalice from a churche nye to theym. Wherefore the preste of the seide churche folowede theym to the see, and cursede theyme solen|nely; but the seide peple skornynge that preste suffrede dethe Page  453, vol.8 soone after, and were meyte to bestes of the see. The body of Syr Iohn Arundell was founde in Yrlonde, and beryede þer in a monastery. But syr Hewe Calverly and Syr Thomas Percy payede theire dettes to the peple of þat costes for thynges necessary to theyme, wherefore the peple folowede theyme to the see, preyenge allemyȝhty God to be theire governoure; but the seide peple preyede to allemyȝhty God þat þe devell myȝhte drowne the seide Iohn Arundell. And so the seide knyȝhtes escapede the see withowte eny hurte. In whiche tyme the fleete of Speyne and of Fraunce kepede the costes of Briteyne, that men of Ynglonde scholde not entre into Briteyne to helpe the duke, and if thei come in those costes to fiȝhte with theyme; but in the seide tempeste thei were drownede and dispersede. For whiche infortuny a parliamente was kepede at London in the octaves of seynte Hillarius, in whom oon dyme was grawnted to the kynge of alle men of churche, and a xvthe parte of laymen. The sonne and the heire of themperoure of Constantinopole and patriarke of the same cite knowlegede openly in this yere at Rome in Cristemasse pope Urban the vjte dewe prelate of þe churche universalle electe by the lawe and consecrate, besechynge the pope to do certeyn solennites for theyme, and so he did. Abowte whiche tyme in the parlia|ment at London oon dyme was grawntede to the kynge of the clergy, and a xvthe of laymen, on this condicion, þat þer scholde be noo parliamente from þe kalendes of Marche unto þe feste of seynte Michel folowynge after by oon yere; but this con|dicion was not observede. Also the erle of Seynte Paule [folio 405a] maryede in this yere at Wyndeshore, in the viijthe day of Ester, Iohan Cowrtenay, suster to the kynge, into the profite of mynstrells, and unto grete hate of noble men; to whom the kynge ȝafe the towne of Biflet with the maner. And in this yere in the vijthe day of the monethe of Iunius a conflicte of ij. men was hade and made betwene Syr Iohn Hanesley, knyȝhte, and Robert Karinton, esqwyer, in the paviment with owte the kynges halle at Westemonastery, in the presence of the kynge, of the duke of Lancaster, and mony oþer noble men in the realme. This was the mater of the conflicte: the seide knyȝhte accusede Robert Karinton that he delyvered, lyke a fals traytoure, the castell of Seynte Savioure in the yle Constantyn, when he was undercapiten, to the kynge of Fraunce for a grete summe of goode, where þat he hade peple ynowe to have kepede hit ageyne the kynge of Fraunce. Whiche accusacion semede to be tru, for the seide Robert was convicte and sleyne in that conflicte. The erle of Marche saylede abowte this tyme into Yrlonde to recure the cownte of Holnester, whom men of Yrlonde occupiede for the moste parte, where he hade grete victorys and mony, and recurede moche of his londes, and sub|duede mony of theyme to hym. Thomas Wodestoke erle off Page  454, vol.8 Bukkyngham, Syr Hewe Calverle and Syr Robert Knolles, takynge with theyme a noble hoste, saylede to Caleys, and rydenge by the bordres of Fraunce withowte eny resistence, brente mony townes in the bordres of hit, and did sle peple withowte eny mercy, untille that thei come to the costes of Briteyne, whiche cuntre thei entrede, theire hoste neither bestes hurte. In whiche tyme Charls kynge of Fraunce com|mitte the governayle of the realme of Fraunce and the kepynge of his sonne to his yonger brother, duke of Burguyn. Charls the elder broþer and duke of Andegavy havynge indignacion þeroff, movede gwerre ageyn the yonger broþer. In whiche tyme the Scottes entrede into Combrelonde and Westemare|londe unto Yngelwode, and toke mony bestes with theyme, and did sle also mony men of that cuntre. Also thei spoylede men at the feire of Penreth, mony men of Ynglonde taken by þeym and sleyne. In whiche tyme the galees of the kynge of Fraunce brente mony townes and places longynge to the prior and con|vente of Lewes. A newe contencion movede betwene