Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum sextum.

ETHELSTANUS, the firste sonne of kynge Edwarde, was electe to be kynge at Kyngeston in Sowtherey, nye to London, whiche Page  425, vol.6 reignede xvj. yere. In the firste yere of whom a noble childe, Dunstan by name, was borne at Glassynbery, the lyfe of whom unto the ende was replete with vertues and miracles. Alfridus. Kynge Ethelstan maryede his suster to Schitericus, kynge of the Danes of Northumbrelonde; which dedde soone after þat mariage, Ethelstan expulsede his sonne, and toke that realme to his governayle. After that he toke in dedicacion Hoelus kynge of Britons, and Constantyne the kynge of Scottes, by soore battles: kynge Ethelstan makynge the seide Constantyne kynge of Scottes, seide, "Hit is moore glorious to make a kynge then to be a kynge." Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. Also kynge Ethelstan maryede an oþer suster to Otho them|perour; of whom he receyvyd mony ȝiftes, as gemmes, and horses, and a veselle made of onichinus, transparente, and polischede by so subtile an arte þat a man myȝhte see in hit as cornes to growe, vynes to burion, and ymages of men to be Page  427, vol.6 movede. Also he receyvyde of Otho themperoure þe swerde of noble Constantyne, contenynge in letters of golde the name of his possessoure, in whom oon of the nayles of Criste was fixede, with whom he was made faste to þe holy crosse. And also the spere of grete Charls the myȝhty prince, whiche havynge hit hade alleweye victory, whom men say to have openede the syde of Criste. And the baner of Mauricius the martir, whom kynge Charls usede ageyne the Saracenys. And also a parte of the holy crosse, and parte of the crowne of þorne; parte of whom kynge Ethelstan sende to þe monastery of Malmes|bury. Martinus. Leo the vithe was pope iiij. yeres and vij. monethes; and Odo was made bischop of Wylton. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo. Frithstanus bischop of Wyn|chestre diede, whom Bristanus did succede, of whom hit is redde Page  429, vol.6 that he seide as dayly masse of requiem; whiche commynge into the churche yerde, and seyenge certeyne suffrages for dedde peple, seide in the ende "Requiescant in pace," where he herde as voices of an hoste infinite from the beryalles, seyenge, Amen. And Odo, was made archebischop of Cawnterbury. Stephanus þe vijthe was pope ij. yere, and Bristanus, bischop of Wynchestre, diede, whom Elphegus the monke did succede, nye cosyn to seynte Dunstan. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo. Whiche excludynge men penitent on Askewensday after the consuetude from the churche movede theyme to applye þeym to abstinence and chastite, and to refuse the pleasure of the flesche in þat holy tyme and season of Lente. Amonge whom [folio 304a] oon seide, "My lorde, I may not absteyne bothe from festes Page  431, vol.6 and from my wife. Neverthelesse y schalle take ageyne my wife tomorowe, whom y have putte from me for the season." To whom the bischop seide, "O wrecche, þow makes me soory; hase þow not in remembraunce that the nexte day schalle passe awey:" and in the nexte day folowynge he was founde dedde in his bedde. The seide bischoppe Elphegus makynge thre monkes prestes, Dunstan, Ethelwolde, and Ethelstan, the minis|tery complete seide, "I made this day, afore God, thre men into prestes, tweyne of whom schalle receyve the dignite of arche|bischophode, and þe thrydde schalle ende his lyfe miserably." Then Ethelstan, as of moste familiarite with hym, seide, "Schalle not y be a bischop." Seynte Elphegus seide, "Thow hase noo parte in that ordre, and also þou schalle not bere þat clothynge longe." Constantyne kynge of Scottes brekynge his promisse, Kynge Ethelstan gedrenge a grete hoste made haste to Scotte|londe, and in goynge þider he visitte Seynte Iohn of Beverlay, Page  433, vol.6 on the awter of whom he lefte his knyfe for a plegge, promis|ynge that, and if he returnede with victory, he scholde redeme his knyfe with a condigne price, whiche thynge he fullefillede. In returnynge after þe victory he prayede God and seynte Iohn of Beverlay, that thro his preyer he myȝhte have somme*. [Of the sub|jeccion of Scotte|londe unto Ynglonde.] evidente token thro whom men presente and to come myȝhte knowe that Scottes awe to be subiecte to Ynglische men by ryȝhte. Wherefore the kynge takynge his swerde smote a grete ston with hyt nye to the castelle of Dunbar, whiche ston was made holowe by that stroke by a spanne into hit. After that he redemyde his knyfe at Beverlay with regalle ȝiftes. Iohn the xjthe was pope oon yere, whom Leo the vijthe suc|cedid iij. yere and vj. monethes. Lodowicus, son to Charls the simple, and to*. [Sic.] þe doȝhter of E.