Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

INCIPIT LIBER QUINTUS.

Liber quintus.

[Capitulum primum.]

MARCIANUS marienge the sustir of Theodosius was em|perour [folio 244b] abowte vij. yere. In the firste tymes of whom the cownesaile Calcedonense was hade ageynes Euticen and Dioscorus, as hit is rehersede afore. This emperour Marcianus was sleyne thro treason of his awne men at Constantinopole, wherefore the Hunes and Wandalynges wastede cites of Fraunce sette on the water of Rhenus. Vortigenus reignenge Page  259, vol.5 that tyme in Briteyne, a grete habundaunce of cornes was in that cuntre, þat soe grete plente was never seene þer afore; after that, lecchery and moche synne began to encrease in that londe, not oonly in seculer men, but also in prelates and gover|noures of þe churche, ȝiffen to lecchery and drunkenesse and to other wickede disposicion. After that a pestilence folowede, soe corruptible that peple beynge in lyve were unnethe suffi|ciaunte to bery the peple dedde. Neverthelesse men beynge in lyve not correcte thro þat feer, suffrede other punyschenge by the wylle of God, for thei hade cownesaile by Vortigernus theire kynge, that they scholde sende to the Saxones, beynge paganes, that thei wolde schewe to theym somme socour, Page  261, vol.5 whiche was doen by the ordinaunce of God, that thei scholde have more correccion for theire synne. Galfridus et Alfridus. This Vortigernus dredde soore the Pictes, whom he hade offendede late, dredenge of that other parte þe commynge of Aurelius Ambrosius, whom he hade herde to have made redy a grete fleete of schippes. Wherefore he desirede helpe of the Saxons, myȝhty men in batelle. Beda, libro primo, capitulo quinto. The Saxones, myȝhty men in batelle, and vagaunte as for habitacion, desirede of the Britones, comme to Briteyne, takenge with theyme thre grete schippes replete with men, takenge a place to inhabite in the este parte of hit, at an yle callede Thanates, nye to Kente, as to fiȝhte for that cuntre, but raþer to expugne hit. Willelmus de Regibus. Alle the grownde that lyethe over the occean in to Briteyne under the northe pole is callede Germannia, in that hit bryngethe furthe soe mony peple. And lyke as peple be wonte to kytte voide Page  263, vol.5 bowes awey from a tree that hit may reioyce more in frute, soe the peple of Germany use, leste the cuntre scholde be de|stroyede with the grete multitude of theyme. Whiche enten|dynge to avoide, sende peple furthe from theire cuntre by chaunce and lotte. That causede theyme to be bolde, chalan|gynge [folio 244b] straunge cuntres as theire awne. As the Wandalynges occupiede Affrike, Longobardes Ytaly, the Normannes Fraunce, soe in lyke wyse ij. brether, Hengistus and Horsus, comme from Germany to Briteyne with a lytelle powere, whiche were in the thridde degre to Woden, of whom alle regalle blode of þe nacions of barbre come allemoste. Whom the Saxons supposynge to be a godde, namede the iiijthe day in the weke after Woden, and the vjthe day after Free his wyfe. Page  265, vol.5Beda, libro primo, capitulo quinto decimo. There comme to Ynglonde or Briteyne thre myȝhty peple of Germany, as Saxons, Englische men, and Iutes. The men of the costes of Cawnterbery and of the yle of Wiȝhte come of the Iutes, and peple beynge ageyne the yle of Wiȝhte. And men of the*. [Thre mane|res or diver|sites of peple come in to Ynglonde.] este parte of Ynglonde, men of the myddel parte, and of the weste parte come of Saxons. Men of the Marches and of Northumbrelonde come of Englische men; the governoures of these men were callede Horsus and Hengistus. Henricus, libro 2o. That peple commyn to Briteyne did slee mony of theire enemyes, whiche were commyn to Stanforde, xlti myle from Page  267, vol.5 Lyncolne, on the sowthe to hit. The Pictes and Scottes usede speeres and dartes, the Saxones usede longe swerdes and sparthes. Gaufridus. Vortigernus havynge victory thro helpe of Saxons, ȝafe to Hengistus a certeyne grownde in Lyndesey, where he made a castelle callede by Englische men Thwangcastre, whiche sowndethe as the castelle of a thwange, in that so moche space was grauntede to hym as myȝhte be compassede with oon thwange. Wherefore Hengistus causede the skynne of a grete bulle to be made in oon thwange, where with he compassede that grownde. Beda, libro primo, capitulo quinto decimo. The plentuousenesse of Briteyne, and feble|nesse of inhabitators in hit, knowen in Germany, a gretter company was sende to encrease the nowmbre afore seide sende from þens, whiche make promyse to ȝiffe batelle and to fiȝhte for the cuntre, the Britones ȝiffenge to þeim meyte and wages. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. The Saxones commynge*. [The Saxons come the ij. tyme.] in the secunde tyme, brouȝhte a beawtuous virgyn with theym, with xvj. schippes, whiche mayde was doȝhter of Hengistus, [folio 245a] Page  269, vol.5 as a mervayle of nature and a spectacle to men. Vortigernus beholdenge her, commaundede that sche myȝhte be as boteler to hym, whom he desirede to be his wife soone after, ȝiffenge to Hengistus, beynge as contrarious þerto, Kente, and licence to sende for his sonne. Gaufridus et Alfridus. This wed|denge halowede, Vortigernus refusede his lawefulle wife, by whom he hade getyn iij. noble childer, Vortumerus, Categirnus, and Pascencius. Beda, libro primo, capitulo quinto decimo. The Saxons havenge helpe of the Pictes, whom they hade overcommen afore, began to move battelle ageyne the Britones, desirenge moore exhibicion and grownde; that denyede, the Saxons destroyede or wastede the cuntre, and did sle the bischoppes with the peple in hit. Gaufridus et Alfridus. The Britones oppressede with a multitude of Saxons, movede the kynge to leve Saxones, whiche not fyllynge the desire of Page  271, vol.5 the peple was deposede, and Vortumerus, his son, was made kynge. Wilielmus de Regibus, libro primo. Whiche fauȝhte ageyne Englische men after the vijthe yere folowenge that promyse made with the Pictes, oftetymes in liȝhte batelles, and v. tymes in soore batelles with alle theire powers. Hen|ricus et Gaufridus. The firste batelle was on the water callede Derwente. The secunde at Epiforde, where Horsus and Categirnus woundede either other soore. The þridde batelle was doen thro the helpe of Seynte German cryenge thre tymes "Allelulia," where thro the Saxons were putte to fliȝhte. The iiijthe batelle was at the syde of the see, where the Saxons fledde to the yle callede Thanette. These batelles Page  273, vol.5 doen, Vortumerus was poysonede by Rowen his stappemodyr. ℞. Neverthelesse William Malmesbury rehersethe that he was taken awey sodenly by fatalle chaunce after that he had fauȝhten soore ageynes Englische men by xxti yere. Gaufri|dus et Alfridus. Vortumerus dedde, Vortigernus was re|storede ageyne to the realme, wherefore a convencion of pease was made by Briteynes and Saxones metenge nye to a mo|nastery of Ambre as to trete for pease. Where Hengistus usenge newe treason, commaundede the peple commynge thider with hym to drawe cultres and weppyn putte prively in theire hoose, and to sle the Britones, when that he scholde say in this wyse, in Englische, "Nymethe your sexis;" and soe thei did. But Eldolde the duke of Claudiocestre, takenge a [folio 245b] pale in his honde, defendede hym selfe manly, and did slee lxxti of the Saxones with hit. But the Saxones not suffrenge the Page  275, vol.5 kynge to be sleyne, hade certeyne cites in Briteyne for his redempcion, whiche goenge after that to Wales, un to a mownte callede Cloarcius, was brente in his towre by Aurelius Am|brosius. ℞. But Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo, reher|sethe that Hengistus callede or lathede by treason the kynge of Briteyne, Vortigernus, his sonne in lawe, with ccc. Britons, whiche beynge drunke, a discorde was movede, and after that thei toke weppynes. Where the Britones sleyne, and the kynge taken, he was redemede for thre provinces of the este. Also the same William seythe, libro primo, and Henricus, libro 2o, that Vortigernus hade carnalle knowlege of his awne doȝhter for truste of regalle succession, and gate a sonne by here. Wherefore he, cursede of Seynte German and of alle the cumpanye of prestes, fledde to the weste parte of Wales. Also Page  277, vol.5 hit is redde that Vortigernus fleenge, Seynte German folowenge hym, was brente in his towre by fire fallenge from hevyn. Wherefore the Britons gedrenge an hoste, with theire gover|noure Aurelius Ambrosius, directe theire wowarde in to Kente ageynes Horsus and Hengistus. But Gaufride rehersethe in hys booke of Briteyne, that Aurelius Ambrosius commynge from Bryteyn Armoryke, brente Vortigernus in his towre, and goynge after that to Humbre, causede Hengistus to be heded, sparenge Osca his son, segede at the cite of Yorke, in that he mekede hym selfe. After that he overcome Pascencius the son of Vortigernus, and Gillomaurus, kynge of Yrlonde, help|enge hym; whiche dyede at Wynchestre thro þe poysonynge of a leche Eopa by name, whom Pascencius causede to do so. Hit is redde in the legende of Seynte German, that Vortyger|nus denyenge logynge to hym, a swyneherde longynge to the kynge, seenge the men of God trowblede, toke theyme in to Page  279, vol.5 his howse, and ȝafe a calfe to theyme that they myȝhte eite. But Seynte German restorede the calfe to lyfe after that thei hade sowpede; and in the morowe foloenge Seynte German deposede Vortigernus from that realme by þe commaundemente of God, and made the swyneherde aforeseide kynge, moche [folio 246a] peple merveylenge þerof. And after that tyme kynges of Briteyne come of the blode of that swyneherde. Neverthe|lesse Gildas seithe in his story thys to have happede not of Vortigernus, but of Beuly, kynge of Powyselonde, the sucses|sores of whom did precede*. [Sic in MS.] of the stocke of that swyneherde. Wherefore the thynges seide of the dethe of Vortigernus in that place be seyde by anticipacion, that the hollenesse of the story may be conservede. Also y wolde have schewede in this story other thynges whiche be contenede in this booke of Briteyne if that y hade supposede that thei hade be trewe, as of a damme of ij. dragons, white and redde, of the fantasti|calle getynge off Merlyne, and of his prophecy.

Page  281, vol.5

Capitulum secundum.

VALENTINIANUS themperour, þe tyme of whom is ascribed to the tymes of Theodosius and of Marcianus, dredenge Aecius the victorious knyȝhte, causede hym to be sleyne at Cartago, with whom the fortune of the Weste pereschede. The seide Valentinianus was sleyne by the frendes of Aecius in the feldes of Marcius the same year. Maximus, a dowble consul, was made emperour in the day folowenge, the xiij. kalendes of Aprile, whiche understondenge the Wandalynges to comme from Affrike in to thempire, disposede hym to flee. Wherefore he was taken by the knyȝhtes of Valentinianus and torne membre from membre, and caste in to the water of Tiber. Then Leo the pope metynge Gisericus or he come to the cite, con|descende that fire avoidede and dethe he scholde take his pray. Wherefore he sparenge fire and dethe of peple, toke the Page  283, vol.5 richesse of the cite with hym and mony men. Amonge whom Eudoxia was taken in captivite, thempresse, whiche desirede Gisericus to do that offense to the cite. This Gisericus re|turnynge towarde Affrike, wastede diverse cites of Campany, as Capua and Nola. Then as Seynte Gregory rehersethe in the firste booke of his dialogges, Paulinus the bischoppe of Nola, after that he hade expenede alle his goodes in the redempcion of men taken in captivite, wente to Affrike for the redempcion of the sonne of a wedowe with his moder, and made hym ser|vaunte [folio 246b] to a man of barbre, whiche usenge the office of a gardyner, converte his lorde to the feithe of Criste, and causede the peple taken in to captivite to be delyverede. Marianus, libro secundo. Horsus and Hengistus fauȝhte ageyne the Britons in the vthe yere of Marcianus, in a place Aeglisthorpe, where Horsus and Categirnus felle bothe togedre, but Hengis|tus hade the victory. Beda, libro primo, capitulo septimo decimo. The feithe of Britons was decreasede moche in þose Page  285, vol.5 daies, what for nyenesse to peple of barbre, and what for the heresy of Pelagius spronge amonge theyme, wherefore thei sende to Fraunce for helpe ageyne false peple. To whom Ger|manus the bischoppe Altisiodre and Lupus the bischop Tre|casyne were sende, whiche swagede the tempestes of þe see*. [Heresy was in Briteyne this tyme.] thro theire preyers, and confusede the seide heresy thro holy|nesse of lyfe, thro trawthe of doctrine, and with schewynge of miracles, healenge a mayde that hade bene blynde x. yere. Seynte German goynge after that to the sepulcre of Seynte Alban, toke of the redde erthe with hym from that place where Seynte Alban dyede, and so goynge to hys ynne savede his goodes and of alle that place from brennynge, the goodes of other peple brente with fire. Whiche goynge after that with*. [A mervel|lous vic|torye.] the Britons, putte the Saxons to fliȝhte withowte schedynge of Page  287, vol.5 bloode, in cryenge thryes Alleluia. That yle of Briteyne made clene of heresy, Seynte German returnede to Fraunce, whiche sende fore ageyne come to Briteyne with Severus the disciple of blissede Lupus, and removede the erroure in hit. Whiche returnenge to his cuntre, wente to Valentinianus to Ravenna for the pease of peple of Armoryke, where he dyede, seenge*. [Seynt German dyede.] Criste rechenge to hym brede afore his dethe; whiche inquir|enge the cause, Criste seide, "Drede not, y desire the, and lathe the to the cuntre of pease, and not to labour." The body of this holy man spicede with mony spices was sende to his churche by the commaundement of Valentinianus. Marianus, libro vicesimo primo. Leo the emperour reignede after Mar|cianus xvij. yere; in the firste yere of whom Vortumerus the son of Vortigernus diede, and Hengistus with Osca his sonne, gedrenge the Saxons fledde from hym, fauȝhte soore ageyne the [folio 247a] Britons at Crekanforde, sleynge iiij. ml of theyme with iiij. dukes, and chasede other men inhabitenge the costes of Kente un to London; whiche peple returnede not after that to theire cuntre. For Horsus his broþer, and Categirnus were sleyne Page  289, vol.5 afore, the beryalle of Horsus apperethe ȝitte in the este partes of Kente. And so the realme of Kente began under Hengistus in the viijthe yere of the commynge of Saxones in to Eng|londe, where Hengistus reignede afterwarde xxiiijti yere. The heresy of the Acephales was spronge, whiche impugnede the cownesayle Calcedonense, callede Acephali as withowte an hedde, in that þe auctor of that heresy was not knowen. Hillarius the pope succeeded Leo oon yere. Hengistus and Osca his soone did slee xij. dukes of the Britons with mony oþer, oon man of theire parte sleyne, Wippet by name, where|fore the place of þat fiȝhte was callede Wippehisflete, as the swymmynge place of Wipette. Simplicius the pope succeedede Hillarius xv. yere, whiche ordeynede that noo clerke scholde receyve investiture of his benefice or office of the honde of a seculer lay man.

Page  291, vol.5

Capitulum tertium.

ZENO themperour reignede after Leo xvij. yere. In the tyme of whom Childericus, the iiijthe kynge of Fraunce, diede, whom Clodoneus other Lodowicus succeded, and reignede xxxti yere. This kynge Lodowicus, in the xv. yere of his reigne, intendynge to ȝiffe batelle to an hoste of the Alle|mannes beynge as innumerable, beholdenge in to hevyn seide, "O Lorde Ihesu Criste, whom my wife honourethe, if thow grawnte to me the victory this day, y schalle be baptized;" and therewith his enemyes fledde. Wherefore that kynge Lodowicus was baptizede on Ester day, with iij. ml men, and with his ij. sustyrs, of blissede Remigius bischop Remense, whiche havynge noo holy creame, a dove come from hevyn havenge a cruette conteynenge creame in her mowthe, with whiche creame the bischoppe noyntede the kynge. That cruette is kepede in the churche Remense, of the whiche creame kynges in Fraunce be noyntede. This kynge goyenge after [folio 247b] that to ȝiffe batelle ageyne Alaricus, destroyenge Aquitanny, Page  293, vol.5 Remigius the bischoppe toke to hym a litelle veselle fulle of blissede wyne, with a promysse of victory, seyenge that he scholde be a victor so longe as þat wyne indurede. The kynge drunke of hit and his hoste, þe wyne not decreasede, occupyenge Aquitanny and Ligeris, whiche commynge to Turonis, to a churche of Seynte Martyne, herde this verse of the sawter, "Præcinxisti me, Domine, virtute ad bellum." Whiche comfortede gretely þerwith, willenge to goe over the forde of Vincenna, but that water gretely encreasede, an herte apperynge sodenly schewede the weye to the kynge. After that he encreasede the realme of Fraunce un to the hilles Pyrene off Aragon. The fame of this kynge herde, Anas|tasius themperour sende to hym a crowne of golde onowrnede with gemmes, with a coote and a gyrdelle, from whiche tyme he was made consul and Augustus of the commune thynge, induede with a consular clothynge. From whiche tyme the Roman empyre translate to Constantinopole, began to decrease, Page  295, vol.5 and the realme of Fraunce to be encreasede. Gisericus the kynge of Wandalynges dedde, Hunericus, his elder sonne, suc|ceded hym viij. yere in Affrike. This Hunericus schewede mekenes in the begynnenge of his reigne to Cristen peple, after the subtilite of barbre, but after that he causede the brestes of virgynes to be brente with yrne, for this cause that peple scholde say they hade lyen with bischoppes and other prestes. Also he causede a grete multitude of Cristen peple*. [An horrible dede.] to be putte in to a streyte prison, where eiche of þeyme scholde sende furthe uryne and the burdon of nature uppon the hedes of other. Wherefore that pestilente odoure semede to excede alle other peynes. Medardus the confessor, and Gildardus byschop Rotomagense, were in this tyme, bothe breþer uteryne, borne in oon day, consecrate in to bischoppes in oon day, and bothe dedde in oon day. Henricus, libro secundo. Elle and his þre sonnes, Symenpletynge*. [Sic in MS.] abowte the xxxti yere of the Page  297, vol.5 commynge of Englische men to Briteyne, commynge to Briteyne with iij. schippes, at a place callede Cymeneshore, did sle mony Britones, and chasede theym to a woode callede Andresleg, and so thei occupiede Sowthesexe. Henricus, libro quinto. Andresleg is a grete woode in þe sowthe parte of Kente, nye to the haven of Lymene, havenge xlti myles in [folio 248a] lengthe and xxxti myles in brodenesse. Felix the pope suc|ceded Simplicius viij. yere. And the body of Seynte Barna|bas, the firste bischoppe Mediolanense, was founde this tyme, in a place or beryalle where Iohn his disciple did hide hit, with the gospelle of Seynte Mathewe, whom he did write with his awne honde. Willelmus de Regibus, libro j o. Hen|gistus diedethis tyme in Kente, governenge as welle thro disseyte as by myȝhte, levenge after hym Osca his sonne, reignenge xxiiijti yere, defendenge his cuntre rather then encreasynge Page  299, vol.5 hit. Eutropius, libro decimo quarto. Aurelius Ambrosius beynge in Briteyne, was induede with purpulle in tyme of this Zeno themperour, havenge victory oftetymes of the Saxons; and after that, now the oon hade victory, and that other parte on oþer tyme, un tille the Saxons encreasede gretely, occupiede alle the yle of Briteyne. Blissede Mam|mertus, bischope Viennense, ordeynede solenne letanyes callede rogacions abowte this tyme, ageyne movenges of therthe, tempestes and incourses of bestes destroyenge moche peple that tyme, namede the lesse letanye, to the difference of the moore letany, whom Seynte Gregory ordeynede to be seide or songe in the day off Seynte Marke. Paulus, libro primo. Agrimundus, kynge of Longobardes, goynge abowte this tyme*. [Of a woman havenge vij. childer at oon chil|denge.] towarde Pannonia, founde vij. yonge childer nye to a water, of whom a woman of ylle disposicion was delyverede at oon childenge, puttenge theym þer to be sleyne. That kynge willynge to knowe what thynge hit scholde be, putte the spere Page  301, vol.5 he hade in his honde towarde the childer, and anoon oon of theyme toke the spere in his honde. Whereby the kynge seide that he scholde be a noble man, whiche commaundede hym to be taken and norischede tendrely, whiche was electe to be kynge of the Longobardes, for his noble chevallery, after the dethe of Agelmundus, whiche governede the Longobardes mony yeres in grete felicite. Whiche taken from a water callede by theire langage Lama, was namede Lamissio. Zeno themperour sende Theodoricus to ȝiffe batelle to Odoacer, whiche hade occupiede Ytaly and vexede hit soore by xiiij. yere. This Theodoricus was sonne to the kynge of Gothes, ȝiffen to Zeno themperour as in a token of luffe made betwene theym. This Theodoricus havenge xviij. yere in age, passynge Bulgaria and Pannonia, refreschede his hoste in the feldes off [folio 248b] Page  303, vol.5 Aquileia, whiche hade victory of Odoacer, metenge hym with alle the power of Ytaly, causenge hym to flee to Ravenna; whiche, segede þer as by the space of thre yere, was sleyne þer. Theodoricus commynge to Rome after that victory, was receyvede with honoure, takenge to his wife Andelfleda, doȝhter of Clodoneus kynge of Fraunce, maryenge his doȝhters and susters german to kynges in the cuntre abowte hym, in so moche that alle Ytaly was ioynede alle moste to hym.

Capitulum quartum.

ANASTASIUS was emperour xxvijti yere; in the firste yere of whom Seynte Patrikke, the firste archebischoppe of Yrlonde, diede in the c. and xxijti yere of his age, Aurelius Am|brosius reignynge that tyme at Briteyne. Giraldus in Topo|graphia. The contemporanyes of whom were Columba Page  305, vol.5 thabbotte, other Columkillus, and Seynte Brigida whom he did veyle, lyvenge by xlti yere after the dethe of Seynte Paterikke. These thre were beryede in Ulster, as in a threfolde beryalle, in the cite Dunense; the bodies of whom were founde firste in Yrlonde in the firste yere of the commynge of lorde Iohn, son of kynge Henry the secunde, in to that cuntre. In the towmbe of whom these versus were wryten:—"Hii tres in*. [Versus.] Duno tumulo tumulantur in uno, Brigida, Patricius, atque Columba Pius." ℞. Hit is seide this Patrikke the firste to have doen ij. thynges to be mervaylede in his lyfe amonge other thynges: oon ys, that he putte with his staffe alle bestes of venome from the londe of Yrlonde. The secunde is that noo man in Yrlonde schalle lyve after*. [The scribe had begun the word unto, but it is erased.] the commynge off Ante|criste. The thrydde thynge of the Purgatory of Seynte Page  307, vol.5 Patrikke is ascribede to Seynte Patricke the secunde, not bischoppe but an abbotte, whiche was abowte the viije and lti yere of oure Lorde God; of whom the martiloge expressethe that he levynge the rebellous peple of Irlonde come to þe monastery of Glassynbery, where he diede in the feste of Seynte Bartholomewe þapostelle. Gelasius the pope succeded Felix v. yere, whiche ordeynede that ordres scholde be ȝiffen in [folio 249a] the iiij. tymes of the yere. Also he made the preface quoti|dian, "Vere dignum et justum est," un to "dies nostros." In the tyme of whom the revelacion of the cripte of Seynte Michael in the mownte Gargan was made in the iiijc. yere xcij. of Criste. The realme of the Ynglische men of the este*. [The realme of Este Ynglonde began.] partes of Briteyne began in the tyme of Uffa, of whom men of his cuntre were callede Uffinge, whom we calle now Ficanes or Fikes. Beda, libro primo, capitulo sexto decimo. A grete murdre of Saxons was made in this yere by Aurelius Ambro|sius Page  309, vol.5 in the sege of þe mownte Badonike, in the xliiijti yere of the commynge of Ynglysche men in to Briteyne. Henricus, libro secundo. Too dukes of the Saxons, Cerdicus and Kyn|ricus his sonne, comme to Briteyne with v. schippes in thys yere, londenge at Cerdichesore, callede now Gernemowthe. Seynte Leonarde was borne this tyme, whom Clodoneus kynge*. [Seynte Leonard was borne in þis tyme.] toke from the fonte. Anastasius the pope succeded Gelasius ij. yere, whiche ordeynede that eny clerke scholde not leve eny office in the churche for malice or hate, masse excepte. Also he excommunicate Anastasius themperour. Simachus the pope succedede Anastasius xv. yere, with whom an oþer pope was ordeynede, Laurencius by name; thro whiche ordi|naunce grete division was movede in the cite. But thei ac|cordede at the laste, wente to Ravenna to abyde the decre and ordinaunce of Theodoricus; whiche made thys decre, that he scholde be pope whiche was electe firste, or elles he that hade moo voyces in theleccion. And so Symachus reioycede that Page  311, vol.5 office, whiche luffede clerkes and noryschede pover peple. Wherefore Paschasius the diacon cardinalle favorynge the parte of Laurencius un to his dethe was putte in to purgatory to serve bathes after his dethe, in that he favorede the parte of Laurencius ageyne Simachus, as Seynte Gregory rehersethe in the bookes of his dialogges. This pope ordeynede that "Gloria in excelsis" scholde be seide on Sundayes at masse, and in the festes of martirs. ℞. Wherefore somme men wille that this pope made the residu folowenge "Gloria in excelsis," and mony men ascribe that laboure to Hillarius. Remigius doctor off Fraunce and bischop Remense diede in this yere, þe nativite of whom and the maner of hit an heremite schewede to hys moder, whiche was blynde thro ofte wepynge. Whiche ex|pressede [folio 249b] this signe, that a childe norischede of here breste scholde noynte his eien with the mylke of hit, where thro he Page  313, vol.5 scholde have his siȝhte restorede to hym. After that this Remigius was with a recluse un to the xxijti yere of his age; after that he, made the bischop Remense, was seide to have bene of soe grete mekenesse that wilde sparowes wolde comme and take meyte of his honde. Henricus. Porth londede in this tyme at Portesmowthe with his ij. sonnes, where he did slee a noble yonge Briton, Natanleod by name, with mony other moo. Lotharius kynge of Fraunce succeded Clodoneus his fader lj. yere; in whose tyme Ambrosius Aurelius dedde at Briteyne, Uter Pendragon his broþer was his successor. ℞. Whiche brouȝhte from Yrlonde the stones beynge nowe at the playne of Salisbery, and callede Stanhenges, thro helpe of Merlinus the prophete, after the story of Briteyne, and if hit be lawefulle to ȝiffe credence þerto, where kynge Arthur was crownede. This Uter did sle Pascencius the son of Page  315, vol.5 Vortigernus, and Gillomaurus kynge of Irlonde, Osca the son of Hengistus, and Osa his cosyn also. Whiche did sle also Gorolus duke of Cornewaile, and mariede Iugerna the wife of the seide duke, by whom he gate noble Arthur, and Anne his suster; poysonede at the laste, and beryede nye to Aurelius his broþer at Stanhengis. Hormisda the pope succedede Simachus viij. yere. This pope reconsilede the Grekes and the clergy, and made a beame of silver of a ml and lx.li., levenge hit at the churche of Seynte Petyr; whiche sende letters to Ana|stasius themperour, favorynge the errour of Euticen, that he scholde amende and do penaunce for that offense. To whom themperour did write ageyne, seyenge, "We wylle commaunde, and not be commaundid." Wherefore that emperour com|passede with his enemys was sleyne with the liȝhtenge. Osca the son of Hengistus dedde, Occa his son succeded in Kente, Page  317, vol.5 whiche reignede xxijti. yere. Marianus, libro secundo. Iordanus the bischoppe was in this tyme, whiche made a cronicle.

Capitulum quintum.

IUSTINUS the senior, after Bede, reignede viij. yere, and after oþer men x. yere; whiche revokede from exile mony bischopes whom Anastasius hade putte to exile, thro þe preyer of Hormisda. Henricus, libro secundo. The realme of the [folio 250a] Weste Saxones, other Gewiseies, began under Cerdicus and Kynricus his sonne in this yere, whiche was the lxj. yere of the commynge of Ynglische men in to Briteyne. Stuff and Withgar, cosynnes to theyme, helpenge theyme moche, whiche takenge londe at Cerdichesore did sle mony Britones, ȝiffenge to Stuff and Withgar the yle of Wiȝhte. Iohn the pope suc|ceded Page  319, vol.5 Hormisda iij. yere; whom Theodorìcus Augustus, infecte with heresy of Arrius, sende to Ytaly to Iustinus emperour of Constantinopole, with other consulles, schewenge to hym that he wolde slee the tru peple of Criste in Ytaly withowte he wolde suffre men infecte with heresy to lyve in reste. Whiche understondynge the legates commynge to Ravenna to have bene receyvede with worschippe, toke Symachus þe patricius, and Iohn the pope, and pereschede theym in prison, sendynge Boecius the senator to Papia in to exile, whiche defendede þe auctorite of the senate of Rome by reasons. Where Boecius made iiij. bookes de consolatione philosophiæ, whiche was Page  321, vol.5 throtelede in the territory Mediolanense. ℞. This Boecius was singuler in his werkes and irreprehensible and famous in the langage of Grewe and also of Latyne, erudite or instructe firste at Rome, after at Athenes; whiche made lti noble songes comicalle, excepte þese bookes whom he made in the vij. artes. Amonge whom, "O amor Deus deitas" dothe precelle. Also his wife, Elpes by name, doȝhter of the kynge of Sicille, made an ympne in the honoure off Petyr and of*. [of and, MS., the of being slightly erased.] Paule, apostoles, whiche begynnethe, "Felix per omnes." Whiche metrificate her owne epitaphy in this wise, "Elpes dicta fui, Sicule regionis*. [Nota versus.] alumpna, Quam procul a patria conjugis egit amor. Portici|bus sacris jam nunc peregrina quiesco, Judicis æterni testifi|cata Page  323, vol.5 thronum." But Theodoricus that tyraunte escapede not unpunyschede; whiche exercisenge grete crudelite, diede sodenly at Ravenna in þe xc. day folowenge that persecucion. Whom a solitary man dwellynge at Lipparis see to be drownede in a place in the see nye to Sicille, callede Olla Vulcani, in whiche place the see or water seethe lyke to water in a caldron. Seynte Brigida the virgyn dyede in this tyme in Yrlonde. [folio 250b] Felix the pope succedede Iohn as iiij. yere. Dionisius exiguus, abbotte, began to laboure the his compte. The imperfeccions of whom he advertisede firste or allone, and after hym Marianus a monke inclusede in Mangocia, as hit is schewede afore in the thridde preface of the firste booke.

Capitulum sextum.

