Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
Page  253, vol.4

Incipit liber quartus.

Capitulum primum.

OURE Saviour Criste Ihesu was conceyvede of his moste blessede moder Mary, mariede late to Ioseph, in the cite of Nazareth of Galilee, the xlijti yere of Octouian themperour, the xxxj. yere of Herode, the thridde yere of the cxc. and the thridde Olimpias, the vijc. and lj. yere from the edificacion of the cite of Rome, in the vj. monethe from the con|cepcion of Seynte Iohn Baptiste, the viijthe kalendes of [folio 193a] Page  255, vol.4 Aprile, the vjthe fery, the xthe moone, and the xiithe indiccion. Petrus. Fulle man in body and sawle, so that the liniamentes of his body and membres cowthe not be discernede by the siȝhte of man. ℞. And the vthe age of the worlde, as afflicte with moche tediousenesse, from the transmigracion of the Iewes un to Criste, is terminate. That is to say, from Marche afore the brennenge of the temple, made in herveste, un to Marche in the xlij. yere of Auguste, under xiiij. generaciones, havenge after Bede v.c. yere xlj., and after Isidor v.c. xlv., and after Elpericus v.c.lxxxix; but after the trewe calculacion v.c.xcj.; Page  257, vol.4 for Ysidor in the cronike of his vthe boke of Ethimologies levethe aweye Ptholomeus Philometor and Ptholomeus Sother, whiche reignede after his moder sleyne viij. yere. And so the vj. age of the worlde begynnethe from Criste, whiche is not finischede by eny ordre of generacions, to endure un to the ende of the worlde as þe laste age. Somme men wille the vjthe age of the worlde to begynne from the incarnacion of Criste; somme men say hit to begynne at the natiuite of Criste, after the seyenge of thapostle, "When the plenitude of tyme schalle comme." Somme men say from the baptyme of Criste, for the strenȝhte regeneratiue ȝiffen to waters, the circumcision finischede and terminate. Somme men say the vjthe age to begynne from the passion of Criste, thro whom Page  259, vol.4 the ȝate of heuynly Paradise was made open. After Orosius, from the begynnenge of the worlde, that is to say, from þe xv. kalendes of Aprile, in whom the worlde began, un to Criste incarnate be v. ml and cc. yere. But after the moore commune calculacion there be v. ml. yere xcvj., and after Marcius v. ml xcix. And lyke as Adam diede in the vjthe fery after ix.c. and xxxti yere y-paste, soe in lyke wise the secunde Adam Criste was induede with the nature of man, endede his faste, in the same fery. Also the thefe was brouȝhte in to Paradise in that howre of the vjthe fery in whom Adam was ejecte from Paradise. Marianus, libro 2o. And hit repugnethe not that the chirche holdethe after, other nye, the daies of the sonne [folio 193b] Adam to haue be made of therthe the x kalendes of Aprile, and Criste to haue be incarnate the viij. kalendes of Aprile, Page  261, vol.4 for the nyȝhte of the x. day of þe x. kalendes of Aprile, folowede the day in whom Adam was made.*. [create is written in the text, and then erased and made written above.] And now hit is made by the passion of Criste the nyȝhte of the ix. kalendes of Aprile; for the ixthe day of the kalendes of Aprile of his firste parte is made the xthe day of the kalendes of Aprile, of the laste parte, that is of the nyȝhte in whom Criste was bownde and skornede, that was the viij. kalendes of Aprile. Wherefore hit may be concluded þat Criste suffrede passion the x. kalendes of Aprile, and the ixthe day and the viij. day of the kalendes of Aprile. Also hit may be schewede by an other reason for sithe that the fery is chaungede euery yere from letter to letter in the kalendary, then hit is noo mervayle if the vjthe fery, whiche felle in the begynnenge of the worlde in the xthe kalendes of Aprile when Adam was made, be nowe after so mony yeres in the viijthe kalendes of Aprile when Criste suffredde passion; whiche seyenge the Page  263, vol.4 auctorite of the chirche and þe certeyne investigation of calculers dothe holde and approbate. For after the seyenge of Seynte Austyn, "Noo sobre man understondethe ageyne reason neither scripture, and noo trewe Cristen man ageyne the chirche." Also hit is to be attendede that Criste was seide to be in the body or herte of therthe thre daies and iij. nyȝhtes by a figure callede sinodoches, after Seynte Austyn, sythe Criste reste not in his sepulcre but by xlti howres. So that the firste day be taken after his parte posterialle with the nyȝhte goenge afore, the secunde day holly, the thridde day after the firste parte of hit. And after Seynte Austyn, eiche of these daies hade the nyȝhte goenge afore longenge to theym. Wherefore hit semethe the maister of storyes is not to be folowede, whiche seythe that the myddelle nyȝhte betwene the Seturday and the Sonday of the resurreccion of oure Lord was commune to the Seturday Page  265, vol.4 and to the Sonneday. Lucas; Beda. Mary arysenge after that sche hade conceyvede, comme to the cite of Zachary, [folio 194a] iiij. myles from Ierusalem, where sche tariede iij. monethes in ministrenge to Elisabeth her cosyn, un til that sche was delyuerede, then sche returnede un to her place at Nazarethe. Lucas. Whom returnenge, Ioseph wolde not take un to his wife, in that sche was with childe, un tille that he was mone|schede in his slepe by an angelle to take her unto hym. Lucas. That tyme a commaundemente was sende from Octouian, emperour of Rome, that alle þe worlde scholde be describede. Petrus. Octouian the emperour, wyllenge to knowe the nowmbre of regiones in the worlde subiecte to the empire of Rome, and the nowmbre of cites in euery region, and the nowmbre of men and women in the cites, commaundede that euery man of subarbes, stretes, villages, townes, and