the erle [folio 405b] of Flandres and the commune peple, the seide erle did sle abowte viij. M. men of the towne of Ypres, whiche come to have laborede for peas, and segede the cite Gandaneus. But men of that cite were not adredde of the erle, and sette open the yates of the cite that he myȝhte; and so after a longe contynuede sege the erle toke peas with theyme for a schorte season and dissolvede the sege. The sonne of Charls somme tyme kynge of Fraunce, of xj. yere in age, was crownede kynge of Fraunce abowte this tyme, in the monethe of September. In the begynnynge of the reigne of whom a grete tumultuacion and murmur was hade amonge the peple and gentyllemen of that londe for grete exaccions and taskes. Wherefore peple at Parisius compellede mony noble men of that londe to fle, and to take places of defense, sleynge so mony men as they cowthe fynde of the gate, men of the cuntre Ianuense, for they expende allemoste alle the goode of þe region of Fraunce. For withowte dowte thei receyvyde dayly a grete summe of goode lvij.c.li. payede dayly to theym, and dividede by egalle porcions to xxvti gates from the monethe of May unto the monethe of Auguste. The duke of Lancastre and other lordes wente to the Scottes to make a trety for pease abowte the monethe of October; in whiche trety hit was seide that noo thynge was doen to the profite of the realme, but that truse was taken unto Ester folowynge. Also in the begynnynge of the monethe of November the kynge kepede his parliamente at Northampton, where Iohn Kyrkeby was hongede for the dethe of the noble merchaunde of Lon|don. A grete subsidy was grawntede to the kynge in this parliamente, that he scholde receyve of every preste havynge benefice with other prestes and of oþer religious men vj. s. and viij. d. And of lay peple, of a man and his wife that were suffi|ciente Page  455, vol.8 ij. s., and alle peple after theire power, whiche exaccion causede moche wykkydnesse in that londe. The olde ypocrite, Iohn Wyclif, sustenede and toke the opinions of Berengarius of the sacrament in the awter, and deceyved moche peple. A [folio 405a] cardinalle come into Ynglonde þat yere with the duke of Tas|silia abowte the begynnynge of the monethe of Marche, with mony oþer noble men sende from the kynge of Boemia, whiche callede hym emperoure, for matrimony to be contracte betwene the kynge of Ynglonde and his sustyr. Whiche cardinalle gate grete goodes in this londe, and departede with grete rewardes of the kynge also. And abowte this tyme Edmund Langeley erle of Cantebrigge, and the broþer of þe erle of Warwyke, and Syr Mathewe Cowrtenay, toke theire iourney to Portyngale to helpe that kynge oppressede moche by the kynge of Speyne, and that he myȝhte conquere the realme of Speyne by reason of the duke of Lancastre his broþer whiche maryede the heire of Speyne. But the seide hoste commyn into that cuntre in savegarde, thei did noo thynge for the especialle cause of theire commynge; but that the sonne of the erle of Cantebrygge maryede the doȝhter and heire of the kynge of Portyngale. In the yere paste, as hit is schewede afore, the kynge receyvyde a grete tallage of the cleregy and laymen, whereby a grete*. [Sic.] trowblede was causede in the realme. For the enemy of pease sawede a dedely sede, of whom a corrupte frute did aryse and growe, whiche hade destroyede utterly the realme of Ynglonde, but that the moder of Criste putte to the honde of mercy and of clemency. This sede was avarice, the roote of alle synne, whiche brouȝhte furthe the corrupte frute of discorde, poyson|ynge moche peple unto dethe. For diverse ministres of the kynge willynge to please hym and to displease God, seide to hym that the seide tallage was not truly alleviate to the utilite of þe kynge. Wherefore thei offrede to pay a certeyne somme of money to the kynge, so that he wolde ȝiffe to theyme licence and auctorite; and so diverse of theyme, havynge wrytynge of the kynge, departede into diverse costes of Kente and of Estesex, and intretede the peple unmanerly, and did to theyme grete injuryes also. The peple seenge that, toke cownsayle to gedre and resiste those men longynge to the