IUSTINIANUS, son of the suster of Iustinus, was emperour xxxviijti yere, whiche coartede the lawes of the Romanes, Page  325, vol.5 occupyenge allemoste ij. ml bookes and iij. c. ml versus, as is prolixe dissonaunce within oon volume of xij. bookes, whiche booke he callede Iustinianus. Also he made þe digeste, dividynge hyt in thre volumes. This Iustinianus did mony batelles, what by hym selfe and what by Bilisiarchus hys duke. Neverthelesse he did mony cruelle thynges, by cownsaile of Theodora thempresse puttenge Silverius the pope in to exile. ℞. Bonefacius the pope succedede Felix ij. yere; whiche made a constitucion that clerkes scholde be departede from lay men in tyme of masse, and also that the pope scholde electe his successor; whiche chosenge a man to be his successor, and founde unworthy, brente that statute afore alle þe cleregy. Iohn the pope, other Mercurius, succeded Bonefacius not oon yere complete. This pope kepede the vthe holy seene*. [Sic in MS., see p. 363.] uni|versalle at Constantinopole, in whom he converte Iustinian themperour, infecte with heresy of Arrius; also he ordeynede processions to be hade in Sonnedayes. Whiche dyenge þer was brouȝhte to Rome to be beryede; after the dethe of whom a Page  327, vol.5 grete mortalite was at Constantinopole, wherefore the Purifica|cion of oure Lady was halowed þer firste, which feste is callede Ypopanti, as a metenge, and so that dethe seasede. Silverius was pope oon yere; whiche wyllenge to calle from exile Antimus bischop of Constantinopole, dampnede for heresy by Agapitus þe pope, was putte to exile to the yle Poncian, by the commaundemente of themperour, and of Theodora them|presse, where he, induede with the habite of a monke, dyede. Vigilius was pope xviij. yere. Theodora thempresse schewede persecucion to hym for the seide Antimus, like as sche did to his predecessor, in so moche that he brouȝhte to Constantinopole, ledde from the churche Sancte Sophie, and bofette, was drawen [folio 251a] by a roope made faste abowte his necke from morowe un tyl nyȝhte. Somme men say þat vengeaunce to have fallen to Page  329, vol.5 hym in that he beynge archidiacon to Silverius causede Theodora thempresse to putte hym in to exile that he myȝhte be pope. Neverthelesse he toke correccion for þat offense afterwarde, whiche suffrenge grete iniury, seide to themperour and to thempresse, "Iustinianus and Theodora causede not me to comme to theyme, but Dioclicianus and Eleutheria." Henricus, libro secundo. Noble Arthur havynge xviij. yere in age, did aryse amonge the Britons in this yere, whiche was the xthe yere of Cerdicus kynge of Weste Saxons; whiche hade victory xij. tymes ageyne the Saxons; in the firste tyme on the water of Glene, and iiij. tymes on the water callede Duglas, whiche is in þe region of Inees. ℞. That water is callyde nowe in Ynglische Duggles, whiche rennethe by the cite of Wigan, beynge from the water callede Mersee x. myle, in Lancastreschire. Henricus. Also in the vjthe tyme, nye a water callede Bassa. In the vijthe tyme, nye to Lincolne, in a woode callede Celidon, and in the langage of Britons Caercoyt Celidon. In the ixthe tyme at the cyte Caerlegion. In the Page  331, vol.5 xijthe tyme in the mownte Badon. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. This is Arthur of whom the iapes of Britons discorde, whom tru storyes scholde expresse, and not false storyes, whiche scholde helpe the Britons as destroyede, puttenge to fliȝhte hym selfe allon ix.c. Saxones at the sege of the mownte Badon. ℞. Neverthelesse hit is redde that Cerdicus havenge mony conflictes with Arthur, overcommyn in oon tyme, apperede more myȝhty in the secunde tyme to batelle. And at the laste this Arthur made wery in batelle, abowte the xxvjti yere of the commynge of Cerdicus in to Briteyne, promisenge fidelite to Arthur, ȝafe to Cerdicus Hampteschire and Somer|seteschire, whiche parte he callede Westesex. Also hit is redde in the cronicles of Ynglysche men that Mordredus, son of the Page  333, vol.5 suster of Arthur, willenge to reigne, and dredynge Cerdicus, ȝafe to hym other costes to favor hym. Cerdicus makenge grawnte instorede his provinces with newe Saxons, and was crownede at Wynchestre after the maner of gentyles; and Mordredus was crownede at London, and made kynge of the [folio 251b] Britons; neverthelesse the yle of Wiȝhte remaynede to With|garus, son to the sustyr of Cerdicus. Neverthelesse, after the story of Britons, Arthur fiȝhtenge with Mordredus did sle hym, and was sleyne, in the vale of Avalonia, nye to Glassynbery, and beryede þer. The body of whom, with the body of Gvennevera his wife, was founde þer in the yere of oure Lorde God a ml c. and lxxx., in the tyme of kynge Henry the secunde, and translate or brouȝte to the churche, as Giraldus rehersethe, "distinctione prima, capitulo decimo octavo," whiche lyvede in that tyme, and towchede the boones of Arthur. Mony men mervayle of this Arthur, whom Gaufride Page  335, vol.5 extollethe so moche oonly, how the thynges scholde be tru that be seide of hym, for, as Gaufride rehersethe, he conquerede xxxti realmes. And if he subduede to hym the kynge of Fraunce, and did sle Lucius the proctor of Rome at Ytaly, þen hit is mervayle þat croniclers of Rome, of Fraunce, and of the Saxons, scholde not have expressede of so noble a prince in theire storyes, whiche expressede litelle thynges of lawe men of degre. Gaufride seithe Arthur to have overcommen Frollo kynge of Fraunce, sithe hit ys not redde of suche a name amonge men of Fraunce. Also he seythe Arthur to have sleyne Lucius Heberius, proctor of the cite of Rome, in the tymes of Leo themperour sythe after alle storyes of the Romanes Lucius gouernede not in þat tyme, neither Arthur was in the tyme of Leo themperour, neiþer borne in that tyme, but in the tyme of Iustinian, whiche was the vthe em|peroure from Leo. Gaufride seythe that he hathe mervayle that Gildas and Beda make noo mencion of Arthur in theire Page  337, vol.5 writenges; but y suppose hit be rather to be mervaylede why þat Gaufridus extollethe hym so moche, whom olde auctores, tru and famose writers of storyes, leve untowchede. But peraventure the consuetude of every nacion is to extolle somme of theire blode in lawde excessive, as the Grekes grete Alexander, the Romanes Octavian, Englische men kynge Richarde, Frenche men Charls; and so the Britons extollede Arthur. Whiche þinge happethe, as Iosephus seythe, other for feyrenesse of the story, other for the delectacion of the reders, Page  339, vol.5 other for exaltacion of theire propre bloode. Þerfore after Gaufride, in his boke of Briteyne, Arthur lyke to dye grawnt|ede the diademe of his realme un to Constantyne his cosyn, sonne to Cador duke of Cornewayle; whiche fiȝhtenge ofte|tymes with the sonnes of Mordredus, did slee theyme, dyenge [folio 252a] hym selfe after the iiijthe yere of his reigne. After whom Page  341, vol.5 Aurelius Conanus occupiede þat realme thre yere, whom Vorti|pernus succedede iiij. yere. After hym Malgo the beawtuous man reignede, infecte with þe synne of sodomy. After whom Careticus reignede a certeyne space, contrarious to God, and a luffer of civile batelle: the Saxons perceyvenge the incon|stance of hym, sende for Gurmundus to Yrlonde, whiche hade subduede hit late to hym, and at the laste thei segede Careticus at Cirencestre, causenge hym to fle with the Britons over the water of Severne in to Wales, wastenge Loegria with fyre and by swerde. And from that tyme the Britons loste the monarchye. Cerdicus, the firste kynge of the Westesaxons, diede after þe xxvijti yere of his reigne, whom Kynricus his sonne succeded xxvjti yere. David other Dewei was made Page  343, vol.5 bischoppe of Menevia in Wales. Chilpericus the vijthe kynge of men of Fraunce, reignede after Lotharius his fader xxiiijti yere. The realme of Northumbrelonde began under Ida the sonne of Eoppa, in þe xijthe degre from Woden, from whom alle the regalle bloode of Northumbrelonde toke begynnynge, and reignede in Bernica xij. yere, havynge mony childre. That thynge happede in the tyme of this emperour Iustinian, that Gregory expressethe in his dialogges of the bischoppes, whiche Page  345, vol.5 heded at Affrike for the feithe of Criste, spake theire hedes kytte of, oon bischop excepte, whiche wontede that vertu for cause he hade fallen to the synne of þe flesche. Abowte this tyme also an archidiacon of the londe of Sicille, Theophilus by name, rewlede hym so nobly under the bischoppe, that he was electe to be bischoppe after the dethe of his lorde. Whiche refusenge hit, suffrede an oþer man to be bischoppe, by whom Theophilus was putte from his office withowte ryȝhte; where|fore he come to so grete impacience, takenge counsaile of a nigromancier of Hebrewe, that he wolde forsake Criste and Mary his moder in this condicion, that he myȝte reioyce the office that he hade afore, makenge homage to the develle, and [folio 252b] writenge the dede with his awne bloode. Whiche receyvenge his office in the morowe folowynge, compuncte in hym selfe and contrite, receyvede the dede taken to the develle, and also Page  347, vol.5 remission of his synnes, thro the meane of Mary moder of Criste. Whiche expressede afore the bischoppe and other peple his offense, causynge alle men to mervayle and to honoure Criste, dyenge in that place after the thridde day in whom oure lady restorede to hym the wrytenge. Pelagus the pope succeded Vigilius xj. yere. In whiche yere Totila, kynge of the Gothes, entrede in to Ytaly, and so in to Campany, goynge by the monastery of Seynte Benedicte, and after that to Rome, segenge hit soore, and entrenge in to hit in the nyȝhte by the ȝate Hostiense, causenge the trumpettes to blawe, that somme of the Romanes myȝhte avoide his cruellenesse. This Athila,*. [Sic in MS.] willenge to attempte wheþer blissede Benedicte hade the spirite of prophecy, toke a knyȝhte of his, settynge a diademe on his hedde, clothede also with regalle vesture, as if he hade bene the kynge, and sende hym to Seynte Benedicte. Page  349, vol.5 To whom he seide, "Put downe from the that þou dose use and were now, hit is not þyne that thow beres." After that Totila felle downe to the grownde afore Seynte Benedicte, and wolde not aryse un tille blissede Benedicte toke hym up from the grownde, seyenge to hym: "Thou hase doen mony ylle thynges; sease nowe: thow schalle entre in to Rome, and passe and reigne after this oonly ix. yere:" from whiche tyme he schewede moore mercy þen he did afore. Whom Narses the patricius overcomme in batelle. Then Cassiodorus, somme tyme chaunceler of Theodoricus kynge, floryschede in con|nynge, after that consulle, and also a senator, made a monke at Rome; after that expownede the sawter nobly amonge other noble werkes. Kynricus, kynge of Weste Saxons, diede, whom Ceaulinus, his son, succedede xxxiijti yere. This kynge chasede the Britons from the cites of Cirencestre, Gloucestre, and of Bathe, un to woodes in Wales. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Whiche hatede bothe of Britons and of the Saxons in Page  351, vol.5 the ende, and his hoste sleyne, was putte in to exile, where he diede. In the tyme of whom Elle the xijthe from Woden, began to reigne in the province of Deira, reignenge þer alle|moste xxxti yere. At the name of whom the grete pope Gregory, seenge childer of Ynglonde to be solde at Rome, [folio 253b] seyde hit behovethe Alleluia to be songe there. ℞. Never|thelesse the grace of feithe come not to Elle, but un to kynge Edwynus his sonne. After that Adam, the firste geten son of Ida, reignede in Bernicia vij. yere, and Claspa v. yere, Theod|wulphus oon yere, Feotulphus vij. yere. Elle beynge in lyfe and his sonne Edwyne putte thryes to fliȝhte, Ethelicus, son of Ida, reignede v. yere on bothe provinces, Deira and Bernicea. Paulus, libro primo in fine. Audoenus, kynge of Longobardes, Page  353, vol.5 dwellenge in Pannonia, abowte this tyme ȝafe soore batelle to the Geppideies, in whiche conflicte Albinus, son of Audoenus kynge of the Longobardes, did sle the sonne of the kynge of Geppideies, and so they were dispersede. Wherefore the Longobardes preiede theire kynge to make a feste to his sonne. The kynge answerede seyenge þat hit was not conveniente that the sonne scholde sytte egally to the fader in eny feste withowte that he hade taken armes of somme straunge kynge. Albinus herenge that, and takynge with hym xlti noble yonge men, wente to the kynge of Geppideies, the sonne of whom he hade sleyne afore, desirenge armes of hym. Whiche receyvede with grete honor of the kynge, was sette in the place where the kynges son that was sleyne was wonte to sytte. The seide kynge sighenge soore seyde: "That place is amable to me, but hit grevouthe me to see the person sittynge þer." Then the son of the kynge seide to Abinnus,*. [Sic.] rekukenge gretely the Page  355, vol.5 Longobardes in his langage, seyenge theyme to be like to mares, the feete of whom be whyte nye to the thyes, in that the Longo|bardes usede that tyme whyte listes un to theire theiȝes. To whom oon of the Longobardes seide: "Goe into the felde, and thow schalle experte how worthyly these mares can spurne, where the boones of thy broþer do lye." Then the Geppideis ordeynede theym to fiȝhte, and the Longobardes sette hondes to theire swerdes. But the kynge arysenge from the table stillede that rumor, seyenge that hit is not an honeste victory to sle a geste in his ynne; takenge to Albinnus the armor of his son, sendenge hym to his fader in pease. Willelmus de [folio 253b] Regibus, libro primo. Ethelbertus, son of Ermenicus, reignede in Kente after Bede lvti yere; whiche was hade in derision Page  357, vol.5 of other kynges nye to hym in the begynnenge of his reigne, whiche loosenge victory in ij. batelles, cowthe unnethe kepe his awne cuntre. But after that he subduede to hym alle kynges nye to hym, the kynge of Northumbrelonde excepte; cow|plenge to hym blissede Francigena at the desire of Letardus the bischoppe, whiche come with her to reconsile vertu, and to correcte synne. At the laste he refusede infidelite at the prechynge of Seynte Austyn, and made lawes after the speche of his cuntre, ordeynynge to goode men rewardes, and peyne to synners; dyenge in the xxjti yere folowenge the tyme he hade receyvede the feithe. Martinus. Iohn þe iiijthe, pope after Pelagius, sate as presidente xiij. yere. In whiche tyme Priscian the gramarion, borne in Cesarea, floryschede at Constantinopole, whiche discussede not oonly gramer, but he describede the worlde also in a booke callede Cosmographia. Of whom Hugucio, Page  359, vol.5 capitulo Edo es, rehersethe that he forsakede the feythe of Criste for the luffe of a disciple longynge to hym, Iulianus by name. In whiche tyme Orator, subdiacon of the cite of Rome, did wryȝte the Actes of thapostles in versus exametre. Also Seynte Brendan thabbotte was this tyme in Irlonde, of whom mervel|lous thynges be redde, and specially of his purgatory, whiche is seide to be in the weste partes of Yrlonde. In whiche tyme the boones of Seynte Steven were brouȝhte to Rome, and putte into a place with the boones of Seynte Laurence. And, as the cronicles of the Romanes expresse, that Seynte Laurence lyenge un to that tyme upryȝhte, turnede hym then on his side, as to ȝiffe space to Steven his felawe.

Capitulum septimum.

IUSTINUS the secunde reignede after Iustinianus xj. yere; a contemptor of povere men, spoyler of senatores, and ȝiffen to Page  361, vol.5 alle avarice, in so moche that he made grete cofres of yrne to kepe his treasoure. Whiche fallenge ageyne in to the heresy of Pelagius, loste the reason of his mynde, causenge Tiberius to governoure*. [Sic in MS.] thempire. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo tertio. An abbot and preste, Columba by name, in the firste yere of this [folio 254a] prynce, come from the costes of Yrlonde, to preche to the northe Pictes, dividede from the sowthe Pictes by hye mown|tannes. For the sowthe Pictes were convertede afore, by Ninian, a bischoppe of the nacion of Britons, sende þider, instructe afore at Rome; the sete of whom was at a place callede Candida Casa, where he dothe reste, perteynynge in that tyme to Bernica. Marianus, libro secundo. Bridius the kynge reignynge that tyme amonge theyme. Beda ubi supra. Columba, thabbotte commynge to the northe Pictes, toke the Page  363, vol.5 yle of Hii of theym, to edifye a monastery there, whiche was the principalle monastery amonge alle other monasterys of his fundacion, in so moche that þeke yle was wonte to have a rec|tor, an abbotte, and a preste, to whom alle the province were subiecte, and the bischoppes also, after thexemple of Columba, theire firste doctor, whiche was not a bischoppe, but a preste and a monke, dyenge þer after the xxxijti yere of his commynge in to that cuntre, levynge after hym noble disciples, but havynge dowte of the kepynge of Ester, folowenge circles by c. and lti yere un to the yere off grace vij.c. and xv., when Egwercus, a priste of the nacion of Ynglische men, put þer longe to exile, come to þeim. And hit was noo mervayle thauȝhe they hade dowte of the tru observaunce, when that the decrees of holy seynes*. [See p. 325.] come not un to theyme, as putte withowte the worlde. Paulus, libro secundo. Narses patricius Page  365, vol.5 sende from Iustinus themperour to Ytaly, did sle Totila the kynge of Gothes, and reformede mony thyngs for the utilite of thempire; neverthelesse the Romanes schewede grete envy to hym, in so moche that thei did sende to Iustinus themperour, seyenge that hit were better to the Romanes to serve the Gothes then men of Grece, where Narses patricius is governoure. Wherefore themperour, movede there at, sende Longinus, governoure of his howse, to be governoure amonge theyme, in the place of Narses patricius. And also Sophia thempresse sende to Narses, that he scholde comme [folio 254b] to Constantinopole and lerne to make threde amonge her maydes. Whom hit is seide to have answerede in this wise, seyenge that he scholde spynne to her a webbe that sche scholde not putte aweye in alle the dayes of her lyfe. Whiche goenge to Neapolis in Campania, commaundede the Longobardes to refuse the pover places of Pannony, and to go Page  367, vol.5 to the plentuous place of Ytaly; and so thei did. Wherefore the Longobardes entrede in to Ytaly in the secunde fery of Ester, in the yere of oure Lorde God v.c. lxviij.; the realme of Ytaly was absolute from the subieccion of themperour, and þe Romanes were governede after that tyme by patricions. ℞. Mervellous þinges as of fire were seene in the aier, lyke to bloode, of the whiche Seynte Gregory spekethe in an omely, or that Albinus, governoure of the Longobardes, entrede in to Ytaly. Also mervellous signes apperede in the churche of Ligure, by howses, durres, veselles, and on clothes, whiche waschede apperede more. And also diverse thynges and signes began to sprynge in the nayles of men, whom a grete tempeste of the fevers folowede, peryschenge men with in the space of thre dayes, wherefore men fledde, levenge dogges in Page  369, vol.5 theire places; so feldes were not tyllede, and a mervellous sownde was herde þer, somme tyme in the day, and somme tyme in the nyȝhte, as if hit scholde be the goynge of an hoste; neverthelesse, eny stappes apperede not þer. Paulus, libro quinto. The Longobardes were callede of theire longe berdes, in þat wise clippenge theire heire from the toppe un to the hynder parte, suffrenge hit to growe afore, usenge large clothes and longe, and specially off lyne, as Ynglische men and Saxons were wonte to use, with large boundes woven of thredes of diverse coloures. The hoose of theym were wonte to honge to theire hommes, bounde with thwanges on either side, and theire schoone cloven un to theire hommes. In the firste commynge of whom in to Ytaly, Albinus segede the cite Papy thre yere, and toke hit, occupyenge alle Ytaly, Rome excepte. Paulus,Page  371, vol.5libro secundo, ac etiam Marianus et Martinus. That kynge Al|binus entrenge the cite Papy by the este yate of hit, the horse on whom he did ryde felle downe in þe myddes of the ȝate, whiche wolde not aryse in eny wise un til that Albinus seide that he wolde not fullefille the vowe that he hade made, whiche [folio 255a] was that he scholde sle alle the peple the wolde not take that cite un to hym. Wherefore Albinnus*. [Sic, et infra, p. 373.] reignenge in Ytaly thre yere and vj. monethes, dyede in this maner foloenge thro trea|son of his wife. This Albinus commynge firste to inhabite Pannonia, did sle the kynge of the Geppidons, of the breyne panne of whom he made a pece to drynke of, maryenge the doȝhter of the seide kynge, Rosamunda by name. Whiche makenge a grete feste at the cite of Nerona, toke to his wife that pece, preyenge her to drynke with her fader. This Rosa|munda havynge indignacion þer of, entrede in to a bedde of a Page  373, vol.5 gentilwoman longynge to her, in the absence of the kynge, whiche gentilwoman a duke of Albinus luffede moche, whiche entrenge in to that bedde hade his pleasure, supposynge that hit hade bene the gentilwoman. Then sche seide to þe duke, "Knowes thow what thou hase doen? truly thow hase doen so now that either thow schalle sle Albinnus, or thow schalle be sleyne by hym;" and so he did. For the kynge Albinnus beynge in slepe in his meridien tyme, Rosamunda his wife made faste his swerde, that his sleer commynge, and he awak|ynge, myȝte not defende hym selfe. Wherefore the kynge sleyne, the duke and the qwene fledde un to Ravenna, whiche taryenge þer a certeyne tyme, Rosamunda beholdenge a beaw|tuous yonge man, mayre of the cite, hade a fervente luffe to hym. Wherefore sche ordeynede poyson, and toke hit to the duke to drynke þerof; whiche drynkynge þeroff, and knowynge Page  375, vol.5 hym to dye þerby, compellede Rosamunda to drynke the residu, and so they were pereschede bothe. Somme men say that Rosamunda extincte, Perideus, a man knowenge þerof, com|mynge from Ravenna to Constantinopole, did sle a lyon in an open disporte afore themperour, whom themperour causede to be made blynde leste that he scholde do eny thynge ageyne that cite. Whiche takenge ij. knyfes in his slevys, and feynynge hym to speke with themperour in a secrete cownsayle, did sle ij. patricions sende to hym by themperour at oon stroke. Henricus, libro 2o. Ethelbrutus, kynge of Kent, ȝafe batelle in this yere to Ceaulinus, and to Cutha his brother; but he was [folio 255b] putte to fliȝhte by theym, ij. dukes of his parte sleyne also at Wilbandunus, and this was the firste batelle amonge the Saxons. Cuthwulf, the broþer of kynge Ceaulinus, fauȝhte nobly ageyne the Britons at Bedefforde, and toke from theym Page  377, vol.5 iiij. cites, Liganburgh, Eglesburghe, Besyngton, and Euysham, and diede in the same yere. Seynte Germanus, bischop of Parise, diede thys tyme, doynge mony miracles, whiche lyenge seke in his bedde see a wrytynge in the walle anendes his bedde in thys maner, "In the vthe kalendes of Maii." Where|fore he knowede that he scholde dye in that day, and beryede nye to Parise in the medes of men of Fraunce. Chilpericus, the vijthe kynge of men of Fraunce, dyede, whom Lotharius his sonne succeded liiijti yere. Formatus the poete, borne in Ytaly, drawede the gestes of Seynte Martyne in iiij. bookes, in metre heroicalle, ordeynede or made bischop at Turonis after that. The grete cicle of the terme Paschalle is finis|chede or complete in this vthe yere of Iustinus, whiche is of v.c. yere and xxxijti from the passion of Criste, and after Marianus v.c. and lx. yere; and from the begynnynge of the worlde, after somme men, v.ml. lxv. yere.

Page  379, vol.5

Capitulum octavum.

TIBERIUS CONSTANTINUS was emperour vij. yere. This man was fulle meke, ȝiffenge grete goodes to pover men, yn so moche that he distribute to þeim grete parte of his treasure. Whiche rebukede oftymes of his wife þerfore, seide, "I truste to Godde we schalle not wante goodes if we make a treasure in hevyn." Whiche goynge in a day at Constantinopole nye to the palice imperialle, see in the pavimente of marbole a crosse graven, thenkynge hym unworthy to treyde þer on, toke hit up, and he se þer an oþer crosse under hit, whiche takynge hit up, see the thrydde, under whom he founde treasure as infinite. Iohn the pope dyede, whom Benedicte the firste Page  381, vol.5 succedede iiij. yere, whiche bryngynge mony thowsande bus|chelles of whete from Egipte by schippes, relevede the cite of Rome from grete hungre when kynge Albinnus segede hyt; on the towmbe of whom hit is writen in þis wise, "Magna tuis monumenta, pater Benedicte, relinquis, Virtutum titulus et*. [Versus.] decus atque dolor." Marianus, libro secundo. Ceaulinus, [folio 256a] kynge of the Weste Saxons, havynge victory of the Britons in this yere, toke from theyme thre famose citees, Gloucestre, Cirencestre, and Bathancestre. Seynte Mauricius diede this tyme, havynge lxxijti yere in age, which didde bere the stole of Seynte Benedicte abowte his necke while that he lyffedde. Pelagius the pope succeded Benedicte x. yere.

Capitulum nonum.

MAURICIUS was emperour xxjti yere, a man of grete feythe, whiche overcome men of Persida and of Armenia. Neverthelesse Page  383, vol.5 he discordede moche from Seynte Gregory, in the ende that he detracte hym soore, intendynge hys dethe. In whiche tyme a man apperede at Rome, clothede with an habite monasticalle, havynge a drawen swerde in his honde, cryenge thro the cite, "Mauricius themperour schalle be extincte." Themperour herenge that, correcte hym for his offense, preynge God to*. [Nota.] chaunge that sentence. To whom Criste apperenge in his slepe seide, "Wille thow y schalle spare the here or in an other worlde." Themperour seide, "Lorde, do to me here at thy pleasure;" whiche beynge in the este commaundynge his knyȝhtes to leve rape and thefte, and not ȝiffynge to theym stipendies as thei were wonte to have, the knyȝhtes havynge indignacion, made Focas emperour, which did sle Mauricius Page  385, vol.5 with his thre sonnys, as he fledde towarde an yle. Marianus, libro 2o. Ceaulinus, and Cutha his sonne, fauȝhte in this yere ageyne the Britons at Fetanleighe, but Cutha sleyne, Ceaulinus hade the victory. Beda, libro 1o. Elle, the kynge of Deira, diede in the xxxti yere of his reigne, and Ethelricus, son of Ida, reignede on bothe provinces, Deira and Bernicia, v. yere. Thre breþer were borne in this yere in Fraunce, Ado, Bado, and Dado, other Audoenus, whiche levenge after that che|vallery was made the bischoppe of Roone. Paulus, libro quarto. Guntranus goynge in to a woode to hunte abowte this tyme, his felowschip dispersede, was oppressede with slepe, slepynge in the lappe of a tru servaunte to hym. A lytelle crepynge beste commynge owte of his mowthe, attemptede to goe over a lytelle ryver; the man in the lappe of whom the kynge did slepe perceyvenge that, putte his swerde over þe Page  387, vol.5 ryver, by whom that beste gate to the brynke of the ryver. Whiche goynge unto an hille, and returnynge ageyne, entrede in to the mowthe of the kynge, commynge by the same weye as hit wente. The kynge awakenge soone after that, seide to his servaunte that he thouȝhte that he hade goen by a brygge [folio 256b] of yrne un to an hille, where he see grete habundaunce of golde. Then his secretary schewede to hym what that he hade doen; whiche goynge to that hille, founde grete treasure, of parte of whiche treasure that kynge made a precious cuppe|borde or table, whom he hade thouȝhte to have sende to Ieru|salem, but he, lette of that purpose, sette hit in the cite Cabillona, on the body of Marcellus the martir. Beda, libro primo. The holy fader Columbanus goynge from Yrlonde with Seynte Gallus and mony noble disciples, come un to Bur|guyne, where he made a monastery of Luxone, thro permission of Theodoricus kynge. Whiche expulsede from that cuntre by Brunnilda the qwene, fledde to Alemayne, where he made Page  389, vol.5 mony monasterys, and famose un to this tyme, where they admitte oonly men of Yrlonde to be monkes, levenge Gallus governoure þer. But Columbanus goynge to Ytaly, made a noble monastery there. Soe grete habundaunce of reyne did descende this tyme, in so moche that the water of Tiber tow|chenge the toppes of the walles of the cite of Rome, brouȝte with hit a multitude of serpentes as innumerable, with a grete dragon, thro the pestilente putrefaccion of whom moche peple diede in the cite, where a mervellous pestilence folowede soone after, wastenge Pelagius the pope; whiche was so soore that thei were infecte in the way, at the table, in disportes, pere|schenge moche peple in yoskenge or nesynge. From whiche tyme a consuetude began, that a man nesynge, peple beynge by use to say "Criste helpe the," and make a crosse on their mowthe to mitigate that passion. Blisside Gregory, archidia|con of the cite of Rome, movynge peple to devocion, made vij. folde letanyes, settenge the cleregy in the firste place, abbottes Page  391, vol.5 with theire monkes in the secunde place, abbesses with heire covente in the thridde place, infantes in the iiijthe place, lay|men in the vthe place, wedowes in the vjthe, and weddede or maryede men in the vijthe place. Beda, libro primo, capitulo vicesimo tertio. Gregory was made pope, contynuynge that office xiij. yere and vj. monethes and x. daies, whiche made [folio 257a] mony noble werkes, as xlijti omelyes on the gospelles domini|calle, the moralles on Iob, omelyes on the begynnynge and ende of Ezechiel, þe pastoralles, and the dialoges; makenge a monastery in his awne howse, ordeynynge stacions to be made at Rome in diverse churches in every day of Lente for the remission of synnes, causenge the hedes and membres of ydoles to be kytte aweye. Whiche didde adde in the canon of þe masse "Diesque nostros in tua pace disponas;" namenge hym the servaunte of servauntes in writenge, the firste of eny bischop of Rome; whiche ordeynede in a cownsayle at Rome that ministres of the awter scholde ȝiffe attendaunce to pre|chynge, Page  393, vol.5 and not to songe, seyenge that a congruente life is contempte when that a pleasaunte voice is inquirede in the ministery of Criste and the synger dothe excite the peple to have a pleasure in theire songe. And thauȝhe this pope was a man of grete perfeccion, ȝitte he hade mony adversaryes and enemyes, whiche hade ordeynede to have brente his werkes after his dethe, but that Petre his diacon affermede theym to be made by the instinccion of the Holy Goste, takenge his dethe in to testimony; where he diede incontinenti after that he hade seide soe. Ceaulinus, kynge of Westesaxons, and Crida, diede, whom Colfricus, son of Cuthulphus his broþer, succeded v. yere, reignynge with grete victory; after whom Colwulphus his broþer reignede xiij. yere. Beda, libro primo, capitulo ultimo. Ethelfridus, son of Ethelricus, son of Ida, began to reigne on men of Northumbrelonde, whiche reignede xxiiijti yere. This kynge, covetous of worldely glory, destroyede the Britons Page  395, vol.5 moste of eny prince of Ynglische men, and made theyme tribu|taryes to hym; whiche hade vij. sonnes and oon doȝhter, seynte Ebba, geten by Acta, doȝhter of Elle kynge, of whom Os|waldus and Oswinus were tweyne. Beda, libro tertio, capi|tulo tertio. Columba thabbotte diede this tyme, and was beryede at þe yle callede Hii. Beda, libro quinto, capitulo nono. Whiche was callede also by a worde compewnde Columkyllus, of Columba and cella. Beda, libro primo, capitulo vicesimo tertio. In whiche yere grete Gregory the pope sende Austyn the monke to preche the worde of Godde to Ynglische men, with other clerkes, whiche travaylynge towarde that cuntre, and affrayede, returnede ageyne to Gregory. Whiche [folio 257b] confortynge hym, sende letters with hym to the bischoppe Arelatense, þat he scholde helpe Austyn in thynges necessary to hym. ℞. The tenors of whiche letters and of other directe to the kynge of Kente, with the responsalles of Gre|gory, the inquisicions of Austyn, were putte in the registre of Gregory and in Bede. Paulus, libro quinto. The Longobardes entrede in the nyȝhte in to the monastery of Seynte Benedicte Page  397, vol.5 in the mownte Cassyne, but the monkes fleenge to Rome, toke with theym the booke of theire holy rule. Blissede Benedicte schewede afore that desolacion to comme, opteynynge unnethe of God that þe sawles of the monastery scholde be salvede. Meremaydes were seene of the hoste of the Romanes in the floode callede Nilus, at the yle callede Delta, in the similitude of men and also of women. Austyn did londe in this yere at the este parte of Kente, in the yle callede Thanatos, with xlti felawes, and certayne interpretators taken from Fraunce, after the cownselle of blissede Gregory, sendenge theym to Ethelbertus in the xxvjti yere of his reigne, for his sawle|healethe and of his peple also. The kynge herynge that, whiche hade herde as but late afore the fame of the religion of Criste, whiche hade taken to his qwene a Cristen woman of Page  399, vol.5 Fraunce, in this condicion, that he scholde receyve the feithe of Criste, after a certeyne tyme paste come to the seide yle, spekynge with þeim withowte eny place of coverte, kepynge in that the maner and ryte of gentyles. Whiche exaltenge a baner of the crosse with an ymage of the crucifixe peyntede in hit, songe the letany, and prechede the worde of lyfe. To whom the kynge seide, "The wordes ye speke be swete and pleasaunte, but y may not condescende to theyme anoon, in that thei be ȝitte as newe thynges; but in that ye have commyn ferre for my luffe, we schalle ministre to yow thynges necessary, grawnt|enge to yow licence to converte to your feithe of oure peple so mony as ye can." The peple herenge that, wente to the cite of Cawnterbery with procession, syngynge Alleluia, and preyenge God that his wrathe myȝhte be averte from that cite. And so thei entrenge in to that cite kepede the consuetude of the [folio 258a] Page  401, vol.5 primitive churche in abstinence, in vigiles, and in preyers, prech|enge, haloynge, and baptysynge, in the este parte of the cite, in an olde churche of blissede Martyne, un tille that the kynge was convertede with moche peple. The kynge convertede to the feithe, ȝafe to Austyn a place of the bischoppe seete, with mony possessions, at the churche of oure Saviour, whiche made at the este parte of the cite a monastery of Petur and of Paule, where that Austyn and his successors, and also the kynges of Kente, were wonte to be beryede. Beda, libro 1o, capitulo vicesimo septimo. After that, Austyn goynge to the bischoppe Arelatense, was consecrate in to tharchbischoppe by hym. Blissede Gregory made certeyne þerof sende Mellitus, Iustus, Page  403, vol.5 Paulinus, and oþer helpers to hym, with answeres to the in|quisicions of Austyn foloynge. The consuetude of the churche of Rome is that iiij. porcions be made of every stipendy congru|ente; oon porcion to the bischoppe and to his howseholde; the secunde porcion to the clergy; the thridde to pover men; the iiijthe to the reparacion of churches; and alle other thynges awe to be commune; and if eny treasure be lefte, hit awe to be spende in to the sawle healethe. To the secunde inquisicion of Austyn hit was answeryde in this maner, whiche question was this in forme, "Sythe that þer is oon feythe, why be the con|suetudes of the churches diverse?" To the whiche Seynte Gregory seide that he scholde knowe to please Allemyȝhty God moche of mony churche, and that he scholde preche that thynge collecte to peple of Ynglonde, seyenge that places are to be luffede for goode thynges, and not thynges for places. Colwulphus, son of Cutha, brother to Ceau|linus, reignede on the Westesaxons xiiij. yere. Mony mer|vellous thynges were schewede in this tyme in the subarbes of Page  405, vol.5 Constantinopole, as a childe havynge iiij. feete, and an oþer ij. hedes. Ino bischop, and borne in Persida, diede at Ynglonde in this yere. Beda, libro primo, capitulo tricesimo. Blissede Gregory sende Austyn this yere to ordeyne ij. metropolitanes, oon at London, an other at Yorke. Austyn callede the doctors of the Britons and bischoppes, thro þe helpe of kynge Ethel|bertus, in to a place callede Augustines oc, as the strenȝhte of Austyn, in the coste of the Weste Saxons, monyschenge theyme to preche with hym to Ynglische men, and that thei scholde [folio 258b] correcte other erroneus thynges amonge theyme selfe, and specially of the ryte of the terme Paschalle, whiche they denyede, tylle hit was made open by the manifestacion of a notable signe wheder parte awe to be folowede. Afore whom an Ynglische man beynge blynde was brouȝhte, whiche was restorede to siȝhte at the preyer of Seynte Austyn, the Britons Page  407, vol.5 faylenge in the healenge of hym. Then the Britons know|legede the weye of Austyn to be tru, seyenge they myȝhte not refuse theire olde rites withowte consente of olde faders. Wherefore a seene was assignede where vij. bischoppes of the Britons mette with mony noble clerkes of the famose abbey of Bangor, askenge cownesaile afore an heremite, whiche seide to theym that thei scholde obbey Austyn if they founde hym meke as the disciple of Criste, whiche thynge thei scholde prove if that he did aryse to theym commynge in to that cownesaile. But Austyn sate in his sete, and did not aryse to theyme, wherefore they despisede hym utterly. Then Seynte Austyn seide to theyme, "Obey me in thre thynges þauȝhe ye wille not obeye me in other thynges; that ye kepe dewly the feste of Ester, that ye baptize after the consuetude of the churche of Rome, and that ye preche with me to Ynglische men; and y schalle suffre other thynges that scholde be correcte amonge yow:" but they despisede hym utterly. Wherefore Seynte Austyn seide that vengeaunce scholde come to theyme whiche Page  409, vol.5 wolde not take peace with his breþer; whiche vengeaunce was doen afterwarde, by the iuggemente of God, by Ethelfridus kynge of Northumbrelonde, when he did slee, at Westechestre, a grete multitude of the monkes with oþer peple.

