Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum duodecimum.*. [[Henricus in libro suo secundo, et Willelmus de Regibus et Pontificibus, libro primo.]]

PENDA a pagan, sonne of Wibba, the xthe from Woden, [folio 262a] havynge lti yere in age, began to reigne on the marches, and reignede xxxti yere. ℞. Mony cronicles expresse that Crida, sonne of Kynewolde, þe xthe from Woden, reignede firste in the marches x. yere, and after hym Wibba his sonne xxti yere; Page  443, vol.5 And after Wibba Ceorlus his cosyn x. yere. After whom Penda, the sonne of Wibba, reignede xxx. yere; whiche did slee ii. kynges of Northumbrelonde, Edwinus and Oswaldus, and iii. kynges of the Ynglische men, Segebertus, Egricus, and Anna. To whom his qwene Kyneswida brouȝte furthe v. sonnes, Weda, Wulferus, Etheldredus, Morwaldus, Mercellinus, and ij. doȝhters, Seynte Kyneburga and Seynte Kyneswida. Beda, libro 11o, capitulo nono. A man with a knyfe putte secretely in a staffe, Eumerus by name, sende from Quichelinus, kynge of West Saxons, to sle kynge Edwynus, comme in this yere to the kynge's cite, nye to the water of Dorwen. But oon Lilla, a specialle minister and tru to his kynge, perceyvynge that, and havynge noo thynge to defende hym, receyvede the stroke of that wickede man, puttenge his body as a schelde afore the kynge. Whiche servaunte persede thro, the kynge was hurte soore with the same stroke; that wickede man com|passede with other men of the kynge, pereschede an other knyȝhte with his knyfe. In whiche nyȝht of Ester the qwene Page  445, vol.5 was delyverede of a doȝhter, Enfleda by name, whom kynge Edwinus promisede to make a myncheon into a signe of the promisse made afore to be fullefillede if that he hade victory of the kynge of Westesaxons, whiche was that he scholde be baptizede, assignenge the labore of consecracion to Paulinus. That mayde baptizede oon the day of Pentecoste, and Edwinus unnethe made holle of his wounde, gedrenge an hoste, hade victory of the kynge of Westesaxons. Neverthelesse thauȝhe Edwinus the kynge refusede ydolatry after that tyme, and herde paciently. Paulinus, the bischop of Yorke, ȝitte he askede grete cownsaile of his men what scholde be done in that mater. In whiche tyme the kynge receyvyde letters exhortatory of the feithe, sende from Bonefacius the pope, with a schurte over gilte in parte, and brawdrede with silke. And an other lyke to hyt was sende to his qwene, with a myrrour of sylvyr, and a combe of yvery overgilte in parte. Paulinus the bischoppe perceyvynge the kynge lothe to receye the feithe of Criste, [folio 262b] made preiers to alle myȝhte Godde, where the oracle and pro|misse of Edwynus the kynge was schewide to hym, whiche Page  447, vol.5 promyse he made when he was with Redwaldus in exile. Wherefore Paulinus the bischop, towchynge or puttenge his honde on the kynges hedde, inquirede of the kynge wheþer he did knowe the signe. The kynge knowlegynge þerof, Paulinus seide: "Thow hase hade victory of thyn enemyes, þerfore do that thow promysede, that thow may kepe fidelite to hym þat hathe grawntede to the those victoryes." The kynge takenge cownesaile of his noble men was baptizede at York, with moche peple, in the xi. yere of his reigne. Then Coysy, the firste of the bischoppes of gentiles, re|fusenge ydolatry, armede, ascendede a noble stede ageyne his ryte, and destroyede the temples of ydoles. But hyt was not lawefulle to a bischop gentile to were armes, other to ryde on eny beste but on a mare. Paulinus the bischoppe baptizede and prechyde by vi. yere foloynge, unto the dethe of Edwinus kynge, in the provinces of Deira and Bernicia, in the water of Glene and in the water of Swala. Also he prechede in the province off Lyndeseye, makenge a churche of ston in Page  449, vol.5 Lindecolne, in whom Iustus dedde, Paulinus made Honorius archebiscoppe of Cawnterbery, by auctorite sende from the pope, that when either the archebiscop of Cawnterbery or of Yorke scholde dye, the bischop of theyme beynge in lyve scholde consecrate his successor in the place of the bischoppe that were dedde. Beda, libro secundo, capitulo sexto decimo. There was soe grete pease in the tyme of Edwinus the kynge, that a woman myȝhte have goen from see to see withowte eny hurter. Also the same kynge made cuppes of brasse, and made theyme faste at welles of feire water by the hie weyes, to the refres|chenge of pover peple, whom eny man durste not towche but to the seide use. This kynge conquerede firste of alle kynges of Ynglische men the yle callede Eubonia, or the yle of Manne. Cropwaldus, the son of Redwaldus, kynge of the Est Eng|lische men, was baptizede at the instaunce of Edwinus, and his Page  451, vol.5 peple also; whiche was sleyne by a gentile, Rigebertus by name, sone after that. Beda, libro secundo, capitulo decimo. Honorius the pope sende to Honorius archebischoppe of Cawn|terbery a palle in this yere, with letters informatory how he scholde ordeyne metropolitanes in Briteyne. Also he send [folio 263a] letters to the peple of Scottes, of the kepynge of Ester, movenge theyme in those costes that they scholde not sup|pose theire use and consuetude to be more holy than the use of other peple. Beda, libro 2o, capitulo vicesimo. Edwinus the kynge was sleyne in this yere at Hadfelde, of Penda kynge of the