of Page  267, vol.4 cites scholde comme to the place of his byrthe, and offre a peny in valoure of oure x. d. usualle, and take hit to the presidente of the prouince, knowlenge*. [Sic in MS.] hym subiecte to the empyre of Rome. Lucas. Wherefore Ioseph wente from Nazareth to Bethleem, the cite where he was borne, with Mary his wife, beenge with childe, that he myȝte offre, where Mary his wife was delyuerede of oure Savioure. Petrus. Therefore oure Savioure Criste was borne in the ende of the xlij. yere of Augustus, in the nyȝhte of the holy Sabotte, whiche folowede the day then, in the xiiijthe yere of the age of oure blessede lady, the viijthe kalendes of Ianuare, at Bethleem. And after that he was circumcisede on Sunday, in the kalendes of Ianuare; he was worschippede of thre kynges in the xiijthe day after, in the viijthe idus off Ianuare, and Page  269, vol.4 in the xlti day from the Natiuite he was presentede in the temple. And after that she fledde in to Egipte with Ioseph here howsebonde, takenge Criste oure Savioure with theyme, after the monicion of the angel made to Ioseph, taryenge þer by vj. yere un to the dethe of Herode. For the seide Herode thouȝhte to extincte and slee alle childer of tender age within the Iewery, be cause of Criste, that he myȝhte sle hym amonge other childer. The ydoles of Egipte felle downe when that [folio 194b] Criste entrede in to the londe of Egipte. Wherefore there were cc. daies lxxvj., whiche nowmbre dothe complete ix. monethes of the moone and vj. dayes, so that xxxti daies be assignede to every monethe, after the obsueracion of olde tyme, from the viijthe kalendes of Aprile, the sexte fery, in whom Criste was conceyvede, un to the nyȝhte of the Sonneday in Page  271, vol.4 whom Criste was borne. ℞. And for cause that a dowte may be movede in the concurrente of the yeres of Criste and of kynges, the begynnenges and endynges off whom be incerteyne oftetymes in calculacion, and also abowte the yeres of oure Lorde God, in what yere he was baptizate, or in what yere he suffrede bitter passion for the redempcion of man, that alle ambiguites and dowtes may be removede, hit is to be aduer|tisede*. [Of di|uerse be|gynnenges of the yere [after dy|verse naci|ones.]] that after Bede, libro de temporibus, that the Romanes afore the tymes of Numa Pompilius began the yere in the monethe of Marche, like as men of Hebrewe did. But thei began the yere at Ianuare after the time that Numa Pompilius hade caste to the yere Ianuare and Februare; whom men of the weste partes of the worlde folowe in theire kalendary and usualle yere. Men of the londe of Grece, that founde dis|portes Olimpicalle, other a numeracion of yeres callede Olimpias, Page  273, vol.4 began the yere from the solstice of wynter. Men of Hebrewe began the yere from þe equinoccialle of ver when the worlde was made. Men of Egipte began the yere from herveste. Men of the Este, as off Calde and of Araby, beganne the yere from October, after that thei hade gete in theire cornes and frutes, and offrede the tithes in the temple, as hit is schewede in the vision of Daniel, where hit is rehersede of the iiijthe monethe, whiche was Ianuare. ℞. Also þer is a yere callede emergente, excepte the diuerse incepcion of the yere schewede afore, by chaunce of a thynge begynnenge in euery tyme of the usualle yere, as is usede to be in the begynnenges of kynges. [folio 195a] Also we may nowmbre the yeres of oure Lorde in ij. maneres, other after his natiuite, other after his age. Sithe that Criste Page  275, vol.4 was borne in the ende of oure usualle yere, after the sonne, he hade but oonly vii. daies of the firste yere of his natiuite. But the firste yere of his age of xij. monethes of the son, that is to say, from the xxv. day of December, is complete and finischede un to that tyme the yere revolute, and so he finischede the secunde yere of his natiuite, after the son, in the firste yere of his age allemoste. Wherefore the yeres of oure Lorde God, after the cowrse of the son, be xxxiiij. and allemoste halfe a yere. And the yeres of his age be xxxiij. and allemoste a halfe. In the xxxti yere of whom after age, or xxxj. after natiuite, Criste was baptizede, whiche yere acomptede with the laste halfe yere, hit is trewe that Criste prechede iiij. yere, or elles after the gospelle of Seynte Iohn iij. yere and a halfe, and so Criste suffrede passion in the xxxiij. yere of his age, and xxxiiijti yere Page  277, vol.4 of his natiuite after the cowrse of the sonne. ℞. Therefore þe xlij. yere of Octouian, in whom Criste was borne, dothe ende in Marche like as hit began in Marche, þerfore, he takethe begynnenge in the cxc. and iiijthe Olimpias, after Eusebius, and concludethe the ende of hit in the iiijthe yere of the same Olimpias in the monethe of Marche. And for cause diuine sapience providede his natiuite where men of Grece begynne the yere with the Olimpias, þerefore the yeres of oure Lord God begynne with thOlimpias, and do ende with theym. But the yeres of kynges and of emperoures be acomptede but selde with the Olimpias, or with the yeres of oure Lorde God, sithe the begynnenge or ende of the yeres of theyme is not founde in certeynte, in that thei haue the begynnenge of the firste yere and ende*. [Between ende and in there is a space left in the MS.] in diuerse yeres of the Olimpias. Then sithe the reigne of Augustus is nowmbrede from Marche, and Criste began the firste yere of his Natiuite in the ende of the Page  279, vol.4 xlij. yere of Augustus, then þe thre and xlti yere of Augustus begynnethe in the firste yere of the age of Criste, and the iiijthe*. [Sic in MS.] yere of Augustus in the secunde yere of Criste.

