Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum vicesimum secundum.

GREGORIUS the vjthe, callede afore Gracianus, succedid Benedicte allemoste iiij. yere. Willelmus de Regibus. This pope, a man of grete religion and audacite, ȝafe batelle on a season to Henre the emperoure, whiche founde the state of the churche of Rome so decreased that he hade unnethe eny thynge to hym and to the cardynalles excepte fewe cites and places nye to the cite of Rome, and the offerynges of tru peple. For theire goodes were taken awey by thefes and robbers, inso|moche that thei come to the churches and toke awey goodes offrede in þeim; and mony of theym usede woodes and rob|bede pilgremes, that the visitacion of Petyr and of Paule was not usede, what for robbers in the wey, and what for murdre of peple in the cite and in the churche of Seynte Petyr. Gregory the pope perceyvnge this, movede the wickede peple by feire wordes to amende theire wickede lyfe, but noo profyte folow|ynge, he cursede all those wickede men solennly, and alle men havynge communicacion with theyme. The pope prevaylynge Page  153, vol.7 not þerby, but excitynge trowble and perelle to his person, sende to þe emperour that he wolde helpe the cherche alle|moste destroyede. The emperoure excusynge hym by batelle ageyne the Wandalynges, preyde the pope to gedre an hoste and to expelle the enemys of the seide churche, sendynge to hym grete goodes þerto. Wherefore the pope gedrenge an hoste putte those robbers of the churche of Seynte Petyr other to fliȝhte, other elles thei were sleyne, whereby the pope recurede mony lordschippes to the churche of Seynte Petyr. But somme of the wickede peple usede to raven and extorcion callede the pope a sleer of men and unworthy that office, in so moche that mony of the cardinalls declynyde unto that parte thouȝhte and ordeynede that the pope scholde not have ben beriede in the churche. The pope laborynge in his extreme infirmite callede the convente of cardinalls to hym, and seyenge to them in this manner: "I mervayle moche, breþer, that ye iugge youre bischoppe so boldely withowte discrecion, whiche have lyvede so that y myȝhte transfude my patrimony to youre utilite, and have despysede the ioye of the worlde for youre liberacion. Wherefore, and if eny other persons hade seide wickidly of me, ye were bownde to have rebukede theym; for thefes toke aweye youre exhibicion, and y havenge not power to suffre that ȝafe batelle to theyme. Wherefore sithe Page  155, vol.7 that everyche operacion or dede of man awe to be ponderate after the intencion of the doer, after the seyenge of the gospelle, 'si oculus tuus fuerit simplex,' that is to say, if that the intencion be ryȝhte, alle the body schalle be bryȝhte and schynynge, that is to say, the laboure of thy dedes. I ȝafe to a poore man almes in a tyme, and he schewynge my benefite to a robber, was sleyne for hit; am y to be blamede in that y ȝafe almes to the poore man, thro whom he was sleyne? God forbede; for covetise causede the robber to sle hym, and not my liberalite. Soe in lyke wyse as anendes lawes oon dede is rewardede and to be reprovede in diverse respectes. For a thefe sleynge a man is punyschede, a knyȝhte sleynge his enemye is commended; for a thefe fiȝhtethe for goode, and a knyȝhte for the ryȝhte of his [folio 325a] cuntre. Also pope Adrian the firste was commended somme time in that he grauntede to kynge Charls the investitures of prelates; now bischoppes be commended that they do con|trary, takynge from princes that power whiche was ȝiffen to theyme in that tyme for causes resonable, whiche thynge is denyede by reason nowe at this tyme. For in that tyme the sawle of kynge Charls was not infecte with covetise, and the seete apostolicalle was ferre from men electe, and princes were nye whiche wolde not dispose eny thynge by avarice; but nowe in this tyme the ambicion of princes makethe alle thynges as vile. My cause may be appliede to either parte, Page  157, vol.7 but ye say the office of a bischop is not to schede bloode or to cause bloode to be schedde: I graunte þerto. Neverthe|lesse hit longethe to hym and if he see innocency to peresche to resiste the causers of hit bothe by tonge and honde. For Ezechiel accusethe prestes in that thei resiste not suche peple, and made theyme as a walle for the howse*. [Sic.] God. There be persons tweyne ordeynede in the churche of God to destroye vices, oon that makethe scharpe eloquence, an other person that berethe a swerde. I take God to my wittenesse and yow, y armede my tonge ageyne the enemys of the church while that y myȝhte profite; after that y certifiede in writyng to themperour of the state of the churche, havynge power temporalle. Whiche wrote to me schewynge his labors and batells ageyne the Wandalynges, prayenge that thro my labours and his costes those thefes myȝhte be de|stroyede or taken. Wherefore y perceyvynge the soore hurte of citesynnes, the dethe of pilgremes, and the poore lyvynge of the cardinalls, gedrede an hoste to resiste theyme, and he that sparethe a thefe ȝiffethe occasion that an innocent be sleyne. But peraventure ye obiecte, and say hit longethe not to a preste to schedde bloode; I graunte þerto; but what seithe the prophete, 'Blissede be men that do ryȝhteousnesse in every tyme.' For Finees and Page  159, vol.7 Matathias were commendede in that thei extincte men offendynge, moche moore we awe not to suffre oure hooly thynges to be defilede, when that thei kepede so solennely theire misterys beynge but as a schado. Also Zacharias the bischop expulsede from the temple kynge Osias sensynge, and wolde have sleyne hym but that he departede. Also I have doen a benefite to þeim to whom ye thenke y have doen hurte; for ever the longer a wickide man lyvthe he augmentethe his synne and peyne; wherefore [folio 325b] he that schortethe the lyfe of suche a man mynyschethe his synne and peyne, and so he dothe to hym a benefite. Neverthelesse, that y be not deceyvede, neiþer ye, putte my body after my dethe afore the churche*. [Sic in MS.] lockede and made sure, and if thei be not openede by the power of God, do with my body after youre pleasure." That doen as after his commaundemente, a wynde come as sodenly, and brekynge the lockes of the durre brouȝhte the corse unto the interialle walle of the churche. The cardinalles and moche peple seenge that miracle, beriede the body in the churche with grete solem|nite. Hardeknutus the kynge beynge at Lambeth nye to London, mery and gladde, felle downe sodenly, and so wontynge speche diede the vithe idus of Iunius, and was beryede at Wynchestre with his fader. Henricus, libro sexto. This man was called Page  161, vol.7 of so grete liberalite that he commaunded regalle festes to be ordeynede iiij. or v. tymes in a day, sayenge that hit was a pleasure to hym his gestes to leve raþer meytes untowchede then that þei scholde have desyrede moo. Willelmus de Regibus. Wherefore peple off Ynglonde sende to Normandy for Edwarde to be crownede into kynge, suertes made in this condicion, that he scholde brynge with hym fewe men from Normandy; the parte of whom Leofricus the erle of Chestre did helpe, Godewinus duke of Westesaxons, and Livingus bischoppe of Worcestre. ℞. Neverthelesse Marianus rehersethe that Hardeknutus the kynge sende afore Edward his broþer, and made hym to tary in his cowrte.