*. [Sic.] kynge of Ynglonde, reignede after his fader in the weste partes of Fraunce, xix. yere. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. Whiche trowblede soore of Cenbarbus apostata, askede helpe of his gentilmen, and þei ȝiffenge noo answere, a noble yonge man, Hew by name, son of the erle of Mownte Desire, toke the batelle for the kynge, and Page  435, vol.6 did sle his provoker. Wherefore that kynge, laborynge in infirmite, made that noble yonge man his heire, and soe the bloode of Charls seasede, or elles he hade noo childe, or elles he lyvede not longe; and this Hewe maryede another doȝhter of kynge Edwarde. The firste Otho, the firste son of Henry the firste, [folio 304b] emperoure of Alemayne, was emperoure xxxvijti yere. Whiche makenge a feste to his princes in the feste off Ester, or thei were sette, the sonne of a prince, after the condicion of a childe, toke a messe from the table, whom the kynges kerver hurte soore. The maister of the childe beholdynge that did welle nye sle that kerver; themperoure dampnynge hym anoon withowte audi|ence was allemoste throtelede by the same maister of the childe. But the kynge or emperoure departede from hym with grete peyne, commaundide that maister to be reservede to lyfe, seyenge that he was culpable, that he sparede not for honoure Page  437, vol.6 of the feste. Anlaf þe pagan, and sonne of Sithricus, kynge of Yrlonde and of mony oþer provinces, movede by Constan|tyne kynge of Scottes, his fader in lawe, entrede the water of Humbre with a grete navy of schippes; whom kynge Ethelstan, with Edmunde his broþer, mette at Brumford. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. When the hostes were nye togedre, Anlaf takenge an harpe in his hondes, come in the maner of an harper to the tentes of kynge Ethelstan, whiche beynge þer, seynge alle thynges to his pleasure, and takynge a rewarde for his laboure, hidde hit in the erthe. That thynge was per|ceyvyde by a man dwellynge somme tyme with Anlaf, and schewede after the departenge of Anlaf the processe to þe kynge Ethelstan. Then the kynge incusede hym that he schewede not that thynge afore. The man answeryde and seide, "O my lorde kynge, I ȝafe my feithe somme tyme to Anelaf, lyke as y have doen now to yow, wherefore and if y hade betrayede hym, Page  439, vol.6 ye wolde have seide y wolde have doen so in lyke wyse to youre person; þerfore here my cownseylle, remove thy tente, and when he commethe with grete haste, thow schalle avoide his purpose lyȝhtely." That doen, Anlaf commynge in the nyȝhte founde a bischoppe removynge his tentes, whom he woundede soore with mony of his men, and after that he entrede þe tentes of the kynge. The kynge makynge grete haste, his swerde felle owte from the schethe, and cryenge to God and seynte Aldelme, thro preiers of Odo the archebischop, beynge with hym in that tyme, founde the swerde in his schethe, whiche is kepede unto this tyme in the kynges treasure: that swerde is scharpe of oon parte, and wylle not receyve golde or silvyr. In whiche tyme Ethelstan the kynge, havynge helpe of God, chasede his enemyes by that morowe, and by alle the day folow|ynge, where Constantyne kynge of Scottes was sleyne, with*. [Instead of scharpe, the MS. had at first divisible, but the rubri|cator has written over it the substi|tuted adjective.]Page  441, vol.6 v. kynges, xij. dukes, and allemoste alle the multitude of men of Barbre. After that he tamede the sowthe Britons at Herd|forde, insomoche that thei ȝafe ȝerely to hym xx. li. of golde, and ccc. li. of sylvyr, and xxvxx.*. [Sic in MS., xx. being an ab|breviation of score. So that the three texts vary, the Latin having millia, and Trevisa, hondred.] oxen and kyen. Into the lawde of whom a metricion rehersethe in this wise: [folio 305a]

"Regia progenies produxit nobile stemma
Cum tenebris nostris illuxit splendida gemma,
Magnus Ethelstanus, patriæ decus, orbita recti;
Illustris probitas a vero nescia flecti."

Martinus the thrydde succedid Leo the pope iij. yere and vj. monethes. Kynge Ethelstan dedde in þis yere at Glow|cestre, withowte yssue, was beryede at Malmesbury; whom Edmunde his broþer did succede.