[Capitulum secundum.]*. [A space is left in the MS. here, but no numbering of the chapter.]

IN the natiuite of Criste a welle of oyle flowede ouer Tiber from the tauerne emeritory by alle the day, and a cercle apperede abowte the sonne. Martinus. And an ymage of golde felle downe, whom Romulus sette in his palice, seyenge that ymage scholde not falle un til that a pure virgyne hade a childe. Also the temple of peace felle, and after the exposicion of Seynte Ierom on this texte, "Lux orta est," alle sodomites thro alle the worlde were extincte in his natiuite. Petrus. Herode intendenge the dethe of inno|centes, Page  281, vol.4 was citede by an epistole to comme to Rome to them|perour, to the accusacion of Alexander and of Aristobolus his sonnes. Then sithe þer were iij. of that name Herode, the firste Herode was callede Ascolonita, of Ascalon, a cite whome he causede to be edifiede, under whom oure Savioure Criste was borne and the innocentes sleyne. The secunde was callede Herodes Antipa, son of the firste Herode, in the tyme of whom Seynte Iohn Baptiste was heded, and Criste suffrede passion. The thridde was callede Herodes Agrippa, son of Aristobolus, son of the firste Herode, whiche did sle Seynte Iames and imprisonede Seynte Petyr. The firste Herode Ascolonite, perceyvenge Alexander and Aristobolus his sonnes to stryve with hym of the succession of his realme, hade indig|nacion, Page  283, vol.4 wyllenge to ordeyne Antipater successor of that realme afore þeim. These childer entendenge the dethe of here fader were reiecte, and putte a wey from hym, whiche goenge to themperour made compleynte of iniury doen to theyme by theire fader. The thre kynges commenge to Ierusalem [folio 196a] and offrenge to oure Lorde Criste, returnede not by Herode after theire promyse, wherefore he supposede theyme to be illudede, and skornede of theire iowrney, þerfore he returnede his purpose of the dethe of the childer. This Herode citede to appere at Rome by themperour, and goenge by Tharsum, brente theire schippes in that they cariede the iij. kynges. Whiche returnenge from Rome after a yere and certeyne daies from the natiuite of Criste, acordede with his ij. sonnes, made bolde thro the confirmacion of his Emperour and lorde, did sle alle the childer within the costes of Bethleem, from the age of Page  285, vol.4 ij. yere un to the childer that hade but oon nyȝhte in age. Amonge whom oon childe of kynge Herode was sleyne, whiche was taken to be norischede in those costes, after the seyenge of Methodius the martir. The iuggemente of Godde wolde that he, destroyenge and sleenge mony childer, scholde lose his childer. For Alexander and Aristobolus, his sonnes, were hade suspecte of the dethe of theire fader, in that thei promisede grete ȝiftes to his barbore to kytte his throte when he did schave hym, seyenge there was noo truste in that olde man that causede his hoore heeres to be kytte that he myȝhte seme and appere yonge. Herode understondeng that, and movede soore ageynes his childer, did sle theyme bothe, and intendede that Antipa scholde succede hym in that realme, norischenge gretely Herodes Agrippa with his suster Herodias. Augustus Octouian, themperour of Rome, understondenge of the destruccion and dethe of the sonnes of Herode, seide in thys wise: "Y hade leuer be the swyne of Page  287, vol.4 Herode then his sonne;" for he sparede the dethe of swyne, but not of his childer. Herode Ascalonite hauenge lxxti yere in age was vexede with a soore fever, grete ycchenge, with swellenge of his feete, with vermyn commenge from his secrete membres, with a stynche intollerable, and with a violente tisike. Then Herode Ascalonite bathede in oyle by the cown|sailes of his leches, was taken from þe bathe beenge allemoste [folio 196b] dedde. Whiche usenge to eite an apple after alle other meites toke an knyfe in his honde, where with he hade intendede to haue sleyne hym selfe; a cosyn to hym perceyvenge that made a grete rumor, that was spronge soone thro alle the place. Anti|pater Page  289, vol.4 beenge in prison herenge þereof, enioyede moche in his herte, wherefore he was sleyne by þe commaundemente of Herode. Petrus, 45o capitulo. Iohn þe Evangeliste was borne abowte this tyme, and Herode, after the sleenge of his sonnes, diede in the xxxvij. yere of his reigne miserably, in the infir|mites rehersede afore, causenge the peple of the Iewes to sorowe sore in his dethe, for cause he commaundede alle the childer of the noble men amonge the Iewes to be sleyne in his dethe. Eusebius, libro primo, capitulo septimo. This Herode hade the generaciones of men of Hebrewe, and the begynnenges of other aliaunteȝ in secrete places of the temple, causenge theym to be brente in the tyme off his dethe, supposenge by that he scholde be made a noble man, and that his originalle scholde not be knowen. Neuerþeles there were mony men that hade the same writenges at their places, other elles thei Page  291, vol.4 hade þem in mynde, from whom the ordre of the generacion of theym comme un to us. Petrus, 51o capitulo. Arche|laus and Herode, sonnes of the Herode aforeseide, stryvenge for the succession of the realme afore Augustus emperour of Rome. Wherefore Octouian themperour, by the cownselle of the senate, ȝafe to Archelaus the halfe parte of the Iewery, and Ydumea, in the name of a tetrarchye. And the emperoure diuided that other halfe of the Iewery in to ij. partes takenge to Herodes Antipas Galilee, and to Philippe his broþer Ituria and Traconitides. And so Archelaus occupiede not the monarchye of the Iewes, but after the seyenge off commune peple, and of his awne boste. Oure Savioure Criste come this tyme from Egipte. That blessede childe Ihesu was founde in the temple sittenge, and inquirenge questiones of [folio 197a] theyme. Archelaus accusede ofte tymes by the Iewes, was Page  293, vol.4 sende to Vienna in Fraunce. In the stedde of whom iiij. tetrarches were institute, to depresse the insolence of the peple of the Iewes. Cesar Augustus diede that yere at Cam|pania, after that he hade reignede lvj. yere and halfe, in the monethe of September, the lxxvj. yere of his age, sleyne by treason of his wife Liuia, other poysonede as mony men reherse; neuerthelesse the holle yere is deputede to the reigne of Octo|uian themperoure. Eutropius, libro septimo.