Capitulum decimum.

FOCAS reignede after Mauricius themperour viij. yere. In the firste yere of whom Ethelfridus, kynge of Northumbre|lond, fauȝhte ageyne Edan kynge of Scottes, and hade a glorious victory of hym at Dexastan. But Theobalde his broþer was sleyne with alle his hoste. Beda, libro 2o, capitulo 4o. In whiche yere that noble fader Austyn, in Cristemasse day, after that he hade baptizede x.ml Ynglische men in a myȝhty Page  411, vol.5 floode callede Swala, nye to Yorke, knowynge that he scholde dye, ordeynede Laurencius to be his successor, leste that the state of the churche of Ynglonde, whiche was in maner as rude, scholde decrease after his dethe. Also he ordeynede Mellitus bischoppe off the Éste Saxones, whiche were dividede from [folio 259a] oþer men of Kente by the water Thamys, the chiefe cite of whom is London, in whom Ethelbrutus, kynge of Kente, made a churche of Seynte Paule to the bischoppes seete. ℞. An other cronicle seythe that Sebertus, the kynge of the Este Ynglische men, made the churche of Seynte Paule at London, and made Iustus bischoppe at the cite Dorobren, callede nowe Rochestre, beynge from Cawnterbery xxiiijti myles towarde the weste, where Ethelbrutus, kynge of Kente, made a churche of blissede Andrewe. Grete Gregory dyede in this yere, whom Page  413, vol.5 Savinianus succeded as ij. yere, whiche ordeynede that peple scholde rynge to the howres in churches. Whiche detracte blissede Gregory moche in that he distribute so moche meyte to pover peple. Wherefore blissede Gregory apperenge thryes to hym, reprovenge hym for hys detraccion monyschynge hym to doo correccion, whiche refusede, blissede Gregory, commynge the iiijthe tyme, smote hym in the hedde, where thro he awakynge dyede. In whiche yere Seynte David bischoppe of Menevia diede in Wales. Iohannes Elemosinarius, patriarke Alexandryne, dyede abowte this tyme, to whom preyenge a beawtuous virgyn apperede, crownede with the leves of an olyve, callenge her name Mercy, seyenge to hym that he scholde do welle if that he toke her to his spowse. From whiche tyme the seide Iohn was mercifulle, callenge pover men his lorde, wherefore he callede þe Hospitilaryes of Seynte Iohn pover lordes. This Iohn causede alle the names of the pover peple Page  415, vol.5 in his cite to be wryten in a billette, and to come twyes in a weke afore his churche, with whom he sate to accorde men or peple discordaunte amonge theyme. Whiche syttenge þer oon day, and herenge of noo discorde amonge theyme, sorowede soore, seyenge, "Woo is to me wrecche, for y am not worthy to do eny goode thynge in this day." To whom his diacon seide: "Thow awe to ioye raþer that men be now lyke angelles with|owte eny stryfe." Also in a tyme, the gospelle redde, peple wente furthe of the churche to talke, and he wente furthe also, and seide to theyme, "My childer þer the schepe bene the scheparde awe to be, wherefore other goe ye in to þe churche, or if ye tary here I schalle tary with yowe;" and so he causede the peple to tary in the churche in the tyme of divine servyce. Also this Iohn was herde as to chide with allemyȝhty [folio 259b] God in his preyer, in this wise: "Soe, goode Ihesu, thow in Page  417, vol.5 ȝiffenge, and I ȝiffenge to poore men, lette se who schalle have victory." Bonefacius the thrydde succedede Savinianus þe pope viij. monethes. This pope ordeynede that clene clothes scholde be putte on the awter. Bonefacius the furthe suc|ceded as vij. yere, whiche ordeynede and purchasede of Focas themperour that þe churche of Seynte Petre at Rome scholde be principalle of alle oþere churches in the worlde, for cause that the churche of Constantinopole was callede the chiefe churche. And also the churche whiche was dedicate somme tyme in the honour of Cibela and of Neptunus, callede Pantheon, where Cristen men were sleyne of spirites, myȝhte be dedicate in to the honoure of alle seyntes, where the pope syngethe masse yerely in the feste of Alle Seyntes, þe firste day of November, and the peple be communicate. Whiche made a con|stitucion that þer scholde not be eny mocion of þe pope to suc|cede, þe pope beynge in lyfe, but after the thridde day of his Page  419, vol.5 dethe. Also he made a decre that monkes myȝhte exercise the office of prechynge, off baptizynge, and of absolucion. The coote of oure Lorde withowte eny seame, was founde in the vale of Iosaphath, abowte this time, by Gregory bischop of Anthiochia, in a cofre of marbole, whiche was brouȝhte to Ierusalem. ℞. If this be tru hit may not stonde that is seide afore in the tyme of Tiberius themperour, that Pilate commynge afore hym to be iuggede myȝhte not be condempnede while that he hade that coote on hym. And if Pilate brouȝhte that coote with hym to Rome, hit scholde not seme that his*. [Sic in MS.] was brouȝhte from Rome after that to the vale of Iosaphath. Or in contrarious Page  421, vol.5 sense, if this coote was founde in the vale of Iosapathe abowte this tyme, hit folowethe as to apparence that Pilate hade hit not. Beda, libro 2o, capitulo secundo. Ethelfridus, kynge of Northumbrelonde, destroyede mony Britons in this yere at the cite of Weste Chestre, and abowte ml and ij.c. of the monkes of Bangor, whiche come to þe kynge to prey for their knyȝhtes, lti of theym oonly fleenge awey, whiche were in the wowarde with duke Brocinayle. The nowmbre of monkes in that famose abbey or monastery of Bangor was accomptede ij. ml and c., whiche lyvede by their laboure. Men of Persida causenge in|surreccions ageyne the Romanes, takenge Ierusalem and [folio 260a] entrenge in to hit, toke with þeym the baner of the crosse, and subduede to theym mony provinces of the Romanes. Where|fore Baraclianus, the govenoure of Affrike, did sle Focas, and made Heraclius his sonne emperoure.

Page  423, vol.5

Capitulum undecimum.

HERACLIUS was emperour xxvijti yere. In the thridde yere off whom Cosdras, kynge of Persida, brente Ierusalem and oþer holy places, and putte Zacharias the patriarke with moche peple in to captivite, and toke in to Persida with hym parte of the holy crosse, whiche Helena, moder to noble Constantyne, lefte þer. But Cosdras was sleyne by Heraclius in the xijthe yere of his reigne, and men taken in captivite were delyverede, and the parte of the crosse was broȝhte ageyne to Ierusalem. This emperour Heraclius, willenge to entre in to the cite of Ierusalem with grete pride, the ȝate of the cite was schutte by the power of Godde; but Heraclius made meke, and com|mynge to hit barefoote, the ȝate was openede. From whiche tyme the feste of the exaltacion of the holy crosse was halowede. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Colwulphus, kynge of the Weste Saxons, diede; whom ij. sonnes of Colricus Page  425, vol.5 his broþer succeded, Kynegilsus and Quichelinus, reignenge to gedre, whiche hade mony victoryes ageyne the Britons, and specially at Bampton, nye to Oxenforde; and also ageyne Penda, kynge of þe Marches, whiche wolde have taken from their realme the cite off Cirencestre. This Kyngilsus was baptizede at the laste by Seynte Biryne, but Quichelinus his broþer denyede to be baptisede un to the laste ende of his lyfe; whiche receyvenge that sacramente at the laste, diede in the same yere. And so Kyngilsus reignede with his brother and after his broþer, in alle xxxijti yere. ℞. The diversite of autors is to be advertisede here, for Willielmus Malmesbury seythe Quichelinus to have bene the broþer of Kyngilsus, but Marianus and Bede sey hym to have bene the sonne of Kingilsus. Deusdedit or Theodorus the pope succeded Bone|facius iij. yere. In whiche tyme a citesynne of London, at the instaunce of Ethelbertus kynge, made a churche of Seynte Page  427, vol.5 Petre in þe weste parte of London, in a place callede Thorney as the yle of thornes, callede nowe Westemynstre. Beda, libro 2o, capitulo quinto. Ethelbertus kynge of Kente diede this yere, and wente to hevyn after the lvjti yere of his reigne temporalle, and in the xxjti yere after his baptyme; whom Ed|baldus [folio 260b] his sonne did succede xxvti yere; whiche was apostata, abusynge his stappe moder, wherefore he suffrede grete cor|reccion of Godde. In whiche tyme Sebertus kynge of the Este Saxons dedde, his thre sonnes and successors to that realme were turnede to ydolatry, askynge of Mellitus, bischoppe of that place, that he wolde ȝiffe to theyme white brede, as he was wonte to do to theire fader. Whiche refusenge that withowte thei wolde receyve the feithe of Criste, they expulsede hym from that place; whiche wente anoon to Fraunce, havynge more pleasure to please God þer in pease then to kepe residence withowte frute amonge peple of barbre. But those false Page  429, vol.5 kynges were sleyne soone after of the kynge of Gewisseies. Beda, libro 2o, capitulo sexto. Laurencius tharchebischoppe, purposynge to leve the cuntre after the other ij. bischoppes, after his preyers made in oon nyȝhte Seynte Petyr apperyde to hym, whiche reprovede not oonly hym in that he wolde leve his peple, but also he correcte hym soore. In the morowe folowynge the bischoppe schewede his woundes to Edbaldus kynge, whiche refusenge ydolatry and unlawefulle matrimony was baptizede, and callede ageyne Mellitus and Iustus bischop|pes un to their seetes. But men of London wolde not re|ceyve Mellitus theire bischoppe, willenge raþer to serve ydoles, and this kynge was not of so grete power as his fader to com|pelle theyme þer to. Wherefore Laurencius dedde Mellitus succeded hym, and was archebischop, lytelle in body, but grete in vertu, whiche healede mony men and avertede brennynge from his cite thro his preyer. Paulus, libro quinto. Catanus, the kynge of Hunes, commynge in to Ytaly abowte this tyme, Page  431, vol.5 hade victory of the Longobardes, and did slee Gisulphus their duke, and segede the cite of Aquileia. Romilda, wife of the duke sleyne, beholdynge the beawte of þat kynge Catanus, hade a brennynge luffe to hym, sendynge to hym anoon that sche scholde delyver the cite to hym in this condicion, that he wolde take here to his wife. Soe the cite was taken and brente, and the peple of hit taken in to captivite; the kynge hade knowlege of here in oon nyȝhte, takenge her to xij. Hunes in the secunde, that thei scholde knowe her. And after that he fixede here body thro the myddes, and sette her openly in the [folio 261a] felde, seyenge in this wise, "Hit semethe an hoore to have suche an howsebonde." The doȝhters of the seide Romilda not foloynge the stappes of theire moder, but lovynge chastite, toke and bownde the flesche of rawe chekynnes betwene their Page  433, vol.5 pappes, that thei myȝhte appere as ylle favourede to the Hunes, leste thei scholde have been corrupte by theyme, wherefore þey were refusede of theyme, and maryede after that nobly. Beda, libro secundo, capitulo duodecimo. Edwynus fleenge the persecucion of Ethelfridus un to Redwarldus, kynge of Este Ynglische men, for to have socoure by hym, the seide Redwarldus, other for drede of Ethelfridus or thro rewardes, in|tendede the dethe of the seide Edwinus. A frende of Edwinus perceyvenge that, ȝafe to Edwinus warnynge þerof, promis|enge that he scholde brynge hym to a sure place for alle his adversaryes. Whiche refusenge that, and syttenge allon, a unkowthe man come to hym inquirenge why that he sate in sorowe þer allon, seyenge: "Y knowe who thow arte, and the Page  435, vol.5 cause of thy hevynesse, and what thynges þow dredes to comme to the." Seyenge also, "Wille not thowe obey hym that schalle restore the to thy realme, thyne enemys de|stroyede, and ȝiffe to the better cownsaile then alle thyne kynrede?" Edwynus seide: "Y promette feithefully to be rulede by hym." Then that man seide to hym, puttenge his honde on his hedde, "When thow arte in prosperite, remembre this signe and communicacion, that thow fullefille thy pro|misse;" and these wordes seide the man evaneschede aweye. After that his frende come to hym, seyenge that the wille of his lorde was chaungede to hym. Whiche gedrenge an hoste, ȝafe batelle to Ethelfridus in the costes of the marches at the este of the water of Idle, and did sle hym, and so he exalte Edwinus his cosynne to the realme of Northumbrelonde, and on Deira and Bernicia; whiche reignede after that xvij. yere. That doen, Oswaldus of xij. yere in age, and Oswius of iiij. Page  437, vol.5 yere, sonues of Ethelfridus, were brouȝhte in to Scottelonde by theire norische. Bonefacius the vthe succeded Deusdedit the pope v. yere. Seynte Anastasius, a monke of Persida and martir, borne in that cuntre, lernede in his yowthe the arte of nigromancy of his fader; whiche receyvynge feithe of Criste [folio 261b] by men taken in captivite, levynge Persida and passynge Calcedonia and Iherapolis, come to Ierusalem. Whiche baptisede, lyvede in the monastery of Anastasius regulerly vij. yere; after that he wente for cause of devocion to Cesarea of Palestina, where he was taken by men of Persida, and brouȝhte to Cosdras the kynge, and was sleyne for the feithe of Criste. A man trowblede soore with a spiritte withynne hym, clothynge hym with the coote of Seynte Anastasius, was made holle. Heraclius themperoure, havynge victory of men of Persida, brouȝhte his body to Rome, and putte hit in þe monastery of Page  439, vol.5 Seynte Paule ad Aquas. Laurencius the archebischoppe of Cawnterbery dyede, whom Mellitus bischoppe of London suc|cedid v. yere; and Ced, the brother to Seynte Chadde, was made bischoppe off London. Honorius the pope succede Bonefacius xij. yere. In whiche yere Heraclius, havynge victory of men of Persida, brouȝhte the holy crosse from that cuntre, and did slee Cosdras. This man instructe in astro|nomy, see in the firmamente þat his realme scholde be destroyede of a peple circumcided. Wherefore he sende to the kynge of Fraunce that he scholde expelle alle Iues from his realmes, or elles that thei scholde be baptisede; and soe hit was doen. At the laste an implacable dissencion exorte and movede betwene the Romanes and the Saracenys, Heraclius toke the crosse of Criste from Ierusalem to Constantinopole; a grete parte whereof was sende to Lodowicus, kynge off Fraunce, in the yere of Criste a M.cc. xlvijti. Dagobertus, the ixthe kynge of Fraunce, succedid Lotharius his fader xxxiijti yere. Mellitus Page  441, vol.5 bischop of Cawnterbery dedde, Iustus succeded hym, afore byschoppe of Rowcestre, makenge Romanus bischoppe of Rowcestre, ffor that bischop Iustus hade sende Paulinus, bischop þer afore, to be bischop of Yorke, and that he scholde wedde Ediburga, suster of kynge Ebbaldus, to kynge Edwinus and that he scholde converte his peple.

Capitulum duodecimum.*. [[Henricus in libro suo secundo, et Willelmus de Regibus et Pontificibus, libro primo.]]

PENDA a pagan, sonne of Wibba, the xthe from Woden, [folio 262a] havynge lti yere in age, began to reigne on the marches, and reignede xxxti yere. ℞. Mony cronicles expresse that Crida, sonne of Kynewolde, þe xthe from Woden, reignede firste in the marches x. yere, and after hym Wibba his sonne xxti yere; Page  443, vol.5 And after Wibba Ceorlus his cosyn x. yere. After whom Penda, the sonne of Wibba, reignede xxx. yere; whiche did slee ii. kynges of Northumbrelonde, Edwinus and Oswaldus, and iii. kynges of the Ynglische men, Segebertus, Egricus, and Anna. To whom his qwene Kyneswida brouȝte furthe v. sonnes, Weda, Wulferus, Etheldredus, Morwaldus, Mercellinus, and ij. doȝhters, Seynte Kyneburga and Seynte Kyneswida. Beda, libro 11o, capitulo nono. A man with a knyfe putte secretely in a staffe, Eumerus by name, sende from Quichelinus, kynge of West Saxons, to sle kynge Edwynus, comme in this yere to the kynge's cite, nye to the water of Dorwen. But oon Lilla, a specialle minister and tru to his kynge, perceyvynge that, and havynge noo thynge to defende hym, receyvede the stroke of that wickede man, puttenge his body as a schelde afore the kynge. Whiche servaunte persede thro, the kynge was hurte soore with the same stroke; that wickede man com|passede with other men of the kynge, pereschede an other knyȝhte with his knyfe. In whiche nyȝht of Ester the qwene Page  445, vol.5 was delyverede of a doȝhter, Enfleda by name, whom kynge Edwinus promisede to make a myncheon into a signe of the promisse made afore to be fullefillede if that he hade victory of the kynge of Westesaxons, whiche was that he scholde be baptizede, assignenge the labore of consecracion to Paulinus. That mayde baptizede oon the day of Pentecoste, and Edwinus unnethe made holle of his wounde, gedrenge an hoste, hade victory of the kynge of Westesaxons. Neverthelesse thauȝhe Edwinus the kynge refusede ydolatry after that tyme, and herde paciently. Paulinus, the bischop of Yorke, ȝitte he askede grete cownsaile of his men what scholde be done in that mater. In whiche tyme the kynge receyvyde letters exhortatory of the feithe, sende from Bonefacius the pope, with a schurte over gilte in parte, and brawdrede with silke. And an other lyke to hyt was sende to his qwene, with a myrrour of sylvyr, and a combe of yvery overgilte in parte. Paulinus the bischoppe perceyvynge the kynge lothe to receye the feithe of Criste, [folio 262b] made preiers to alle myȝhte Godde, where the oracle and pro|misse of Edwynus the kynge was schewide to hym, whiche Page  447, vol.5 promyse he made when he was with Redwaldus in exile. Wherefore Paulinus the bischop, towchynge or puttenge his honde on the kynges hedde, inquirede of the kynge wheþer he did knowe the signe. The kynge knowlegynge þerof, Paulinus seide: "Thow hase hade victory of thyn enemyes, þerfore do that thow promysede, that thow may kepe fidelite to hym þat hathe grawntede to the those victoryes." The kynge takenge cownesaile of his noble men was baptizede at York, with moche peple, in the xi. yere of his reigne. Then Coysy, the firste of the bischoppes of gentiles, re|fusenge ydolatry, armede, ascendede a noble stede ageyne his ryte, and destroyede the temples of ydoles. But hyt was not lawefulle to a bischop gentile to were armes, other to ryde on eny beste but on a mare. Paulinus the bischoppe baptizede and prechyde by vi. yere foloynge, unto the dethe of Edwinus kynge, in the provinces of Deira and Bernicia, in the water of Glene and in the water of Swala. Also he prechede in the province off Lyndeseye, makenge a churche of ston in Page  449, vol.5 Lindecolne, in whom Iustus dedde, Paulinus made Honorius archebiscoppe of Cawnterbery, by auctorite sende from the pope, that when either the archebiscop of Cawnterbery or of Yorke scholde dye, the bischop of theyme beynge in lyve scholde consecrate his successor in the place of the bischoppe that were dedde. Beda, libro secundo, capitulo sexto decimo. There was soe grete pease in the tyme of Edwinus the kynge, that a woman myȝhte have goen from see to see withowte eny hurter. Also the same kynge made cuppes of brasse, and made theyme faste at welles of feire water by the hie weyes, to the refres|chenge of pover peple, whom eny man durste not towche but to the seide use. This kynge conquerede firste of alle kynges of Ynglische men the yle callede Eubonia, or the yle of Manne. Cropwaldus, the son of Redwaldus, kynge of the Est Eng|lische men, was baptizede at the instaunce of Edwinus, and his Page  451, vol.5 peple also; whiche was sleyne by a gentile, Rigebertus by name, sone after that. Beda, libro secundo, capitulo decimo. Honorius the pope sende to Honorius archebischoppe of Cawn|terbery a palle in this yere, with letters informatory how he scholde ordeyne metropolitanes in Briteyne. Also he send [folio 263a] letters to the peple of Scottes, of the kepynge of Ester, movenge theyme in those costes that they scholde not sup|pose theire use and consuetude to be more holy than the use of other peple. Beda, libro 2o, capitulo vicesimo. Edwinus the kynge was sleyne in this yere at Hadfelde, of Penda kynge of the marches, and Cedwalla kynge of the Britons, whiche exercisede so grete cruelnesse in that province, that thei sparede not eny kinde, age, or religion. Wherefore ȝitte as unto this tyme, the consuetude of Britons is to have as in noo reputa|cion the promise of Ynglische men. Paulinus tharbischoppe of York, takenge with hym Ethelburga the qwene, with En|fleda her doȝhter, wente in that tempeste to Kente by schippe made bischop of Rowchestre by the dethe of Romanus bis|choppe Page  453, vol.5 þerafore was presidente þer after that tyme xix.;*. [Sic.] whiche dyenge lefte his palle there. Willelmus de Pontifi|cibus, libro primo. And so the churche of the peple of North|umbrelonde wontede a bischop by xxx. yere after the depart|ynge of Paulinus, wontenge the use of a palle þerby cxxvti yere. Beda, libro tertio, capitulo primo. Edwinus dedde, Osricus, sonne off Elfricus, uncle to Edwinus, toke the realm of Deira; and Eanfricus, sonne of Ethelfridus, reioycede the realme of Bernicia whiche turnede to the honour or worschip|pynge of ydoles, were sleyne by succession in the same yer of Cedwalla, by the correccioun of God. Wherefore hit pleasede men supputenge tymes of kynges, that fals kynges dedde, that unhappy yere was ascribede to the tymes off Os|waldus succedynge in that realme. Whiche did sle Cedwalla, ȝiffenge batelle to hym with a grete hoste in a place callede Devisborne as the river of Dionise; after the dethe of Gaufridus Page  455, vol.5 his broþer, havynge but fewe peple in his hoste. And that place is callede Hevynfelde, wher Oswaldus, afore batelle knelynge downe, made a crosse, and preide Crist for the salvacioun of his peple, whiche felde is hade now in grete veneracioun. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. That place is at the northe parte of the famose walle whom the legions of the Romanes made, not ferre from þe churche of Hangustald. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo primo. Mony virtues beschewede by the partes of that crosse, afor which tyme noo in that londe callede Bernicia hade eny awter, afore that Oswaldus the kynge had made a crosse, where a church was made sone [folio 263b] after. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo primo. Oswaldus the kynge askede and desirede of þe Scottes þat he myȝhte have Aidanus the bischoppe to informe his peple; to whom he ȝafe a place of his seete in the yle of Lindisfarn, where the bischoppe Aidanus prechyd in the langage of Scottes, and Oswaldus the kynge Page  457, vol.5 declarede his maters in Englische. Then monkes of Scotte|londe, of the monastery of Aidanus, in the yle of Hii, come dayly to preche to Ynglische men. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo quarto. This Aidanus was a myrrour of abstinence, fastynge dayly unto the howr of none; lyvyng after his doctrine, ȝiffenge to pover men goodes ȝiffen to hym, goynge on fete, not usenge to ryde, kepynge not in silence the offense of grete men for eny drede, but rebukenge theyme for their offense, ȝiffenge to pover men meyte rather then moneye. Usenge to redeme men in captivite, and made mony of theyme his disciples; and this occasion foloynge was the cause of his commynge into Ynglonde. An other man, more bostuos, was sende from Scotte|lande to preche to Ynglische men, at the instance of Oswaldus the kynge, whiche doynge noo profite, returnede to his cuntre. Scottes takynge cownsayle for an other apte man to be sende Page  459, vol.5 þider, hit is rehersede Aidanus to have seide to the man returnede from Ynglische men, "Me thinke, broþer, thow arte to be blamede, in that thow purposede not to rude men and to untauȝhte the mylke of softe doctrine, after the sentence of thapostle, that thei norischede a lyttelle with the wordes of God myȝhte ascende to more perfeccioun." These wordes seide, Aidanus was sende, for the man of moste distracioun of that cuntre, unto Oswaldus thro the worde and exemple of whom Oswaldus instructe, obteynede not oonly the hope of hevynly blisse, but also encreasenge of his temporalle realme, for he toke into dedicacion to hym iiij. naciouns of Briteyne, as of the Britons, Pictes, Scottes, and Ynglischemen. Beda, libro quinto. Also hit is seide that this bischoppe Aidanus syttenge with Oswaldus the kynge at dyner, on Ester day, a grete multitude of pover peple come to the ȝate, askenge almys. The kynge havynge noo thynge as nye to hym to ȝiffe to theyme, tok the messe afor hym, and brake the dische of silver into mony partes, and sende hit to the pover men. The bis|choppe Page  461, vol.5 seenge that, toke the ryȝhte honde of the kynge in his honde, and seide, "Y prey God that honde never roote;" and so hit happede. For that kynge Oswaldus sleyne, the arme kytte aweye from his body remanede incorrupte at the kynges cite of Bebanburghe. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo undecimo. Hit [folio 264a] is seide of this Oswaldus that he was wonte to have his hondes under his knees for the grete exercise of preyers, and of ȝiff|enge thonkynge to God. Wherefore hit is hade as a commune proverbe unto this tyme, "Oswaldus fallenge to therthe, seide, "'God have mercy on trewe sawles.'" Audoenus and Eligius were made bischopps in this yere; and Seynte Gallus, the disciple of Columba þabbot, was of grete fame in Alemayne.

Page  [3], vol.6

Capitulum tertiumdecimum.

