Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum quadragesimum primum.

EDWARDE sonne of kynge Edward the thrydde after þe con|queste, returnede in this yere into Ynglonde, abowte þe feste of Pentecoste, with Iohn kynge of Fraunce, taken in captivite. And soone after ij. cardinalls were sende from the pope to make acorde betwene the kynges of Ynglonde and of Fraunce, whiche taryenge in Ynglonde by oon yere complete, the thrydde cardinalle come to comforte the kynge off Fraunce, and taryede at London with the other cardinalls. David le Bruȝ, kynge of Scotlonde, was delyverede in this yere, abowte the feste of Alle Seyntes, kepede in holde by xj. yere, a grete summe of goode payede afore to the kynge for his rawnson. In whiche yere a grete hoste entrede into Fraunce, callede peple withowte a governoure, whiche trowblede soore the realme of Fraunce. Isabel, moder of kynge Edward the thridde, diede in this yere the xxvj. day of the monethe of Auguste, and was beryede in the churche of the freres Minours at London. The interdicte fulminate into lay men of Oxenforde for the dethe of scolers was releischede in this yere. A grete contraversy spronge this yere in the cowrte of Rome, betwene Armachanus, arche|bischop of Yrlonde, and beggynge frers. Also grete hurte was made in Briteyne and Normandy by Philippe broþer of the kynge of Navarria, Iames lorde of the Pype, Roberte Knolles, and mony oþer men of Ynglonde, withowte commaundemente of the kynge of Ynglonde. Kynge Edwarde causede the feste of seynte George to be kepede with grete solennite at Wynde|shore in this yere. Edwarde sonne of kynge Edwarde, prince of Wales, saylede to Caleys with the duke of Lancastre, and allemoste with alle other noble men of the realme, and kynge Edwarde come to þe same cite soone after, abowte the feste of [folio 393a] Page  434, vol.8 Alle Seyntes; after that bryngynge his hoste unto Burguyn and Campany, taryenge þer unto the Annunciation of oure Lady folowynge. And soone after men of Normandy entrede into Ynglonde at Winchelesey with fewe schippes in the idus of Marche, and toke that towne, and did sle diverse men in hit, and brente parte of that towne; but thei were compellede to take theire schippes, mony of theym sleyne and drownede by Ynglische men. Kynge Edward made moche noble edifyenge at the castelle of Wyndeshore, where he was borne, William Wikham movynge hym þerto, whom the kynge hade made supervisor of his werkes of a poore clerke, and alle edifienges longynge to the kynge were disposede after hym. The kynge ȝaffe to the seide Sir William Wikham mony fatte benefices, and made hym to bere his prive sele, and after bischop of Wynchestre. Bloode flowede from the tumbe of Thomas somme tyme erle of Lancastre at Powntefrette, and mony noble men diede in the kynges hoste: the erle of Oxenforde, Iohn Gray, George Say, with mony other men. Truse taken betwene the kynge of Ynglonde and men of Fraunce, kynge Edwarde returnynge to Ynglonde suffrede grete losse of goodes and of men by a tempeste in the see, nye to Paryse, causede in the viijthe day after Ester. And abowte the feste of Lam|masse folowynge Armachanus and the frers seasede of theire contraversy by precepte of the pope. Armachanus diede in this yere at Avinon, the boones of whom were brouȝhte after unto Dundalke in Yrlonde, where he was borne, by whom mony miracles be schewed þer unto the lawde of Godde. In whiche tyme the prince of Wales, the duke of