Capitulum tertium.

AUGUSTUS themperoure of Rome was hade in so grete luffe and fauour with men of Barbre, of Scichia, and of men of Ynde, to whom the name of emperours afore tyme was un|knowen, sende*. [Sic in MS.] to hym grete ȝiftes by messyngeres. The Page  295, vol.4 kynges of whome made mony cites in the honoure namenge theym Cesarea. Also mony kynges levenge þeire cuntre, and clothenge theyme after the use of the Romanes, wolde comme to do hym honoure. This Augustus was off so grete pacience that he wolde not ȝiffe batelle to eny peple but for a ryȝhteuous cause seyenge that hit was but foly and a symple thynge to putte mony noble men and peple of his cite in perelle of dethe for a litelle glory and pride of victory, seyenge that batelle awe not to be made but for a ryȝhteuous cause, leste that þer be grete losse for a litelle lucre; lyke to a man fischenge with a hoke of golde, whiche, losenge hit, can not be re|compensede by takenge of fische. This emperour Augustus was meke to the citesynnes, feithefulle to receyve frende|schippes, constante in studyes, liberalle, and specially ȝiffenge laboure diligente to eloquency, in so moche that noo day scholde Page  297, vol.4 escape but he wolde other rede, wryte, other decleyme. Isi|dorus, libro primo. This Augustus founde firste þis letter x., for [folio 197b] whom men were wonte to use the letter c., and conuenientely,*. [X. letter.] whiche letter representethe the crosse of Criste, whiche was borne in his daies. Eutropius. Augustus encreasede the cite of Rome with noble edificacions, where in he hade grete glory, seyenge: "Y leve the cite edifiede and made stronge with marbole, whom y founde diȝhte with tile stones. This Augustus was a beawtuous man of body, not wontenge vices, for he was a grete player at the dise, impaciente, envious, interialle, whiche ȝiffen oftetymes to surfettes in meytes and drynkes, ȝafe the nyȝhtes folowenge to the lustes of the flesche, that mony peple wolde speke fulle ylle of hym be cause of that vice. Whiche refusenge Scribonia his wife, and mariede a Page  299, vol.4 woman callede Liuia, usenge to lye amonge xij. maydes and xij. oþer women corrupte, hauenge ij. sonnes, Tiberius and Drusus. And thauȝhe Augustus was ȝiffen gretely to the luste of the flesche, he punyschede and correcte soore other men for that synne. Suetonius. The Romanes seenge þe beawte of Augustus, wolde haue namede and callede hym a god, whiche refusenge hit, asked respite; wherefore he inquirede cownselle of Sibille Tiburtyne of that matter. Whiche fastenge iij. daies, seide to hym in this wise: "Iudicii signum tellus sudore madescet. De cœlo Rex adveniet per sæcla futurus." The capitalle letters of whom expresse this sentence, "Ihesu Criste the re|demptor of man schalle be borne of a virgyne." Marianus. Then themperour see anoon, heuyn beynge open, a virgynne*. [The vision of Octa|uian.] of beawte excellente stondenge on the awter, holdenge a feire childe in her armes, herenge a voice seyenge, "This is the awter of the sonne of God." Themperour trowblede in Page  301, vol.4 mynde thro that siȝhte felle downe to the grownde in his chamber, where a chirche of oure lady was made afterwarde, callede in Ara Cœli. Valerius, libro tertio. When Tiberius schewede to his fader Augustus that men spake wickidely of hym, he seide: "We haue noo indignacion in that thei speke ylle of us, hit is sufficiaunte to us that thei may not hurte us." Policronicon, libro tertio, capitulo tertio decimo. When that Antonius despisede the originalle of Augustus, he [folio 198a] was not vexede, but mariede his sustyr un to hym. Macro|bius in Saturnalibus. A man seenge Augustus goe by the weye, callede hym a tyraunte. To whom Augustus seide: "If that y were a tiraunte thow durste not say so." Also the gouernoures of Rome observede this thynge in the honoure of Augustus, that noo man was putte to dethe or to penaunce in the day of commenge of themperour un to the cite. Hit happede that a yonge man comme Page  303, vol.4 to Rome like to Augustus, whiche broȝhte to his pre|sence Augustus inquirede of the yonge man wheþer his moder hade bene in Rome. The yonge man seide his fader hade ben in Rome, but not his moder. Wherefore themperour rewardede the yonge man, and suffrede hym to departe. Seneca ad Clementem. The treason of a man callede Cynna detecte to the emperour, he was so vexede that he cowthe not slepe. To whom Liuia his wife seide, "Do after the cown|seyle*. [Of the cownsaile of a woman.] of a woman, and like to the cownselle of a leche, for thei attempte the contraries when usede or usualle medicynes wille not profite; þerfore forȝiffe Cynna his trespas, for now he may not hurte yow, hit is knowen so openly; he may profite youre honore afterwarde." Augustus made gladde thro the cownsayle of Liuia his wife, causede that noble man Cynna to be brouȝhte to his presence, to whom he seide, "Cynna y haue founde the myne enemy, y haue kepede Page  305, vol.4 thy lyfe, y haue ȝiffen to the thyne enheritaunce, I haue made the familier to me; I ȝiffe to the nowe in this tyme grawnte of thy life, afore as myne enemy, and now entendenge my dethe; lete luffe and frendeschippe begynne