Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum septimumdecimum.

AIDANUS and Finanus, bischoppes of Northumbrelonde, dedde abowte these tymes, Colmannus the Scotte was suc|cessor to theyme by thre yere. In whiche tyme Agilbertus, Page  97, vol.6 bischop of Westesaxons, come to costes of Northumbrelonde, where he made Wilfride thabbot Ripense preste, at the peticion of kynge Oswy. In whiche tyme a grete question was movede of the observacion of Ester, seyenge that hit was not duly keped of Scottes and of Britons, but hit was suffrede as in|correcte for the reverence of holy faders, Aidanus, Finanus, Columba, and oþer venerable faders. Wherefore a seyne was kepede at Stremshalte at the monastery of Hilda þabbesse, in the yere of oure Lorde God vj. c. lx. and iiij.; where Colman|nus the bischop, and Hilda the abbesse mette of that oon parte, makenge allegacioun for theym that worschipfulle faders theire predecessors and seyntes kepede Ester from the xiiijthe moone unto the xxti moone, and specially Seynte Iohn Evan|geliste in Asia. On that oþer parte was Agilbertus bischop o Page  99, vol.6 Westesaxons, Iacobus, preste of Paulinus somme tyme bis|choppe of Yorke, and Wilfridus thabbot Ripense, with Alfri|dus son to the kynge. Wilfridus, disputynge for theym, did allegate the consuetude of the churche universalle, as of Grece, of Ytaly, of Rome, of Affrike, and of Fraunce, seynge theyme to be preferrede afore a constitucion of oon angle of the worlde, whiche hade noo knowlege of hooly decretys made by cowne|sayles. And as for Seynt Iohn began Ester from the xiiijthe day of þe firste monethe at evynsonge, takynge noo hede wheþer hit were in that day or in an othyr day. And also Petre the prince of apostles, to whom the principate of the churche was ȝiffen, with power of byndynge and of loosynge, abode after Page  101, vol.6 the tradicion of þe lawe the xiiijthe moone of the firste monethe, lyke to Seynte Iohn, kepynge the feste of Ester in the nexte Sonneday whiche folowede the fulle of the moone and the equinoccialle unto the xxjti moone. And if Sonneday felle on the xiiijthe day, he kepede not Ester in that day, for [folio 273b] then that Sonneday was of the yere precedent, and not of a newe yere. These wordes purposede, kynge Oswy seide, "Sithe ye say so mony thynges and grete to have be ȝiffen to Petyr, y dar not say ageyne hym, leste peraventure he schutte the durre when y comme." Then a grete multitude of peple condescende to Wilfridus, and Ced, bischoppe of Esteynglische men, was correcte from that tyme; but Colmannus havynge indignacion þerof, returnede to the Scottes. ℞. Unto the tru knowlege of the kepynge of Ester thre thynges ar to be atten|dide, Page  103, vol.6 after Beda, libro vto, de temporibus vel de gestis Angliæ, that is to say, the equinoccialle of ver, the perfite plenilune or fullenesse of the moone, and Sonneday. For lyke as in the begynnynge of the worlde the sonne procedynge from the myddes of the este, prefixede in hys arisynge the equinocciale of ver, after that the sonne beynge in the weste a fulle moone folowede from the myddes of the este, and in likewise in alle yeres foloynge. And so the firste monethe of the moone awe to be observede, that not afore the equinoccialle, or in the day of the equinoccialle, as hit was in the begynnynge of the worlde, or the equinoccialle paste, he awe to have the fulle of the moone, Þerfore what moone is fulle afore the equinoccialle, as þe xiiijthe, Page  105, vol.6 þe xvthe, or xvjthe, and so of oþer or moore after that, hit per|tenethe to the laste parte of the yere precedent. Þerfore Ester is to be kepede in that moone whiche is fulle in þat equinoccialle, or after, as in the thrydde weke of the firste monethe of þe moone, from the eve of the xiiijthe day unto the xxjti day ren|nynge, where Sonneday commythe firste. Neverthelesse the churche suffrethe the erroure in the usualle kalendary, whiche began in this wise, that the solstices and equinoccialles and entrenges of the sonne into signes