Lancastre, and mony other noble men of the londe wente with the kynge of Fraunce to Caleys for pease to be reformede; and an othe made for pease to be kepede of bothe partes, the kynges departede into theire cuntrees abowte the feste of seynte Michell nexte folow|ynge. And messangers were sende soone after to the pope for that acorde to be imbullede and confermede. After that a collacion made of the concorde betwene þe kynges in the parliament at Westemynstre, the noble men of the realme consente þerto. Wherefore masse seide of the Trinite by the archebischop of Cawnterbery, the kynge presente with his sonnes, causede the gentylle men of the realme of Ynglonde and of Fraunce, whiche hade made noon othe at Caleys, to [folio 393b] swere by that blissede sacramente to observe that convencion and pease made. Reynalde bischop of Worchestre, Michael bischop of London, and Thomas bischop of Hely, diede in this yere; and by provision of the pope, maister Iohn Barnet was made bischoppe off Worcestre, Symon Langham bischop of Hely, and maister Symon Sudbury bischop of London. Edwarde prince of Wales maryede to his wife the cowntesse of Kente, doȝhter of Thomas Holonde, whiche was departede Page  435, vol.8 from the erle of Salisbery for the luffe of þe seide prynce. Also the eclips of the sonne was in this yere the vjte day of Maii, in the myddes of the day, whom a grete dryenesse did folowe, causynge a grete derthe of hay and corne. Reyne lyke to bloode felle in Burguyn in this yere, and the crosse of Criste of the coloure of bloode apperede in the aiere in Bolony, from morow unto the vjthe howre, whiche movede hyt selfe, moche peple seenge that mervayle, and felle in the myddes of the see. In whiche yere in the tyme of ver ij. castells apperede in the firmament, bothe in Ynglonde and in Fraunce, from whom ij. hostes wente, oon hoste clothede in white, an oþer in blak. And in the firste batell the white hoste hade victory, and after that the blacke hoste gedred to gedre have victory of the white; that doen thei entrede into theire castells and evaneschede. A grete mortalite of men was in this yere in Ynglonde, and specially of male peple, in whiche tyme mony noble prelates dyede, somme names of whom we schalle expresse, thauȝhe we make not mencion of theyme alle: Henricus duke of Yorke, Reynald Cobham, William the son of Warinus, noble men. Iohn Gaunt, sonne of kynge Edward, was made in this yere duke of Lancastre, by reason of his wife, doȝhter and heire to Henricus duke of Lancastre. A grete companye of diverse nacions, the governours of whom were men of Ynglonde, never|thelesse thei were callede an hoste with owte an hedde, wastede Fraunce gretely þis tyme, and occupiede mony townes and castells in hit, and the kynge of Fraunce cowthe not expelle þeim from that cuntre by eny cautele or batelle. Also an other white hoste apperede in this yere, whiche wente by Provincia into Longobardy, takynge grete raunson of cites, castells, and of [folio 394a] townes, the governoures of whom were men of Ynglonde, also otherwhile sawdiours and oþerwhile ȝiffen to robbynge and ex|torcion, whiche men taryede longe in those costes. A myȝhty wynde commynge from the sowthe was in this yere in the xv. day of Ianuarius, so fers that hit destroyed anoon mony towres, churche steples, and oþer edifyenges semynge as durable, so that the residu stondynge unto this tyme be the wurs þerby. Of whom a metricion seythe in this wise:

"C ter erant mille decies sex unus et ille,
Luce tua, Maure, vehemens fuit impetus auræ."

An other metricion seithe in this maner:

"Ecce flat hoc anno Maurus in orbe tonans."

This is the intellect of the versus: that this mervellous wynde was in the yere of oure Lorde God a M. ccc. lxj., in the feste of seynte Maurus abbotte; whiche is tru after the computacion of the churche of Ynglonde, but the cotacion afore is tru after the computacion of the churche of Rome, put in the margyn above. Symon Langham, abbot of Westemynstre, was made bischop Page  436, vol.8 of Hely in this yere. Kynge Edwarde ȝafe in this yere to Westemynstre vestementes in the feste of Petyr and Paule, in whom seynte Petyr usede to say masse. Edwarde, the eldeste*. [Sic in MS.] of this kynge, made homage to the kynge of Fraunce for the cuntre of Aquitanny, promysynge to hym fidelite, in whiche yere he saylede into Gascoigne with his wife and his childer and goodes. Also kynge Edwarde made in that yere Leonelle his sonne duke of Clarence, and Iohn duke of Lancaster, and Edmunde, the iiij. sonne, erle of Cawntebrigge. Innocencius the vjthe diede in this yere, whom Urban þe vte succedid, a man of grete connynge, whiche made a constitucion ageyne men havynge pluralites of benefices in the secunde yere of his office, but clerkes thro the favor of lordes, what by labor, preyer, and by money, causede that the seide constitucion toke noon effecte. Also hit was ordeynede in the parliamente in this yere that men of lawe scholde plete in theire moder langage. Also wickede men dividede the body of a preste in London in this yere, whiche partes thei caste with grete contempte in diverse places of the cite, but those men cowthe not be knowen unto this tyme. The noble fame of kynge Edwarde and of his [folio 394b] realme spronge thro mony costes, thre kynges come to hym in this yere to see hym and to have communicacion with hym, the kynge of Fraunce, the kynge of Ciprus, and the kynge of Scot|londe. Tweyne of theyme, rewardede with grete treasures, departede to theire cuntre, but the kynge of Fraunce, laborynge in grete infirmite, taryede in Ynglonde. Raufe Shrovesbery, bischop of Bathe, a man of hie perfeccion, dyede in this yere. Then maister Iohn Barnette, bischop of Worcester, was trans|late to the seete of Bathe, and maister W. Withlesey from Rochestre to the seete of Worcestre, and maister Thomas Trikkell was confermede to the seete of Rowchestre. A grete forste was in this yere, contynuynge longe from the feste of seynte Andrewe unto the xiiij. kalendes of Apryle. In whiche tyme abbot of þe monastery de Bello, commynge to London, mette a man dampnede, goynge to be hongede, whom he salvede from dethe by vertu of his liberte. Also a grete batelle an*. [Sic in MS.] dedely was hade in this yere in Briteyne at Davaroy, betwen lorde Iohn Mowntefort and lorde Charls of Bloys; but the seide lorde Iohn hade victory by helpe of men of Ynglonde, in whiche batelle the seide lorde Charles was sleyne with oþer peple as innumerable, and taken. Iohn kynge of Fraunce diede in this yere at Saveye, for whom kynge Edward procured mony diriges to be seide, and caused hym to be brouȝhte to Dovore by noble men of his costes, whiche was beryede after at Seynte Dionyse in Fraunce; whom Charls his son did succede. In whiche yere Lumbardes were accusede for fals merchandyse Page  437, vol.8 and measures, wherefore mony of þeim were put in the towre tylle thei hade made a fyne with the kynge. Edmund Langley, sonne of the kynge, scholde have mariede the doȝhter of the erle of Flandres, and heire, but þat consanguinite was an im|pedimente, wherefore messangers were sende to the pope for a dispensacion. But the seide woman was maryede at the laste to Philippe duke of Burguyn, broþer to the kynge of Fraunce. A soore batelle was hade in this yere betwene Cristen men and pagans, on the Alle Halowe day, in the playnes of Turkey, where Iohn kynge of Hungary, Siwardus kynge of Gorgony, maister of the Hospitalle of the yle of Roodes, with oþer v. M. cc. and x. Cristen men were sleyne, and xlti M. of the pagans, [folio 395a] with oþer peple innumerable. In whiche batelle of the parte of pagans were mony princes, the soldan of Babilony, the kynge of Turkey, the kynge of Baldac, the kynge Belmaryn, the kynge of Tartarous, and the kynge of Lectowe; iij. kynges were sleyne of that parte in the same batelle. Edwarde prince of Wales and of Aquitanny hade a sonne borne to hym in this time, and callede Edwarde, whiche diede in the vijthe yere of his age, and not overtymely, as mony men seide. The lorde Cowey maryede into his wife in this yere at Wyndeshore with grete solemnite, the xxvijti day of the monethe of Iulius, Isabel the doȝhter of kynge Edwarde, whiche wolde be maryede oonly for luffe. The cite of Alexandry was taken in the same yere by the kynge of Cipria, sleenge afore a grete multitude of paganes, and soone after a grete hoste of the paganes were gedred to ȝiffe batell to that kynge. Neverthelesse that kynge toke with hym alle the rychesse of that cite as infinite, and brente a grete parte of the cite afore his departynge, whiche causede spice to be dere longe after. Symon Islep, archebischop of Cawnterbery, diede in this yere, whom Symon Langham, bischop of Hely, succedid, and maister Iohn Barnet was trans|late from the seete of Bathe to Hely, and maister Iohn Harewell was confermede into the bischop of Bathe. An oþer sonne was borne to the prince of Wales at Burdews, and namede Ricardus, whom Ricardus kynge of Armorica toke from the fonte. Abowte this tyme mony castelles and townes, occupiede by a grete hoste of Ynglonde, were takyn to the kynge of Fraunce by commaundement of kynge Edward. Wherefore Bertrandus Cleykyn, a noble man of werre, wente ageyne the kynge of Speyne with the seide hoste thro helpe of the pope, in that he was man of ylle disposicion. The kynge of Speyne, dredynge that company, fledde to Gascoigne to prince Edwarde for helpe and socoure. This kynge departede from that cuntre, Henricus, a bastarde broþer to hym, was erecte and crownede kynge by assente of mony noble men of Speyne, and of that oþer grete company, whiche were lx. M. in nowmbre. William Edyngton, Page  438, vol.8 bischop of Wynchestre, dyede in this yere, whom William Wikham did succede by laboure of the kynge; whiche eleccion [folio 395b] the pope differrede by a certeyne tyme for certeyne causes.