betwene us too, and lete us stryve in fidelite to be kepede amonge us." After that Augustus made hym a consul, provenge hym a feithefulle frende and eiere to hym afterwarde. Macrobius in Saturna|libus. A noble man stondenge in perelle as in iuggemente for hys lyvelode, wente to Augustus themperour, preyenge hym to ȝiffe iuggemente for hym. Themperour commaunded an aduocate to here the causes and to ȝiffe iuggemente. Then the noble man, Veteranus by name, seide, "O my lorde emperour, y commaundede not an other man to suffre soore woundes for the in the batelle Actiake, but y fauȝhte in my awne person, and suffrede soore woundes for thy luffe;" [folio 198b] schewenge þe woundes that he toke in that batelle afore themperour and other peple presente. The emperour Page  307, vol.4 seenge that come and was iugge, leste that hit scholde haue ben seide that he hade not ben prowde oonly, but also unkynde. A man ȝafe metenge to themperour Augustus commenge from the batelle Actiake, hauenge a popyngay in his honde, seyenge to hym by the doctrine of her maister, "Hayle emperour and noble victor." Themperour herenge that speche as of a bridde, bouȝhte hit for xxti ml penyes; whiche salutede in like wise of a pye, and of a sterlynge, causede theym to be bouȝhte. A poore sowter perceyvenge that, informede a dawe to speke in lykewise; whiche was wounte to say to the bridde not willenge to speke, "Now suche speche and attendaunce is pereschede." After that, the dawe perceyvenge themperoure to comme by the place of her maister, salutede hym in lykewise. Themperour herenge that salutacion seide, "We have ynoe of these at home." Page  309, vol.4 The bridde remembrenge the ofte seyenge of her maister, seide to themperour, "Attendaunce of suche speche is pere|schede now." Themperour herenge that causede the bridde to be bouȝhte. Eutropius, libro septimo. At the laste this noble emperour Augustus diede at Campany, alle men of thempire seyenge and cryenge, "Wolde that he hade neuer be borne, or that he scholde not haue diede, a man lyke to a god, happy in batelle and moderate in peace." Policronicon, libro suo sexto. This noble man and emperoure Augustus seide the same cownsayle to be occupiede ageyne an enemye as un to sekenesse, for thei be ouercommen raþer with hungre then with armes or yrne. Also Augustus causede his sonnes to exercise Page  311, vol.4 lepynge, rydenge, iustenge, and actes of cheuallery; and his doȝhters to spynne, to make clothe, that they myȝhte lyffe by that crafte if thei come to pouerte after his dethe.

[Capitulum quartum.]*. [A space is left, but no mark of the chapter.]

TIBERIUS, the son in lawe to Augustus, began to reigne [folio 199a] in the same monethe of September in whom Augustus themperour diede, whiche reignede xxiijti yere and certeyne daies. Eutropius. Tiberius gouernede the peple with grete mekenesse in the begynnenge of his empire and domination, in so moche that he, movede by diuerse noble men to haue a tribute paiede of every province subiecte to hym, seide in thys maner: "The proprete of a goode scheparde is to clippe aweye the fleece of wolle, and not to sle the schepe." In the begynnenge of his gouernayle he was fortunate in batelles, Page  313, vol.4 and hauenge a schrewede wytte, fenynge hym to luffe theym that he hade in hate, moore scharpe and apte to an answere withowte deliberacion then with premeditacion. Whiche Tiberius sendenge for diuerse kynges to come to hym as for theire solace and recreacion, put theyme un to dethe. This Tiberius, callede Nero, was namede and callede of disporters Biberius Mero, for cause he ȝafe hym to drynke superhabund|antely wyne, willenge to be honourede of peple as god, for cause of letters sende to hym from Pilate. But the senate seyenge contrary to hym, he condempnede xxti consulles, and putte theyme to exile, off whom he lefte not tweyne in lyfe. Whiche was a myȝhty and prudente in armes afore that he was emperour, but after he ȝafe batelle by other men sende from hym. Polichronicon, libro tertio, capitulo quarto. And thauȝhe he was culpable in mony thynges, he seide that the Page  315, vol.4 langage or tunge and the myndes of citesynnes awe to ioye in liberte. Iosephus. This Tiberius Nero was so slawthefulle that he wolde unnethe amove the proctors that he hade made oones in alle the tymes of his lyfe, seyenge that he sparede the peple þerby, usenge this reason: There was a man hauenge mony woundes syttenge in the sonne, whiche hauenge mony flees abowte his woundes and sowkenge þeim wolde not remove theyme. At the laste, a frend of his commenge to hym seenge the flees abowte his soores, amovede theyme. To whom the seke man seide, "Thow hase doen ylle to me, for thow hase dryven aweye the flees that were replete and [folio 199b] hurte but a litelle, and now hungre flees wille comme and do moche more greuaunce to me." So in like wise newe officers use to do amonge the peple subiecte to theyme. Isidorus, Page  317, vol.4libro decimo septimo, capitulo quinto decimo. Somme men say that þer was a man in the tyme of this Tiberius that founde the arte to make glasse flexible and malleable. Themperour perceyvenge that, and knowenge by the man that þer