have goen backe in the kalendary by xiij. daies, abowte the yere of oure Lorde God ml.ccc. and xxti. And þerfore but if the usualle kalendary be correcte, hit schalle folowe of that errour, that and if þe yeres of Criste atteyne to the nowmbre of xviij. ml. yere, Ester Page  107, vol.6 schalle falle after our kalendary abowte þe schortyste day in the yere. And if the vithe age of the worlde contynue unto that nowmbre duplicate, the day of Seynte Iohn Baptiste schalle be the schortiste day of the yere, and Cristemasse the longeste day in the yere. The reason of this erroure is declarede in the Almagestes of Ptolomeus. Willelmus de [folio 274a] Pontificibus, libro iij. Colmannus the bischop of Northum|brelonde Page  109, vol.6 convicte by Wilfridus of the erroneus kepynge of Ester, returnede to the Scottes with indignacioun, as hit is schewede afore. And Wilfridus, by the labor of Alfridus, son to kynge Oswy, was electe to be archebischop of Yorke, sende to Fraunce that he myȝhte be consecrate, ffor Deusdedit, thar|chebischop of Cawnterbery, was dedde that scholde have con|secrate hym. In this tyme Kenwalcus, kynge of Westesaxons, divided his province into ij. seetes, settenge the chiefe sete at Wynechestre, wherewith Agilbertus movede in indignacioun, returnede to Fraunce, where he was borne, as hit schewede afore in the same booke, capitulo decimo quinto. Paulus, libro vj o. Constantinus the emperour, willenge to delyver Ytaly from the Longobardes abowte this tyme, inquirede of a solitary man, and servaunte of Godde, wheþer he scholde have victory of the Longobardes. The man answeryde and seide that he myȝhte not have victory of theyme as ȝitte, in that Seynte Iohn Baptiste preyde for theym, in that thei made in Ytaly a monastery into the honoure off hym; but the tyme schalle Page  111, vol.6 comme when that churche schalle be hade in despecte to theyme, and inhabite with unworthy persons, and then that peple schalle peresche firste. Themperoure despisynge the wordes of the servaunte of God, ȝafe batelle to the Longo|bardes, but he prevaylede not; spoylenge the cite of Rome, not|withstondenge the preiers and desire of the pope Vitalianus beynge contrarious. Whiche goynge to Sicille exercisede grete crudelite, dyenge in that cuntre in a bathe. This Wilfridus, as hit is schewede afore, electe to be archebischop of Yorke, tary|enge in Fraunce with Agilbertus for his confirmacion, Oswy the kynge, movede thro peple that kepede the feste of Ester in the xiiijthe moone, made Seynte Chadde, then abbot of Les|tingay, tharchebischop of Yorke, ageyne the ordinaunce of ca|non. Willelmus, libro iij., capitulo xxvij. Wherefore Chad was sende to Kente for his confirmacion, whiche returnede to Wyna bischop of Westesaxons, for Deusdedit tharchebischop of Cawnterbery was dedde, havynge in his felowschippe ij. bis|choppes Page  113, vol.6 of Britons. Wilfridus commynge from Fraunce, understondenge Chad to occupy his seete, taryede in Kente, prechynge and ȝiffenge orders unto the commynge of Theo|dorus tharchebischop of Cawnterbery, and haloyde churches, and made Picta, a noble musicion, bischoppe of Rowchestre. Also Benedictus Biscop, wente to Rome in this yere the [folio 274b] secunde tyme, whiche returnynge ageyne taryede at the mon|astery Lirinense by ij. yere; whiche goynge to Rome in þe þrydde tyme, come to Ynglonde with Theodorus bischop, and Aidanus abbotte, by the commaundemente of Vitalianus the pope. Cissa, lytelle kynge and fader to kynge Ina, made the monastery of Abyndon in this yere. Leodegarius suffrede passion in this yere under Eborinus, governoure of the kynges howse. Constantinus themperoure was sleyne at Sicil by his knyȝhtes in a bathe. The holy pope Adeodatus succeded Vitalianus iiij. yere; in the tyme of whom the body of Seynte Page  115, vol.6 Benedicte, with the body of Seynte Scolastica his sustre, was translate by Aigulfus, a monke Floriacense, from the mownte Cassyne, whiche is in the province Beneventan, unto the monastery Floriacense nye to Aurelians.