SEYNT Birine the confessor sende from Honorius the pope to preche to Ynglische men, beynge in the see, and havynge remembraunce of certeyne thinges of his lefte in the haven wher he toke schippe, wente on his feete on the see and brouȝhte þe wrytynge to the schippe. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo sexto. This Birinus converte Kyngilsus kynge of the Weste Saxons, and baptizede hym at Dorcestre, Oswaldus beynge þer presente, whiche kynges ȝafe to seynt Birine that cite to the seete of the bischoppe, where he was beryede after the Page  5, vol.6 xiiiithe yere of his bischoppehode; whiche was translate after|warde to Wynchestre, by Hedda, bischoppe þerof, into the churche of Petre and Paule. ℞. But the chanons of Dor|cestre say the contrary, affermynge that an oþer body was translate in the stedde of the body of seynte Birine, and the men makenge the translacioun to be deceyvede, ffor a tumbe of werke mervellous is seene to this tyme on the place of his firste sepulture at Dorcestre, whiche cite is from Oxenforde vi. myle at the sowthe of hit, betwene ii. waters Thame and Thamyse. Also hit is redde in cronicles that Kyngilsus kynge assignede alle the londe of vii. myles in a circuite to the construccioun of the bischoppes seete of Wynchestre, and to the sustentation of his ministres; but the kynge not fullfillenge this grawnte by the impediments of dethe, causede Kenwalcus his son to swere that he scholde performe his grawnte. Willelmus de Ponti|ficibus, libro ii o. That cite longede from that tyme to the bis|choppes [folio 264b] Page  7, vol.6 of the marches unto the tymes of William conqueroure, and then that seete was translate unto Lyncolne. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Felix borne in Burguygne, familier with Sigebertus the kynge beynge in that cuntre in exile, come to Ynglonde with hym, and was the firste bischop at Donmic xvj. yere. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo decimo septimo. This Sigebertus made kynge after the dethe of Corpwaldus his broþer, ordeynede scoles in his realme lyke as he hade sene in Fraunce, assignynge maisters to informe the childer; whiche takenge the realme to Egricus his cosyn, was made monke in a monastery þat he made. But Penda the pagan kynge trow|blynge soor the realme, Sigebertus was taken from that mon|astery to make the knyȝhtes stronge, and so he was sleyne in simplicite, havynge a rodde in his honde, and allemoste alle his hoste also; whom Anna the son of Enus succeded in that realme, whom Penda did sle afterwarde. In the tyme of this Sigebertus a holy man, Furseus by name, come from Yrlonde Page  9, vol.6 to the este province of Englische men, where he converte mony men and moche peple, or elles made theym moore stronge in the feithe. Whiche laborynge in soore sekenesse was monyschede by an angelle that he scholde applye hym to the ministery y-begunne, as to vigiles and preiers, makenge a noble monastery thro the helpe of þe kynge, nye to the see in a castelle callede Cimbbisburghe, wher he trowblede with langor was rapte from body to the blissede vision of angelles, wher he herde this sentence, "Ibunt sancti de virtute in virtu|tem." "Holy men schalle goe from vertu to vertu untille that Godde off goddes be seen in Syon." Whiche brouȝhte ageyne to his body, and brouȝhte furthe ageyne in the thrydde day foloynge, see not oonly the grete ioyes of blissede men, but also the peynes of men condempnede, and also grete stryv|ynges of wickede spirites by whom they laborede to lette holy men. And when he was on hie in the aier, he see iiii. fires in the aiere under hym, whom the angelle, his ductor or leder, Page  11, vol.6 expownyde in this maner, seyenge, "These iiii. fires ar to con|sume the worlde, the firste is the fire of lesynge, for peple fullefille not þat thei promisede in baptyme. The secunde is the fire of covetise, for richesse be luffede more then God. The thridde is the fire of dissencioun, when a man is offen|dede withowte eny cause. The iiiithe is the fire of iniquite, when the superior dredethe not to oppresse his inferior." [folio 265a] Furseus seynge these iiii. fires as unyte, was afrayede and cryede. To whom þe angelle seide, "That thou hase not offended schalle not brenne in the; this fire schalle examyne the merites of every man." After þat Furseus commynge to a ȝate and fyndenge hit open, the develles caste a man to hym whom thei tormentede soore, where-thro the schulder of Furseus and cheke were brente. Furseus hade knowlege anoon of þat man, how he hade taken a clothenge of hym somme tyme, whiche clothynge the angelle and ducer of Furseus caste Page  13, vol.6 into the fire. Then the develle seide, "Refuse not now that thow hase approbate afor; for like as thow hase receyvyde the goodes of synners, so in lyke wise thow awe to take parte of their peyne." To whom the angelle was contrarious, seynge that he toke not that clothynge for avarice, but for the salvacioun of his sawle, and then the fire seasede. The angelle seide, "That thow offendeste hase brente in þe:" wherefore Furseus, restorede to his body, bare allewey after that tyme the signe of brennynge in his cheke and schulder that he suffrede in his sawle. And after that tyme, when Furseus scholde telle this vision, thauȝhe hit were in the tyme of colde fforste, he wolde sweet for feere. At the laste Furseus levynge that monastery to Fullanus his broþer, takenge with hym Wul|canus was an heremite by oon yere. After that the province trowblede with the incursions of peple of Barbre, he saylede to Fraunce, whiche schewynge mony vertues þer, and dyenge, Page  15, vol.6 was beryede at Perma. Severinus the pope succedede Hono|rius oon yere; after whom Iohn, the iiiithe pope of that name, succeded oon yer, under whom the Iewes were converte. Heraclius themperour, after noble victoryes, errede from the feithe thro the mocioun of Cirus, bischop of Alexandria, and of Sergius, bischop of Constantinopole and patriarke, and dyede in the dropicy, infecte with the heresy of Iacobites, whiche understonde ylle seynte Iames thapostle.

Capitulum quartumdecimum.

MACHOMETUS the fals prophete was abowte this tyme duke or governour of the Saracenys and of the Turkes. The story of whom is introducte in this wise, Steven off Cawnterbury and Giraldus of Wales helpenge moche in this mater. The commune utilite of Rome floryschynge late, the worlde of [folio 265b] Cristen peple was moore large then thempyre of Rome, whiche Page  17, vol.6 hade with in the lordeschippe of hit, withowte Europe, noble provinces of Asia, with alle Affrike. Neverthelesse the Aga|renys, Ismaelites, or callede Saracenys encreasenge moche, of thempire of whom Methodius þe martir propheciede, seyenge that the feithefulle peple of Criste scholde possede but fewe cuntres more then Europe. And after alle Affrike infecte, the pestilente errour of the Saracenys infecte a grete parte of Speyne; and but that the grete mercy of allemyȝhty God hade schewide resistence thei hade infecte Fraunce with alle Speyne. And in the tymes of grete Gregory, the Romane empyre, that was porrecte from the occean of Briteyne unto the costes of Persida, was so attrite and trowblede with batells civile, that hit was unnethe sufficiaunte ageyne their awne enemyes. Then the pagan hoste of men of Persida occupiede diverse provinces of the este of thempire of Rome, and of the feithe of Criste. After that an innumerable pestilence as of corrup|cioun Page  19, vol.6 consumynge Cristen peple in the Este, in the tyme of Heraclius themperour, by Machometus the fals prophete. Þerfore in the tyme of Bonefacius the vthe pope, in the tyme of Heraclius, abowte þe yere of oure Lorde God vi.c. and xxti, Machometus, þe fals prophete and nigromancier, deceyvede the Agarenys in thys maner. A famous clerke beynge in Rome, and not obteynynge his purpose, wente into other ferre cuntres, drawynge mony men to hym, amonge whom he promisede Machometus that he scholde make hym a grete lorde, if he wolde condescende þerto. Whiche norischynge a doffe, putte cornes in the ere of Machometus, of whom þat doffe fedde her ofte. At the laste the seide clerke callede the peple of þat cuntre to gedre, promisynge þat he scholde be governour of Page  21, vol.6 the peple whom the Holy Goste, in the likenesse of a doffe, scholde schewe. Whiche sendenge furthe a doffe, sche wente and sate on the schulder of Machometus, and putte her bylle in his ere, and so Machometus was electe into the governour of that cuntre. These thynges towchide afore be after the commune oppinion, but thynges foloynge be of moore approba|cioun. A monk, Sergius by name, was expulsede from the other monkes of his monastery, for cause he felle into þe erroure off Nestorius; whiche goynge into Araby, drawede to [folio 266a] Machometus, whom he informede: thauȝhe hit be redde in other places that this Sergius was archidiacon of Anthiochia, other the patriarke of Ierusalem. The fader and moder of Machometus dedde, he was norischede in his infancy by his uncle, servynge ydolatry with the peple of Araby, ȝiffen spe|cially to the synne of lechery. Wherefore hit is that the Saracenys halowe the Friday as the Iues do Seturday, and as we do the Sonday. After the adolescency of Machometus paste, he wente into mony regiouns for cause of marchandise, Page  23, vol.6 havynge grete communicacion with Iues and Cristen peple, untille that he hade lernede the rytes of theyme bothe. Then he appliede hym to nigromancy, whiche instructe in that arte, excellente in communicacioun, made Cadigan, lady of the pro|vince of Corozania, what with nigromancy and with wordes of pleasure, and what with spices that he hade taken to here, to have suche affeccioun to hym in so moche that sche supposede hym to be a prophete of God, other elles Messias whom þe Iues taryede, and after that desirede hym to wedde her. The ryte and consuetude was that tyme, that peple scholde be governede off women as by men and so by the mariage of that qwene; he was made kynge and lorde of that province. Whiche ioyn|ynge to hym men of Araby, ȝafe batelle to men of Persida, and occupiede thempir of the este, unto the costes of Alex|andria, ageyn Heraclius. Spekynge in his bookes, whom he made, in this wise, "God spake to Machomete his prophete. Page  25, vol.6 seyenge," that his werkes myȝhte have auctorite, þat were feynede falsely by hym. And when he hade subduede to hym not oonly peple nye to hym, but also peple of ferre cuntres hade grete confluence inclinedo to the carnalle concupiscence*. [Sic in MS.] to hym, as Egipte, Libia, Araby, and alle Siria, and causede theyme to leve their olde rytes, and folowe his lawes, what thro his arte and wylenesse, whyche thynge he myȝhte not do by strenȝhte, prohibitynge to the paganes ydolatry, grawnt|ynge to the Iewes circumcision after their rytes: whiche made to theym newe lawes inducynge wyttenesse of eiþer testamente, whom the Saracenys kepe, and calle theim their lawes, in whom he commaundid the Saracyns to be circumcided after the ryte of þe Iues, prohibitynge to his successors the eytynge of swyne flesche. Machomete schewynge a cause seide that a swyne [folio 266b] Page  27, vol.6 was create of the dungge of a camele after the grete floode of Noe, and þerfor hit awe to be eschewede of clene peple as unclene meyte. Also he ordeynyde certeyne waschynges in water, for the expiacion or clenesynge of their synne, after the maner of baptyme usede amonge Cristen peple; and that he he myȝhte snare the peple in moore suerte he ordeynede and made a statute by whiche he knowede to please the con|cupiscence of man, that thei scholde have so mony wives and concubynes as a man myȝte fynde, and take wyves also of their owne kynrede, into the iiiithe nowmbre, and to refuse unto the iiiithe wife, and suffrenge men to take theyme ageyne, grauntynge licence to a man to take so mony concubynes as he wolde bye, or women taken in captivite, and to selle theyme ageyne withowte he hade geten eny of theym with childe. Also he ordeynede sobrenesse in meytes and in drynkes, prohibitynge Page  29, vol.6 drynkynge of wyne, but in certeyne festes in the yere, tech|ynge his peple to pray with mony knelynges towarde the sowthe, that he myȝhte have somme distinccioun from the Iewes, whiche make their preiers towarde the weste, and also from Cristen men, whiche use to prey towarde the este. Also he tauȝhte his peple to honore Venus, godesse of lechery, and to kepe that day holy, commaundynge oon God omnipotente to be worschippede, seyenge Moyses and Iohn Baptiste to have bene ii. grete prophetes, and Criste the moste of prophetes, as borne of a virgyn by the vertu of Godde, and not thro carnalle affeccioun, as hit is schewede in his booke Alcoranus. Never|thelesse he mixte fals thynges with trawthe, seyenge after that Criste elevate to hevyn, and not sleyne; for he seide that Iudas þe traytour sechenge Criste in a denne, was chaungede into the similitude of Criste, and crucifiede in his stedde. Also he movede his peple to goe to a certeyne temple every yere, which was callede metha orationis, and to prey þer; where thei caste Page  31, vol.6 mony stones, as to stone the develle; seyenge Abraham to have made þat howse for his sonnes, and specially for the Ismaelites, for cause of preyenge. Also a man taken in advowtery, after the lawe of Machomete, is stonyde; and a man doynge fornica|cioun with a woman in liberte is correcte by lxxx. betynges. [folio 267a] Also a thefe is punyschede in the firste tyme and secunde by betynge, in the thryde tyme he losethe his hondes, in the iiiithe tyme his feete; seyenge that God hathe promisede paradise to men kepynge these thynges, and other commaundementes of his lawes. In whiche paradise is the gardyn of delices, where noon intemperaunce is or affliccioun of incommodite, but the fruicion of alle maner delices, where alle thynges schalle be to theire pleasure, and angelles schalle ministre to theyme, so grete that hit scholde be as the space of oon day from þe oon eie Page  33, vol.6 unto that other, promisenge helle to theyme that wylle not kepe his lawes. Also he commendethe, in his booke Alcoranus, faders of the Olde Testamente, specially Moyses, Iohn Bap|tiste, Criste, and Machomete. Also alle men be commendede that truste in God and exercise ryȝhteuousenes; but hit is not redde þer what feithe is, and what men be tru, and who be fals. Also hit is seide þer that v. bookes didde descende from hevyn to the informacioun of men, the Sawter, the Lawe of Moyses, the bookes of prophetes, the Gospelle, and the Al|coran of Machomete. In whom hit is seyde Allemyȝhty God, willynge to directe mankynde into the weye off sawle healethe, ȝave a lawe to the childer of Israel after Abraham, by whom God scholde be knowen and worschippyde. But thei brekynge that lawe, God ȝafe to other peple his tru gospelle; seyenge Page  35, vol.6 that hit was diffynede by Godde that a prophete scholde be sende to the Ysmaelites, with a lawe whom the Saracenys scholde folowe, as the Iewes do Moyses, and Cristen men Criste. Wherefore the Saracenys kepynge their lawe holly, preferre theyme to Iues and Cristen men, whom thei say to violate their lawes mony tymes. Machomete havynge a camel of semely forme, usynge hym in secrete places to his awne honde, hongenge that book Alcoranus, conteynynge the lawes in hit, abowte the necke of the camelle, and sende hym in the nyȝhte to the felde. Whiche ioyenge of his liberte, and not suffrenge to be towchid of eny man, that rumor and fame was excitede anoon, and a grete multitude of peple were gedrede to see that beeste; whiche beste perceyvynge and seynge Ma|chometus Page  37, vol.6 his norischer, come anoon to hym, and likkede his hondes. Then the peple cryede seyenge that he was the tru prophete of God, preyenge hym that the booke scholde be openede with his holy hondes. Whiche openede, Machomete seide, "Beholde youre lawe, not writen by the honde of man, [folio 267b] but by the power of Godde, sende from hevyn, and to be ob|servede in tymes perpetualle; in whom hit is rehersede howe ye awe to honoure God, and what rewardes ye schalle have for the kepynge of his lawes." And that day in whom these thynges wer doen, was made holy day, and callede the feste of the camelle, and the peple prevente that feste by the absti|nence of a monethe, in the whiche monethe thei faste in this wise, that thei eite noo þinge from morowe in whiche howr blacke may not*. [Sic in MS.] be discernede from white, unto the goynge downe of the sonne, ne drynkynge afore that tyme, not lyenge with theire wives, ȝiffenge theyme to preiere; usenge surfette Page  39, vol.6 from the goynge downe of the sonne untille the tyme afore|seide in the morowe foloynge, and usenge theire wifes: but feble men and seke are not constreynyde to that abstinence. This Machometus havynge the fallynge disease or infirmite, and displeasynge his wife moche þerby, pleasede here and oþer peple to whom he hade ȝiffen the lawe, seyenge hym to falle soe for the wordes of Michael tharcangel spekynge ofte with hym, in that a carnalle man may not suffre the wordes of an angelle but if he falle. Whiche hatede wyne moche, whiche was peraventure for the grete hete of the cuntre, neverthe|lesse Machomete made drunke thro wyne in a tyme, and lyenge in the strete, was devourede and gnaven allemoste of swyne, whom he iuggede unclene bestes. Wherefore his foloers ab|steyne from wyne and from the flesche of swyne, in the firste thynge of whom they seme to folowe the Iues. In the secunde hit is presupposede that thei folowe the phisikke of here maister. Also hit is seide that this Machomete luffed moche an holy Page  41, vol.6 heremite, dwellynge in deserte, in the hye weye towarde Ynde from Araby or Caldee, whom he visitte ofte tymes, in so moche that his men were vexede soore þerwith, for the necessite of theire maistere causede theyme to wake mony nyȝhtes with|owte eny slepe. Whiche thouȝhte to slee the heremite: at þe laste hit happede this Machometus to be made drunke þer in a season, whiche beynge faste in slepe, his men conspirede, come to his chambre, and takenge his swerde did sle the heremite, [folio 268a] and putte after that his swerde alle bloody in his shethe. Machomete arysynge in the morowe, and fyndynge the heremite sleyne, was hevy in herte, and thouȝhte how he myȝhte be vengede of his men. But the men acordede afore, seide that he hade sleyne hym in his drunkenesse, schewynge to hym his swerde defilede with bloode. Machometus supposynge that to be tru, cursede wyne and alle men drynkynge hit; where|fore devoute Saracenys in the lawe drynke noo wyne, but that man is worthy to be reprovede þat drynkethe wyne amonge theim; nevertheless thei have delectable drynke made of diverse spices, but somme of þeym drynke wyne secretely. That pesti|lente secte encreasede so moche after the dethe of Machomete, that hit toke men of Persida into dedicacion, and to the super|sticion of men of Araby, infectynge after that alle Affrike and a grete parte of Speyne, contynuynge soe unto this tyme pre|sente. And Turpinus tharchebischop rehersethe, Machomete made an ydole of auricalke or alkmuyne in the brynke of the see of Speyne, made with his awne hondes, havynge the face of hit towarde the meridien, in whom he includede a legion of spirittes by nigromancy, and a Cristen man comynge to þat Page  43, vol.6 place is trowblede sone; a Saracene departethe with owte eny hurte; a brydde liȝhtenge and sittynge on hyt dyethe anoon. That ymage hathe a mace in the ryȝhte honde of hit, whiche schalle falle firste when a kynge is borne in Fraunce whiche schalle innewe alle the londe of Speyne with the lawes of Criste, and then that mace fallen the Saracenys schalle flee for fere, levynge theire rychesse to other peple. The famous norischer and childe of that secte, the Sawden and duke of Turkes, the grete malle of Cristen peple, abowte the yere of oure Lorde God ml. c. and xc., herynge that Cristen men usede diversites of meytes at oon refeccion, seide suche men were not worthy to have hevyn. Also hit is schewede in an ex|emple foloynge the laboure of that Turke, to the encrease of theire and to the schame of the religion of Criste as amonge þeim. Too*. [white written, but then erased.] monkes of the ordre Cisterciense were presentede to hym, taken afore by the Turkes, whom he understode to be of the kynde of philosophres by theire communicacion, in|quirynge of þeim by interpretators of what condicion and pro|fession Page  45, vol.6 thei were of. Thei seide that they were monkes, professede to lyve after the rule of Seynte Benedicte. The Turke enquirenge mony thynges of the institucion of that rule, inquirede specially amonge other thynges wheþer thei drunke eny wyne, or did eiȝte eny flesche. They answerede [folio 268b] seyenge that they hade a certeyne wyne to theire refeccion, and noo flesche, but if necessite of infirmite requirede hit. Then the tyraunte commaundede theym to have moore liberte, and so be servede of theire meyte by ij. ferre and beawtuous women, with flesche and water. Whiche usenge flesche and water, made a convencion with þeire eien after thexemple of blissede Iob, that thei scholde not applye theim to synne, but to ȝiffe theym to preyere. The Sawden perceyvynge that, commaundid that they scholde be servede with fisches and wyne, after the seyenge of Salomon: "ȝiffe wyne to þeim that be of a bytter sawle, that they may drynke and forgete Page  47, vol.6 theire necessite:" that wily enemy intendede to delude simplicite by that arte, that he myȝhte delecte the blamenge of the religion of Criste. The monkes drynkynge wine gladdely, and not remembrenge theire holy religion, felle on the women that ministrede to þeim, and folowede the pleasure of the flesche. In the morowe that wyne digeste, and know|ynge theire offense, thei wepede soore, to whom the tyraunte seide, "Wherefore be ye moore soory nowe then ye were wonte to be?" They seide, "We have synnede soore thro thexcesse of wyne." The tyraunte seide, "Ye kepede youre profession truly while ye did eite flesche and drynke water, but thro wyne ye have offendede ageyne youre profession. Wherefore hit apperethe that Benedicte the auctor of your rewle was not discrete prohibitynge the eytynge of flesche, by Page  49, vol.6 ye whiche the state of the sawle is not trowblede, and grawnt|ynge wyne, by the whiche the state of reason is destroyede. whiche ye have provede by experience. Þerfore Machometus oure awtor was more discrete inhibitynge the drynkynge of wyne that dothe trowble the sawle, and grawntynge to us the eytynge of flesche, that noyethe not. And þerfor sithe ye have offended ageyne youre profession, ye may not be recon|cilede by us; goe into youre awne cuntre and do penaunce after youre consuetude;" and he suffrede theyme to departe, a man of a pestilence inveterate, reprovenge the blissede man Seynte Benedicte. Of whom Gregory the noble pope re|hersethe, seyenge that he did write the rule of monkes fulle of discreccion: for truly he was discrete that he chargede to [folio 269a] restreyne the mynde and delices of metes to men goynge to holy chevallery, grawntynge to theyme a lytelle wyne after the Page  51, vol.6 sentence of thapostle, thro the whiche the unsure flesche scholde be noryschede, and þe scharpenes of þe mynde scholde not be vexede þerwith.

Capitulum quintumdecimum.

HERACLONAS, the sonne of Heraclius, was emperoure ij. yere; whom the senate of Rome expulsede from thempire, with Martina his moder, the noose and tunge of here kytte awey. Theodorus the pope suceded Iohn iiijthe vj. yere. In whiche tyme Isidorus bischop Hispalensis, and disciple somme tyme of grete Gregory flowrede, whiche lefte noble werkes of his labor after hym, as the books of his Ethimologies, De Summo Bono, of the ordre of creatures, sinonymes, and mony oþer þinges. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo septimo. Edbaldus kynge of Kente dyede, levynge after hym Erusbertus his successoure, geten by Emilia Page  53, vol.6 a woman of Fraunce, reignynge in Kente xxiiij. yere, destroy|enge churches, ordeynenge þe faste of Lente to be kepede in his realme; whiche gate by Sexburga, the doȝhter of Anna, kynge of the Este Ynglische men, a doȝhter Eukengoga, whiche was made a myncheon at the monastery of Brigges in Fraunce, where Ethelburga, doȝhter of Edwinus, and awnte to here, was. Where either of theyme was abbesse by succession. In whiche tyme the consuetude of Ynglische peple was to visitte Fraunce, and specially the monasterys in hit, for cause of con|versacion, in that þer were but fewe monasterys that tyme in Ynglonde, and specially at Brigges and Calise. Andomarus bischop, and Bertinus þabbot, were this tyme in Fraunce, in the territory Carvernense. Paulus, libro tertio. Constantinus Page  55, vol.6 the thrydde, sonne of Heraclius, and broþer to Heraclonas, was emperoure xxviijti yere; whiche was deceyvede of Paulus, like as his grawntefader was of Sergius, wherefore he condemnede Martinus the pope unto exile, and spoylede Rome. Willelmus de Regibus, libro quarto. For he made bare the flores of the churches coverede with plates of brasse, whom he loste at Siracusan in Sicil, extincte by the Saracenys in a bathe; and the Saracenys toke his goodes with theym to Alexandria. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo sexto. Kyngilsus, kynge of Westesaxons, dedde this yere, Kenwalcus his son succeded xxxj. yere; for Qwichelinus his elder broþer reignede with his fader, and deide in the same yere he was baptizedde, levynge after hym Cuth|redus his sonne, whom seynte Birine baptizede also. Beda ubi supra. This Kenwalcus refusede to receyve þe feithe of Page  57, vol.6 Criste in the begynnynge of his reigne, wherefore he loste his realme by ryȝhte; whiche refusynge his wife, suster of Penda, mariede an other, wherefore Penda causede him to fle from his realme in the vthe yere of his reigne. Willelmus de Ponti|ficibus, libro secundo. This Kenwalcus was prively iij. [folio 268b] yere with Anna, kynge of Este Ynglische men, wherefore Penda did slee Anna the kynge after þat; in whiche tyme Kenwalcus was baptizede by the bischop Felix, and recurede his realme thro helpe of Anna, and made Agilbertus, borne in Fraunce, bischoppe of his province, whiche was bischoppe at Wenta xv. yere. But at the laste Kenwalcus made an other bischoppe þer, Wyne by name, and removede Agilbertus, y cannot certifye the trawthe of that cause, wheþer hit was for the langage of hym not understonde amonge theyme, or for Page  59, vol.6 eny other cause. Wherewith Agilbertus movede soore, wente to Fraunce, and was made bischop of Parise. Also Wyne, ex|pulsede from Wynchestre, after that he hade bene bischop þer ij. yere, wente and bouȝhte the seete of London of Wulferus, kynge of the Marches, kepynge that seete while he lyvede, and soe the province of Westesaxons wonted a bischop iiij. yere. Kenwalcus the kynge trowblede soore with his enemyes, sende for Agilbertus, whiche sende to hym Leutherius, his cosyn, whiche consecrate by Theodorus tharchebischop of Cawnterbury, was bischoppe þere by vij. yere. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. This Kenwalcus hade victory ij. tymes of the Britons, the firste tyme at Withgonesburghe, the secunde tyme at the mownte of Pencia, and did stryve ageyn Wulferus, sonne of Penda, in a grete parte of his realme, into a signe of the persecucion of his fader. Beda, libro tertio, capitulo octavo. Oswaldus, kynge of Northumbrelonde, was sleyne in this yere by Penda, the pagan kynge, in a place Page  61, vol.6 callede Maȝerfelde, where mony miracles be schewede; and Penda commaunded his hedde and his armes to be made faste to a tre. But after a yere y-paste, kynge Oswy, his broþer beryede the hedde in the churche off Lindisfarn, callede now *. [A word has been commenced here thus, Direm, and then erased, and nothing supplied.]and seide that hit is conteynede at Diram, betwene the armes of Seynte Cuthberte, beryenge the armes at the kynges cite Bebbanburghe. But Ostrida the doȝhter of Oswius, qwene of the Marches and wife to Etheldredus, brouȝhte with here the oþer boones unto the monastery of Bardeney, where sche myȝhte not be admitte with theym until þat a piller of liȝhte was sene to schyne on the relykes by alle þe nyȝhte. The [folio 270a] Danys trowblynge soore those costes by mony yeres foloynge, the boones of Seynte Oswalde were brouȝte to Glowcestre, to a place of chanons, by Elfleda lady of the Marches. Willel|mus de Pontificibus, libro quarto. Neverthelesse, the arme of Seynte Oswalde holle, with senowes, flesche, and with skynne, Page  63, vol.6 is seide to be at Peturburowe, getynge theder by thefte from the place where hit was of olde tymes putte þer in a ryalle schryne, but y have noo certeyne auctorite that hit scholde be there. Paulus, libro quinto. Cesarea, the wife of the kyng of Persida, goynge from that cuntre with fewe tru peple abowte this tyme, come to Constantinopole, that sche myȝhte be baptizede. The kynge here howsebonde, herynge that, sende messangers to brynge here ageyne from the emperour. Whom Cesara answerede seyenge, "Go to my lorde and yowre kynge, that he schalle never have me to his make with owte he be baptizede and receyve the feithe of Criste." The kynge herynge these thynges, come with lx. ml men peseably to the Page  65, vol.6 emperoure, and receyvede baptym with alle his peple, and re|wardede of themperoure returnyde to his cuntre with his wife. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo tertiodecimo. Oswalde sleyne, kynge Oswy, his broþer, succeded in that realme, reignynge nobly xxviijti yere, but with grete labore, havynge Oswynus to governe men of Deira, whiche was of the stock of Edwinus, a semely man of person, religious, and meke in speche, in the vij. firste yeres of his reigne; whom kynge Oswy caused to be sleyne in the howse of Hunbaldus the erle, to whom he fledde. After that kynge Oswy hade to his felawe Odilwaldus, the son of Oswalde, in the realme of Deira. Martinus the firste, suc|cedenge Theodorus, was pope vj. yere, whom a man of Olimpus willenge to smyte hym at masse was made blynde in smitenge. This pope was put to exile by Constantinus emperoure, for cause he condempnede Paulus, patriarke of Constantinopole, of a fals name. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo tertiodecimo. Pauli|nus, Page  67, vol.6 bischoppe of Rowchestre, deide this yere, somme tyme archebischoppe of Yorke, whom Ithamar succedid; and Felix, the firste bischop of Este Ynglische men, deide also, whom Thomas did succede. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo xxj. The Este Saxons receyvyde the feithe of Criste in this yere, whom thei hade refusede afore and abjecte, by the labor of Oswinus kynge of Northumbrelonde; for Sigebertus, their kynge, was baptizede of Finanus bischop of Northumbrelonde, nye to the large walle whiche dividede somme tymes Britons from Scottes. Wherefore he toke with hym Ced, the broþer of Seynte Chadde, from the province of Marches to preche to his [folio 270b] peple of the este: that doen he returnede to Finanus aforeseide, whiche made bischoppe by hym, returnede to preche to Este Ynglische men, and specially into a place whiche is callede Itanchestre, nye to the water of Penta, and also to the towne of Tilleburghe nye to Thamys. Hit happede in a tyme in that Page  69, vol.6 cuntre that Ced the bischop cursede an erle, with men havynge communicacioun with hym, in that he usede unlawefulle matri|mony. Sigebertus the kynge despisede the commaundemente of the bischoppe, and desirede to dyne by that erle wente to his place. Ced the bischoppe ȝafe metenge to the kynge com|mynge from dyner from therles place, towchynge the kynge with a rodde that he hade in his honde, seyenge, "For cause thow wolde not absteyne from the cumpanye of that cursede man at my commaundemente, þow schalle dye in that howse;" and so hit folowede. For the seide erle, with his broþer ger|man, did sle the kynge in his house; whiche enquirede why thei did soo, seide that the kynge was slawe ageyne his adversaryes forȝiffenge liȝhtely iniuryes doen to hym. Kinge Page  71, vol.6 Oswy commaundid kynge Oswinus, governoure of Deira, to be sleyne this yere in the house of Hunbaldus his erle, to whom Oswinus fledde for truste, forsakynge his hoste, abidynge a season that he myȝhte make batelle to Oswy. Hit is redde that this kynge Oswinus ȝafe his beste horse to an holy bischop, Aidanus by name, whiche usede raþer to go then to ryde; whiche havynge noon other thynge nye to his honde, ȝafe that hors to a poore man askenge almes of hym. The kynge Os|wynus herynge þerof hade indignacioun, and seide to Aidanus the bischop, syttenge at mete with hym, "What hase thow done, my lorde bischop, what, have we not wurse horses sufficiaunte to almes?" To whom the bischoppe seyde, "My lorde, what sey ye, Wheþer is the sonne of a mare moore pleasaunte to yow, or the sonne of Marye?" The kynge herynge that, felle downe to the feete of the bischop and askede Page  73, vol.6 forȝifenesse, promisenge that he wolde not use oblocucion after that in that parte. After that they pleasede, and sittynge at meyte, the bischop weped soore as sodenly. The cause in|quirede of men stondynge by, the bischoppe seide, "This kynge schalle not lyve longe amonge us. Ȝitte as unto this y have seene unnethe a meke kynge, and this wickede peple is not worthy to have suche a kynge long with theym." And so that kynge was sleyne soone after, as hit is schewide afore. And the bischoppe Aidanus lyvede xij. daies after the dethe of Oswinus; the sawle of whom Seynte Cutheberte see to be [folio 271a] brouȝhte to hevyn by angelles. ℞. Seynte Birine, the firste bischop of Dorcestre, deide in this yere, after the xiiij. yere of his bischophode. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo xxiij. Eugenius the pope succedid Martinus as thre yere, in whiche yere Odilwal|dus, Page  75, vol.6 son of Oswaldus, and kynge of Deira, ȝafe to Ced, bischop of þe Este Ynglische men, commynge ofte to the partes of the northe, a place in hye hilles, callede Lestingay, to edify a monastery þer. But Ced did faste dayly by alle Lente unto Wyȝhtesonneday, excepte takenge then a lytelle brede, an egge, with a lytelle mylke mixte with water, after the maner of þe disciples of Aidanus, or that he began to edifye that mon|astery. Whiche place Chimbyl, his broþer, governede after his dethe, and was beryede þer in a tyme of a grete dethe. After whom Cedda norisched þat place.

Capitulum sextumdecimum.

