Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum quintumdecimum.

HERACLONAS, the sonne of Heraclius, was emperoure ij. yere; whom the senate of Rome expulsede from thempire, with Martina his moder, the noose and tunge of here kytte awey. Theodorus the pope suceded Iohn iiijthe vj. yere. In whiche tyme Isidorus bischop Hispalensis, and disciple somme tyme of grete Gregory flowrede, whiche lefte noble werkes of his labor after hym, as the books of his Ethimologies, De Summo Bono, of the ordre of creatures, sinonymes, and mony oþer þinges. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo septimo. Edbaldus kynge of Kente dyede, levynge after hym Erusbertus his successoure, geten by Emilia Page  53, vol.6 a woman of Fraunce, reignynge in Kente xxiiij. yere, destroy|enge churches, ordeynenge þe faste of Lente to be kepede in his realme; whiche gate by Sexburga, the doȝhter of Anna, kynge of the Este Ynglische men, a doȝhter Eukengoga, whiche was made a myncheon at the monastery of Brigges in Fraunce, where Ethelburga, doȝhter of Edwinus, and awnte to here, was. Where either of theyme was abbesse by succession. In whiche tyme the consuetude of Ynglische peple was to visitte Fraunce, and specially the monasterys in hit, for cause of con|versacion, in that þer were but fewe monasterys that tyme in Ynglonde, and specially at Brigges and Calise. Andomarus bischop, and Bertinus þabbot, were this tyme in Fraunce, in the territory Carvernense. Paulus, libro tertio. Constantinus Page  55, vol.6 the thrydde, sonne of Heraclius, and broþer to Heraclonas, was emperoure xxviijti yere; whiche was deceyvede of Paulus, like as his grawntefader was of Sergius, wherefore he condemnede Martinus the pope unto exile, and spoylede Rome. Willelmus de Regibus, libro quarto. For he made bare the flores of the churches coverede with plates of brasse, whom he loste at Siracusan in Sicil, extincte by the Saracenys in a bathe; and the Saracenys toke his goodes with theym to Alexandria. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo sexto. Kyngilsus, kynge of Westesaxons, dedde this yere, Kenwalcus his son succeded xxxj. yere; for Qwichelinus his elder broþer reignede with his fader, and deide in the same yere he was baptizedde, levynge after hym Cuth|redus his sonne, whom seynte Birine baptizede also. Beda ubi supra. This Kenwalcus refusede to receyve þe feithe of Page  57, vol.6 Criste in the begynnynge of his reigne, wherefore he loste his realme by ryȝhte; whiche refusynge his wife, suster of Penda, mariede an other, wherefore Penda causede him to fle from his realme in the vthe yere of his reigne. Willelmus de Ponti|ficibus, libro secundo. This Kenwalcus was prively iij. [folio 268b] yere with Anna, kynge of Este Ynglische men, wherefore Penda did slee Anna the kynge after þat; in whiche tyme Kenwalcus was baptizede by the bischop Felix, and recurede his realme thro helpe of Anna, and made Agilbertus, borne in Fraunce, bischoppe of his province, whiche was bischoppe at Wenta xv. yere. But at the laste Kenwalcus made an other bischoppe þer, Wyne by name, and removede Agilbertus, y cannot certifye the trawthe of that cause, wheþer hit was for the langage of hym not understonde amonge theyme, or for Page  59, vol.6 eny other cause. Wherewith Agilbertus movede soore, wente to Fraunce, and was made bischop of Parise. Also Wyne, ex|pulsede from Wynchestre, after that he hade bene bischop þer ij. yere, wente and bouȝhte the seete of London of Wulferus, kynge of the Marches, kepynge that seete while he lyvede, and soe the province of Westesaxons wonted a bischop iiij. yere. Kenwalcus the kynge trowblede soore with his enemyes, sende for Agilbertus, whiche sende to hym Leutherius, his cosyn, whiche consecrate by Theodorus tharchebischop of Cawnterbury, was bischoppe þere by vij. yere. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. This Kenwalcus hade victory ij. tymes of the Britons, the firste tyme at Withgonesburghe, the secunde tyme at the mownte of Pencia, and did stryve ageyn Wulferus, sonne of Penda, in a grete parte of his realme, into a signe of the persecucion of his fader. Beda, libro tertio, capitulo octavo. Oswaldus, kynge of Northumbrelonde, was sleyne in this yere by Penda, the pagan kynge, in a place Page  61, vol.6 callede Maȝerfelde, where mony miracles be schewede; and Penda commaunded his hedde and his armes to be made faste to a tre. But after a yere y-paste, kynge Oswy, his broþer beryede the hedde in the churche off Lindisfarn, callede now *. [A word has been commenced here thus, Direm, and then erased, and nothing supplied.]and seide that hit is conteynede at Diram, betwene the armes of Seynte Cuthberte, beryenge the armes at the kynges cite Bebbanburghe. But Ostrida the doȝhter of Oswius, qwene of the Marches and wife to Etheldredus, brouȝhte with here the oþer boones unto the monastery of Bardeney, where sche myȝhte not be admitte with theym until þat a piller of liȝhte was sene to schyne on the relykes by alle þe nyȝhte. The [folio 270a] Danys trowblynge soore those costes by mony yeres foloynge, the boones of Seynte Oswalde were brouȝte to Glowcestre, to a place of chanons, by Elfleda lady of the Marches. Willel|mus de Pontificibus, libro quarto. Neverthelesse, the arme of Seynte Oswalde holle, with senowes, flesche, and with skynne, Page  63, vol.6 is seide to be at Peturburowe, getynge theder by thefte from the place where hit was of olde tymes putte þer in a ryalle schryne, but y have noo certeyne auctorite that hit scholde be there. Paulus, libro quinto. Cesarea, the wife of the kyng of Persida, goynge from that cuntre with fewe tru peple abowte this tyme, come to Constantinopole, that sche myȝhte be baptizede. The kynge here howsebonde, herynge that, sende messangers to brynge here ageyne from the emperour. Whom Cesara answerede seyenge, "Go to my lorde and yowre kynge, that he schalle never have me to his make with owte he be baptizede and receyve the feithe of Criste." The kynge herynge these thynges, come with lx. ml men peseably to the Page  65, vol.6 emperoure, and receyvede baptym with alle his peple, and re|wardede of themperoure returnyde to his cuntre with his wife. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo tertiodecimo. Oswalde sleyne, kynge Oswy, his broþer, succeded in that realme, reignynge nobly xxviijti yere, but with grete labore, havynge Oswynus to governe men of Deira, whiche was of the stock of Edwinus, a semely man of person, religious, and meke in speche, in the vij. firste yeres of his reigne; whom kynge Oswy caused to be sleyne in the howse of Hunbaldus the erle, to whom he fledde. After that kynge Oswy hade to his felawe Odilwaldus, the son of Oswalde, in the realme of Deira. Martinus the firste, suc|cedenge Theodorus, was pope vj. yere, whom a man of Olimpus willenge to smyte hym at masse was made blynde in smitenge. This pope was put to exile by Constantinus emperoure, for cause he condempnede Paulus, patriarke of Constantinopole, of a fals name. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo tertiodecimo. Pauli|nus, Page  67, vol.6 bischoppe of Rowchestre, deide this yere, somme tyme archebischoppe of Yorke, whom Ithamar succedid; and Felix, the firste bischop of Este Ynglische men, deide also, whom Thomas did succede. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo xxj. The Este Saxons receyvyde the feithe of Criste in this yere, whom thei hade refusede afore and abjecte, by the labor of Oswinus kynge of Northumbrelonde; for Sigebertus, their kynge, was baptizede of Finanus bischop of Northumbrelonde, nye to the large walle whiche dividede somme tymes Britons from Scottes. Wherefore he toke with hym Ced, the broþer of Seynte Chadde, from the province of Marches to preche to his [folio 270b] peple of the este: that doen he returnede to Finanus aforeseide, whiche made bischoppe by hym, returnede to preche to Este Ynglische men, and specially into a place whiche is callede Itanchestre, nye to the water of Penta, and also to the towne of Tilleburghe nye to Thamys. Hit happede in a tyme in that Page  69, vol.6 cuntre that Ced the bischop cursede an erle, with men havynge communicacioun with hym, in that he usede unlawefulle matri|mony. Sigebertus the kynge despisede the commaundemente of the bischoppe, and desirede to dyne by that erle wente to his place. Ced the bischoppe ȝafe metenge to the kynge com|mynge from dyner from therles place, towchynge the kynge with a rodde that he hade in his honde, seyenge, "For cause thow wolde not absteyne from the cumpanye of that cursede man at my commaundemente, þow schalle dye in that howse;" and so hit folowede. For the seide erle, with his broþer ger|man, did sle the kynge in his house; whiche enquirede why thei did soo, seide that the kynge was slawe ageyne his adversaryes forȝiffenge liȝhtely iniuryes doen to hym. Kinge Page  71, vol.6 Oswy commaundid kynge Oswinus, governoure of Deira, to be sleyne this yere in the house of Hunbaldus his erle, to whom Oswinus fledde for truste, forsakynge his hoste, abidynge a season that he myȝhte make batelle to Oswy. Hit is redde that this kynge Oswinus ȝafe his beste horse to an holy bischop, Aidanus by name, whiche usede raþer to go then to ryde; whiche havynge noon other thynge nye to his honde, ȝafe that hors to a poore man askenge almes of hym. The kynge Os|wynus herynge þerof hade indignacioun, and seide to Aidanus the bischop, syttenge at mete with hym, "What hase thow done, my lorde bischop, what, have we not wurse horses sufficiaunte to almes?" To whom the bischoppe seyde, "My lorde, what sey ye, Wheþer is the sonne of a mare moore pleasaunte to yow, or the sonne of Marye?" The kynge herynge that, felle downe to the feete of the bischop and askede Page  73, vol.6 forȝifenesse, promisenge that he wolde not use oblocucion after that in that parte. After that they pleasede, and sittynge at meyte, the bischop weped soore as sodenly. The cause in|quirede of men stondynge by, the bischoppe seide, "This kynge schalle not lyve longe amonge us. Ȝitte as unto this y have seene unnethe a meke kynge, and this wickede peple is not worthy to have suche a kynge long with theym." And so that kynge was sleyne soone after, as hit is schewide afore. And the bischoppe Aidanus lyvede xij. daies after the dethe of Oswinus; the sawle of whom Seynte Cutheberte see to be [folio 271a] brouȝhte to hevyn by angelles. ℞. Seynte Birine, the firste bischop of Dorcestre, deide in this yere, after the xiiij. yere of his bischophode. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo xxiij. Eugenius the pope succedid Martinus as thre yere, in whiche yere Odilwal|dus, Page  75, vol.6 son of Oswaldus, and kynge of Deira, ȝafe to Ced, bischop of þe Este Ynglische men, commynge ofte to the partes of the northe, a place in hye hilles, callede Lestingay, to edify a monastery þer. But Ced did faste dayly by alle Lente unto Wyȝhtesonneday, excepte takenge then a lytelle brede, an egge, with a lytelle mylke mixte with water, after the maner of þe disciples of Aidanus, or that he began to edifye that mon|astery. Whiche place Chimbyl, his broþer, governede after his dethe, and was beryede þer in a tyme of a grete dethe. After whom Cedda norisched þat place.