was noon oþer that knewe the same arte, commaundede hym to be sleyne, leste, that connynge made open and knowen, alle other precious veselles scholde be hade in contempte. Ouidius Naso, the poete, diede at Sarmatas in the iiijthe yere of his exile, whiche makenge a boke of the arte of luffenge, excitede the hate of men of Rome gretely ageynes him, in that he in|flammede the yonge men of the cite of Rome un to the luste of the flesche. But hit was seide that he did lye with thempresse, wherefore he was putte in to exile. Pilate was Page  319, vol.4 made presidente in the Iewery that yere, of the byrthe and dethe of whom meruellous thynges be redde. For a kynge, Tirus by name, gate hym of a woman callede Pila, doȝhter to a mylner callede Athus, callede Pilatus by the names of his moder and of his grawntefader. This Pilatus was sende to his fader in the iiijthe yere of his age, whiche kynge, Tirus by name, hade geten a sunne by his wife egalle in age to Pilate. This childe lawefully geten by his wife, was more noble then Pilate in mony kyndes of armes, wherefore Pilate perceyvenge that, did sle his broþer. Tirus the kynge, and fader to Pilate, understondenge þat, sende hym to Rome as plegge for a tribute that he scholde pay to the Romanes. In whiche tyme a sonne to þe kynge of Fraunce was a plegge at Rome also for a tribute to be paiede to theym. Whom Pilate did sle also, in that he was moore noble in mony kyndes of armes then he. Wherefore the Romanes sende this Pilate Page  321, vol.4 to ȝiffe batelle to peple in an yle callede Pontus, not willenge to suffre eny gouernoure; whiche peple he subduede to hym, [folio 200a] what thro promisse and thro batelles, with other peynes hade and schewede to þeim that wolde rebelle. Wherefore he was callede Poncius Pilatus by the gettenge of that yle. Herodes Antipas herenge of this Pilate, made hym prince in the Iewery under hym. At the laste this Pilate hauenge grete treasure wente to Rome, Herode not knowenge þerof, that he myȝhte haue that principate by the confirmacion of Tiberius thempe|rour, whiche was taken to hym by kynge Herode; for whiche thynge Herode and Pilate were enemys un to the tyme of the passion of Criste, when Pilate sende oure Savioure Criste induede with a white clothenge un to Herode. In whiche tyme hit was schewede to Tiberius, laborenge in grete infir|mite, that þer was a man at Ierusalem healenge alle infirmites and diseases oonly by worde. Wherefore the seide Tiberius Page  323, vol.4 sende a noble man, Volusianus by name, un to Pilate, that he scholde sende that leche to hym. This Pilate askede respite to ȝiffe a answere by the space of xij. daies, in that Criste was putte to dethe, in whiche tyme the seide messyngere hade grete familiarite of Veronica, that noble woman, in so moche*. [Of the Ve|ronicle.] that he brouȝhte her un to themperour hauenge a clothe with the impression of the face of oure Lorde. And when that Tiberius themperoure hade seen that blessede face of Criste, he was restorede to heale; whiche perceyvenge that Pilate hade condempnede Criste to dethe, commaundede Pilate to be taken and to be brouȝhte to Rome. This Pilate brouȝhte afore themperour, hauenge the coote of Criste on hym, them|perour cowthe not say eny thynge to hym of his wickede dede, thus provede twyes or thryes, un til that clothenge was taken of hym, other by the wille of God, other elles by the exhortacion of somme Cristen man. After that he was Page  325, vol.4 putte un to prison, where he did sle hym selfe. Petrus. In the whiche tyme þer were iij. sectes of the Iewes in the Iewery, differente from the commune life of other peple, that is to say, Pharisees, Saducees, and Essees other Assideeis. The firste [folio 200b] men were callede Pharisei, as diuidede, in that thei were*. [Of the dethe of Pilate.] diuidede in conuersacion and habite from the rite and con|suetude of other peple, usenge litelle meytes and drynkes, makenge a determinacion of the tradicion of Moyses in theire statutes, berenge in the lyfte arme philacteria conteynenge the thynges and statutes of theire lawes in a memory of þeim, usenge also large hemmes prikkede and bownde to gedre with þornes, þro whom thei were prickede in goenge, ȝiffenge not contrarious wordes and answeres to their betters, supposenge and ȝiffenge to credence the resurreccion of the bodies to comme. The secunde secte, callede the Saduceis, denyede the resurreccion of bodies, and that þer were Page  327, vol.4 angelles, supposenge the sawles of men to dye with theire bodies; whiche receyvede the v. bookes of Moyses, callenge theym selfe Saducei as ryȝhteuous men. The thridde secte, callede Essei, exercisede and usede allemoste in alle thynges a life monasticalle, ȝiffenge litel attendaunce to weddynges, seyenge that women be selde trewe to theire howsebondes or men. The clothenge of theym was clene alleweye, hauenge noo cite of certeynte, spekenge not eny wickede thynge afore the risenge of the sunne, ȝiffenge lawde and honoure to the sonne in the apperenge and risenge of hit. This peple did eyte with silence, abhorrenge swerenge as periury, not takenge eny man to theire secte withowte pro|bacion by the space of a