VITALIANUS was pope after Eugenius xiiij. yere. Þis pope sende to the churches of Yngelonde Theodorus tharchebis|cop, a monke Tharcense. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo vicesimo. Page  77, vol.6 Men of the marches were imbute with the mistery of the feithe in the tyme of Weda, prince amonge þeim, and sonne of Penda. For this prince Weda maryede the doȝhter of kynge Oswy, by consente of Penda his fader, in this condicion, that he scholde be made a Cristen man, whiche thynge he did with goode wille, for Alfridus the son of Oswy maryede Kynburga his sustyr. Wherefore this prince Weda brouȝhte from North|umbrelonde with hym iiij. prestes, Ced, Adda, Becti, and Duina, that thei scholde preche to his peple. And Penda the kynge prohibitte not but that alle men scholde receyve the feithe of Criste that wolde. Honorius tharchebischop of Cawnterbery deide in this yere, and after a yere y-paste Deus|dedit succedid ix. yere, whom Ithamar the bischop of Row|chestre confermede. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro tertio. Benedictus Biscop, abbot, and the norischer of Beda the preste, and the ministre of kynge, refusede places and co|synnes for the luffe of Criste, and wente to Rome and com|mynge Page  79, vol.6 ageyne wente þider into the vthe tyme, bryngenge mony bookes and relikes of seyntes to his monasteries, whiche were in the side of the water of Wire, beynge abbotte of theyme, and techynge Beda his welbelovyde while that he lyvede. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Beda mer|velleuthe*. [Sic.] his discrecion and pacience; his discrecion in that [folio 271b] he brouȝhte to Yngelonde so grete plente of bookes and men of crafte, travaylenge allemoste in alle his age, in whiche travayle the luffe of the cuntre and elegancy voluptuous de|ceyvide his grevous labors. Also he mervaylede his pacience, that he beynge in possession of the monastery of Seynt Austyn of Cawnterbury, whereof he was made governour by the kynge of Kent, ȝafe place to Adrianus commynge to hit; also he suffrede an other abbot made in his absence at his monastery Page  81, vol.6 of Wyre pacientely. Whiche vexede soore with the palsy, made the thrydde abbotte at his monastery in his lyfe. Penda the kynge of the Marches did sle in this yere Anna kynge of Este Ynglische men, in that he norischede Kenwalcus ageyne hym. Also Bothulphus thabbot made in this yere a monastery at the este of Lincoln, in a place called Ichao. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo vicesimo tertio. Penda the kynge of Marches was extincte this yere, with xxxti dukes, whiche come to Northumbrelonde to have sleyne kynge Oswy like as he did Oswalde his broþer, refreynynge not hym selfe for the contracte of matrimony betwene theyme and theire childre. Neverthelesse kynge Oswy offrede to hym grete ȝiftes that he scholde departe from his londe. Penda refusenge theyme, kynge Oswy seide: "If a pagan hathe noo knowlege to take oure ȝiftes, we schalle ȝiffe to hym suche þinges as he knowethe." Then kyng Oswy made a promyse to God þat he scholde make Alfleda his doȝhter a myncheon, and ȝiffe also xij. pos|sessions to the edificacion of monasterys to God, so that he Page  83, vol.6 wolde sende to hym victory agenye Penda. In whiche batelle Penda was sleyne, with xxxti dukes, nye to a grete water þat tyme callede Wynwed, in the cuntre of Ledis, not ferre from Yorke, þauȝhe Penda hade iij. tymes so mony men in his hoste as kynge Oswy hade. Then Alfridus was with his fader, but Edwalde the son of Oswald, as a plegge to the wife of Penda, stode alarge from the felde to beholde thende. That victory schewede to kynge Oswy, he toke his doȝhter unnethe of iij. yere in age to Hilda þabbes of Hertiseye, to be tauȝhte, whiche sowndethe as the yle of Hertys, whiche governede after that þe monastery of Stremschalt, as the bosom of corne, callede now Whiteby, xxxti myle from Yorke, where Elfleda was governoure afterwarde. Then Oswy ȝafe þe possessions promised; vj. in the province of Deira, and vj. in the province [folio 272a] Page  85, vol.6 of Bernicia, unto the edificacion of monasterys. Also he ȝafe to Weda his son in lawe þe realme of men of the sowthe marches; but Weda was sleyne by his wife after the thrydde yere of his reigne. After the dethe of whom, men of the Marches rebellynge ageyne kynge Oswy, erecte into theire kynge Wulferus, the sonne of Penda, whom thei hade kepede secretely, whiche made a Cristen man firste of þe kynges of the Marches toke to his wife Ermenilda doȝhter of Erusbertus kynge of Kente, by whom he gate Kenredus and Wereburga, havynge a glorious victory ageyne Kenwalcus kynge of Weste|saxons at Asshedun; subduynge also to hym the yle of Wiȝhte, whom he ȝafe to the kynge of Este Ynglische men, that he scholde be baptized, and he was godfader to hym, beryede at Lichefelde after the xvijthe yere of his reigne. Clodoneus reignede in Fraunce after Dagobertus his fader, xvj. yere, Page  87, vol.6 whiche causede the arme of Seynte Dionise to be kytte awey, by the instigacion of the develle. And Seynte Wandrigesilius thabbot deide in this yere. Paulus, libro sexto. Grimmaldus perceyvynge Bertaricus his knyȝhte to have fledde to the kynge of Hunes, Cacanus by name, sende to kynge Cacanus seyenge that he scholde leve Bertaricus, or elles he scholde not have pease with the Longobardes. Bertaricus herynge that fledde to Ytaly, and was reconsilede to Grimmaldus the kynge by the labor of Hunulphus, his tru frende. Then wickede men seynge that Bertaricus was taken to grace, seide to the kynge that he wolde be expulsede from his realme with owte Bertaricus were sleyne. That herde the kynge sende men to kepe his place þat he scholde not escape in eny wyse. Hunulphus his frende, perceyvynge that, made Bertaricus to take the clothes of his bedde, and to bere theyme on his necke, Page  89, vol.6 smytynge hym with his fiste; and so Hunulphus bryngynge Bertaricus from his place, sende hym over the walles of the cite by a rope, and so he wente to Fraunce. This Hunulphus inquirede of men kepynge the place off Bertaricus that he scholde not escape, why he did smyte his servaunte soe, seide, "My wickede servaunte wolde have made my bedde in the chambre of drunken Bertaricus, and in that he displeasede me, y make hym to brynge the clothes home ageyne." And soe*. [Sic in MS.] kepynge the howse of Bertaricus deluded, and fyndynge [folio 272b] the servaunte of Hunulphus knowynge of that dede, drawynge hym by his hedde brouȝhte hym to the kynge. And thauȝhe that sentence of dethe was ȝiffen ageyne Hunulphus and his servaunte, the kynge mervaylynge that fidelite ȝafe to theym choyce wheþer they wolde tary and dwell in his cowrte, or to go to Bertaricus his frende; then thei takynge theire goodes Page  91, vol.6 wente to Bertaricus. Egfridus, sonne of kynge Oswy, maryede Seynte Etheldreda in this yere; whiche was maryede afore to an erle, Totbertus by name; whiche contynuede in virginite thauȝhe sche was mariede twyes; and movede to the luste of the flesche, departede after from Egfridus, and wente to þe monastery callede Elig, and made abbesse, ȝafe grete resplend|ence thro miracles. Hunarius the prince of Saracenys made a newe temple in Siria abowte this tyme, whiche churche is seene now in Ierusalem, where the Saracenys do prey. Beda, libro quarto, capitulo primo. Ercobertus the kynge of Cawn|terbury deide þis tyme, whom Egbertus his son succeded ix. yere. Deusdedit tharchebischop deide in this yere, wherefore Wighardus was sende to Vitalianus þe pope, by consente of the kynges of Kente and of Northumbrelonde, that he myȝhte be ordeynede archebischoppe of Cawnterbury. Whiche dedde by a grete pestilence reignynge in that tyme, þe pope or|deynyde*. [A grete pestilence.]Page  93, vol.6 Theodorus, monke, to be presidente of the churches of Ynglonde. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo xxvjto. In whiche yere a grete pestilence reignede in Britayne, begynnynge in þe sowthe partes, in whiche tyme hit happede that is re|hersede of Egbertus the monke. This Egbertus perceyvynge*. [¶ Nota.] hym lyke to dye, wente from his bedde secretely in the morowe, preyenge God with an herte contrite that he wolde not suffre hym to dye untyl that he hade doen satisfaccion and penaunce for his synnes doen by hym in his yowthe, promittynge if he myȝhte escape þat pestilence, þat he wolde dye in goynge pilgremages, and that he scholde say dayly the sawter besyde his quotidian servyce if he were not seke, and that he scholde faste in every weke oon day with the nyȝhte withowte eny meyte. This doen he wente to bedde, and thro the movynge and sownde of hit an oþer broþer to hym laborenge in the pestilence awakede and seide to him, Page  95, vol.6 "Egebertus, what hase thow done; y supposede þat we tweyne scholde have goen to gedre to reste, neverthelesse that þou desireste is grawntede to the;" wherefore the felawe of Egbertus dedde, he lyvede after unto þe xc. yere of his age, puttenge moore to his promisse made afore to faste in thre [folio 273a] tymes of the yere, as in Advente, in Lente, and afore Pente|coste, xlti daies continually, contente with brede and mylke, þe beste of the mylke taken awey. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo xxiiij.

Capitulum septimumdecimum.

AIDANUS and Finanus, bischoppes of Northumbrelonde, dedde abowte these tymes, Colmannus the Scotte was suc|cessor to theyme by thre yere. In whiche tyme Agilbertus, Page  97, vol.6 bischop of Westesaxons, come to costes of Northumbrelonde, where he made Wilfride thabbot Ripense preste, at the peticion of kynge Oswy. In whiche tyme a grete question was movede of the observacion of Ester, seyenge that hit was not duly keped of Scottes and of Britons, but hit was suffrede as in|correcte for the reverence of holy faders, Aidanus, Finanus, Columba, and oþer venerable faders. Wherefore a seyne was kepede at Stremshalte at the monastery of Hilda þabbesse, in the yere of oure Lorde God vj. c. lx. and iiij.; where Colman|nus the bischop, and Hilda the abbesse mette of that oon parte, makenge allegacioun for theym that worschipfulle faders theire predecessors and seyntes kepede Ester from the xiiijthe moone unto the xxti moone, and specially Seynte Iohn Evan|geliste in Asia. On that oþer parte was Agilbertus bischop o Page  99, vol.6 Westesaxons, Iacobus, preste of Paulinus somme tyme bis|choppe of Yorke, and Wilfridus thabbot Ripense, with Alfri|dus son to the kynge. Wilfridus, disputynge for theym, did allegate the consuetude of the churche universalle, as of Grece, of Ytaly, of Rome, of Affrike, and of Fraunce, seynge theyme to be preferrede afore a constitucion of oon angle of the worlde, whiche hade noo knowlege of hooly decretys made by cowne|sayles. And as for Seynt Iohn began Ester from the xiiijthe day of þe firste monethe at evynsonge, takynge noo hede wheþer hit were in that day or in an othyr day. And also Petre the prince of apostles, to whom the principate of the churche was ȝiffen, with power of byndynge and of loosynge, abode after Page  101, vol.6 the tradicion of þe lawe the xiiijthe moone of the firste monethe, lyke to Seynte Iohn, kepynge the feste of Ester in the nexte Sonneday whiche folowede the fulle of the moone and the equinoccialle unto the xxjti moone. And if Sonneday felle on the xiiijthe day, he kepede not Ester in that day, for [folio 273b] then that Sonneday was of the yere precedent, and not of a newe yere. These wordes purposede, kynge Oswy seide, "Sithe ye say so mony thynges and grete to have be ȝiffen to Petyr, y dar not say ageyne hym, leste peraventure he schutte the durre when y comme." Then a grete multitude of peple condescende to Wilfridus, and Ced, bischoppe of Esteynglische men, was correcte from that tyme; but Colmannus havynge indignacion þerof, returnede to the Scottes. ℞. Unto the tru knowlege of the kepynge of Ester thre thynges ar to be atten|dide, Page  103, vol.6 after Beda, libro vto, de temporibus vel de gestis Angliæ, that is to say, the equinoccialle of ver, the perfite plenilune or fullenesse of the moone, and Sonneday. For lyke as in the begynnynge of the worlde the sonne procedynge from the myddes of the este, prefixede in hys arisynge the equinocciale of ver, after that the sonne beynge in the weste a fulle moone folowede from the myddes of the este, and in likewise in alle yeres foloynge. And so the firste monethe of the moone awe to be observede, that not afore the equinoccialle, or in the day of the equinoccialle, as hit was in the begynnynge of the worlde, or the equinoccialle paste, he awe to have the fulle of the moone, Þerfore what moone is fulle afore the equinoccialle, as þe xiiijthe, Page  105, vol.6 þe xvthe, or xvjthe, and so of oþer or moore after that, hit per|tenethe to the laste parte of the yere precedent. Þerfore Ester is to be kepede in that moone whiche is fulle in þat equinoccialle, or after, as in the thrydde weke of the firste monethe of þe moone, from the eve of the xiiijthe day unto the xxjti day ren|nynge, where Sonneday commythe firste. Neverthelesse the churche suffrethe the erroure in the usualle kalendary, whiche began in this wise, that the solstices and equinoccialles and entrenges of the sonne into signes have goen backe in the kalendary by xiij. daies, abowte the yere of oure Lorde God ml.ccc. and xxti. And þerfore but if the usualle kalendary be correcte, hit schalle folowe of that errour, that and if þe yeres of Criste atteyne to the nowmbre of xviij. ml. yere, Ester Page  107, vol.6 schalle falle after our kalendary abowte þe schortyste day in the yere. And if the vithe age of the worlde contynue unto that nowmbre duplicate, the day of Seynte Iohn Baptiste schalle be the schortiste day of the yere, and Cristemasse the longeste day in the yere. The reason of this erroure is declarede in the Almagestes of Ptolomeus. Willelmus de [folio 274a] Pontificibus, libro iij. Colmannus the bischop of Northum|brelonde Page  109, vol.6 convicte by Wilfridus of the erroneus kepynge of Ester, returnede to the Scottes with indignacioun, as hit is schewede afore. And Wilfridus, by the labor of Alfridus, son to kynge Oswy, was electe to be archebischop of Yorke, sende to Fraunce that he myȝhte be consecrate, ffor Deusdedit, thar|chebischop of Cawnterbery, was dedde that scholde have con|secrate hym. In this tyme Kenwalcus, kynge of Westesaxons, divided his province into ij. seetes, settenge the chiefe sete at Wynechestre, wherewith Agilbertus movede in indignacioun, returnede to Fraunce, where he was borne, as hit schewede afore in the same booke, capitulo decimo quinto. Paulus, libro vj o. Constantinus the emperour, willenge to delyver Ytaly from the Longobardes abowte this tyme, inquirede of a solitary man, and servaunte of Godde, wheþer he scholde have victory of the Longobardes. The man answeryde and seide that he myȝhte not have victory of theyme as ȝitte, in that Seynte Iohn Baptiste preyde for theym, in that thei made in Ytaly a monastery into the honoure off hym; but the tyme schalle Page  111, vol.6 comme when that churche schalle be hade in despecte to theyme, and inhabite with unworthy persons, and then that peple schalle peresche firste. Themperoure despisynge the wordes of the servaunte of God, ȝafe batelle to the Longo|bardes, but he prevaylede not; spoylenge the cite of Rome, not|withstondenge the preiers and desire of the pope Vitalianus beynge contrarious. Whiche goynge to Sicille exercisede grete crudelite, dyenge in that cuntre in a bathe. This Wilfridus, as hit is schewede afore, electe to be archebischop of Yorke, tary|enge in Fraunce with Agilbertus for his confirmacion, Oswy the kynge, movede thro peple that kepede the feste of Ester in the xiiijthe moone, made Seynte Chadde, then abbot of Les|tingay, tharchebischop of Yorke, ageyne the ordinaunce of ca|non. Willelmus, libro iij., capitulo xxvij. Wherefore Chad was sende to Kente for his confirmacion, whiche returnede to Wyna bischop of Westesaxons, for Deusdedit tharchebischop of Cawnterbery was dedde, havynge in his felowschippe ij. bis|choppes Page  113, vol.6 of Britons. Wilfridus commynge from Fraunce, understondenge Chad to occupy his seete, taryede in Kente, prechynge and ȝiffenge orders unto the commynge of Theo|dorus tharchebischop of Cawnterbery, and haloyde churches, and made Picta, a noble musicion, bischoppe of Rowchestre. Also Benedictus Biscop, wente to Rome in this yere the [folio 274b] secunde tyme, whiche returnynge ageyne taryede at the mon|astery Lirinense by ij. yere; whiche goynge to Rome in þe þrydde tyme, come to Ynglonde with Theodorus bischop, and Aidanus abbotte, by the commaundemente of Vitalianus the pope. Cissa, lytelle kynge and fader to kynge Ina, made the monastery of Abyndon in this yere. Leodegarius suffrede passion in this yere under Eborinus, governoure of the kynges howse. Constantinus themperoure was sleyne at Sicil by his knyȝhtes in a bathe. The holy pope Adeodatus succeded Vitalianus iiij. yere; in the tyme of whom the body of Seynte Page  115, vol.6 Benedicte, with the body of Seynte Scolastica his sustre, was translate by Aigulfus, a monke Floriacense, from the mownte Cassyne, whiche is in the province Beneventan, unto the monastery Floriacense nye to Aurelians.

Capitulum octodecimum.

CONSTANTINUS the iiijthe, and son of Constantyne afore re|hersede, was emperoure xvij. yere. Grimaldus, kynge of Longobardes, drawynge a bowe to schote at a dofe, in the ixthe day after that he was lete bloode, brake a veyne, but leches puttenge to hit poyson causede hym to dye þerwith. Beda, libro iiijto, capitulo ijdo. Theodorus come to Kente in this yere, the vijthe kalendes of Iunius, in the secunde yere of his consecracion, where he was bischop xxjti yere and vj. monethes. Page  117, vol.6 Vitalianus the pope sende this Theodorus, a monke of Tharsus borne in Sicille, havynge lxvj. yere in age, instructe excel|lentely in divine scripture and in the langage of Grewe and of Latyne, þat he scholde preche to þe peple of Yngelonde, sendenge Adrian thabbotte as a helper to hym, leste that he scholde induce eny thynges erroneus into the churches after the consuetude of men of Grewe. Whiche commyn into Ynglonde, wente thro alle the costes of hit techynge the ryȝhte ordre of lyvynge, and toke to peple a writynge by whiche they scholde knowe to kepe Ester dewly, techynge the wey of syngynge, of calculacion, and of astronomy under either tunge*. [tunge is erased and langage written above it in MS.] of Grece and of Latyne, Adrian thabbotte and his disciples helpynge moche in that mater, ordeynynge bischoppes in diverse places, and amovynge bischoppes not ordeynyde aryȝhte, other elles he consecrate theyme ageyne. Amonge whom he amovede Chadde, archebischop of Yorke, confess|ynge Page  119, vol.6 mekely his offense, and made Wilfridus bischop þer; neverthelesse he made Chadde bischop of the Marches, at the desire of Wulferus, kynge. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo xxvo. Men of the churche and religious men hade grete pleasure to serve God in that tyme, and not the worlde, the herte and not*. [What devo|cion was in religious men.] [folio 275a] the wombe; wherefore religious peple were hade in grete reverence and honor, in so moche that men travaylynge wolde knele downe and prey theym of theire blissenge. Whiche usede not to goe owte of theire monasterys in that tyme but if hit were to baptize or to preche, and for the salvacioun of sawles, not willenge to receyve eny thynge to thedificacion of theire monasterys, but as coacte by myȝhty men. Beda. libro iiijo, capitulo vto. Oswy, kynge of Northumbrelonde, deide in this yere, whom Egfridus his sonne did succede xv. yere. Beda, libro iiijo, capitulo xvijo This Egfridus mariede Etheldrida doȝhter of Todbertus, prince of the sowthe Gir|wyes, Page  121, vol.6 whiche havynge here in his felowschippe by xij. yere cowthe not move her to the synne and concupiscense of the flesche; wherefore sche havynge licence of the kynge was made myncheon at Coludi by oon yere, under Aebba cosyn to Egfridus. But after that sche made abbesse of Hely, eitynge but oonys in the day, and werynge noo lynyn clothes, slepyde not after mydde nyȝhte, but wakede untille day in preyere and devoute meditacion; whiche dyenge after the vijthe. yere of here prelacy, lay xvi. yere incorrupte. Beda, libro iiij o, capitulo vo. A cownesayle of bischoppes was hade by Theo|dorus at Tedforde in this yere, in whom hit was decrete, firste of the tru observacion of Ester; in the secunde, that noo bischop scholde entre into the paresche of an oþer; in the thrydde, that bischoppes scholde not diease*. [Sic.] and inquiete mo|nasterys; in the iiijthe, that clerkes and monkes scholde not goe abowte in the cuntre withowte licence of theire prelates; and Page  123, vol.6 in the vthe, that oonys in the yere a cownesayle scholde be kepede. Egbertus the kynge of Kente died, whom Lotharius his son succedid xj. yere. Kenwalcus kynge of Weste Saxons diede in the xxxti yere of his reigne. ℞. Sexburga the wife of whom reignede afterwarde oon yere, but, after Bede, other litelle kynges divided and departede that realme amonge þeim. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo vjo. Seynte Chadde diede this yere*. [Seynte Chad dyed in this yere.] at Lichefeld, in the thridde yere of his bischopehode; in the stedde of whom Theodorus did substitute Winfridus the diacon of Seynte Chadde, whom he deposide soone after for in|obediency, [folio 275b] and substitute in his place Sexwulphus, thabbot of Medhamsted, whiche is callede now Petyrborowe, sometyme Page  125, vol.6 in the region of the Girwyes; and Winfridus deposide in the iiijthe yere of his consecracion wente Barwe. Donus the pope succedid Adeodatus oon yere and vj. monethes. Beda, ubi supra. Seynte Erkenwalde, the thryde bischoppe of London, after the dethe of Wyne made ij. monasteryes, oon in Southerey at an yle called Cereotte, and nowe Chertesey, xv. myle from London at the weste; and an oþer at the este of London, in the province of Estesex, callede Berkyngum, to Ethelburga his sustre, where sche was abbesse and lyvede vertuousely, to whom Seynte Aldelme wrote a booke of virginite. Willel|mus de Pontificibus, libro ijdo. Men suppose that the seide place was not destroyede by the preyere of that holy virgyn; but þat other monastery of Chertiseye was destroyede by the Danes, whom kynge Edgarus repairede afterwarde. Oswinus began to reigne on the Weste Saxons þis yere, whiche reignede iij. yere, and ȝafe batelle ageyne Wulferus kynge of the Page  127, vol.6 Marches, at Widanheaf. In whiche yere Wulferus kynge of the Marches diede, whom Etheldredus his broþer did succede, and reignede xxxti yere; for Kynredus þe son of*. [of] on, MS.] Wulferus myȝhte not reigne for tendernesse of age. And Ermenilda the wife of Wulferus was made a myncheon at Hely, with Werburga here doȝhter, after the dethe of Wulferus under Etheldritha. Marianus. Kyng Etheldredus, uncle to Wer|burga myncheon, made here governoure in diverse places, as at Trikyngham, Weddinna, and at Hamburgha, dienge at the firste place and beryede at the thrydde, as sche commaunded in here lyfe, where sche lay incorrupte as by ccc. yere unto the commynge of Danes. ℞. The Danes taryenge in wynter at Repyndoun, Burdredus kynge of the Marches chasede awey, citesynnes of Hamburga dredynge theyme, wente to Chestre with the body of that blissede virgyn, redacte firste in that Page  129, vol.6 tyme into powdre. In whiche cite from the tyme of kynge Athelstan unto the commynge of Normannes into Ynglonde, seculer canons gettynge diverse possessions servede in that churche to the lawe of that virgyn, and after that monkes. Marianus, libro ijdo. Wulferus the kynge hade iij. bre|ther, as Weda, Ethelredus, and Merwaldus, whiche was pre|sidente of the Weste Marches, to whom Ermenburga his qwene brouȝhte thre holy doȝhters, Mildburga, Mildrida, [folio 276a] Milgwida, and a sonne, a man of grete holynesse, Meresis by name. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro iiijo. Also Wul|ferus hade ij. sustres and myncheons, Kynedrida, and Kynes|wida, beryede bothe at Medhamsted, callede now Petyrborowe, where Seynte Ethelwold made a monastery. This Kyneswida converte Offa the kynge, in so moche that he goynge to Rome Page  131, vol.6 with Kenredus and Egwinus bischop of Worcestre, was made a monke. Agatho the pope did succede Donus iij. yere, in the secunde yere of whom the vjthe seene or cownesayle was hade at Constantinopole of cc. and lxxx. bischoppes, in whom hit was seide ii. natures to be in Criste and ij. willes. Ma|rianus, libro ijo. Agilbertus bischop of Westesaxons de|partede from that cuntre with indignacion, in that Kenwalcus the kynge hade divided the province into too seetes. Leu|therius was made bischop thro the grawnte of the kynge, Theodorus tharchebischop confermynge hym, whiche was pre|sidente þer vij. yere. A grete dethe of briddes fiȝhtenge togedre was hade in this yere.

Capitulum nonumdecimum.

THEODORUS, kynge of Frenche men, reignede after Clota|rius his fader xviij. yere. Beda, libro iiij to, capitulo xij o. In whiche yere Etheldredus, kynge of the Marches, wastede Kente, and Picta bischop of Rowchestre, and wente to Sex|wulphus, Page  133, vol.6 of whom he receyvyde the churche of Hereforde, where he ȝafe moore attendaunce unto syngynge then to þe reparacion of his churche. In whiche yere Benedictus Biscop, takynge with hym Colfridus the monke, wente to Rome the iiijthe tyme; whiche brouȝhte with hym to Yngelonde Iohn, a noble synger of the churche of Seynte Petyr, that he scholde teche men to synge in his monastery. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 18o. A grete batelle made in this yere betwene Egfridus, kyng of Northumbrelonde, and Etheldredus, kynge of the Marches; Elswinus, broþer of Egfridus, was sleyne in that soore conflicte nye to the water of Trente. For the dethe of whom a grete summe of moneye payede, pease was reformede bytwene parties by the labore of Theodorus, tharchebischop of Cawnterbery. In whiche batelle, a knyȝhte longynge to Eg|fridus kynge, wounded sore and wyllenge to aryse, hade noo myȝhte, was taken and solde to a man callede Friso. Whiche Page  135, vol.6 feturde faste, the feters were losede in that howre in whom his broþer seide masse for hym, supposynge that he hade bene dedde, untille that, his redempcion made, he come to his broþer. A blasynge sterre apperede in this yere by thre monethes, in the tyme of hervyste; in whiche tyme kynge Egfride expulsed [folio 276b] Wilfride from the seete of Yorke, at the instigacion of his wife. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Theodorus tharchebis|chop condescendynge þerto, whiche favorynge the wylle of Egfride the kyng, ordeynede Bosa bischoppe off Yorke, Eata at the churche Lindisfarn, Timbertus at Hangustald, Trimwinus at Candida Casa, in londe of Pictes. Marianus, libro 2o. And put Eadhedus to the churche Ripense, or of Ripon, com|myn late from Lyndesey, in that Etheldredus, kynge of the Page  137, vol.6 Marches, occupiede that province ageyne kynge Egfride. Willelmus. Where the misery off man may appere, that the hedde of the churche of Ynglonde, Theodorus, amovede awey from his office an holy man Wilfridus, for temporalle favor, and not by ryȝhte, as the conjecture of man may perceyve and atteyne. Beda, libro v to, capitulo xiij o. Wilfridus expulsed, wente to Rome þerfore; but by tempestes of the sea he was putte into Frisia, where he convertede firste mony men and women to the feithe of Criste, whiche thynge Willebordus fullefillede afterwarde. This Wilfridus commyn to Rome, and herde and approbate by Agatho the pope, disputede in a cownesayle of a exxvti bischoppes ageyne the erroure of theym that prechyd and seide but oon nature and oon wille to be in Criste. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Where he purposede his cause so mekely that he accusede not gretely Theodorus tharchebischop, sende to Yngelonde from Rome, Page  139, vol.6 neiþer he suffrede his maters to flowe awey as untowchid, seyenge, "O holy fader, what signifiethe this, that Theodorus hathe ordeynede thre bischoppes in my seete thro his aucto|rite, y beynge in lyve and not consentynge þerto, willynge not to accuse hym, in that he was sende from this holy place?" But thauȝhe Wilfridus was approbate þer by the pope, he obteynede not his benefice and seete of Yorke for the frowarde|nesse of the kynge and off Theodorus. Beda, libro 4to, capitulo tertiodecimo. Wherefore Wilfride turnede to the Sowthe Saxons, where he made a monastery at an yle callede Selisey, sowndynge as the yle of a calfe, prechynge þer, and convertynge peple, unto the dethe of Egfridus. In whiche cuntre hit reynede not afore by the space of thre yere, but in the firste day that he began to baptise, hit reignede, and þe grounde began to wexe grene; techynge men of that cuntre [folio 277a] Page  141, vol.6 to fische with nettes. Oswinus kynge of Westsaxons diede, whom Kentewinus, his sonne, did succede ix. yere. In whiche yere Leutherius bischoppe off that province dedde, Theodorus made Chedda bischop, whiche contynuede the seete of Wyne|chestre xxxti yere. Seynte Audoenus bischop of Roone dyede, and the childe Beda by nam was borne. Leo the secunde suc|cedid Agatho the pope iij. yere, and the bischophode of Rome was vacante oon yere. Beda, libro iiij to, capitulo xvij o. Seynte Etheldrede abbesse of Hely diede in þis yere. Marianus, libro secundo. Whom Sexburga here suster succedid, doȝhter of Ercombertus kynge of Kente. Beda, libro quarto, capitulo vicesimo primo. Hilda thabbesse of Whitby diede this yere, the xv. kalendes of December, in the lxvj yere of her age, laborynge in infirmite by vj. yere afore here dethe, doȝhter of the doȝhter of kynge Edwinus; a woman of grete holynesse, prudente, and nobly instructe. From the whiche monastery v. bischoppes were made, as Bosa, Eata, Offa, Iohn, and Wilfridus In whiche monastery was a man, Cedmon by name, tauȝhte by Page  143, vol.6 God to make dites of compuccion,*. [cōpuccōn, MS.] excellenge every oþer man in that connynge havynge noon understondynge in eny oþer thynge, but oonly in that. Whiche thynge was ȝiffen to hym in thys maner foloynge. This man beynge at a grete feste, and desirede to synge with his harpe, wente furthe for schame, and soe thro sorowe and hevynesse felle on slepe, where a man apperede to hym, and inquired why he wolde not synge. To whom he seide, "I cannot, and þerfore y departede from the feste." That oþer man seide to hym, "Synge boldely from this tyme, and spare not." From whiche tyme that man awakynge made mervellous ditees, as thro alle the storyes of scripture. Henricus, libro tertio. Theodorus tharchebischop citede alle bischoppes of Ynglonde to appere in this yere, and mony oþer doctors at Hatfeld that he myȝhte knowe of what feithe thei were,*. [A note of later date in the margin is, "It seemes then that bishops were chosen in those dayes withoute any respecte had to their fayth."] as Agatho the pope commaunded hym to do, by Iohn, the chawnter of Seynte Petres churche, whiche come but newely afore from Rome with Benedictus Biscop. In Page  145, vol.6 whiche tyme the province of Marches, whom Sexwulphus hade allon, was divided into v. seetes for bischoppes, oon at Westechestre, an other at Worcestre, the thrydde at Lichefelde, the iiijthe in Lindesey at Sydeneia, the vthe at Dorcestre; but Picta or Pucta, bischop, taryede at Herforde, institute by [folio 277b] Sexwulphus. Paulus, libro septimo. Cunebertus the kynge*. [The devel appered to this kinge in the simili|tude of a flye, which detecte his cownesayle.] of Longobardes, stondynge under a wyndowe of his chambre, and askenge cownesayle off his secretary how he myȝhte sle Aldo his knyȝhte, and anoon a grete flee come and sate by hym. The kynge willinge to slee that flee, kytte awey here foote with a knyfe. Neverthelesse Aldo, understondynge not the wickede intencion of the kynge, wente towarde the kynges palice, whom a halte man mette, seyenge, "Beware Aldo, for thow schalte dye and if thow come to the kynges cowrte." Aldo herenge that, fledde unto the churche off Seynte Roman. This knyȝhte Aldo, inquired the cause of his fleynge of the Page  147, vol.6 kynge, answerede and seide that a halte man had certifiede hym of his dethe. Then þe kynge perceyvyde that halte man to have bene a spiritte, whose foote he kytte aweye in the simili|tude of a flye, whiche detecte his secrete cownselle, and pera|venture hade movede hym unto the dethe of Aldo, and so the kynge receyvid that knyȝhte Aldo into grace. Benedictus the secunde was successor after Leo the pope as v. yere. Osricus, the lytelle or underkynge of the Marches, made a monastery in Gloucestre, in whom he made Kyneburga, his sustre, presi|dente. In whiche yere Kentewinus kynge chasede aweye Britons of the weste partes unto the see. And Benedictus Biscop made a monastery at Girvus, on the brynke of the water of Wyre, whiche hade made an oþer monastery on that oþer side of that water, in the worschip of Seynte Petyr, thro helpe of Egfride kynge. In whiche place or in whiche monastery, he made Colfridus presidente. Beda havynge vij. yere in age, was taken to Benedictus Biscop to be tauȝhte; whiche goynge to Page  149, vol.6 Rome in the vthe tyme, committe the kepynge of that childe to Colfridus. Beda, libro quarto, capitulo xxvj to. A grete con|vencion of bischoppes was assembled under kynge Egfride, with Theodorus archebischop, nye to the water of Alne, in a place callede Twiforde, where Tudbertus deposede from the seete Hangustaldense, Cuthberte was subrogate into þat place;*. [Seynte Cuthberte.] whiche wente soone after that unto the churche Lindisfarn, whom he luffede moore, Eata reioycynge the seete Hangus|taldense. Beda, libro iiij to, capitulo vicesimo sexto. This [folio 278a] Cutheberte, made monke at the monastery of Maylros, and after that governoure of þat monastery, lyvede after as an ankre in the yle of Farne. Beda, libro quarto, capitulo vice|simo quarto. Kynge Egfride destroyede a grete multitude of Scottes, moste envious*. [The translator seems to have read inimicissimam, but none of the Latin texts have that reading.] peple to men of Ynglonde; whiche arysenge ageyne hym in the yere folowynge, and drawynge hym Page  151, vol.6 as by treason unto streyte places betwene hilles, did sle hym, not sparynge for price or preyer. From whiche tyme the vertu and powere of Ynglische men began to decrease; for after that the Pictes, Scottes, and a grete parte of Britons reioysede theire londes with liberte. Cedwalla, a noble yonge man of the regalle bloode of the Gewissees, reignede on the Westesaxons after the dethe of Kentwinus kynge. Willelmus de Regibus. Whiche was sonne of Kenbrithus, son of Ceadda, son to Cutha the broþer of Ceaulinus, son of Kynricus, son to Cerdicus, whiche did slee anoone Ethelwolde kynge of Sowthesex, and toke his province into captivite, wastynge Kente, and toke the yle of Wiȝhte, whom he ȝafe to Seynte Wilfride for the luffe of God. Alfridus succedid in the realme of Northumbrelonde after the dethe of Egfridus, whiche reignede xviij. yere. The Saracenys Page  153, vol.6 commynge from Egipte into Affrike in this yere, toke Cartago, and destroyede hit; and Constantyne diede at Constantinopole.