kynge, and did ryse ageyne theym, and did sle somme of theym and wounded mony. This doen, þat peple dredynge the wrathe of the kynge, movede a detestable perturbacion, for thei did excite alle the communes of Estesex and of Kente ageyne the kynge and lordes, gedrenge an hoste as innumerable, and takynge men put in exile and banysched into theire capitanes, ȝiffynge to theyme these names, Iak Shepe, Iohn Wrawe, Thomas Mellor, Watte Tyler, Hobbe Carter, and Iacke Strawe. And so they wente Page  456, vol.8 by diverse places, somme of theim in armoure and somme of theym with owte armoure, havynge diverse weppyn of de|fense, [folio 406b] with baners displayede robbynge and brennynge mony ryalle maners, and specially of the ministres or of men of lawe longynge to the kynge, and places of the retenement of the duke of Lancastre. And so that peple a C. M. in nowmbre come abowte the feste of the Holy Trinite to a place nye to London callede Blakehethe, and taryenge þer a certeyne season sende to the kynge, whiche was fledde into the towre of Lon|don for drede of theyme, that he scholde comme and speke with theyme at the same place. For the same peple thouȝhte that and if the kynge hade commyn to theym, thei wolde have brouȝhte hym thro alle the realme, and to have fulfyllede theire wickede purpose by auctorite of hym. Whiche pur|pose was to have sleyne alle the noble bloode in Ynglonde of eiþer kynde, and the kynge at the laste also, and so to have disposede the realme at theire pleasure. The kynge fulle|fyllynge theire wylle toke with hym Symon Sudbury, arche|bischop of Cawnterbery, and his treasurer Robert Hales, a noble knyȝhte, saylede over Thamys to theym. The peple seenge the kynge, come boldely towarde Thamys to mete hym. Then the archebischop and the treasurer ȝafe cownsaile to the kynge that thei scholde returne to the towre, sayenge that hit was grete perelle to goe amonge that cruelle peple, and so the kynge returnede to the towre. The peple seenge the kynge returne cryede with a lowde voyce, "Treason, treyson," mak|ynge grete haste to London; whiche entrede into þe cite in the vigille of the Corpus Christi, and did grete hurte, sleynge mony of the Flemmynges and robbynge theyme. And in the morowe folowynge they wente to the maners of Favey, long|ynge to the duke of Lancastre, and brente hit, not levynge oon ston unnethe on an oþer, fyndynge þer grete goodes, as clothes, precious stones, golde and silvyr, takynge suche thynges as they cowthe cary with theyme, and brennynge the residu, the seide duke of Lancastre beynge in the marches for to trete for pease betwene the realmes off Ynglonde and of Scotlonde, whom thei wolde have sleyne with goode wylle and if they myȝhte haven taken hym. That doen, thei wente to Clerken|welle, where they destroyede mony howses and a grete parte of the churche, and destroyede moche wyne founde þer after that thei hade drunke unto theire pleasure. Also thei de|stroyede a newe maner made but late afore by that prior with [folio 407a] owte London for to solace hym and his breþer þer. Also thei wente to the Temple and to the places of men of lawe, brek|ynge theire coffurs, and brennynge bookes and wrytynges founde þer, and departede from the cite with grete goodes. And the kynge with alle the noble men of that cite durste not ȝiffe batelle to theyme, in whiche tyme chorles hade gover|nayle Page  457, vol.8 and lordes were subjectes. And in the day nexte folow|ynge thei wente to a place callede Milende with owte London, sendynge to the kynge and commaundynge hym to comme to that place to theym unarmede with fewe peple; and if he wolde not comme thei scholde destroy the towre, and the kynge scholde not escape with his lyfe. The kynge havynge not audacite to displease þeym, takenge grete thouȝhte how he scholde, wente to theyme with grete drede of his lyfe. And so the yates of the towre open, a grete multitude of theym entrede into hit, and inquiryde with grete diligence for the arche|bischop and for the treasurer and oþer ministres of the kynge whom thei did hate. The noble men founde were hedede, and xv. oþer men sleyne, and mony escapede mervellousely whom they wolde