yere; refusenge a man taken yn synnes, whiche man so taken in synne scholde haue in penaunce to lyve by herbes un to the ende of his lyfe; lothenge to spytte on the ryȝhte parte or in the myddes of the company. Whiche peple keped theire Sabbatte day, and Page  329, vol.4 hade hyt in so grete veneracion, that thei wolde not ordeyne meyte þat day, kyndelle noo fyre, other elles to go and make clene theire wombes on that day. Iosephus, libro secundo. In other daies that peple diggenge the grownde couerede theyme and the grownde when thei scholde goe to sege, leste that þei scholde seme to haue doen iniury to the beames of the sonne; the dewte of nature doen, thei couerede that [folio 201a] place with erthe. Whiche peple contynuede longe in lyfe, in that thei were so moderate in meytes and drynkes; suppo|senge alle sawles to be create in the begynnenge of the worlde, and to be incorporate for a tyme. Also somme of theyme seide afore thynges to comme; eschewenge voluptuosite, despisenge vices, the patrimony of theyme was commune; usenge noo marchandise amonge theyme, but that eiche man Page  331, vol.4 scholde take of an oþer suche thynge as were necessary to theyme; ȝiffenge noo attendaunce to oyntementes; refusenge noo schoone, ne chaungenge theyme, but if thei were broken; kepenge hospitalite, usenge oon maner and kunyde of meytes, and to blesse hit with a certeyne benediccion or that thei tastede þerof; not usenge eny crye oþer rumor in theire places. Also that peple was not suffrede to ȝiffe eny thynge but by the sufferaunce of a dispensator amonge theym; supposenge theire worde to be more stronge then eny othe. A man receyvede amonge theyme after þe probacion of a yere scholde be con|streynede to swere that he scholde kepe fidelite to God, ryȝhteuousenesse to men, obedience to his souereigne. And if hit scholde happe hym to be a gouernoure amonge theyme, that he scholde not abuse theire lawes and do iniury to his subiectes, but that he scholde conuicte lyers and men doenge ageyne the lawe, un to þe iuggemente of whom a Page  333, vol.4 c. persones scholde comme, the ordinaunce and decrete of whom scholde stonde as immovable.

Capitulum quintum.

FROM this xv. yere of Tiberius un to the firste yere of Adam, in calculacion backewarde be iij. ml yere after Eusebius, whiche make lx. yere of Iubilee, and so after hym the xvj. yere of Tiberius was the begynnenge of lxj. Iubile. But after the lxxti interpretatores, there be v. ml cc. yere and xxv. from Adam un to the fiftene yere of Tiberius. And after men of Hebrewe iiij. ml yere. Wherefore somme men [folio 201b] wille and say the vj. ciliade to begynne in this yere, in that circumcision endede baptyme hade begynnenge. Somme men say that hit begynnethe from the incarnacion of Criste. Page  335, vol.4 Seynte Iohn Baptiste began to preche this tyme and to baptise, and baptisede Criste the viijthe idus of Ianuary on the Sonday of the Epiphanye; whiche turnede water in to wyne that day twelfemonethe. Petrus. Wherefore that daye is callede in olde bookes dies Epiphaniorum, that is to say, the day of mony illustrations distincte by propre names. For thre appariciones were made in that day, but in diuerse yeres. The firste was callede Epiphania, of þis worde epy, that is above, and phanos, that is apperenge, as an apperenge made from above by a sterre. The secunde was callede Theophania, of this worde theos, that is God, and phanos an apparence, as an apperenge made by a dovese. The thridde was callede Beethphania, of this worde beeth, that is an howse, as an apperenge made in a howse by the chaungenge of water in to wyne. ℞. And Page  337, vol.4 after somme men the miracle doen by the v. lofes of brede and ij. fisches was doen in that day, whiche is callede Fagofania, of this worde phagyn, to eyte, and phanos an apperenge, in that the miracle apperede in eitenge. And after Seynte Luke and Seynte Ierom, Criste began the xxxti yere of his age in that*. [Of the miracles of Criste.] yere. But Criste began then the xxxj. yere after Marianus and Crisostom, after the commune chyrche, and after Eusebius*. [How longe Criste prechede.] in his story ecclesiasticalle; and so, after Crisostom, Criste prechede thre yere complete after his baptym, and as moche tyme as was betwene Cristenmasse and the tyme of his passion. Wherefore Criste was brouȝhte in to deserte of a spiritte, in the secunde fery after his baptyme, that he scholde be temptede of the deuelle, where he began the faste of xlti dayes, whiche he endede in the xlti day folowenge, the vj. fery, þe xv. kalendes of Marche, in whiche day he ouercome the deuelle temptenge hym; in whiche day the deuelle supplanted Adam. Page  339, vol.4 Then for a trawthe in the Ester next foloenge he putte byers and sellers owte of þe temple. After that he callede in the same yere his disciples Andrewe, Petyr, Philippe, and Nathanael. After that in the yere foloenge, in the day of thepiphany he turnede water in to wyne. And after Bede, [folio 202a] after that tyme he and his disciples baptised in the Iewery, and Seynte Iohn Baptiste was putte in prison. In the whiche feste Criste did heale a man hauenge the peralisy by xxxviijti yere at the