Capitulum vicesimum.

IUSTINIANUS the secunde was emperoure after Constantyne his fader ix. yere. Iohn the vthe succedid Benedictus þe pope oon yere, whom Zeno succeedid ij. yere. Beda, libro iiijto, capitulo vicesimo quarto. Lotharius kynge of Kente died of a wounde receyvyde in batelle ageyne Cedwalla, whom Edricus, son of Egbertus, succedid oon yere and a halfe, and after that þe realme of Kente stode as in trowble by diverse kynges untylle Wihtrede, lawefulle son of Egbertus, succedid in þat realme. Page  155, vol.6 Mull, broþer of Cedwalla kynge, was taken with xij. knyȝhtes in Kente, and brente; where þro Cedwalla trowblede soore, wastede Kente ageyne; and Wilfride receyvide the seete of Hangustalde at the desyre of kynge Alfride. For Seynte Iohn of Beverlay dedde, Bosa receyvyde the seete of Yorke. Sergius þe pope suc|cedid [folio 297b] Zeno xiij. yere, whiche ordeynede that Agnus Dei scholde be songe thryes in masse; whiche founde also by revelacion, in a holy place of Seynte Petyr, a grete parte of the holy crosse. Giraldus, distinctione prima, capitulo septimo decimo. The firste Pipinus, callede olde or schorte, sonne of Ansegisilus, sonne of Seynte Arnulphus, made governoure of the howse of the kynge of Frenche men, receyvyde the principate of the este men of Fraunce xxvijti yere; whiche fauȝhte firste aȝeyne Theodoricus, kynge of men in Fraunce, whom he toke fleynge at Parise, reser|vynge to him lyfe. Paulinus,*. [Sic in MS.]libro vij o. Prudence and forti|tude as exiled from kynges of Fraunce, in that tyme the realme Page  157, vol.6 was disposede after the governoure of the kynges palice; for hit was providede by the ordinaunce of God that the realme of Fraunce scholde returne to theire bloode. Seynte Cutheberte diede in this yere at the yle of Farne, whiche place he luffede moche, but his body was brouȝhte to the yle of Lindisfarn, the*. [Seynte Cuthbert dyede.] seete of whom Wilfride governede after his dethe by oon yere, untylle he was expulsede by the kynge. Beda, libro v o, capitulo vij o. Cedwalla governynge his realme myȝhtely iij. yere, and levynge hit wente to Rome, and was baptizede of Sergius þe pope, and callede Petrus; where he diede soone after, not havynge xxxti yere in age þe xij. kalendes of Maii, and beryede in the churche of Seynte Petre at Rome, deservyde*. [Of the last kynge of the Britons.] this epitaphy, "Culmen opes sobolem pollentia regna triumphos. Page  159, vol.6 Eximias preces mœnia castra lares. Quæque patrum virtus, et quæ congesserat ipse, Ceadwall armipotens liquit amore Dei." Giraldus, distinctione prima, capitulo 17o. Hit is to be advertisede that the story of Romanes, of Longobardes, and of Bede, callethe Ceadwaladrus, the last kynge of Britons, Ceddwalla corruptely, not understondynge the langage of Britons. But the laste verse of the epitaphy aforeseide is cor|recte in this wyse, "Rex Cawaladrus liquit amore Dei," in mony places. And that hit is seide that he was baptizede of Sergius, hit is to be understonde þat he was confermede by hym by the noyntynge of holy creame, and then his propre name was chaungede, as hit happethe in the confirmacion of Page  161, vol.6 childer; whiche beynge kynge of Britons, was callede also kynge of Westesaxons, as contiguate to men of Wales. But y suppose that the oppinion of men of Wales to be fabulose, and as fable, seyenge that they schalle have kynges ageyne when the boones of Cadwaladrus be brouȝhte from Rome, like to the story of*. [The oppinion of men of Wales.] Gaufride in the ende. Ine succeded Cedwalla, sonne of Kenredus, son to Ceolwoldus, sonne of Cutha, son of Cuthwinus, sonne [folio 279a] of Ceaulinus, reignynge xxxvijti yere; whiche wente to Rome also, with mony other, in the tyme of Gregorius the secunde. In whiche yere Benedictus Biscop diede, whom Colfridus suc|cedid in the governayle of bothe þe monasterys on the brynke or side of the water of Wyre. Also Theodorus tharchebischop of Cawnterbery diede in this tyme in the lxxxvij. yere of his age, and þe xxijti yere of his bischophode; whom Britwoldus thabbot did succede: until that tyme men of Rome were arche|bischoppes of Cawnterbery and from that tyme men of Yng|londe. Seynte Wilfride accusede of Alfride the kynge afore*. [Of Seynte Wylfride.]Page  163, vol.6 mony bischoppes, was expulsed from his seete; whiche appel|lynge to Rome, defendid his cause afore pope Iohn, in so moche that he hade letters from the pope to the kynges of Ynglonde for his restitucion: and specially the disputacion that he hade for the feithe of Criste, afore Agatho þe pope, rehersede þer, was grete helpe to hym. But ȝitte the letters of the pope directe to kynge Alfride redde, he wolde not receyve hym. Whiche goynge to Etheldredus kynge of the Marches, was made bischop of Westechestre, kepynge that unto his dethe. Beda, libro v o, capitulo nono. Egerbertus*. [Sic.] the preste and monke escapynge afore the infirmite pestilente wyllede to go to Germany to converte peple to the feithe of Criste; but the wylle of God was contrarious, for the schippe that he hade ordeynede for þat iowrney was broken by a sodeyne tempeste. And then oon of his breþer, monyschede by a vision in his slepe, saide to Egbertus that he scholde goe to the monastery of Columba wheþer he wolde or nay, in that the Page  165, vol.6 plowes of theym wente not a riȝhte. Wherefore he sende Willebordus to Germany with xij. felawes with hym; whiche converte moche peple to the feithe thro helpe of Pipinus the senior, whiche hade subduede to hym a grete parte off Frisia. And after that Willebordus havynge auctorite of the pope was made bischop of the churche Traiectense, whiche place he governede nobly allemoste xlti yere. Offerus bischop of the Wiccions dedde, Egwynus succedid hym, whiche edifiede the monastery of Evesham, by licence grawntede of Etheldredus kynge of the Marches. Pipinus the olde or schorte, after the dethe of Theodoricus kynge of Fraunce, whom he suffrede to reigne with hym, erecte Clodoneus his son into þe kynge. Men of Kente, makynge peace with Ine kynge of Westesaxons, ȝafe [folio 279b] to hym iij. ml libras for the dethe of Mull broþer of Cedwalla. Iustinianus themperoure detecte of falsenes, and expulsede from thempire, wente to Pontus into exile, whom Leo patricius Page  167, vol.6 sende to Cersona, after that he hade kytte his nose and tonge.

Capitulum vicesimum primum.

LEO the secunde was emperour iij. yere. In the tyme of whom Clodoneus kynge of Fraunce dedde, Pipinus erecte into the kynge Childebertus his broþer. Men of Northumbrelond did sle Ostrida the wife of Etheldredus kynge of the Marches, doȝhter to kynge Oswy. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro iiijto. Seynte Guthlacus the confessor, havynge xxiiijti yere in age,*. [Of Seynte Guthlake, confessor.] forsakede the pompe of the worlde, and wente to Repyndon, where he was schaven, and receyvyde the habite of a clerke of Alfrida thabbesse of that place. And in the thrydde yere Page  169, vol.6 folowynge he wente to the yle of Crowlonde, where he lyvede lyke an ankre, schewenge mony miracles, havynge also grete power on wycked spirites, in so moche that he causede theym to edify mony thynges, after the seyenge of commune peple, and also that he includede a wicked spirite in a potte boylynge. At the body of whom a monastery is edifiede, not destroyede for alle the trowble and incurses off peple hade in that londe; where Neotus the confessor, and somme tyme the disciple of blissede Erkenwalde, bischop of London, dothe reste also, and that place wontethe not gestes in eny tyme, þauȝhe men or peple may not comme to hyt but by a bootte. Beda. A thynge to be imprintede in remembrance happyd in thys tyme in Briteyne, of the state of the sawle, to excite peple to vertu. A man callede Brithwolde, dedde by a cer|teyne tyme and restorede to lyfe, tolde mony thynges to be mervaylede. Whiche takynge his goodes divided þeim into Page  171, vol.6 thre partes, oon parte to his wife, an other parte to his childer, and reservede to hym the thrydde parte, whiche he distribute to povere men, and endede his lyfe in the monastery Mailro|cense. Tiberius the thridde was emperoure vij. yere, whiche rysenge ageyne Leo, entrede his realme, and kepede hym in prison alle þe tyme of his reigne. Iustinianus the secunde, put to Cersona into exile, made boste openly that he scholde recure thempire; wherefore the peple of that cuntre favor|ynge Tiberius, intended to have sleyne hym. But Iustinianus fleynge to the prince of Turkes, mariede his sustyr, whiche [folio 280a] havynge helpe of the prince of Turkes and of the Bulgares, recurede thempire, and did sle bothe Leo and Tiberius. And he did sle somme of his adversaries allemoste so ofte as he wipede eny corrupcion from his noose. The vthe universalle seeine or cownesayle was kepede this tyme, under Sergius, at Aquileia. Leo the thridde succedid Sergius the pope ij. yere, whiche is not putte in the nowmbre of oþer bischoppes off Page  173, vol.6 Rome, in that he was made pope by a patricion of Rome. Beda, libro vto, capitulo quintodecimo. A bischop of Fraunce, Arnulphus by name, come abowte this tyme to Briteyne, whiche hade bene at Ierusalem and in the londe of promission, and at Damascus, at Constantinopole, at Alexandria, and in mony oþer provinces. Whiche returnynge into his cuntre, was ryvede and londed in the weste partes of Briteyne by tem|pestes of the see, where he tauȝhte Adamnanus the servaunte of Criste, and abbot of the yle off Hii, off the mervayles of holy places. This abbot instructe by the bischop, redacte thynges herde of hym into a booke, whom he sende to Alfridus for a pleasure to rede in hit. ℞. Hit semethe that Bede toke from that booke that he did write afterwarde of holy places. Iohn the vjthe, after Leo, was pope iij. yere. In whiche tyme Etheldredus kynge of the Marches, despisenge the worlde, toke the habite of religion at Bradeney, whom Kenredus, son of Wulferus his broþer, did succede v. yere. Iohn the vijthe was Page  175, vol.6 pope as iij. yere. In whiche tyme Hedda bischop of Wyne|chestre diede. After þe dethe of whom that province was divided into too seetes. For Brithelinus archebischop of Cawnterbery made Daniel bischop at Wynchestre, and Seynte Aldelme abbotte of Mateby, nowe callede Malmesbury, at Shirburne. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro iiijo. Sexwul|phus bischoppe of the Marches diede in that yere. After whom Hedda was bischop at Lichefelde, Wilfride at Leges|cestre or Westechestre; but Alfride dedde after ij. yere y-paste, Wilfride wente to his seete of Hangustald, beynge bischop þer by iiij. yere. And Hedda occupiede then the seetes of Lichefelde and of Westechestre.

Capitulum vicesimum secundum.

IUSTINIANUS the secunde reignede ageyne with Tiberius his sonne vj. yers. This Iustinianus was expulsede afore by Leo, Page  177, vol.6 rehersede ageyne in that he recurede thempere, whiche re|storede to thempere desirede the feithe of Criste, and worschip|ped moche the pope Constantyne; destroyenge Cersona, the place of his exile, and the peple of hit, childer excepte; whiche wyllynge to punysche the infantes, men of that province made [folio 280b] Philippicus a man putte into exile theire governoure, and goynge with hym to the cite of Constantinopole did sle Iustinianus. Alfride the kynge deide in this yere at Driffelde, whom Osredus his son havynge viij. yere in age did succede, whiche reignede xj. yere. Sisinnius the pope reioycede that office xxti. dayes, whom Constantinus þe firste succedid vij. yere, whiche denownecede Philippicus the owtelawe an heretike in that he destroyede the ymages of seyntes in churches. Beda, libro v o., capitulo xix o. Kenredus the kynge of the Marches levynge that realme to Colredus, sonne of his uncle, wente to Rome with Offa, sonne of the kynge of the Estesaxons, and with Egwinus, bischop of Page  179, vol.6 the Wictions. Colredus, the kynge of the Marches, toke from the grownde the body of seynte Werburga virgyn at þe monastery of Hamburga, that lay ix. yere incorrupte, and so hit remayned at Repindon unto the commynge of Danes. Seynte Aldelme, bischop of Schirburn, diede in this tyme, whom Egwyne beriede, callede Aldelmus as olde holy, instructe nobly in Grewe and in Latyn, havynge in habite and in use instru|mentes of the arte off musike, as in harpes, pipes, recordres, and oþer kyndes of musike; firste monke, then preste, and abbot of Malmesbury. Whiche usede this penaunce, that when he hade eny grete fleschely temptation he reteynyde a faire maide in his bedde untille that he hade seide the complete sawter; prech|ynge oftymes in Seturdayes to peple and merchauntes com|mynge Page  181, vol.6 to markethes. The fame of thys holy man spronge into ferre cuntres; Sergius the pope sende letters to hym that he scholde comme to Rome þat he myȝhte see his presence. Whiche takynge with hym vestimentes and thynges necessary to the seyenge of masse as he was wonte, come to Rome, and seide masse afore the pope in the churche Lateranense, whiche supposynge hym to have porrecte the chesable after to*. [Sic in MS.] masse to oon of his ministres, and he not presente, the beame of the sonne bare the chesable where eny oþer temporalle creature was not presente, the pope excepte, and bare hyt a longe season; whiche chesable is in the monastery of Malmesbury. In whiche tyme the pope diffamede of the getynge of a childe, seynte Aldelme adiured that childe, brouȝhte to be baptizede havynge ix. dayes in age, that hit scholde confesse openly and if Sergius the pope were fader to hit. Then the childe seide openly that Page  183, vol.6 the pope was not gilty; wherefore after this doen seynte Aldelme returnyde to Briteyne with grete privileges, makenge mony noble bookes after that tyme, as of virginite, of the terme of Ester, of the flowres of the olde and newe testamente, of charite, of the nature of thynges insensible, of the rewles of feete metricalle, of metaplasmus, of dialog metricalle. Whiche was abbotte of Mal|mesbury xl. yere, and bischop by iiij. yere after, in whiche tyme the breþer of that monastery wolde not make eny other go|vernoure, but beryede hym afore. Whiche place seynte Dun|stan onornede and luffede moche, bryngynge to that churche organs, belles, relikes, and diverse ornamentes, ȝiffenge his curse to hym or theym that take eny of theym from that place, and writynge in this wise: "Organa de sancto Dunstanus presul Aldelmo perdat hic eternum qui vult hoc tollere regnum." And in the cruettes of water in this wise: "Idriolam hanc fundi Dunstan mandaverat Archipresul, ut in templo sancto serviret Aldelmo." Also he did write in the belle in the ffrater or refrectore, "Eliseam cœli nunquam ascendat ad aulam Qui Page  185, vol.6 furat hanc nolam Aldelmi sede beati." Seynte Wilfride diede abowte this tyme, on the towmbe of whom these versus be insculpe or graven: "Wilfridus sanctus meritis et nomine dignus Mactatus multis per sæcula longa periclis Quindecies ternos egit hic episcopus annos Transiit et gaudens cœlestia regna petivit." Beda, libro quinto capitulo decimo nono. This Wilfride, excellente in witte, wente to the monastery of Lindisfarne in the xiiij. yere of his age; whiche instructe þer in diverse thynges, and perceyvynge diverse thynges to be observede of the Scottes not by ryȝhte, wente to Rome that he myȝte be instructe moore perfectely; where he lernede of Bonefacius the Page  187, vol.6 archidiacon the iiij. gospells, the compte of Ester, and mony oþer thynges necessary to the use of the churche. And in returnynge to Ynglonde he taryede with Alfinus the bischoppe Lugdunense by thre yere, tylle he was sleyne by Batilda the qwene. Then Wilfridus commynge into Briteyne desyrede of kynge Oswynus grownde in Ripen to edifye a monastery; where he was made preste of Agilbertus, and after the contra|versy hade of the observaunce of the feste of Ester, he was electe to be tharchebischop of Yorke. And after the dethe of seynte Wilfride, Atta his preste was successour at the churche of Hangustald. Beda, libro v to, cap. xx o. Adrianus, abbot of Seynte Petre, and cooperator of Theodorus the archebischop, [folio 281b] diede in this yere; whose successor was Albuinus, of whom hit is schewide afterwarde. Item, capitulo secundo. Nactanus the kynge of Pictes, sende to Colfridus, abbot of the monastery Girwiense, for the tru observacion of Ester. To whom Col|fridus Page  189, vol.6 did write, seyenge that thre rules ar to be observede in the tru kepynge of Ester, tweyne of whom be contenede in the lawe of Moyses, and the thridde is of the gospelle by the institucion of thapostles. That is to wete, Ester awe to be kepede in the firste monethe of þe yere, in the thrydde weke of the same monethe, that is from the xvthe day unto the xxj. day, and also that the Sonne day awe to be tarryede in the thridde weke, comptynge in this wyse, not that the xiiijthe day, but the eve of hit, awe to be taryede, that is to say, þe xiiijthe moone, whiche is þe begynnynge of the thrydde weke, and the nyȝhte of the xvthe moone awe to be taryede after the bible. The childer Israel goen from Ramesse in the xvthe day of the firste monethe, kepede Ester in that oþer day, and soe hit awe to be protended unto þe eve of the xxjti day. Also hit may be founde by the equinoccialle of ver whiche monethe of the yere is firste, and whiche is laste. For the equinoccialle Page  191, vol.6 of ver is wonte to falle, after men of the este and of Egipte, in the xij. kalendes of Aprile, whiche we have provede to be so by inspeccion horologicalle. Wherfore what moone hit be that is fulle, wheþer the xiiijthe or xvthe afore the equinoccialle, hit perteynethe to the laste parte of the yere precedent, and þerefore hit is not able to kepe Ester þer. But what moone hathe plenitude or fullnesse in that equinoccialle or after, as hit was in the begynnynge of the worlde, then Ester awe to be kepede in the Sonneday nexte foloynge. Iustinianus the secunde, sendynge an hoste to take Philippicus, whom he hade lefte at Cersona, the hoste turnede to the parte of Philippicus, and did slee Iustinianus. Philippicus the secunde, other Dardanicus, was emperoure oon yere and vj. monethes, whiche fledde into Sicille for the hoste of the Romanes; whiche causede pictures Page  193, vol.6 to be scrapede aweye owte of churches; wherefore the Romanes refusede every thynge printede after hys ymage. Anastasius þe secunde was emperoure iij. yere after that he hadde sleyne Philippicus. In the tyme of whom Dagobertus succedid Childebertus his fader in the realme of Fraunce, by sufferaunce [folio 282a] of Pipinus the olde, whiche governede that tyme the kynges howse, and reignede xj. yere. Gregorius the secunde succedid Constantinus the pope xvj. yere. In whiche*. [Sic in MS.; yere has slipped out.] Guthlacus the confessor diede at Crowelonde. Also Ine kynge of the Weste|saxons and Colredus kynge of þe Marches fawȝhte at Wood|denisburghe, soe unhappely to either parte that men cowthe not telle whiche of theym hade þe bettyr parte. Theodosius the thrydde was emperoure oon yere, whiche was of grete mekenesse, and hade victory ageyne Anastasius his predeces|sor, whom he made a preste. Also this Theodosius was deposid by Leo the thrydde, a myȝhty prynce, and made a clerke by hym. In the tymes of whom the Saracenys segede Page  195, vol.6 the cite of Constantinopole by thre yere. In whiche tyme also hit semethe Iohn Damascene to have bene and to have be brouȝte into Persida. Where a letter caste afore the prince by enemes to Iohn Damascene in whom conspiracion was con|tenede ageyne the prince, his ryȝhte honde was kytte awey, that he scholde not write after that. But his honde was re|storede to hym by helpe of oure blissede lady, to whom he hade grete devocion. ℞. And hit is not to kepe oppinion that this Iohn was Iohn the heremite, put nye to Hillario in Vitis patrum, and schewede to Theodosius that he scholde have certeyne victoryes. But hit is anoþer Iohn whiche was in the londe of Grece in the tyme of Theodosius the thrydde, and after that in Persida, and made mony noble processes in either philosophy. Iohn the heremite aforeseide was afore grete Gregory by mony yeres, and this Iohn Damascene succedid hym mony yeres, whiche thynge is schewide in that Iohn Damascene in his bookes of divinite dothe allegate for suffragyes Page  197, vol.6 doen for dedde men that laudable miracle of grete Gregory doen of the liberacion of Trajan themperoure. Whiche miracle is not to be understonde of Gregory Nazanzene, sithe that he was conversaunte abowte Pontus and Constantinopole, and come to Rome unnethe in alle his lyfe. But that miracle of þe liberacion of the sawle of Trajan was doen by Gregory the noble pope at the sepulcre of thapostles Petur and Paule in the cite of Rome, as the churche remembrethe yerely.

Capitulum vicesimum tertium.

LEO the thrydde, with Constantyne his sonne, was emperoure xxvti yere. In the firste yere of whom diede Pipinus þe olde, after [folio 282b] that he hade governede the kynges howse xxviij. yere, whom Karolus or Charles, his sonne geten by a concubyne, succedid xxvijti yere, callede Martellus or Tutides, of grete homers by Page  199, vol.6 whom yren is wonte to be bete. This Charles fauȝhte nobly ageyne the Saracenys commyn from Affrike, constreynynge theym in oon batelle to Pictavia and to backe in the secunde batelle to Narbona and to Speyne. In whiche batelles he did slee of the Saracenys cccc.ml. and lxv.ml. Also he ȝafe batelle ageyne the Saxons and ageyne to men of Bavarria. Also ageyne Hendo the governore of Acquitanny, and ageyne Ranfre|dus duke of Andegavy. Whiche havynge mony batelles ȝafe the goodes of the churche to lewyde men; for whiche thynge Eutherius, bischop Aurelianense, beynge in preyer, see this Charles tormented in helle bothe in body and sawle. And the angelle schewynge that to þe bischop seide that iuggemente to be of alle theym whiche take by rape the goodes of the churche Page  201, vol.6 or ells of pover men. Wherefore at the denunciacion of this bischop thabbotte of Seynte Dionise and the chapeleyne of Pipinus wente to the berialle of this Charls, whiche openynge hit see a dragon comme furthe and the body goen. Paulus, libro septimo. The water of Tiber encreasede so moche at Rome in*. [Of the en|crease of the water of Tyber.] this yere that the waters mette to gedre from the ȝate of Seynte Petyr unto the ȝate Millyne, contynuynge so by vij. dayes, tyl that letanyes were ordeynede of the citesynnes. Kynge Ethel|dredus diede in this yere, after that he hadde reignede over the Marches xxxti yere, and after xiij. yere in whom he was a monke at Bradeney; and Colredus his son and kynge of the Marches, diede and was beryede at Lichefelde. Whom Ethelbaldus, son of his suster, did succede, and reigned by xlti yere as seynte Guth|lacus the confessor seide afore. This kynge segede Somerton in the xviijthe yere of his reigne, and subdued hit to hym, and Page  203, vol.6 destressed Northumbrelonde, and hade victory off men in Wales. But he was devicte in the xxvijti yere of his reigne of Kuthre|dus kynge of the Westesaxons, and was sleyne of his awne men in the laste yere of his reigne at Secandoun. In whiche yere also Colfridus thabbotte off the monastery Girwyense diede in pil|grimage at Lingoun. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro quarto. Seynte Egwyne diede in this yere, whiche remembrenge in a [folio 283a] tyme his offenses and synnes doen in yowthe, fetrede his feete and caste the keyes in a watere callede Avene, seyenge openly his synnes to be forȝiffe when the feters on his feete scholde be openede with the keyes or loosede by the vertu of God. And so he wente to Rome, and hit is seide that the belles of the cite did rynge by theym selfe at the entrenge of hym into the cite. Whiche returnenge from Rome with mony privilegys to his churche, and saylenge in the see off Briteyne, a grete fische Page  205, vol.6 did lepe into his schippe, in the wombe off whom a keye was founde that unlokede his feturs. Beda, libro v to, capitulo sexto. Seynte Iohn, bischop of Yorke, deide at Beverlay, in the xxxiijti yere of his bischophode, and*. [Sic in MS.] beryede in the porche off the monastery; whiche usede in his firste yeres, and specially in Lente, the churche of Seynte Michael at Hangustald, not ferre from the water of Tyne, in the northe parte of a place callede Hernischowe; and after that diede at Beverlay, whiche place is at the este from Yorke by xxiiijti myles, as the place or lake of bevers or of grayes, namede soe by those bestes, whiche were wonte to comme from Hulle to hyt. Where seynte Iohn made oon churche into the honore of seynte Nicholas, and an oþer into the honoure of seynte Iohn Bap|tiste at the altitude nye to the refectory of the breþer þer. The privilege or immunite of whiche place encreasede to grete prerogancy, in so moche that hit receyvethe not a batelle Page  207, vol.6 of ij. men, but the man accusede schalle purge hym selfe oonly by honde. Beda, ubi supra. Wilfridus, preste to seynte Iohn, was his successor alle moste by xxxti yere. ℞. This Wilfride is callede the yonger, ffor there were iij. famose men of that name. The firste Wilfride wente thryes to Rome, of whom hit is schewide afore. The secunde Wilfride was arche|bischop of Yorke, and successor to seynte Iohn of Beverlay. The thrydde Wilfride was bischop of Wictions, and successor to Egwyne. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro ij. Ine the kynge made a monastery at Glassynbury, as seynte Aldelme ȝafe to hym cownselle somme tyme, whiche contynuede nobly unto the comynge of Danes into Ynglonde, and hit was repairede thro the labore of seynte Dunstan by the kynge Edmund and Edgar, contynuynge so unto the commynge of Normannes. Whiche monastery was confracte in mony labors, y wote not by what Page  209, vol.6 infortuny; and also thabbottes of that place, inflate with pride, schewe theym with ynne the monastery as tyrauntes and with owte cowardes and unprofitable, whiche thynge apperede in tyme of Thurstinus thabbot. ℞. Edmunde the kynge, in makynge a iourney ageyne the Scottes, brouȝhte to that [folio 283b] monastery þe boonys of Hilda thabbesse, and of Colfridus thabbotte, and somme boonys of Aidanus the bischoppe. Also seynte Patryk the secunde, abbot and confessor, whiche after the martiloge, not havynge myȝhte to converte men of Yrlonde, levynge Yrlonde come to Glassynbery, where he diede in the feste of seynte Bartholomewe thapostle.

Capitulum vicesimum quartum.

