Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum primum.

THIS noble duke commen to London, was crownede kynge at Westemynstre of Aldredus archebischop of Yorke, Stigan|dus Page  251, vol.7 archebischop of Yorke*. [Sic.] declynede, on Christemasse day. Willelmus, libro primo. Whiche wente to Normandy in Lente nexte folowynge, levynge Odo the bischop Baiocense, [folio 335a] his brother, to kepe Ynglonde, takynge with hym the noble men of Ynglonde, Edwynus the erle and Morkarus, Edgar Adelynge, and specially Stigandus archebischop of Cawnter|bery, þauȝhe he was lothe þerto, leste eny treason scholde reigne in Ynglonde by his falsenesse in the absence of the kynge. And what folowede of that Stigandus archebischop of Cawn|terbery hit schalle be expresse in his place and ordre. Alfri|dus. After that, wynter drawynge nye, kynge William re|turnede Page  253, vol.7 to Yngelonde, commaundynge the peple to pay a tribute as importable to theyme; segynge the cite of Excestre, rebellynge ageyn hym, and brake hit; and Githa cowntesse, somme tyme wife of Godewinus the erle, levynge the cite, fledde to Flandres. Gentillemen off Northumbrelonde, dred|ynge cruellenesse of kynge William, takenge with theim Edgar Adelynge, and Agatha his moder, with Margaret and Christian his susters, saylede to Malcolmus kynge of Scottes. ℞. But mony men reherse that Edgar Adelynge, seenge Ynglonde to be trowblede on every side, takynge schippe with his moder and ij. susters, intended to have sailede into the cuntre where he was borne, but a tempeste trowblenge the see, he was brouȝhte into Scotlonde. Where hit happede þat Malcolmus kynge of Scottes mariede Margaret suster of Edgar to his wife, of whom he gate vj. sonnes and ij. doȝhters; Page  255, vol.7 of whiche vj. sonnes iij. were kynges by succession, Edgar, Alexander, and David. And oon of here doȝhters, Matilda by name, was mariede to Henre the firste, kynge of Yngelonde. That other doȝhter, Mary by name, was mariede to Eustachius erle of Bonony, of whom Matildis come, whiche was mariede afterwarde to kynge Steven. Kynge William made a castelle at Snotyngham þis yere, an other at Lyncolne, and ij. castells at Yorke. Matildis the qwene commynge from Normandy into Ynglonde, was crownede in this yere of Aldredus. Harold and Canutus, sonnes of Suanus kynge of Danes, londed in the water of Humbre, with cc. schippes; to whom Edgar Adelynge wente; for the commynge of whom Aldredus archebischop of Yorke was so sory that he died in the viijthe day folowynge. The Normannes kepers of the castelle of Yorke, dredynge that the howses of the subarbes scholde be helpe and socoure to the Danes, sette fire in theyme, whiche encreasynge moche, turnede into the cite, and brente a grete parte of the cite with Page  257, vol.7 the monastery of Seynte Petyr. But the Danes come or that brennynge was seasede, and did sle moo then iij. ml of the Nor|mannes. Kynge William havynge indignacion thereof, wastede [folio 335b] that province, insomoche that men did eite horses, cattes, dogges, and also the flesche of men for hungre, and the cuntre betwene Yorke and Dirham wontede inhabitators by ix. yere, the grownde or territory of Seynte Iohn of Beverlay except, where a knyȝhte of the kynge suffrede vengeaunce, for his horse brake his necke, and his face was turnede bakwarde. The monastery of Bede, whiche was sette on the brynke of the water of Wyre, was brente. Malcolmus kynge of Scottes wastede the cuntre of Northum|brelonde in this yere, insomoche that þer was unnethe eny howse in Scottelonde, but other a man or woman of Ynglonde was in hit. Kynge William by cownsaile of somme men causede alle monasteryes in Ynglonde to be serchede, com|maundynge the money founde þer to be brouȝhte to his trea|sure. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. A cownsaile Page  259, vol.7 was kepede soone after at Wynchestre in the octaves of Ester, by commaundement of pope Alexander the secunde, ij. cardi|nalls beynge presente þer, in whiche cownsaile Stigandus arche|bischop of Cawnterbery was deposede for thre causes. The firste cause was for he occupiede ageyne the lawe the seete of Wynchestre with the seete of Cawnterbery also; the secunde was for he occupiede the seete of Cawnterbery, Robert tharche|bischop beynge in lyve, and usede the palle lefte þer with owte licence of the pope; the thrydde cause was for he toke a palle of Benedict pope, whom the churche of Rome hade excommuni|cate. This Stigandus, makynge grete lamentacion with meke supplicacion, and preyenge the kynge of favor, prevaylede not, the kynge seyenge to hym he muste nedely obbey the writ|ynge of the pope; and so Stigandus was sende to Wynches|tre, and kepyde þer tyme of his lyfe in prison, havynge but a litelle summe assignede to his exhibicion. This Stigandus inquirede of his goodes, beynge hevy to lose theym, did swere by alle seyntes he hade not oon peny. Whiche was founde to have hade a keye secretely abowte his necke of grete treasures Page  261, vol.7 hidde in the erthe. In whiche cownsaile mony other bis|choppes and abbottes were deposed by the specialle labour of kynge William, that he myȝhte brynge into theire places men of Normandy. Mony men say that the kynge did so to the moore confirmacion of þe realme. In whiche cownsaile seynte Wul|stan, bischop of Worcestre, askede constantely certeyne posses|sions longynge to his office, retenede from hym by Aldredus archebischop of Yorke, returnede after his dethe to the use of [folio 336] the kynge. Where hit was decrete that the seide mater scholde not be diffinede in that cownesayle, in that the churche of Yorke was dombe and vacant. And in the feste of Pentecoste nexte foloynge, kynge William beynge at Wyndeshore, ȝafe the seete of Yorke to Thomas, a chanon Baiocense. Willel|mus de Pontificibus, libro suo tertio. A man of noble chere, eloquente in communicacion, whiche made a feire churche at Yorke, makynge the chanons ryche þer, and makynge also songes of the churche. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. After that the kynge callynge to Ynglonde from Nor|mandy Page  263, vol.7 Lanfrancus, borne in the cuntre of Ytaly, an excellente man in vertu and prudence to governaunce of thynges spirit|ualle or temporalle, made hym by assignacion archebischop of Cawnterbery in the feste of the Assumpcion of oure Lady; of the lyfe and maners of whom hit schalle be schewede abowte his dethe. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Thomas, archebischop of Yorke by eleccion, come to this Lanfrancus to be consecrate after the consuetude; of whom Lanfrancus de|sirede to have afore his profession of obedience to be made to hym with an othe þeruppon. The seide Thomas seide utterly he wolde not do so withowte he see wrytynge of auctorite þeron, other herde evidente reason þerfore whereby he awe to do that with owte preiudice of his churche. And when this noble clerke Lanfrancus hade schewede sufficiaunte reasons and laud|able for his purpose and intente, the seide Thomas not assent|ynge to hym, departede not consecrate. The kynge herynge Page  265, vol.7 that was vexede soore, thenkynge that Lanfrancus did ageyne the lawe, and putte moore confidence in connynge then in reason; but Lanfrancus, schewynge the cause þerof afore the kynge, mitigate his wrathe. And the seide Thomas returnede ageyne by commaundement of the kynge, and wrote the profession off his obedience, by whom he promysede to obbey the seide Lan|francus in alle thynges pertenynge to the honoure of God, and soe he was consecrate and departede. And soone after that Lanfrancus desirede and toke professions of alle bischoppes of Ynglonde consecrate of oþer bischoppes afore hym.