have sleyne. This cruelle peple toke downe the hedde of Iohn Mustreworthe, a fals traytour, of whom mencion is made afore, from London brygge, and sette the hedde of the archebischop of Cawnterbery þer, naylynge faste his cappe to his forhede. The kynge commynge to that place as he hade in commaundemente, apperede amonge theym as a lambe amonge wulfes, ȝiffenge grete honor to peple beynge abowte; whom þat peple did beholde with a bostuous and a frowarde contenaunce, rechynge to hym diverse peticions redacte into wrytynge, to the grete hurte of the realme and of the churche, seyenge utterly that he scholde not departe from theyme untylle that he hade confermede theyme by his letters patent. The firste peticion was that he scholde make alle men fre thro Ynglonde and quiete, so that þere scholde not be eny native man after that tyme. Also an oþer peticion was, thei desirede the kynge to pardon alle the seide peple, and every man of theyme, for alle transgressions made ageyne the kynge, treason, felony, and for extorcions made by theyme in eny place, and that he scholde grawnte to theym to lyve in reste and pease. Also that the same lige men and subjectes scholde have liberte to bye and to selle in alle cites, burghes, and townes þro Yng|londe. Also that noon acre of londe scholde excede iiij.d. [folio 407b] Also they desyrede mony other thynges into þe prejudice of þe realme. The kynge seynge that he cowthe not escape from theym, grawnte to theire peticions, and sealede theym by his letters patent, and departede by licence from theyme. In the iiijthe day after, whiche was on Saturday, the kynge did ryde after meyte to Westemonastery to visitte seynte Edward kynge, and to see if that they hade doen eny hurte þer. Whiche re|turnynge from thens by Smythfelde founde alle that place fulle of theym. And Water Tyler, oon of theire governours, come to þe kynge with a frowarde contenaunce, with his cappe on his hedde, chargynge and commaundynge the kynge to correcte and amende the letters that he toke to theym. And þat tyme oon man was not abowte the kynge that durste rebuke in that Page  458, vol.8 he did not reverence to þe kynge; but at þe laste William Wal|worthe, marciall of London, rebukede Wat Tyler, and wounded hym soore with his swerde, and an oþer of theym beynge by hurte the seide William soore. And soone after a grete mul|titude of theym cryede, "Where is oure governoure?" The kynge beynge amonge theym, seide, "Folowe me, y am youre governoure;" and so thei folowede hym into þe feldes withowte London; where men longynge to the kynge did sle mony of theym, and so the peple were dispersed, havynge noo audacite to schewe theire hedes after that tyme; and so this grete rumor was mitigate thro the helpe of Godde. That doen, the kynge made incontinentli, or anoon after, the seide William Walworthe knyȝhte, and other iij. or iiij. of the noble men of the cite, and made Syr Robert Knolles capiteyn of þat cite of London, causynge the capiteyns of that unhappy hoste to be souȝhte and to heded if thei myȝhte be founde. The seide Syr William Walworthe causede the hedde of the archebischop, sette on the brygge of London, to be taken downe, and to be kepede with grete reverence, settynge on that brygge the hedde of Watte Tyler. In whiche tymes the communes off Sowthe|folke, Northefolke, Huntyndon, and of oþer cuntres abowte, made lyke insurreccions, destroyenge mony maners and places, and slenge also mony men. Whiche peple did sle cruelly, in the monastery of Seynte Edmundbery, Syr Iohn Candische justice to the kynge, and the prior of that place, with his chapeleyne. Hit is open and expresse that the seide peple entende the destruccion of the realme and of þe churche, for theire werkes ȝiffe experience, and confessions, whom we schalle expresse in theire ordre and place. Hyt may be schewede by [folio 408a] theire werkes, for thei did sle the hedde of the churche of Ynglonde, þe archebischop of Cawnterbery. Also unto the hurte of the feithe of Criste thei compellede maisters of gramer to swere that thei scholde not teche after that tyme; also thei brente olde munimentes, and did sle men of lawe, that þer scholde