LEO themperoure, levynge batelle to his enemyes, ȝafe batelle to the ymages of seyntes; whom Gregory the pope, and Germanus Page  211, vol.6 the bischop of Constantynopole, resiste hym manly after the maner and consuetude approbate of the churche, seyenge that men awe to do and ȝiffe to theyme meke honoure, sithe peple honoure noo thynge in theyme but God, or for God and for seyntes, whiche they represente to us. Beda, libro quinto, capitulo vicesimo quarto. Withredus, the kynge of Kente, diede in this yere, and Thobias bischop of Rowchestre, whiche understode the langage of Grekes as his awne lan|gage. Paulus, libro vij o. Saracenys segede Constantinopole by the space of thre yere, and toke grete goodes awey with theyme. Withbrandus, kynge of the Longobardes, herynge that, brouhȝte the relykes off Seynte Austyn, caryede to the yle of Sardinia for the peple off Barbre, and causede theyme to be brouȝhte to the cite Januense, and after that to the cite Papy. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Kynge Page  213, vol.6 Ine, levynge the realme of Westesaxons to Ethelardus his cosyn, wente to Rome; of whom hit is rehersede that he grawntede firste to seynte Petyr a jd of every howse of his realme, callede longe of Ynglische men Romescotte. Ethelburga, wyfe to hym, induced that pilgremage in this wise: this woman movenge hym ofte to forsake worldely thynges in his olde age, and profitynge not, thouȝhte to attempte by a wyle. Whiche beynge at the kynges cite in grete pleasure and delice, and returnede from hit, the keper of that place defilede hit with alle deformite after the commaundamente of the qwene, with dungge of bestes and other þinges unhoneste, puttenge a sowe that hade farowede newly in the bedstede of the kynge. The qwene knowynge that afore, preide the kynge to beholde the place where they were usede to reste. That doen the kynge mervayled moche that [folio 284a] Page  215, vol.6 place to be of suche deformite, lyke sometyme to the delices of Sardanapallus. The qwene seide: "O my lorde, where be youre clothes of silke and of clothe of Arras nowe; where is youre pleasure nowe; alle is goen, and so schalle oure bodies in lyke wyse whom we norysche nowe in grete delices." Ine the kynge movede in this wise by his qwene wente to Rome, sittenge not þere amonge grete states, but amonge pover men. And Ethelburga his qwene wente to the monastery of Berk|yngum where here sustyr was abbesse, whiche after that made abbesse endede here life in grete vertu. Beda, libro v., capi|tulo xxix o. Osricus kynge of Northumbrelonde diede after the xjthe yere of his reigne, whom Colwulphus did succede ix. Page  217, vol.6 yere, to whom Beda did write the story of Ynglonde. Beda, ubi supra. In whiche yere ij. horrible blasynge sterres apperede; oon of theyme did precede the sonne in the morowe, and that other folowede the sonne at even, protendenge grete flammes from theym into the northe, as a prenosticatyve of grete de|struccion, for soone after that a grete multitude of Saracenys depressede Fraunce. Beda, libro v., capitulo xxv to. Briȝht|woldus, archebischop of Cawnterbury, diede in this tyme; whom Chadwinus succedid, the bischoppes of London, of Wynchestre, and of Rowchestre, doynge the labor of þe consecracion. The sowthe provinces were subiecte to Ethelbaldus the kynge of the Marches, unto the coste of the water of Humbre. Pictes and Scottes hade pease with Ynglische men, and Britons were as mixte, somme of liberte, and mony subiecte to the servyce of Ynglische men. Gregorius the thridde succedid Gregorius the secunde xi, yere, which confermede the veneracion of Page  219, vol.6 seyntes in a cownesayle at Rome, allemoste of a ml bischoppes, and cursynge terribly the contemptors of that statute. A man callede Petronax Brixanus, thro the exhortacion of Gregory the pope, wente to the mownte Cassyne, and instorede that place competentely with goodes and monkes. Chadwynus, archebischop of Cawnterbery, diede in this yere, whom Nothe|linus, bischop off London, did succede. In whiche yere Alwinus other Woi, bischoppe of Lichefelde, diede; after the dethe of whom Witta was made bischoppe of Lichefelde, and Totta at Westechestre, Eata contynuynge stylle at Dorchestre. ℞. In whiche yere venerable Beda diede. Willelmus de Regibus, libro quinto. Whiche was taken to Benedicte Biscop to be tauȝhte in the vijthe yere of his age, abbot of the monastery Girwyense, and taken after his dethe to Colfridus thabbot and his succesor; [folio 284b] made diacon of Iohn bischoppe of Yorke in the xixthe yere of his age, and preste in the xxxti yere. In whiche yere he began Page  221, vol.6 to write, and lyvede in that monastery by alle the tyme of his lyfe in meditacions and exposicions of holy scripture, thenkynge a pleasure to learne or to teche other to write betwene the tymes of reguler observaunce and quotidian service in the churche. Whiche made lxxviij. bookes, whom he dothe nowmbre in thende of his story of Ynglonde. But hit is to be hade in mervayle, a man beynge so ferre from excercise of scole, in so schorte space of lyfe, with so sobre sermon to have laborede so mony volumes: by whiche y coniecture he was not at Rome, thauȝhe somme men kepe oppinion, seyenge that he wente to cause his werkes to be approbate, that and if eny man obiecte ageyne theym he myȝhte be þer presente to answere, and to amende theyme if eny thynge were to be correcte. But hit is not founde in eny writynge of auctorite that Bede beynge blynde, and brouȝhte to preche to stones, by disseyte and gyle of his servaunte, and that the stones scholde say Amen; wente Page  223, vol.6 thryes to Rome, and see þer thre R R R and thre f f f wryten, whom he expownede in this wise: "The realmes of Rome schal suffre ruyne thro fernence of yrne, with flammes and brennynge and with hungre." Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. But hit is schewede Bede to have bene desirede to have commyn to Rome by an epistole of pope Gregory the thrydde, sende to Colfridus thabbotte, to discusse certeyne questions. Where hit is to be advertisede that the courte of Rome had nede to sende for Bede to discusse certeyne maters, and also the maner of his vertuous lyfe; for utterly he myȝhte not be vicious, whiche fixede his mynde so hyely in the exposicions of divine scripture. The vertu of whom apperede moche in the tyme of his dethe, whiche oppressede with infirmite, and vexede so sore in the stomake that he myȝhte not retene thynges receyvede, refusede not to study, laborenge by vij. wekes in grete infirmite as aforeseide; but he tauȝhte dayly Page  225, vol.6 his disciples betwene tymes of reguler observaunce in lesons and in questions, seyenge to þeim, "O my childer, lerne while y am with yow; y wote not howe longe I schalle tary;" in|ferrenge the sayenge of seynte Ambrose: "I have not lyvede so amonge you that y have schame to lyve, ne y drede not to dye, for we have goode Lorde;" whiche sorowede moche [folio 285a] in the nyȝhtes if eny of his disciples did absente theyme from doctrine and study, wakynge as alle nyȝhte in preier. In the thridde fery afore the day of the Assencion of oure Lorde, knowynge the ende of his lyfe to be nye, kyssenge his breþer, the sacramentes of the churche receyvede,*. [Sic in MS.] toke to the dis|ciples, whom he luffede moche, secrete thynges that he hade in kepynge, and preynge theym to pray for hym. And in the Assencion day afore his dethe he desirede the grace of the Holy Goste, seyenge: "O Rex gloriæ, Domine virtutum," an Page  227, vol.6 antemme whiche is songe in the churche as that day; whiche endede, the sawle departede from the body with a merveylous swetenes, beryede there at that tyme. But he is seide to be beryede now with seynte Cuthberte at Direm, with whom alle the knowlege of gestes of Ynglonde unto the conqueste is beryede, in a token of slawthe of labor, for connynge scholde succede. The versus of the epitaphy, of whom unworthy to so noble a clerke, be a testimonialle whiche do folowe: "Pres|biter hic Beda requiescit carne sepultus; Dona, Christe, ani|mam in cœlis gaudere perennem, Daque eum sophiæ fonte debriari, Cui jam suspiravit intento ouans amare." Ricoldus the duke of Friselonde movede that he scholde be baptisede at the predicacion of blissede Wulfraunus the bischop abowte this tyme, putte oon foote yn the fonte and kepede that oþer Page  229, vol.6 with owte, and inquirede of men stondynge abowte wheþer moo of his predecessors were in paradise or in helle. Whiche herynge that moo men of his predecessors were in helle, toke his foote owte of the fonte, seynge, "I wylle raþer folowe the moore nowmbre than the lesse;" and so he deceyvyd by a spiritte diede in the thrydde day nexte folowynge." Wil|lelmus de Pontificibus, libro 4o. The blissede virgyn seynte Frideswide, borne in Oxenforde, and doȝhter to Didanus the duke, diede this tyme. Whom Algarus the kynge foloynge for pleasure of the flesche unto the cite Oxenforde, that virgyn entrede into the cite, the ȝates were closed by miracle, and the kynge was made blynde. Neverthelesse, his siȝhte was restorede at the preyere of that blissede virgyn. From whiche tyme kynges of Ynglonde drede and fere to entre into that cite leste that they have eney infortuny. Colwulfus kynge of Page  231, vol.6 Northumbrelond, after the viijthe yere of his reigne, levynge the realme to Egbertus his cosynne, was made a monke in the monastery of Beda, and the seide Egbertus reignede xix. yere. ℞. But Willelmus, libro primo de Regibus, seythe that he was made monke at the churche of Lindisfarne, and afterwarde [folio 285b] beryede nye to seynte Cuthberte. Cuthberte Hertford suc|cedid Notholinus tharchebischop of Cawnterbery.

Capitulum vicesimum quintum.

CONSTANTYNE the vthe was emperoure after his fader xxxiijti yere. This emperoure putte aweye ymages owte of churches, after the consuetude of his fader, and brente þeim. Etheldredus, kynge of Weste Saxons, diede in the xiiij. yere of his reigne; whom Cuthredus, cosyn to hym, did succede, whiche trowblede soore in batelles Ethelbald kynge of the Marches, and reignede xvj. yere. Whom Segeberte, his cosyn, succedid ij. yere; Page  233, vol.6 whiche made prowde thro the gestes of his predecessor, entre|tede his subiectes unhonestely, and made lawes at his pleasure; whiche did sle þe noble governour of Cumbrelonde, rebuk|ynge hym for his offense. Whiche beynge as incorrigible, was expulsede from that realme, and goynge from thens into a woode, was sleyne of the hoggeherde of the duke or governoure sleyn afore by hym. Karolus Martellus diede abowte this tyme, the sonnes of whom, Pipinus the secunde and Karolo|mannus, wente to the principate of the kynge palice of Fraunce. But Karolomannus after the iiijthe yere of that principate y|taken, levynge the administracion of hit after the cownsaile of his broþer, wente to Rome, and made monke by Zachary the pope, made a monastery in the mownte Serapte, where he con|tynuede a certeyne space and yere with other breþer. But after that he wente to the mownte Cassyne, for the insolence of men of Fraunce commynge to hym and visitynge hym as theire lorde. Whiche commynge to Zachary the pope with mony Page  235, vol.6 breþer of mownte Cassyne, desirede that the body of seynte Benedicte myȝhte be restorede to the mownte Cassyne by his letters sende to the kynge of Fraunce. The kynge of Fraunce commaundid the monkes of the monastery Floriacense, where the body of seynte Benedicte was, that hit scholde be restorede to the monkes of the monastery in the mownte Cas|syne. The monkes understondynge that, and wepynge soore, preide to allemyȝhty God that the blissede and holy body of seynte Benedicte myȝhte tary þer, and theire preyer was herde. For God made the messyngers blynde, that thei were [folio 286b] feyne to returne to Ytaly with owte the body of seynte Bene|dicte. Pipinus the secunde, governoure that tyme of the kynges howse of Fraunce, under Hildericus kynge, sonne of Theodoricus, havynge but oonly the name of a kynge. Where|fore Pipinus the secunde inquirede of Zachary the pope, wheþer that man awe to be a kynge that is ȝiffen to ydelnesse, and contente with the name of a kynge. To whom the pope did wryte ageyne in this wyse, seyenge that man worthy to be Page  237, vol.6 a kynge þat governethe and ruleth welle his realme. Men of Fraunce made glade toke Hildericus the kynge, and putte hym in a monastery, and made Pipinus the secunde theire kynge, and was made emperoure by the decrete of Zachary the pope, after the viijthe yere of hys reigne; whiche constreynede Astul|phus, kynge of Ytaly, impugnynge the ryȝhtes of the churche of Rome, and empyre, to make restitucion and to ȝiffe plegges þerof. Zacharias þe pope did succede Gregory the thridde xij. yere. This pope goynge in a tyme towarde Ravenna, in the monethe of Iunius, was coverede with a clowde by the powere of God, þat he scholde not be hurte with heete of þe sonne thro alle the day, and tariede nye to his tentes in the nyȝhte, and did aryse ageyne in the morowe. The ordre Paschalle was trowblede, and the ȝonger Wilfride, bischop of Yorke, diede in this tyme, whom Egberte, broþer to kynge Egbert, did succede xxxvjti yere. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo, et de Pontifi|cibus, libro quarto. Whiche recurede that seete into dowble Page  239, vol.6 dignite, whiche thro his labor and money that he hade of the kynge, his brother, a man of grete audacite, thenkynge in mynde that, lyke as hit is a signe of pride to covette thynges that be not dewe, so hit scholde appere a signe of slawthe to despise thynges that were dewe. Wherefore he recurede the use of a palle to that seete, þat Paulinus hade lefte at Row|chestre, and mony of his predecessors laborede not þerfore, and brouȝhte to Yorke also a noble siȝhte of bookes. Of whom the clerke Alcuinus of Ynglonde, sende to kynge Charls for the pease to be hade, makethe laudable mencion in his epistole sende to the churches of Ynglonde. Also he did write to kynge Charls in this wise: "ȝiffe to me bookes of erudicion as be in my cuntre, like as y hade by the labores of Egberte my maister, and y schalle sende ageyne to you somme of oure childer, to take somme necessary thynges and brynge ageyne Page  241, vol.6 to Fraunce the ffloures of Briteyne, and the gardyn conclused schalle be oonly in Yorke, and the floures or emissions of Paradise in Turonica." Seynte Daniel, bischop of Wyne|chestre, diede this yere, whom Humfride did succede. Stephanus the pope succedid Zacharias v. yere, which noyntede ij. sonnes [folio 286a] of Pipinus into emperoures, Karolomannus and grete Charls, and after thempire of Rome wente from men of Grece to men of Fraunce, and after that to men of Germany. Kenulphus, a myȝhty man of fame and vertu, of the kynde of Cerdicus, thro the helpe of Westesaxons, expulsede Segeberte theire kynge, for his grevous offense, and regnede for hym xxxti yere. Neverthelesse he ȝafe to hym the province of Hampton, untylle that he did sle Cumbranus the duke aforeseide. That doen, and utterly deiecte, and goynge to a woode, was sleyne of the swyneherde, longynge sommetyme to the seide duke sleyne by hym cowardely afore. Ethelbald, kyng of the Marches, was sleyne at Sigiswolde, of Beornredus the tyraunte, and Page  243, vol.6 beryede at Repyndon. But Offa, cosyn to Ethelbalde, did sle Beornredus sone after, and reignede for hym xxxixti yere. This kynge Offa hade victory ageyne men of Northumbrelonde, men of Kente, and Westesaxons, in so moche that he brouȝhte the metropolitan seete of Cawnterbery unto Lichefelde by the tyme of his lyfe. Also he translate the boones of seynte Alban unto the grete monastery that he made, and ȝafe to the pope, vicare of seynte Petre, a yerely rente as of every howse in his realme. Also he made a noble diche dividynge Wales from the realme of the Marches, callede as unto thys tyme Offediche. Willelmus de Regibus, libro j o. This Offa, wyllenge the favor of kynges, maryede Ethelburga his doȝhter to Brithricus kynge of Westsaxons, and sende Alcuinus or Albinus the noble doctor of Ynglonde unto kynge Charls for pease; for there was so grete discorde betwene þe realmes of Page  245, vol.6 Ynglonde and of Fraunce, that marchandise was prohibite. Organes come firste into Fraunce in this tyme, sende from Constantyne themperoure and kynge of Grece to Pipinus kynge of Fraunce. Egberte, kynge of Northumbrelonde, made a monke, Oswulphus his sonne succedynge hym, was sleyne in thende of the firste yere of his reigne, by men of Northumbrelonde, after whom Moll or Ethelwolde reignede vij. yere. Martinus. Paulus the pope succedid Stephanus x. yere, a man of grete humilite and pacience. In the tyme of whom an hooly man was in Burguyne, Gengulphus by [folio 287a] name, whiche byenge a welle in Fraunce, purchasede of alle|myȝhty God that hit scholde renne in Burguyne. Whiche forsakenge his wife for adowtery, was sleyne by the clerke whiche synnede with hys wife; after the dethe of whom Gode schewide mony miracles by hym. Whom he*. [Sic in MS.] wife detractynge seide, "If Gengulphus my howsebonde do miracles, myn erse schalle synge," and so hit was that here erse made a sownde Page  247, vol.6 ever after, so ofte as sche did speke. Moll, the kynge of North|umbrelonde, lefte his realme, whom Alredus*. [Sic in MS.] succedid ix. yere. This Aluredus hade ij. sonnes, Offredus, whiche was the thridde successor to hym, and*. [and] bis in MS.] Alcmundus, whiche was sleyne afterwarde in helpenge the Marches ageyne the Westesaxons. Paulus the pope diede, whom Constantinus succedid, beynge an lay man, by oon yere, inducynge grete sclaunder to the churche; but he was expulsede by the tru peple of Criste, and made blynde. In whiche yere Pipinus, kynge of Fraunce, diede of the dropesy, after that he hade reignede xxviijti yere.

Capitulum vicesimum sextum.

PIPINUS the kynge of Fraunce dedde, men of Fraunce divided that realm betwene his ij. sonnes Charls and Karolomannus. Page  249, vol.6 But Karolomannus dedde after the secunde yere of his reigne, Charls toke alle the realme, whiche governede hit nobly xlviti yere. And then the wife of Karolomannus, and here childer, fledde to Desiderius kynge of Longobardes, not constreynede soe to do by eny body, besekynge hym of helpe. But this noble prince Charls expugnynge afore Hunaldus duke of Aqui|tanny, subduede hym to hys governayle, and at the desire of Adrianus the pope segede Desiderius kynge of Ytaly at the cite Papy, rebellynge ageyne the churche of Rome after the maner of Astulphus his broþer. Whiche takynge hym in that cite, putte hym to exile, and subrogate Pipinus his sonne in the realme of Ytaly. In whiche batelle Amicus and Amelion, ij. noble knyȝtes of Criste, and tru luffers togedre, were sleyne, of whom mervellous dedes be redde. After that kyng Charls made tame men of Sclavia and the Saxons, in so moche that mony of theym taken and brouȝhte to Fraunce, they refusenge ydolatry reioicede as men off Fraunce. After that tyme kynge Page  251, vol.6 Charls goynge to Speyne suffrede grete hurte of his hoste doen by treason, after that he hade passede þe mowntes Pirene, in so moche that the extreme parte of his hoste was hurte soore where ij. noble princes, Rolland and Olyvere, were sleyne. De libro Turpini. Aigalandus, the myȝhty prince of Speyne, come [folio 287b] to kyng Charls, truse taken afore, to be baptisede; whiche seenge the men longynge to kynge Charls induede with precious clothes, and servede with delicious meyte, and xiij. pover men sittenge on the grownde with grosse meytes and with owte a table, inquirede of kynge Charls what men thei scholde be. To whom kynge Charls seide that thei were the messyngers of Criste, and preyde for us to allemyȝhty God, representynge þe nowmbre of Criste and of his disciples. Then Aigolandus the prince of Speyne seide: "Youre lawe is not goode, that suffrethe the messyngers of his lorde to be entretede in that wyse, for Page  253, vol.6 he servethe ylle þat receyvethe his ministres in that wise;" and so he returnede to his cuntre unbaptisede: but kynge Charls, correcte by that seyenge, ȝafe moore honoure to poore men after that tyme. Giraldus, distinctione prima, capitulo decimoseptimo. At that tyme kynge Charls subduede to hym Fraunce Narbonense, men callede Capuans and Beneventans, and men of Swevia, that thei hade lever be subiecte to hym then to rebelle after|warde. The kynges of Britons, of Ynglische men, of Scottes, of men of Persida, and of Grece, honourede hym with ȝiftes. And, as Turpynus archebischop rehersethe, he was a feire man*. [Of the vertues of kynge Charls.] of body, ferefulle of countenaunce, havynge viij. foote in hiȝhte; his face conteynede a palme or a spanne and a halfe, havynge a berde unto his feete of grete broodenesse. Whiche wolde cleve an knyȝhte in goode armoure at oon stroke with his swerde, Page  255, vol.6 and wolde take iiij. horse schone and bowe theym to gedre in his hondes, and wolde lyfte up an armede man stondynge on his honde lyȝhtely with oon honde. Also he was wonte to eyte an holle hare at oon refeccion, other ij. hennes or a goose, usenge to drynke wyne mixte with water, whiche was so lytelle a drynker that he wolde not drynke over iij. times after soper. This kynge Charls was meke to pover men, makenge mony churches and a brygge at Magoncia over the water of Rhenus of v.c passes; techynge his sonnes to ryde, hunte, to use armes, and to*. [Sic in MS.] liberalle studies as soone as age wolde suffre, after the consuetude of men of Fraunce. Also he causede his doȝhters to be tauȝhte to make clothe and to spynne, that thei scholde not be ydelle. Whiche not contente with the langage of Fraunce was instructe in the langage of Grece, in whiche langage he [folio 288a] hade better use to understonde hit then to pronownce hit. Whiche hade Petrus Pisanus to teche hym gramer, and Alcui|nus Page  257, vol.6 or Albuinus, the noble doctor of Ynglonde, to informe hym in other science; havynge grete affeccion to writynge, wherefore he hade contynually with hym a peire of tables that he myȝhte wryte, but that labore begunne late profite but lytelle; usenge churches in the morowe, at eve, and other tymes assignynge almes to pover churches and ferre from hym, as in Egipte, in Affrike, and in other cuntrees. At dynerse and sopers usenge to have a reder, delytenge specially in the bookes of seynte Austyn de Civitate Dei. In the somer, after meyte takenge a lytelle of an apple, drynkynge þerto, and doynge of his clothes as in the nyȝhte, wolde slepe ij. howres; whiche slepede soe in the nyȝhtes that he wolde aryse thryes or iiij. tymes. Whiche goynge to Rome wolde lyȝhte on foote or he come to the cite by oon Page  259, vol.6 myle, and so goynge thro the cite kyssede the postes of churches, and delyverede the Holy Londe, and so commynge to Constanti|nopole, refusede thynges ȝiffen to hym by themperoure, relikes excepte. Neverthelesse he toke to Fraunce with him parte of the holy crosse, and parte of the crowne of thorne of oure Lorde, whiche flourede in his presence þat same tyme, oon of the nayles of Criste, the smocke of oure Lady, and the arme of seynte Symeon; whiche relikes he brouȝte to the churche of oure Lady at Aquisgrani, whom he edifiede, where he is beryede. Also he made monasterys so mony in nowmbre as be letters, in everyche of whom after the tyme of theire fundacion he putte a letter weyenge a c. pownde of Turonense, and causede hit to Page  261, vol.6 be made faste in the churche. But oon thynge was to be hade in mervayle in hym, that unnethe he wolde take eny of his doȝhters to mariages in alle his life, the eldeste doȝhter excepte, whom he maryede to Constantyne kynge of the londe of Grece, seyenge that he myȝhte not wonte the felowschippe of theyme; wherefore mony men suppose that synne to have causede kynge Charls that he wolde not knowledge by mowthe his synnes to seynte Gyle, and unnethe by writynge. This kynge Charls dividede his goodes afore his dethe into thre partes, oon parte of whom he ȝafe to pover men, an other to [folio 288b] churches; the thrydde parte he dividede into iiij. partes, kep|ynge oon parte to his obite, an other parte to his daily use, the thrydde parte to his childer and frendes, the iiijthe parte to his Page  263, vol.6 servauntes. This prince, sittenge at the table, inquirede of his informer Alcuinus, sittynge anendes hym, "What dyfference ys betwene a Scotte and a Scotte*. [Sic in MS.]?" To whom Alcuinus seide, The brodenes of oon table." ℞. That wryters of storyes may be reducede to concorde, whiche seme to discorde abowte the reigne of kynge Charls, hit is to be advertisede that this Charls, yonge in age, was anoyntede into kynge by Steven the pope, yn the yere of oure Lorde God vijc. liiij., his fader beynge in lyfe, under whom and with whom he reignede xv. yere unto the dethe of his ffader. And after the dethe of his*. [Sic in MS.] in the yere of oure Lorde God vijc. lxviij., this Charls reignede ij. yere with Karolomannus his broþer, and after his dethe kynge Charls occupiede that realme xiiij. yere, unto the yere of oure Lorde vijc. lxxxiiij. In whiche yere he wente firste to Rome, that he myȝhte consecrate*. [Sic in MS.] to the emperoure by Adrian the Page  265, vol.6 pope, and crownyde also; and after that xvj. yere, unto the yere of grace viijc., when the pope Leo þe iiijthe confermede ageyne Charls into themperoure. And after that he reignede xiiij. yere, and diede in the lxxij. yere of his age, whiche was the viijc. yere of Grace and xiiij. And that mony men saye kynge Charls reignede xlvj. yere, that is to be understonde after the dethe of his fader unto his obite. And if eny man desire to see moore of the story of kynge Charls, y cownsayle that he take recourse to the wrytenges of Alcuinus his maister, or elles to the writynges of Turpinus, whiche laborynge in preier the day of the obite of kynge Charls at Vienna in Fraunce, see a grete multitude of fowle spirittes goynge to Aquisgrani to take the sawle of kynge Charls. The laste of whom he adiured that he scholde comme to hym ageyne after that he hade bene þer, and to telle to hym the trawthe how that thei hade spedde. The spiritte returnede, Turpinus tharchebischop seide to hym: "What have ye doen þere?" The spiritte seide: "We have weiȝede his dedes, but the hedles Iames of Speyne, to whom Page  267, vol.6 he hase made so mony churches, hathe causede his goode dedys to be more hevy then his ylle dedes, and so we have brouȝhte noo thynge þens." Stephanus the pope succedide Constantyne, expulsede and eiecte, iiij. yere; whiche gedrenge a cownselle revokede alle thynges doen by hys predecessor, [folio 289a] baptyme and creame excepte, and thynges whiche were ordeynede to the sawle healethe of peple dyenge.

Capitulum vicesimum septimum.

ADRIANUS the firste succedid Steven the pope xxiiijti yere. This pope kepede a cownsaile of bischoppes at Constantinopole, of ccc. and lti hooly faders, and an oþer cownsaile at Rome, of clti bischoppes, kynge Charles beynge presente. To whom powere was graunte that tyme in the eleccion of the pope, and Page  269, vol.6 to ordeyne the seete apostolicalle. Men of Northumbrelonde expulsede Alurede theire kynge, and made Ethelberte or Ethel|drede, sonne of Moll, kynge, whiche reignede þer v. yere. Leo the iiijthe, son of Constantyne the vthe, reignede in Grece iiij. yere, whiche infecte with avarice, and commynge into a churche, see a ryalle crowne of golde onornede with carbuncles, whiche takenge and settynge hit on his hedde, was vexede anoon with the axes, and diede. Offa, the kynge of Marches, spoylede Lambert, tharchebischop of Cawnterbery, of his dignite this yere; whiche dignite he kepede at Lichefelde, by auctorite of Adrian the pope, unto his dethe. Constantyne the vjthe, son of Leo the iiijthe, with Yrenes his moder, reignede amonge men of Grece x. yere. In the laste yere of whom a discorde movede betwene the moder and the sonne, the moder toke and impri|sonede hym, and so sche reignede allon v. yere. But after that Constantyne here sonne, havynge supportacion of men of Armeny, gate from prison thro theire helpe and cownsaile, and Page  271, vol.6 schewede grete hurte to his moder and to his*. [Sic in MS.] supporters. Whiche was taken soone after and made blynde, that dethe folowede, and so Yrene reignede allon other v. yere. And after that, Nichoforus the patricion, honorede and luffede moche of the seide Yrene, did ryse ageyne here, and toke the crowne ageyne the wylle of the peple, and put Yrene to exile, where sche diede. In the firste yere of this Constantyne, a plate of golde was founde in the beryalle of a dedde man, contenynge this writynge in hit: "Criste schalle be borne of Mary virgynne; y beleve in hym; under Constantyne and Yrene his moder, sonne, thow schalle see me ageyne." Marianus, libro ij do. Kenulphus, kynge of Westesaxons, and Offa, kynge of the Marches, fauȝhte soore for the cite of [folio 289b] Besyngton, but Offa prevaylede and hade hit. Men of North|umbrelonde expulsed Ethelberte their kynge, and erecte Page  273, vol.6 Alfwolde, whiche reignede xj. yere. The secunde cownsayle or seeyne of Nicene, of ccc. lti. bischoppes, was halowede under Adrianus the pope, in whom hit was seide the Holy Goste to procede from the Fader and the Sonne, ageyne the oppinion of men of Grece. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro quarto. Kenulphus, kynge of Westesaxons, intendynge to expelle from his realme Clito Kinehardus, broþer german of Sigeberte his predecessor, come to Merton in a nyȝhte to the howse of his specialle, where Clito compassede the kynge with lxxx. men. The kynge awakede, defendid hym manly, never|thelesse he was sleyne at the laste; and also the knyȝhtes of the kynge despisenge the promisse of Clito, were sleyne also. The dethe of the kynge expressede, Osricus, a duke longynge to hym, and goynge to Merton, did sle Clito with alle hys men, and beryede the kynge at Wynchestre; whom Brith|ricus succedid, of the bloode of Cerdicus, and reignede xv. Page  275, vol.6 yere. Whiche expulsed Egberte, son of Alquimundus, under|kynge, of the son of Offa, of the bloode of Kyngisly and of Ine; whiche soe expulsede, wente to Fraunce, exercysynge the study of chevallery, and returnede to Ynglonde after the dethe of Brithricus, and reignede after, techynge his peple of the actes chevallery þat he hade lernede in Fraunce. Richulphus succedid Lull archebischop of Cawnterbery, whiche made the grete churche of Seynte Alban, of a mervellous werke, and finischede hit. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro quarto. Offa the kynge mariede Ethelburga his doȝhter in this yere, to Brithricus kynge of Westesaxons, of whom hit is seide that sche laborede to extincte alle men familier with here kynge, other thro powere or by poyson. Whiche ȝiffenge drynke to a yonge man familier to the kynge, and the kynge drynkynge þerof, was poysonede also; wherefore sche, takynge grete trea|sure Page  277, vol.6 with here, wente unto kynge Charls, into Fraunce. Whiche havynge his sonne with hym, and talkynge with Ethelburga, ȝafe here choyse of hym and of his sonne, and sche chosede the sonne. Then kynge Charls seide to here, "And if thow hade chosen me, thow scholdeste have hade my sonne; and in that thow refused me, thow schalle have neiþer me ne my son; and also, seculer pride deposide, thow schalle goe to a monas|tery." Whiche beynge in a monastery a*. [Sic in MS.] takynge the plea|sure of þe flesche with a seculer man, was expulsed from the [folio 290a] monastery, and diede in grete misery and poverte. From whiche tyme hit was used in Ynglonde the wife of the kynge neiþer to be callede a qwene, neither to be sette in a regalle seete nye to the kynge. Henricus, libro quarto. A mervellous signe of the crosse apperede thys yere in the clothes of men of Yng|londe, and bloode did descende from hevyn into the erthe; we wylle not diffyne wheþer hit come into the signe of the mocion of Ierusalem after ccc. yere folowynge, in the tyme of William Page  279, vol.6 Rufus, other elles for the correccion of men in Ynglonde, that thei scholde drede the plage of Danes to come, but we com|mitte to God his secrete þinges. Danes come firste into Yng|londe in this yere, and the governoure of the kynges howse of Westesaxons, ȝiffenge metynge to theym with fewe peple, was sleyne. Seynte Alfwold, kynge of Northumbrelonde, was sleyne of his peple; whom Osredus, son of Aluredus and broþer of Alquimundus, succedid, whiche was expulsede soone and sleyne afterwarde; after whom Etheldredus expulsede was restorede, and sleyne soone after. Wherefore Colwulphus, bischop of Lindisfarn, lefte his seete and forsakede the realme, Osbaldus reignede after that fewe dayes, and Ardulphus after hym oon yere, and so certeyne kynges reignede by lxxvjti yere. The laste of whom were Osbright and Elle, whiche were sleyne in the cite of Yorke, with the noble men of theire cuntre, by the Danes, in the yere of oure Lorde God viiic. lxvij. Whiche Page  281, vol.6 Danes did reigne in Northumbrelonde from that tyme unto the tymes of kynge Ethelstan, as by lijti yere. Pipinus sonne of Charls coniurede ageyne his fader, wherefore, the cownsaile detecte, he was putte into a monastery, and some of his felawes were sleyne and somme hongede. Seynte Ethelberte, kynge of Este Ynglische men, loste his realme and lyfe by the commaundemente of kynge Offa and persuasion of Kyneswitha his wife.

Capitulum vicesimum octavum.

