Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

[Capitulum primum.]

MARCIANUS marienge the sustir of Theodosius was em|perour [folio 244b] abowte vij. yere. In the firste tymes of whom the cownesaile Calcedonense was hade ageynes Euticen and Dioscorus, as hit is rehersede afore. This emperour Marcianus was sleyne thro treason of his awne men at Constantinopole, wherefore the Hunes and Wandalynges wastede cites of Fraunce sette on the water of Rhenus. Vortigenus reignenge Page  259, vol.5 that tyme in Briteyne, a grete habundaunce of cornes was in that cuntre, þat soe grete plente was never seene þer afore; after that, lecchery and moche synne began to encrease in that londe, not oonly in seculer men, but also in prelates and gover|noures of þe churche, ȝiffen to lecchery and drunkenesse and to other wickede disposicion. After that a pestilence folowede, soe corruptible that peple beynge in lyve were unnethe suffi|ciaunte to bery the peple dedde. Neverthelesse men beynge in lyve not correcte thro þat feer, suffrede other punyschenge by the wylle of God, for thei hade cownesaile by Vortigernus theire kynge, that they scholde sende to the Saxones, beynge paganes, that thei wolde schewe to theym somme socour, Page  261, vol.5 whiche was doen by the ordinaunce of God, that thei scholde have more correccion for theire synne. Galfridus et Alfridus. This Vortigernus dredde soore the Pictes, whom he hade offendede late, dredenge of that other parte þe commynge of Aurelius Ambrosius, whom he hade herde to have made redy a grete fleete of schippes. Wherefore he desirede helpe of the Saxons, myȝhty men in batelle. Beda, libro primo, capitulo quinto. The Saxones, myȝhty men in batelle, and vagaunte as for habitacion, desirede of the Britones, comme to Briteyne, takenge with theyme thre grete schippes replete with men, takenge a place to inhabite in the este parte of hit, at an yle callede Thanates, nye to Kente, as to fiȝhte for that cuntre, but raþer to expugne hit. Willelmus de Regibus. Alle the grownde that lyethe over the occean in to Briteyne under the northe pole is callede Germannia, in that hit bryngethe furthe soe mony peple. And lyke as peple be wonte to kytte voide Page  263, vol.5 bowes awey from a tree that hit may reioyce more in frute, soe the peple of Germany use, leste the cuntre scholde be de|stroyede with the grete multitude of theyme. Whiche enten|dynge to avoide, sende peple furthe from theire cuntre by chaunce and lotte. That causede theyme to be bolde, chalan|gynge [folio 244b] straunge cuntres as theire awne. As the Wandalynges occupiede Affrike, Longobardes Ytaly, the Normannes Fraunce, soe in lyke wyse ij. brether, Hengistus and Horsus, comme from Germany to Briteyne with a lytelle powere, whiche were in the thridde degre to Woden, of whom alle regalle blode of þe nacions of barbre come allemoste. Whom the Saxons supposynge to be a godde, namede the iiijthe day in the weke after Woden, and the vjthe day after Free his wyfe. Page  265, vol.5Beda, libro primo, capitulo quinto decimo. There comme to Ynglonde or Briteyne thre myȝhty peple of Germany, as Saxons, Englische men, and Iutes. The men of the costes of Cawnterbery and of the yle of Wiȝhte come of the Iutes, and peple beynge ageyne the yle of Wiȝhte. And men of the*. [Thre mane|res or diver|sites of peple come in to Ynglonde.] este parte of Ynglonde, men of the myddel parte, and of the weste parte come of Saxons. Men of the Marches and of Northumbrelonde come of Englische men; the governoures of these men were callede Horsus and Hengistus. Henricus, libro 2o. That peple commyn to Briteyne did slee mony of theire enemyes, whiche were commyn to Stanforde, xlti myle from Page  267, vol.5 Lyncolne, on the sowthe to hit. The Pictes and Scottes usede speeres and dartes, the Saxones usede longe swerdes and sparthes. Gaufridus. Vortigernus havynge victory thro helpe of Saxons, ȝafe to Hengistus a certeyne grownde in Lyndesey, where he made a castelle callede by Englische men Thwangcastre, whiche sowndethe as the castelle of a thwange, in that so moche space was grauntede to hym as myȝhte be compassede with oon thwange. Wherefore Hengistus causede the skynne of a grete bulle to be made in oon thwange, where with he compassede that grownde. Beda, libro primo, capitulo quinto decimo. The plentuousenesse of Briteyne, and feble|nesse of inhabitators in hit, knowen in Germany, a gretter company was sende to encrease the nowmbre afore seide sende from þens, whiche make promyse to ȝiffe batelle and to fiȝhte for the cuntre, the Britones ȝiffenge to þeim meyte and wages. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. The Saxones commynge*. [The Saxons come the ij. tyme.] in the secunde tyme, brouȝhte a beawtuous virgyn with theym, with xvj. schippes, whiche mayde was doȝhter of Hengistus, [folio 245a] Page  269, vol.5 as a mervayle of nature and a spectacle to men. Vortigernus beholdenge her, commaundede that sche myȝhte be as boteler to hym, whom he desirede to be his wife soone after, ȝiffenge to Hengistus, beynge as contrarious þerto, Kente, and licence to sende for his sonne. Gaufridus et Alfridus. This wed|denge halowede, Vortigernus refusede his lawefulle wife, by whom he hade getyn iij. noble childer, Vortumerus, Categirnus, and Pascencius. Beda, libro primo, capitulo quinto decimo. The Saxons havenge helpe of the Pictes, whom they hade overcommen afore, began to move battelle ageyne the Britones, desirenge moore exhibicion and grownde; that denyede, the Saxons destroyede or wastede the cuntre, and did sle the bischoppes with the peple in hit. Gaufridus et Alfridus. The Britones oppressede with a multitude of Saxons, movede the kynge to leve Saxones, whiche not fyllynge the desire of Page  271, vol.5 the peple was deposede, and Vortumerus, his son, was made kynge. Wilielmus de Regibus, libro primo. Whiche fauȝhte ageyne Englische men after the vijthe yere folowenge that promyse made with the Pictes, oftetymes in liȝhte batelles, and v. tymes in soore batelles with alle theire powers. Hen|ricus et Gaufridus. The firste batelle was on the water callede Derwente. The secunde at Epiforde, where Horsus and Categirnus woundede either other soore. The þridde batelle was doen thro the helpe of Seynte German cryenge thre tymes "Allelulia," where thro the Saxons were putte to fliȝhte. The iiijthe batelle was at the syde of the see, where the Saxons fledde to the yle callede Thanette. These batelles Page  273, vol.5 doen, Vortumerus was poysonede by Rowen his stappemodyr. ℞. Neverthelesse William Malmesbury rehersethe that he was taken awey sodenly by fatalle chaunce after that he had fauȝhten soore ageynes Englische men by xxti yere. Gaufri|dus et Alfridus. Vortumerus dedde, Vortigernus was re|storede ageyne to the realme, wherefore a convencion of pease was made by Briteynes and Saxones metenge nye to a mo|nastery of Ambre as to trete for pease. Where Hengistus usenge newe treason, commaundede the peple commynge thider with hym to drawe cultres and weppyn putte prively in theire hoose, and to sle the Britones, when that he scholde say in this wyse, in Englische, "Nymethe your sexis;" and soe thei did. But Eldolde the duke of Claudiocestre, takenge a [folio 245b] pale in his honde, defendede hym selfe manly, and did slee lxxti of the Saxones with hit. But the Saxones not suffrenge the Page  275, vol.5 kynge to be sleyne, hade certeyne cites in Briteyne for his redempcion, whiche goenge after that to Wales, un to a mownte callede Cloarcius, was brente in his towre by Aurelius Am|brosius. ℞. But Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo, reher|sethe that Hengistus callede or lathede by treason the kynge of Briteyne, Vortigernus, his sonne in lawe, with ccc. Britons, whiche beynge drunke, a discorde was movede, and after that thei toke weppynes. Where the Britones sleyne, and the kynge taken, he was redemede for thre provinces of the este. Also the same William seythe, libro primo, and Henricus, libro 2o, that Vortigernus hade carnalle knowlege of his awne doȝhter for truste of regalle succession, and gate a sonne by here. Wherefore he, cursede of Seynte German and of alle the cumpanye of prestes, fledde to the weste parte of Wales. Also Page  277, vol.5 hit is redde that Vortigernus fleenge, Seynte German folowenge hym, was brente in his towre by fire fallenge from hevyn. Wherefore the Britons gedrenge an hoste, with theire gover|noure Aurelius Ambrosius, directe theire wowarde in to Kente ageynes Horsus and Hengistus. But Gaufride rehersethe in hys booke of Briteyne, that Aurelius Ambrosius commynge from Bryteyn Armoryke, brente Vortigernus in his towre, and goynge after that to Humbre, causede Hengistus to be heded, sparenge Osca his son, segede at the cite of Yorke, in that he mekede hym selfe. After that he overcome Pascencius the son of Vortigernus, and Gillomaurus, kynge of Yrlonde, help|enge hym; whiche dyede at Wynchestre thro þe poysonynge of a leche Eopa by name, whom Pascencius causede to do so. Hit is redde in the legende of Seynte German, that Vortyger|nus denyenge logynge to hym, a swyneherde longynge to the kynge, seenge the men of God trowblede, toke theyme in to Page  279, vol.5 his howse, and ȝafe a calfe to theyme that they myȝhte eite. But Seynte German restorede the calfe to lyfe after that thei hade sowpede; and in the morowe foloenge Seynte German deposede Vortigernus from that realme by þe commaundemente of God, and made the swyneherde aforeseide kynge, moche [folio 246a] peple merveylenge þerof. And after that tyme kynges of Briteyne come of the blode of that swyneherde. Neverthe|lesse Gildas seithe in his story thys to have happede not of Vortigernus, but of Beuly, kynge of Powyselonde, the sucses|sores of whom did precede*. [Sic in MS.] of the stocke of that swyneherde. Wherefore the thynges seide of the dethe of Vortigernus in that place be seyde by anticipacion, that the hollenesse of the story may be conservede. Also y wolde have schewede in this story other thynges whiche be contenede in this booke of Briteyne if that y hade supposede that thei hade be trewe, as of a damme of ij. dragons, white and redde, of the fantasti|calle getynge off Merlyne, and of his prophecy.