not oon man remayne þat scholde knowe newe munimentes from olde. Hit was grete perelle þat tyme to have be knowen for a clerke, and specially if that he bare pennes and ynke at his gyrdle. And that thei intended the destruccion of þe realme, hit may be schewede by the confession of Iohn Strawe, whiche was chiefe capiteyn amonge theym after Wat Tyler, whiche perceyvynge that he scholde dye, seide: "When we were at Blakehethe and sende for the kynge, oure purpose was to have sleyne alle knyȝhtes, esqwyers, and gentylmen þat hade commen with hym, and to have brouȝhte the kynge with us from place to place, that thro his presence alle þe commune peple myȝhte have drawen to oure companye; and when that we hade gedrede a grete multitude of peple, we wolde have sleyne alle the lordes of the londe sodenly, whiche wolde have Page  459, vol.8 ȝiffen cownsaile or resistence ageyne us. And specially we wolde have destroyede the places of hospitalaryes, the kynge, bischopps, chanons, monkes possessionate, and alle men of churche, the frers excepte oonly, whiche scholde have minist|erede the sacramentes of the churche to theym. That doen, we scholde have made lawes after oure pleasure, and Walter Tyler kynge of Kente, and oþer men in oþer cuntres; and in that oure purpose was lette by the seide archebischop, we hade hym in grete despite and hate. And also we hade in|tendede to have brente the cite of London in that same day in whom Wat Tyler was sleyn, and to have taken þe goodes of the cite and to have disposede theyme after oure pleasure. This was oure purpose, as God helpe me in the ende of my lyfe." And mony of theym confessede the same thynges. Also þe letters of manimission whom the kynge had grauntede to theyme were publischedein mony costes of Ynglonde, insomoche that natif men did ryse ageyne theire lordes and began to resiste theyme, seyenge that thei were free, whom theire lordes suffrede as for a tyme. These þynges y-paste, the kynge com|maundede all the lordes of the realme to comme to London in alle haste, that thei myȝhte make provision ageyne the seide [folio 408b] peple. Where hit was ordeynede that certeyne lordes scholde be sende into diverse cuntres where that insurreccions were made, with a grete hoste of armede men; and the kynge wente in his awne person into Estesex, and sette that cuntre in reste and in peas, but a grete multitude of the peple were sleyne or thei cowthe be reformede to pease. For as hit was seide, by that trowble vij. M. were sleyne and moo. In whiche tyme a preste, Syr Iohn Balle, disciple of maister Iohn Wyclif, was taken at Coventre, whiche hade comfortede peple to the seide insurreccions, seyenge that thei scholde rejoice hevyn þerby open in his predicacions. This preste was brouȝhte to the kynge at Seynte Alban, where he was drawen and quarterde, and wolde not aske mercy and grace of the kynge, but despisede the kynge utterly. Also an oþer preste of that same secte was taken in Sowthefolke, which suffrede lyke dethe in those costes. And after that the kynge hade causede reste in maner thro the londe, he sende letters into every cuntre annullynge alle the articles grawntede by hym at the importune instaunce of the commune peple. And soone after the body of the archebischop of Cawn|terbery with his hedde also was beryede at Cawnterbery, in Cristechurche, with grete solennite. Pope Urban crownede in this tyme Karolus de Pace into kynge of Sicill, as nexte by succession after þe qwene of hit, whom he deposede by processe of lawe, in that sche norischede longe cardinalls excommunicate ageyne the pope. Whiche kynge entrede into the region of Neapolis in the feste of the Trinite, whom the peple of that region receyvyd as theire lorde withowte eny batelle, where he Page  460, vol.8 toke the qwene and her lorde Otho Bruciswys, and putte theyme into sure kepynge. Also in the same yere, in the xjthe kalendes of October, pope Urban erect into a cardinall Adam Eston, monke of Norwiche and maister of divinite. In the same yere, in the begynnynge of the monethe of November, the kynge began to holde a parliamente at London, whiche parliament was allemoste occupyede holly to