OFFA kynge of the Marches diede, whom Egberte his son succedid oon yere; whom Kenulphus the meke man did suc|cede, son to Cuthbert, whiche gate, of Alfritha his qwene, Quendreda, Burgenilda, and Seynte Keneline. Willelmus de [folio 290b] Regibus, libro primo. This Kenulphus, a myȝhty man and vertuous, religious in his place, victorious in batelle, hav|ynge Page  283, vol.6 successyve hate of Offa his predecessor ageyne men of Kente, ȝafe soore batelle ageyne men of that region, and brouȝhte in bondes Egeberte Pren*. [Sic in MS.] theire kynge, into the Marches. But this Kenulphus, after the edificacion of the monastery of Wynchcumbe, manumitte this kynge at the hie awter in the seide churche, xiij. bischoppes beynge presente and x. dukes. Also he restorede the dignite of the metropo|litan seete to Athelardus archebischop of Cawnterbury, and diede after the xxiiijti yere of his reignede,*. [Sic in MS.] and was beryede at Wynchecumbe, levynge Kenelmus to be his suc|cessor. The sonne did not schyne by xvij. daies abowte this tyme at Constantinopole, neither apperede, in so moche that men supposede that to have falle for the blyndynge and dethe of Constantyne. Alfridus. In this xthe yere of Brithricus dragons of fire were seene to flye in the aiere in Ynglonde, Page  285, vol.6 whiche signe ij. pestilence folowede, a grete hungre, and perse|cucion or trowble of the Danes. Whiche entrede firste into Northumbrelonde, and after that into Lindesey; but the Danes were overcommen in that tyme, and constreynede to take theire schippes. Leo the iiijthe succedid Adrianus the pope xxti yere, whiche goynge in a tyme with letanyes to the churche of Seynte Petre, in the feste of Seynte Marc, he was made blynde and hade his tunge kytte awey by wikkede men. But God restorede to hym his syȝhte and the use of speche, in so moche that he spake withowte eny tunge. Whiche goynge to Fraunce to kyng Charls, brouȝhte hym to Rome; which toke vengeaunce on the adversaryes to þe pope, the pope makynge a purgacion of þinges obiecte to hym; and then he crownede Charls, and con|fermede hym crownede but late afore. Nichoforus afore re|hersede, sendynge Yrene emperesse of Grece unto exile entrede in to thempire, and reignede viij. yere. In whiche tyme Page  287, vol.6 thempyr of the este faylede utterly. The body of Seynte Withburga, virgyn and doȝhter of Anna kynge of Este Yng|lische, suster to Sexburga, was founde incorrupte at Dirham, where sche was beryede, by lvjti yere folowynge here dethe. Kynge Charls was crownede this yere into themperour by Leo the pope, from whiche tyme thempire was translate from men of Grece to men off Fraunce, and after that to men of Alemayne. Giraldus, distinctione prima, capitulo xvij. For that trans|lacion [folio 291a] of thempire thauȝhe men of Grece were in defawte, thei have so grete envye to men of Latyne that thei withdrawede theym from the subieccion and obedience of the churche off Rome. Whiche monyschede by bischoppes of Rome that thei scholde returne to the unyte of the feithe, were wonte to wryte ageyne in this maner: "Ye withdrawede yow from us; þerfore we withdrawe us from yow." Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo, et de Pontificibus, libro tertio. Brithricus, kynge of Weste|Saxons, Page  289, vol.6 diede in this tyme by poysenynge thro his wyfe, whom Egberte, son of Alquimunde, and of the stoke of Ine, did suc|cede xxxvijti yere. This Egberte expulsede from his realme by Brithricus, wente to Fraunce, and, returnede to Ynglonde, tauȝhte the peple of his realme the actes of chevallery that he hade lernede in Fraunce, ordeynynge myȝhty and wiȝhte knyȝhtes, causenge his peple to use armes in the tymes of pease. Bernulphus, kynge of the Marches, havynge derision of his doctrine, sende to Egberte, kynge of Westesaxons, com|maundynge that he scholde do homage to hym. Neverthelesse, the hostes mette in somer at a place callede Claydon, in Hapte|schire or province, not lyke in nowmbre of men, for a ml fatte men, overcommen raþer with swetynge then with batelle, come ageyne a c. lene knyȝhtes and men of Egberte. But Egberte prevaylynge in that batelle, unyte to his realme the realmes of Page  291, vol.6 the marches of Kente and of Northumbrelonde, and toke Weste|chestre of the Britons, kepede by theym unto that tyme. After that, alle the noble men of the realme callede to Wynchestre, he was crownede kynge of alle Briteyne, where he com|maundede that from that day alle Saxons and Iutes scholde be callede Ynglische men, and that Briteyne scholde be callede Ynglonde. ℞. In this tyme, that is to say in that yere in whom Brithricus diede, after Marianus, Ethelmundus, under kynge of the marches, passynge his costes and commynge to Chimereforde, ȝafe batelle to Weofstanus, duke of Wilteschire, in whiche conflicte, a grete multitude of peple sleyne, men of Wilteschire hade the victory. But Seynte Alquimundus, martir, and son of Aluredus kynge of Northumbrelonde, commynge into the helpe of Ethelmund kynge of the Marches, was sleyne þer. The body of whom was brouȝhte firste to the White Monastery, and after that to Derby, into the northe churche of hit, edifiede in his name, where he is visitte moche of men of Northumbrelonde, by whom God schewethe mony Page  293, vol.6 miracles. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Albuinus, the noble doctor of Ynglonde, passede the see in this yere, whiche commynge to Fraunce made hit bryȝhte thro his doctryne, and brouȝhte the study to Parise that was translate somme tyme to Rome from men of Grece. This clerke Albuinus, after Aldelme [folio 291b] and Bede of Ynglische men moste excellente, departede from kynge Charls withowte eny possession of londes, other with|owte eny grete rewarde, to whom he hade redde logike, retho|ryke, and astronomye. Neverthelesse the kynge committe to hym the governaile of the monastery of Seynte Martyne at Turon, for the monkes of that monastery usede moche ryette. Oon monke perceyvynge the disposicion of his breþer, ij. angells entrede into theire dormitory, and extincte alle monkes of that monastery, the monke excepte that perceyvede theyme. And at the laste this Alcuinus diede at Seynte Paule de Cormoryke, Page  295, vol.6 and restethe þer, where the fyndynge of iiij. monkes is ȝiffen dayly for his sawle. Blissede Giles thabbotte was abowte this tyme, whiche commynge to þe superior Fraunce by the monys|chynge of God, nye to the water callede Rodanus, where he lyvede firste lyke an ankre. Also Paulus the diacon of Rome, and writere of the storyes of the Longobardes, was in this tyme, whiche was attracte from the mownte Cassyne unto France at the desire of kynge Charls. Michael, a man of grete meke|nesse, was made emperoure amonge men of Grece, in the thrydde yere of whom the sonne faylede in his rysenge, and soone after that the emperoure was made a monke. A grete mortalite of oxen occupiede this tyme alle Europe, and specially Briteyne. Grete Charls, vexede with the fevers for the space of iiij. yere, diede at Aquisgrani the vthe kalendes of February, where he was beryede also. Marianus, libro tertio. In the laste yere of whom the brigge made at Magoncia, over the water of Rhenus, by the labore off x. yere, was so destroyede with ynne thre Page  297, vol.6 howres that oon chippe of hit remaynede not above the water. Whiche thynge men seide Riculphus the bischoppe to have causede and procurede for rape and manslaȝhter usede þer in the nyȝhtes. And somme men ascribe that cause to a sodeyne chaunce.

Capitulum vicesimum nonum.

LUDOWICUS pius, firste sonne of kynge Charles, was em|peroure after the dethe of his fader xxjti yere and xj. monethes. In the tyme of whom girdells of golde and onornede with gemmes and inordinate vesture were deposede from bischoppes and clerkes. Giraldus, distinctione prima, capitulo xvij o. This Lodowycus gate of Hirmengarda his firste wyfe thre [folio 292a] sonnes; Lotharius, whom Lodowicus the kynge causede to be crownede in to kynge of Paschalis the pope at Rome, on Estre Page  299, vol.6 day, and governoure of Ytaly, and felowe of thempyre. Also he made Lodowicus, his secunde sonne, governoure in Germania, and the thridde sonne governoure of Aquitanny and Vascony. Also he gate of Iuditha, his secunde wife, doȝhter of Welfus duke of Bavarria, Charls the Ballede, to whom he ȝafe the governance of Fraunce and Burguyn. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. For cause that Lodowicus luffede this Charls and kyssede hym moore then his brether, Lotharius hade grete indignacion, and vexenge his fader moche, put hym in prison. Giraldus ubi supra. This Lodowicus, for his grete mekenesse, suffrede grete tribulacion, what of his awne peple and what of straunge peple, untille that he governede the peple moore dis|cretely and with scharpenesse of correccion: mony men say that trowble to have happede to hym for cause Iuditha his wife was to hym within the degre of mariage. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Wherefore this kynge exaltynge a clerke to be bischop Trajectense in Frisia, Fredericus by name, sate at dyner in the day of the consecracion of this Page  301, vol.6 bischop on his ryȝhte honde, movynge the bischoppe to attende to his profession, and to remembre the constaunce of his pre|decessors, and to purpose tru thynges with owte accepcion of persons, and to punysche gylty men. To whom the bischoppe seide, "O my lorde, ye do welle to me that ye expresse my pro|fession in hooly wordes. But y beseche youre maieste be not trowblede and grevede to solve oon question þat y have revolvede longe in my mynde, wheþer hit be moore honeste to begynne to dresse or towche this fische sette afore yow at the hedde or at þe tayle?" The kynge answerede schortely, and seide, "At the hedde." The bischop seide, "So, my lorde themperoure, correcte youre person firste of youre awne synne, that the feithe of Criste may increase, leste that youre subiectes have audacite to despise that they see yow to have suffrede. Þerfore refuse inceste that thow dose Page  303, vol.6 use with Iuditha." Neverthelesse the kynge suffrede that seyenge, whiche was publisched soone after amonge men of the churche, in so moche that the kynge callynge a cownesayle was departede from his wife; and Iuditha was putte to a monas|tery. But a moore mercifulle remedy was founde by the pope, and that woman Iuditha was restorede to here howsebonde after that. Whiche hyrynge ij. men, causede theyme to sle the [folio 292b] seide bischoppe commynge from havynge his vestimentes on hym. Giraldus, distinctione prima, capitulo decimo 7o. At the laste this Lodowycus ȝafe to Balled Charls, his sonne geten of Iuditha, the londe of Alemayne and the cuntre of Rethica, wherefore the other breþeren havynge indignacion þerof, and men of Fraunce helpynge theym, they lefte Lodowicus and erecte to theire kynge Lotharius, whiche imprisonede Ludo|wicus his fader, by auctorite of pope Gregory the iiijthe, and put Iuditha his wife unto exile, and toke Balled Charls unto the Page  305, vol.6 castelle of his stappemoder. But the princes of Fraunce de|lyverede soone the kynge from prison, and reconsilede the sonne to the fader; and diverse fals men puttenge a cryme on Iuditha the qwene, causede that sche was made a myncheon; but the kynge receyvede his qwene ageyne that yere thro helpe of Gregory the pope. For the noble man Bernarde accusede with that lady made his purgacion, and also there was not oon man of his accusers that durste fiȝhte with hym in that querelle. Stephanus the iiijthe succedid Leo the pope iij. yere, whom Paschalis did succede vij. yere, whiche crownyde Lotha|rius, and ordeynede a congregacion of monkes of the londe of Grece in the churche of Praxedis. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo, et de Pontificibus, libro quarto. Kenulphus the kynge of the Marches diede in this yere, whom Kenelinus his sonne did succede, havynge vij. yere in age; whiche was sleyne soone after in a thycke woode of Heskebertus, by the instigacion of Quendreda his sustyr; whom a piller of lyȝhte did schewe Page  307, vol.6 erecte from his body to hevyn. But the dethe of Kenelmus and the place also was schewede to the pope of Rome by a dovese havynge an epistolle in here mowthe, wryten in Yng|lische with letters of gold, and putte by the doves afore the pope, and redde by a man of Ynglonde presente there in that tyme. ℞. This was the wrytynge: "At Clente Conbache Kenelm kynbern liþ under a þorne, heved bewevyd;" sowndynge in Latyn: "In Clent sub spina jacet in convalle bovina Vertice privatus Kenelmus fraude necatus." Where|fore the body of Kenelme fownde and brouȝhte to be beryede, Quendreda, the auctrix and cause of his dethe, herynge men to synge, lokede furthe of a wyndowe. Whiche wyllynge to lette the melody of men syngynge, seide "Deus laudem" bakwarde, y wotte not by what wycche crafte, loste sodenly here siȝhte with bloode commynge from theyme. And the signes off Page  309, vol.6 bloode, schewynge the vengeaunce of God, remayne ȝitte in the sawter whiche sche hade in here hondes in that tyme.

Capitulum tricesimum.

[folio 293a]

AFTER Kenelme, Colwulphus brother to his fader succedid in the realme of the marches, whom Beornulphus the tyraunte expulsede after the secunde yere of his reigne, and reignede for hym ij. yere. Whiche ȝiffenge battelle to Este Ynglische men, was taken and sleyne of theyme: Ludican, cosyn to hym, wyll|ynge to venge his dethe, was sleyne also of Este Ynglische men, with v. dukes; whom Wiglanus cosyn to hym did succede, and regnede xiij. yere; but Egberte trowblede his realme longe. Page  311, vol.6 Eugenius the iiijthe succedid Paschalis the pope iiij. yere; whiche sende the boones of seynte Sebastian to Hildewinus abbot of Seynte Dionise. Valentinus, the pope succedid Eugenius the iiij. yere. In whiche tyme seynte Swithyne was borne in the cite of Wynechestre, which eschewede*. [Sic in MS.] mony miracles þer after the dethe of Helmstanus. Gregorius the iiij. was pope after Valentinus xiij. yere. Giraldus, distinc|tione prima, capitulo xvij. Theodulphus was of noble fame in the tyme of this pope, firste the abbot Floriacense, and after the bischop Aurelianense; whiche put to exile by kyng Lodowicus, for a certyne cryme put to hym by his enemys, to the cite Ande|gavense, made "Gloria, laus," and other versus folowynge. Whiche songe afore Lodowicus kynge of Fraunce, beynge in the same cite on Palme Sonneday, ȝafe pardon to the bischop for his labore, and restorede him unto his seete. Also Rabanus, a monke Meldense, was of grete fame in this tyme; whiche made a booke of the natures of thynges, and an oþer Page  313, vol.6 book of the lawde of the crosse in noble metre. Strabus the grete gloser in divinite was disciple to hym. The Danes robbede and wasted the yle of Schepey nye to Kente this yere, wherefore Egberte the kynge fauȝhte with theyme at Carre, but he was put to flyȝhte. A mayde havynge xij. yere in age, in the cite Tulense, faste by vj. monethes contynually in brede and water after that sche hade receyvyde the blissede sacra|mente on Ester day, and after that sche abstenede by thre yere folowynge contynually from alle meyte and drynke, and that doen sche lyvede after the commune lyfe. Wickede men of the Romanes sende to the Soldan of Babilony that and if he wolde [folio 293b] come to Rome he wolde rejoyce Ytaly. Whiche commynge to that*. [The Soldan spoylede the cite of Rome.] cuntre spoylede Rome, and made the churche of Seynte Petre a stable for theire horses, and destroyede Tuscia and Scicille. But at the laste thei were expulsede into Affrike by labor of Gregory the pope to the Longobardes and men of Fraunce; whiche Page  315, vol.6 entrenge into Affrike, a grete parte of the Soldanes hoste was drownyde. Helinstanus, bischop of Wynchestre, diede in this yere, whom seynte Swithyne did succede. The Danes entrede the weste partes, whiche confederate with the Britons entrede the costes of kynge Egbert, but they loste the victory at Hengistdon. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. Egberte kynge of Westesaxons diede, whom Athulphus other Athel|wulfus his sonne suceedid xxij. yere. This Athelwulphus was*. [This kynge was subdi|acon.] taken to be noryschede of blissede Helinstanus, bischop of Wynchestre, of whom he was made subdiacon, neverthelesse he was erecte into the kynge by thauctorite of Leo the pope. Whiche gate of Osburga his wife, doȝhter of his butteler, iiij. noble sonnes, reignynge by succession after theire fader; and takynge Aluredus his yongeste sonne with hym, wente to Rome, and taryede þer by oon yere, where he repairede nobly Page  317, vol.6 the scole of the Saxons, ordeynede firste by kynge Offa, as hit is seide; whiche seynge men penitent and owtelawes bownde þer openly, purchasede of the pope that men of Ynglonde scholde not be so entretyde with owte theire awne realme from that tyme. Wherefore men say he grauntede a peny to Seynte Petyr of every house in his realme. Also he ȝafe a*. [Of Petyr id.] c. mark to the lyȝhte of Seynte Petre, a c. marke to the lyȝhte of Seynte Paule, and a c. marke to the pope. Also he releyschede alle his churches from every tribute pertenynge to hym, and offrede the xthe parte of his goodes to God; whiche maryede Iuditha, the doȝhter of Karolus Calvus, or Ballede Charls, in returnynge from Rome to Ynglonde. And for cause that he sette here in a throne nye to hym, ageyne the consue|tude of the realme, his eldeste sonne did ryse ageyne hym with mony gentylle men of the cuntre. Wherefore the fader ȝiffenge Page  319, vol.6 to his sonne a grete parte of his realme to lyve in reste, kowthe unnethe obteyne hit; ffor the consuetude was amonge theyme that the wife of theire kynge scholde not have suche honoure, to the hate of Ethelburga, the doȝhter of kynge Offa, whiche did slee Brithricus here howsebonde with poyson. ℞. [folio 294a] This kynge sende to seynte Modwenne to Yrlonde Alurede his*. [Of seynte Mod|wenne.] welbelovyde, as in an infirmite incurable, that he myȝhte be helpede by here. Wherefore the churche of seynte Mod|wenne destroyede in Yrlonde, the kynge toke to seynte Mod|wenne commyn into Ynglonde grownde to edifye ij. monas|terys; oon in Ardern, at Polliswurthe, whiche remaynethe unto this tyme. In whom Ositha and Athea, virgyns, taryede with seynte Editha, sustyr of kynge Atulphus. Seynte Modwenne taryede at the other monastery at Streneschalle by a certeyne space, and after that wente thryes to Rome; whiche lyvynge as a recluse by the space of vij. yere at an yle callede Page  321, vol.6 Andreseia, nye to Burton, and the vij. yere paste sche diede þer. The Danes did sle mony men in Lindesey this yere, in este partes of Ynglonde also, and in Kente. Wiglaf the kynge of Marches diede in this yere, the xiii. yere of his reigne, and was beryede at Rependon; whiche gate Wigmundus, and he gate seynte Wystan martir; and Bertulphus reignede after on the Marches xij. yere, Bertforcus, the sonne of whom, did sle seynte Wystan cruelly. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo.

Capitulum tricesimum primum.

LODOWICUS kynge of Fraunce dedde, Lotharius his eldeste son succedid; whiche reigned xv. yere his fadder beynge in lyfe, and xviij. yere after the dethe of his fader, in Ytaly, Rome, and in a parte of Germany nye to Alpes, callede Lotharingia of Lotharius. But the peple of the realme of Lotharius made in|surreccions Page  323, vol.6 ageyne his ij. breþer for the realme of Aquitanny, that Pipinus theire broþer occupiede somme tyme. Giraldus, dis|tinctione*. [A soore conflicte betwene breþer.]prima. And thei fauȝhte at a place callede Fontanete, where Lotharius compellyde to fle, so grete a murdre of peple was made in þat conflicte to eiþer parte that Lotharius was not able to resiste his adversaries after that tyme. The Saracenys beynge in Affrike and in Speyne herynge that, made þeim redy to entre thempire of Rome. Lodowicus dedde in the meane tyme, Karolus Calvus governede the realme allon a certeyne space. The body of seynte Bartholomewe was trans|late to Benevent in this yere; Sergius the secunde succedid Gregory the pope ix. yere. This Sergius was callede firste Os [folio 294b] porci, the mowthe of a swyne; from the tyme of whom alle popes chaungede theire names, and that for iij. causes. The firste cause is for Criste chaungede the names of his apostles when he toke theim to that office. An oþer cause for thei awe to chaunge into perfeccion as theire name is chaungede. The Page  325, vol.6 thrydde cause was leste a man electe to that office hade a fowle name. The body of blissede Helena, moder of noble Constan|tyne, beryede at Rome, was translate this tyme to the churche Remense in Fraunce. Normannes come firste to Fraunce in this yere by the water of Sequana. Bertulphus did sle wikkidely seynte Westan in Pentecoste, the body of whom was beryede at Rependoun in the beryalle of Wiglanus his grauntefader; in the place of the dethe of whom a piller of lyȝhte stode con|tynually by xxxti daies. Leo the vthe succedid Sergius the pope iiij. yere, whiche repairede churches in the cite of Rome des|troyede of paganes, and made this collecte, "Deus, cujus dextera beatum Petrum," for Neapolitans fiȝhtenge ageyne the Sara|cenys on the see. And the reparacion of the churche of Seynte Petyr doen, he seide, "Deus, qui beato Petro collatis clavibus." This pope desirede as in to his sonne Alurede son of Atelwul|phus kynge of Westesaxons, whom noyntede into the kynge by Page  327, vol.6 grawnte of his fader. Betulphus the kynge of Marches diede in this yere; whom Burdredus did succede, whiche maryede anoon Ethelwitha the doȝhter of kynge Atulphus, þro helpe of whom he subduede the Britons inhabitynge betwene the Marches and the weste see. This Burdredus expulsede from his realme in the xxij. yere of his reigne by the Danes, wente to Rome, and not lyvynge longe after his commynge þider was beryede in the churche of blissede Mary at the scole of Saxons. In whiche yere the Danes robbyng London and Kente and caused Bertul|phus the kynge to flee, were devicte in Southerey by kynge Ethelwulphus at Ocleye. Lotharius themperour forsakenge the worlde and entrynge religion, diede in this tyme; for the sawle of whom grete altercacion was hade betwene angelles and develles, in so moche that mony men see þe body as alle to drawen betwene þeim, but the devells fledde þro the preiers of the Page  329, vol.6 monkes. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. This Lo|thrius lefte iij. sonnes after hym geten by Ermengarda his wife: Lodowicus, to whom he ȝafe the realme of Romanes with Ytaly, and to Lotharius the regalle seete of Fraunce, and to Charls an oþer province; but this Charls soone dedde, Lodowicus and [folio 295a] Lotharius divided þe realme of Charls betwene theyme.

Capitulum tricesimum secundum.

LODOWICUS, þe secunde sonne of Lotharius, after somme men reigned xv. yere, and after somme men xxij. yere, and was crownede of Sergius the pope, and hade ij. sonnes, Lodowicus kynge of Norykes, and Charls the grete or iunior; whiche vexede Page  331, vol.6 of a spiritte in the presence of his fader confessede he was punyschede by that spirit in that he conspirede the dethe of his fader. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. Iohn Scotte come to France in the tyme of this Lodowicus, and translate the bookes of Dionisius at the desyre of Karolus Calvus from Grewe into Latyne, and made a booke callede Perifision, of the division of nature. Whiche callede after that into Ynglonde by kynge Alurede, was sleyne with poyntells of childer whom he tauȝhte at Malmesbury. Seynte Edmund began to reigne on Este Ynglische men in this yere, and was sleyne in the xiiithe yere. Ethelwulphus kynge of Westesaxons died þe Idus of Ianuare, and beriede at Wynchestre; whom Ethelbaldus his eldest son did succede oon yere. And noo mervayl, for he maryede Iuditha, wife to his fader, ageyne the consuetude of holy churche, and was beryede at Shirburne. Martinus. Iohannes Anglicus, Page  333, vol.6 borne in Magoncia, succedid Leo the pope ij. yere and v. monethes: but hit is seide that this pope was a woman, and*. [A woman was pope.] brouȝhte in yonge age from here cuntre to Athenes in the habite of a man by her specialle; where sche profite so gretely yn connynge in so moche that sche commynge to Rome hade noble auditors and disciples, to whom sche redde the arte tri|vialle. After that sche electe into pope by the favor of alle men, was gete with childe by her specialle; whiche not beynge in certeynte of the tyme of childynge, and goynge from the churche of Seynte Petyr to the churche Lateranense, was delyverede betwene the Collosee and Seynte Clement, and beryede þer afterwarde as hit is seide. And for cause that the pope levethe that weye hit scholde seme that he scholde do that for detestacion of that chaunce; and this pope is not putte in [folio 295b] Page  335, vol.6 the nowmbre of other bischoppes of Rome for the kynde im|pertinente. The kynge of Bulgaria was converte to the feithe of Criste with his peple abowte this tyme; whiche was of soe grete perfeccion that he toke his realme to his eldeste sonne, and toke the habite of a monke. But his sonne ȝiffen to ydolatry, the kynge returnede to the worlde, and doynge grete persecucion to his son, toke hym and makynge hym blynde putte hym in prison; and so the yonger sonne made kynge, the fader returnede to his monastery, and toke that hooly habite. Ethelbertus succedid Ethelbaldus his broþer in the realme of Westesaxons v. yere. In the tyme of whom a grete hoste of the Danes robbynge Wynchestre were destroyede gretely by the dukes of the seide kynge or that thei cowthe take theire schippes. Benedictus the thrydde succedid Iohn the pope iiij. yere. Seynte Swithine bischop of Wynchestre diede in this tyme, whom Dunbertus did succede, of whom mervellous Page  337, vol.6 thynges be redde. Nicholaus the firste succedid Benedicte the pope viij. yere, whiche was comparable to grete Gregory. In whose tyme seynte Cirillus thapostelle of men of Sclavia, bryng|ynge the body of seynte Clemente from Cersona, brouȝhte hit to Rome, and put hit in the churche of Seynte Clemente, where seynte Cirillus dyenge schewede mony miracles. Lodowi|cus the kynge of Fraunce willynge to leve his lawefulle wife for Waldrada a concubyne, whom he luffede moche of tendre age, Nicholaus the pope, at the instaunce of the breþer of the qwene complaynynge thereof, sende into Fraunce Arse|mus his apocrifary, whiche callynge a cownesaille of bischoppes, constreynede the kynge to take ageyne his wife, makynge a solemne protestacion that he wolde not take that oþer concu|byne. But the legate of Rome returnede, the qwene was refusede, and Waldrada was taken; wherefore the pope cursede Waldrada with alle men havynge communicacion with here. ℞. But Marianus rehersethe this of Lotharius, and not of Page  339, vol.6 Lodowicus. Etheldredus, the thrydde son by byrthe, succedid his ij. breþer in the realme of Westesaxons viij. yere. In the firste yere of whom a grete fleete of schippes of the Danes londed at Este Ynglonde, and taryede there in the wynter, compellede after that to take Yorke for theire defense. For [folio 296a] when that men of Northumbrelonde, thro the instinccion of the develle, hade expulsede theire kynge, and hade made Ella a tyraunte to theire governoure. Neverthelesse the malice of theyme swaged thro the dredde of the Danes, and takenge bothe theire kynges to theyme, ȝafe batelle to the Danes, whom they compellede to fle to the cite of Yorke, not wallede welle in that tyme. But then thei fiȝhtenge ageyne theyme indiscretely were devicte by þe Danes, and theire kynges sleyne, in so moche that men escapede toke pease with the Danes, and so the kynges of Northumbrelonde faylede. The Danes levynge the realme of Northumbrelonde in this yere, come to Snotyngham in the realme of the Marches, taryenge Page  341, vol.6 there by oon yere. But Burdredus kynge of the Marches, and Etheldredus kynge of the Westesaxons, gedrenge a grete hoste, wolde have ȝiffe batelle to þeim, but the Danes, experte in batelles and werre, kepede the cite, and wolde not ȝiffe batelle to þeim, and so the kynges returnede, and the Danes returnede also to Yorke, where they taryede by oon yere. Adrianus the secunde succedid Nicholas the pope ij. yere. To whom Lodowicus the secunde and kynge of Fraunce did wryte, cursede but late afore by Nicholas the pope, that he wolde take hym to mercy. The pope did wryte ageyne in this maner: "If thow knowe thy selfe not gilty, comme to Rome; if thow be culpable do condigne penance." The kynge commynge to Rome, the pope inquirede of hym if he hade kepede þe preceptes of his predecessor, and the othe that he made; þe kynge and mony of his peple presente þer seide he hade observede theyme. Then the pope seide: "Hit behovethe yow to be communicate with us, that ye may be Page  343, vol.6 ascribede to the membres of Criste from whom ye were departede;" and, þe masse complete, he communicate theym, seyenge: "If ye be not gilty, this communion be to yow in remission; and if ye be gilty, to dampnacion." And hit happede that noon of theym lyvede passede oon yere; and the kynge, taken with a soore fever, diede at a cite Plasencia, and a grete mortalite folowede amonge his peple. The Danes destroyede the cite Alcluit in this yere, and wente from North|umbrelonde to Tedforde in the este partes of Ynglonde, where thei taryede by alle þe wynter. In whiche yere Danes Hinguar*. [The Danes did sle seynte Edmund] and Hubba did sle seynte Edmund at Egglisdon. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. And the hed of seynte Edmunde hidde in thikke places, spake to men sechynge hym, and seide after the langage of the cuntre: "Here, here, here;" where a wulf was founde clippende the hedde of seynte Page  345, vol.6 Edmunde, whiche folowede mekely the peple commyn unto that place. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo. Edwol|dus, broþer to seynte Edmunde, despisynge the worlde, after the dethe of his broþer, lyvede in Dorsetteschire as an heremite, contente oonly with brede and water, nye to a welle whom [folio 296b] seynte Austyn thro his preier causede to sprynge to baptize peple convertede to the feithe. Where a monastery was edi|fiede afterwarde of grete richesse, if the governoures of hit spende hit not on glotons, but on the servaunteȝ of God. But ambicion, a cosyn of covetise, hath chaungede so thynges in Ynglonde in oure tyme, that goodes ȝiffen liberally of fowndres and devowte peple to monasterys, be dispersed raþerthr o ryette of the governoures then spende to the lyfe and susten|tacion of the bretherne of theyme, and on oþer poore peple Page  347, vol.6 and in hospitalite. But withowte dowte the ȝiffers of those goodes schalle not be defrauded of theire rewarde, for theire intencions be ponderate afore Allemyȝhty God.

Capitulum tricesimum tertium. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo.

LODOWICUS the thrydde reigned in Fraunce iiij. yere after Lodowicus the secunde, his fader. In whiche yere the hoste of the Danes levynge the este partes of Ynglonde, with Hin|guar and Hubba theire governoures, come to Radynge in Westesax. Where tweyne governoures of þe Danes goynge*. [Of þe batells of Danes.] furthe for theire pray in þe thrydde day of theire commynge into that coste, were sleyne at Engesfelde. And in the iiijthe day folowynge, ij. breþer of the kynge of Westesax ȝiffenge metynge to the Danes, did sle a grete multitude of theyme. Page  349, vol.6 But the Danes brekynge owte by crafte did sle the duke off Barokeschire, Ethelwulfus by name, and causede Ynglische men to goe abakke. Men of Ynglonde rebukede þerwith in the iiijthe day folowynge ȝafe batelle to theyme at Asshedon, that sowndethe by interpretacion the hylle of an asse, or of an asshe, where Alurede coacte by necessite, levynge his bro|þer the kynge at masse, wente afore to ȝiffe batelle to theyme. But the preyer of that kynge was to theyme grete helpe that day, for thauȝhe the Danes hade the hier parte of the hille, neverthelesse Cristen men commynge to the altitude of the hille did sle Osric, the kynge of the Danes, with v. dukes, and mony ml. of þeim, and folowede the oþer alle day unto Radynge. But in the xiiij. day folowynge the Danes fiȝhtenge at Basynge and at Merton, hade the victory. After that the kynges of the [folio 297a] Marches, of Northumbrelonde, and of Este Ynglonde, detract|enge the dominacion of the Westesaxons, hade lever to sustene Page  351, vol.6 theire enemyes then to helpe and socoure men of theire awen cuntre laborynge soore for the ryȝhte of hit. And þer|fore hit folowede that enemyes to the londe increased and prevaylede, and men of that londe decreasede and were sleyne. After that, in the yere next folowynge, Ethelredus, kynge of Westesaxons, after grete labours, diede the ixthe kalendes of Maii, and was buryede at Wynburn. Iohn the viijthe succedid Adrian the pope xij. yere. This pope taryenge by a yere in Fraunce with Lodowicus Balbus, was put into prison by the Romanes, in that he favorede hym. Also he ȝafe to Ansegisus, bischop Cenonense, the hedde of grete Gregory and an arme of Leo the pope to be put in his churche. In the tyme of whom the vthe seeyne or cownceill of Constantinopole was halowede, of ccclxxiij. bischoppes. In whiche tyme the Page  353, vol.6 Saracenys rennynge thro Ytaly destroyede the secunde tyme the monastery of Seynte Benedict in the mownte Cassyne.

Explicit Liber Quintus.
[folio 283b]