marches, and Cedwalla kynge of the Britons, whiche exercisede so grete cruelnesse in that province, that thei sparede not eny kinde, age, or religion. Wherefore ȝitte as unto this tyme, the consuetude of Britons is to have as in noo reputa|cion the promise of Ynglische men. Paulinus tharbischoppe of York, takenge with hym Ethelburga the qwene, with En|fleda her doȝhter, wente in that tempeste to Kente by schippe made bischop of Rowchestre by the dethe of Romanus bis|choppe Page  453, vol.5 þerafore was presidente þer after that tyme xix.;*. [Sic.] whiche dyenge lefte his palle there. Willelmus de Pontifi|cibus, libro primo. And so the churche of the peple of North|umbrelonde wontede a bischop by xxx. yere after the depart|ynge of Paulinus, wontenge the use of a palle þerby cxxvti yere. Beda, libro tertio, capitulo primo. Edwinus dedde, Osricus, sonne off Elfricus, uncle to Edwinus, toke the realm of Deira; and Eanfricus, sonne of Ethelfridus, reioycede the realme of Bernicia whiche turnede to the honour or worschip|pynge of ydoles, were sleyne by succession in the same yer of Cedwalla, by the correccioun of God. Wherefore hit pleasede men supputenge tymes of kynges, that fals kynges dedde, that unhappy yere was ascribede to the tymes off Os|waldus succedynge in that realme. Whiche did sle Cedwalla, ȝiffenge batelle to hym with a grete hoste in a place callede Devisborne as the river of Dionise; after the dethe of Gaufridus Page  455, vol.5 his broþer, havynge but fewe peple in his hoste. And that place is callede Hevynfelde, wher Oswaldus, afore batelle knelynge downe, made a crosse, and preide Crist for the salvacioun of his peple, whiche felde is hade now in grete veneracioun. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. That place is at the northe parte of the famose walle whom the legions of the Romanes made, not ferre from þe churche of Hangustald. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo primo. Mony virtues beschewede by the partes of that crosse, afor which tyme noo in that londe callede Bernicia hade eny awter, afore that Oswaldus the kynge had made a crosse, where a church was made sone [folio 263b] after. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo primo. Oswaldus the kynge askede and desirede of þe Scottes þat he myȝhte have Aidanus the bischoppe to informe his peple; to whom he ȝafe a place of his seete in the yle of Lindisfarn, where the bischoppe Aidanus prechyd in the langage of Scottes, and Oswaldus the kynge Page  457, vol.5 declarede his maters in Englische. Then monkes of Scotte|londe, of the monastery of Aidanus, in the yle of Hii, come dayly to preche to Ynglische men. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo quarto. This Aidanus was a myrrour of abstinence, fastynge dayly unto the howr of none; lyvyng after his doctrine, ȝiffenge to pover men goodes ȝiffen to hym, goynge on fete, not usenge to ryde, kepynge not in silence the offense of grete men for eny drede, but rebukenge theyme for their offense, ȝiffenge to pover men meyte rather then moneye. Usenge to redeme men in captivite, and made mony of theyme his disciples; and this occasion foloynge was the cause of his commynge into Ynglonde. An other man, more bostuos, was sende from Scotte|lande to preche to Ynglische men, at the instance of Oswaldus the kynge, whiche doynge noo profite, returnede to his cuntre. Scottes takynge cownsayle for an other apte man to be sende Page  459, vol.5 þider, hit is rehersede Aidanus to have seide to the man returnede from Ynglische men, "Me thinke, broþer, thow arte to be blamede, in that thow purposede not to rude men and to untauȝhte the mylke of softe doctrine, after the sentence of thapostle, that thei norischede a lyttelle with the wordes of God myȝhte ascende to more perfeccioun." These wordes seide, Aidanus was sende, for the man of moste distracioun of that cuntre, unto Oswaldus thro the worde and exemple of whom Oswaldus instructe, obteynede not oonly the hope of hevynly blisse, but also encreasenge of his temporalle realme, for he toke into dedicacion to hym iiij. naciouns of Briteyne, as of the Britons, Pictes, Scottes, and Ynglischemen. Beda, libro quinto. Also hit is seide that this bischoppe Aidanus syttenge with Oswaldus the kynge at dyner, on Ester day, a grete multitude of pover peple come to the ȝate, askenge almys. The kynge havynge noo thynge as nye to hym to ȝiffe to theyme, tok the messe afor hym, and brake the dische of silver into mony partes, and sende hit to the pover men. The bis|choppe Page  461, vol.5 seenge that, toke the ryȝhte honde of the kynge in his honde, and seide, "Y prey God that honde never roote;" and so hit happede. For that kynge Oswaldus sleyne, the arme kytte aweye from his body remanede incorrupte at the kynges cite of Bebanburghe. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo undecimo. Hit [folio 264a] is seide of this Oswaldus that he was wonte to have his hondes under his knees for the grete exercise of preyers, and of ȝiff|enge thonkynge to God. Wherefore hit is hade as a commune proverbe unto this tyme, "Oswaldus fallenge to therthe, seide, "'God have mercy on trewe sawles.'" Audoenus and Eligius were made bischopps in this yere; and Seynte Gallus, the disciple of Columba þabbot, was of grete fame in Alemayne.