reforme pease and concorde betwene the duke of Lancastre and Syr Henricus Percy erle of Northumbre|londe; whiche cowthe unnethe be made by the kynge and the lordes of þe realme in alle that parliamente; whiche discorde was movede betwene þeim in that tretys amonge Scottes for peas for the seide insurreccion. Wherefore that parliamente [folio 409a] was contynuede unto the feste of seynte Hillary, in whiche par|liamente hit was towchede of the manimission of natife men, whiche men supposede that the kynge wolde have confermede in this parliamente that he grawntede to the commune peple in that insurreccion. But that thynge was denyede, firste by the kynge, and after by alle the lordes. Syr William Ufforde duke off Sowthefolde dyede sodenly in that parliament, in the halle at Westmonastery. Anne, suster of the kynge of Boemia, after qwene of Ynglonde, londed at Dovor abowte the feste of seynte Thomas þe apostle, with a noble company, wherefore the parliament begunne was dissolvede, for the mariage of the kynge, and for the feste of Criste folowynge. Syr Edmund erle of Marche diede in Yrlonde the vjte kalendes of Ianu|arius, after noble victoryes, by a colde in rydenge over a water, and was beryede þer for a tyme in a cathedralle churche in the feste of seynte Iohn Evangeliste, unto that tyme his body was redacte unto powdre, and after that the bones were brouȝte to Ynglonde, and beryede in the monastery of Wygge|more with his progenitors. Also his moder, the cowntesse, dyede in the nones of Ianuarius folowynge, whiche was beryede with her progenitors in priory of Chanons at Brusles|ham. And in the same yere pope Urban made maister William Courteney archebischop of Cawnterbery, John Ford|ham bischop of Dirham, and Robert Braybok bischop of London. Karolus de Pace, cosyn to the kynge of Hungary, was crownede into kynge of Sicille by pope Urban abowte the feste of Ester, whiche entrenge into that region with a grete hoste subduede hit to hym withowte effusion of bloode, and toke the qwene also. Men callede Gandavens expellede the erle of Flandres from that cuntre, and toke the towne of Burges, and did sle xx. M. of the Flemmynges, and put sege to the towne of Owdenarde, whiche thei contynuede from the feste of the Inven|cion of the Holy Crosse unto Cristemasse. In whiche tyme the kynge of Fraunce commynge downe to that cuntre with a grete hoste, did sle men of the city Gandavens and of the companye unto the nowmbre of xxv. M. In whiche yere, abowte þe feste Page  461, vol.8 of Seynte Iohn ante port Latyne, a parliamente was holden at London, in whiche parliament Iohn Wrawe, preste and capi|teyne of the commune peple, was drawen and hongede at Bury, by the desire of þe commune peple. And in the same somer the duke of Andegavy toke his journey towarde Sicille, to depose the kynge of that cuntre, for the cursed pope Clement [folio 409b] aforeseide hade crownede the seide duke into kynge of Sicille. In this yere, þe xij. kalendes of Iunius, a grete movynge of erthe was in Ynglonde, and an oþer in þe ixte kalendes of the same moone. In whiche tyme a parliament was kepede at London, in whom oon xvthe was grawntede to the kynge of laymen; and after that the clergy grawnted oon dyme to the kynge in this condicion, that he wolde ȝiffe helpe to the churche ageyne heretykes folowynge the doctryne of Wyclif and his folowers. For the seide conclusions, whom thei prechede openly amonge the peple, examinate were founde erroneus, fulle of heresy, and repugnant to the state of the churche. Wherefore the archebischoppe of Cawnterbery con|dempnede alle the oppinions as erroneus, and cursede solennely alle men prechynge, techynge, or ȝiffynge favor to þe seide conclusions openly or prively, of whatsoever state or degre he were. Also the seide metropolitan commaunded alle bischoppes of the province off Cawnterbery that thei and every bischop of theim scholde expresse þe seide monicions and inhibicions in theire diocyse, and to make inquisicions for these men prechynge that heresy. For as hit was seide, they were ac|companyede unto the nowmbre of cc., somme prechynge abowte Oxenforde and in diverse cuntres ageyne prelates of þe churche, and specially ageyne religious men possessionate, seyenge that hit were a meritorious dede to take temporalle goodes awey from theyme, exhortenge peple to do so in theire sermons. And withowte dowte if thei myȝhte have contynuede in theire purpose thei hade destroyede alle the churches of Ynglonde, and consequentely the realme also. The conclusions of heresy of þe seide doctor Wiclif folowe, repugnant to the determi|nacions of the churche. The firste conclusion, that the sub|staunce of materialle brede and wyne remayne in the sacrament after the consecracion. Also anoþer conclusion, that Criste is not in that sacramente ydemptifically, veryly and really in his propre presence corporealle. Also if a bischop or preste be in dedely synne he may not ȝiffe ordres, or baptize, or con|secrate that blissede sacrament, and if he do eny of the misterys hit avaylethe not. Also he seide and if a man or woman were duely contrite in herte alle confession externalle [folio 410a] were superfluous and unprofitable. Also he seide that Criste awe to obbey the develle. Also and if the pope be knowen afore a man of ylle disposicion, and by consequent the mem|bre of the develle, he hathe noo powere ȝiffen to hym on Page  462, vol.8 Cristen peple but peraventure of the emperoure. Also they seide that noo man awe to be made pope after pope Urban the vjte, but peple scholde lyve by theire awne lawes in the maner of Grekes. Also an oþer conclusion was that hit scholde be ageyne scripture that men of the churche scholde have posses|sions temporalle. Also he seide that accidentes remaynede not withowte a subjecte after the consecracion in the same sacra|ment. The conclusions erroneous and repugnant to the deter|minacions of the churche folowe here. The firste, that noo prelate awe not to curse eny man withowte he knowe hym excommunicate of God afore. Also he seide that a prelate cursynge in that wise was an heretyke or excommunicate. Also he seide that a prelate cursynge a clerke þat hathe ap|pellede to the kynge and to the cownsaile of the realme, is the traytor of God, of þe kynge and of the realme. Also he seide men were heretykes that wolde leve to preche and teche the gospelle of God for eny sentence of man. Also he seide hit was lawefull to a diacon or preste to preche the gospelle of God withowte auctorite of the pope or of eny other bischoppe, so that he hade abilite of sufficient intellect. Also he seide þer was noo lorde bischop or prelate while that he were in dedely synne. Also he seide that temporall lordes myȝhte take lawefully temporall goodes from men of the churche tres|passynge habitually, and dispose theym at theire pleasure. Also he seide that tythes were pure, and that men myȝhte reteyne theyme for the synnes of theire curates, and dispose þeim at þeire pleasure. Also he seide that spirituall suffrages doen by prelates or religious men for a man, profite that man noo more then other men. Also he seide that a man entrenge a private religion is made more apte to the commaundementes of God to be observede. Also he seide that seyntes whiche ordeynede privates religions with possessions or withowte synne in that institucion. Also he seide that men lyvynge in private religions be not of the feithe of Criste. Also he seide that freres were bownde to gette theire lyvynge by the [folio 410b] laboure of their hondes and not by beggynge. Also he seide that a man ȝiffynge almes to a frere beggynge or prechenge is acursede, and the frere also. And soone after þe nativite of seynte Iohn Baptiste, the archebischop of Cawnterbery citede somme of the seide heretykes, and somme of þeim apperede at London afore hym, and appellede from his sentence and ex|communicacion unto the cowrte of Rome. Amonge whom mayster Iohn Aston was sende to be imprisonede at Seynte Alban, in that he wolde not answere to certeyn poyntes and articles objecte ageyne hym. Pope Urban committe in this yere powere to the duke off Lancastre to do persecucion ageyne the kynge of Speyne, and to rejoyce that realme by dewe en|heritaunce, in that he hade maryede the lawefulle heire of Page  463, vol.8 Speyne. Kynge of Fraunce entrenge into Flaundres ageyne abowte that tyme, did sle men of the cite Gaudanense by treason unto the nowmbre of xxv. M., and in returnynge from Flaundres mony of the cuntre abowte Parys rebellede ageyne the kynge of Fraunce, wherefore mony of theyme were sleyn and mony were honged, and grete hurte was doen to that cite. The kynge of Portyngalle seynge the helpe promysede to hym from Ynglonde not to comme, and thenkynge that he was not able to resiste the kynge of Speyne withowte moore socoure, toke peas with the seide kynge of Speyne in this condicion, that he scholde not lette men of Ynglonde beynge with hym to departe to theire cuntre, and take to theym schippes and sufficient goodes to theire exhibicion unto theire cuntre; and so the seide men of Ynglonde come into the seide londe abowte the ende of the monethe of October. A grete and mervellous reyne was in this yere abowte the feste of seynte Thomas apostell, inso|moche þat the water was encreasede þro alle Ynglonde by iiij. foote moore then ever waters were seen afore in altitude, whiche drownede mony townes and bestes and cornes, withowte bernes and howses and mony mylles and grete brygges. In the same yere pope Urban sende to Henricus Despenser, bischop of Norwiche, that he scholde doe persecucion unto the seide cursede pope and his norischers, grawntynge to alle men goynge with hym in the seide viage plener remission of theire synnes, [folio 411a] and men ȝiffynge eny of theire goodes towarde that viage. Also the pope ȝafe power to the seide bischoppe to dispense with alle men havynge benefices seculer or religions that thei myȝte be absente from theire benefices and dignites withowte licence obtente off theire prelates, with holle percepcion of the frutes of theire benefices, as and if thei were resident þer per|sonally. Also the seide bischop hade powere to compelle alle maner religious men and freres and þe governoures of theym, if the seide bischoppe thouȝhte that hit were expedient to the seide viage. In whiche yere the cursede pope ȝafe powere to the kynge off Scotlonde to do persecucion to the kynge of Ynglonde, in that he supportede pope Urban ageyne hym. Also the duke of Andegavy, chiefe enemy to the churche of Rome entrede into Ytaly with a grete multitude off peple to delyver the qwene of Sicille from prison, cursede by pope Urban and deposede, laborynge to restore here to that realme, and to ȝiffe batelle to the pope afterwarde. Kynge Richarde began to kepe a parliament that same yere at Westmonastery, sone after the feste of seynte Hillarius; in whom a xv was grawntede to the kynge by seculer and lay peple, and oon dyme of the cleregy. In whiche tyme the kynge of Fraunce come with a grete hoste to restore the erle of Flandres to his cuntre, whom men of the cite Gaudenens mette, and loste þe victory; and a grete multitude of theim was sleyne, and an esqwyer Philippe Nacerfelde, causer of that trowble and þeir capiteyn, was sleyne þer also. The Page  464, vol.8 residu of that peple fledde unto the cite Gaudanense intendynge to kepe hit untille that thei hade somme socoure from Ynglonde. Kynge Richarde began to kepe an other parliamente in the same yere at Westemonastery in the begynnynge of the monethe of Maii, to make provision for an hoste to be sende into Fraunce to remove hym if he wolde be, for he lay nye to Caleys with a grete hoste, after that he hade restorede the erle of Flaundres into his cuntre; other wheþer the kynge scholde go in his awne person, other what oþer lordes scholde take on theym that viage. For whiche mater a con|traversy was hade betwene þe lordes and þe communes; for the lorde wolde that the duke of Lancastre scholde have bene governoure of þat hoste, but the commune peple wolde not so, desyrynge the bischoppe off Norwiche to be theire governoure after the desire of þe pope, seyenge that they grawntede the seide tallage to the kynge þerfore: and so þe communes obtenede theire desyre. Where hit was ordeynede that the seide tallage [folio 411b] scholde be payede to the bischop, where with he scholde hire sufficient men of armes to ȝiffe batelle ageyne þe enemys of Criste, and to made redy that hoste in alle haste.