water. After that he ascendede in the same yere un to the mownte, where he did chose xij. apostles whom he sende to preche. Wherefore hit is expresse that the thre euangelistes whiche expressede the actes of Criste from the imprisonenge of Seynte Iohn, lefte allemoste the actes of oon yere of Criste afore þe imprisonemente of Seynte Iohn Baptiste, whom Seynte Iohn theuangeliste dothe towche, as of the turnenge of water in to wyne, of the commenge of Page  341, vol.4 Nichodemus to Ihesu in the nyȝhte, of the puttenge also of byers and sellers from the chyrche. Then Seynte Iohn Baptiste was heded in the ende of the yere of his imprisone|mente. After that Ihesu did the miracle of the v. lofes of brede and ij. fisches. That yere complete Criste suffrede passion on Goode Friday folowenge. Seynte Iohn Baptiste was heded after that he hade bene in streyte kepynge or in prison in this yere. Petrus, capitulo xj o. The xjthe booke of the story ecclesiasticalle expressethe Seynte Iohn Baptiste to be heded at a castelle of Araby callede Macheronta, and his body to be buriede at Sebasten other Samaria. But thei beryede his hedde at Ierusalem nye to the habitacle of Herode, leste that he scholde haue rysen to lyfe ageyne if that his hedde hade be beryede with his body. The Gentiles dispersede his boones, hauenge envy of the miracles doen by hym, in the tymes of Iulianus Apostata, whiche boones were gedrede by theym afterwarde and brente, and the duste and powdre of theyme blawen in to the aier. But when the bones of Seynte Page  343, vol.4 Iohn Baptiste were gedrede, men of Ierusalem were amonge the Gentiles, and gedrede a grete parte of his boones, amonge whom the fynger was with whom he schewede oure Savioure Criste; whiche fynger the blessede virgyn Tecla brouȝte un to Alpes, whiche is seyde to be nowe in the monastery of [folio 202b] Seynte Mauricius. But the other boones were sende to At|tanasius, the byschoppe Alexandryne. Seynte Iohn Baptiste schewede his hedde by reuelacion to ij. monkes of the este partes of the worlde, whiche come to Ierusalem for grete deuotion in the tyme of Marcianus themperour. Whiche loste by symplenesse of theyme, was hidde in a place of Fenicea un tille that Seynte Iohn schewede his hedde ageyne by reue|lacion un to Marcellus thabbotte dwellenge nye to hit. From Page  345, vol.4 whiche tyme the feste of the decollacion of Seynte Iohn was halowede, and began firste in that cite in the same day that his hedde was taken up from the erthe. Somme men say that feste is not of the decollacion of Seynte,*. [Sic.] but of the gedrenge of his boones made afore and also brente. At the laste that precious relike the hedde of Seynte Iohn Baptiste was brouȝhte to Constantinople by Theodosius themperour, and after that in to Fraunce in to the cite Ambianense, schewede þer to pilgremes.

Capitulum sextum.

OURE Savioure Criste suffrede passion the viijthe kalendes of Aprile, in whiche day was a grete clippes, after Cassio|dorus, and feylenge of lighte, in so moche that sterres were seene as to falle from hevyn. Also there was in the tyme of his blessede passion suche movenges of erthe, in so moche that diuerse cites in the cuntre of Bithinia were destroyede, and Page  347, vol.4 turnede upwarde the laweste partes of theyme. ℞. In whiche tyme grete roches of stones were departede, where|fore hit is lyke that the veynes and departenges whiche appere now in the roches of ston come of that movenge of the erthe in the tyme of the passion of Criste, for stones [folio 203a] were not diuidede afore that tyme. Iosephus. Prestes in the temple of Ierusalem herde that same yere, in the feste of Pentecoste, a voice seyenge, "Departe we from these setes and places." Iacobus minor, son of Alpheus, was made bischoppe of Ierusalem in that yere abowte Pentecoste, whiche songe firste masse amonge theyme, beenge bischoppe þer by xxxti yere. Also vij. diacons were ordeynede, whose names be Steven, Philippe, Procorus, Nichanor, Timon, Par|menas, and Nicholas, which stode not in unyte. Eusebius in Historia Ecclesiastica, libro tertio. This Nicholas hauenge Page  349, vol.4 a feire wife was blamede of thapostles as iolyous of his wife, wherefore he brouȝhte her un to the myddes of theyme, de|sirenge euery man to use her that wolde. And thauȝhe that mony peple declynede to synne þer by, this seid Nicholas did so for contempte of vice of iolysye, and for noon other cause. For the sonnes and doȝhters of the seide Nicholas were permanente in chastite alle the tyme of theire life, and he maryede not eny woman after his firste wife. ℞. Hit is to be attended that Seynte Iames afore rehersede was callede by iiij. names; firste he was callede Iacobus Alphei, for cause he was sonne of Alpheus; and the brother of God, for he was like to Criste in face and in holynesse, in so moche that he was taken of mony peple for Criste. Where|fore Iudas ȝafe a token of kyssenge to the Iewes, leste that thei scholde have been disseyvede in the takenge of oure Savioure Criste. Also he was callede Iames the lesse, for the other Iames, son of Zebedeus, was callede a fore of Criste, Page  351, vol.4 thauȝhe that he was yonger in age then Iames the lesse, wherefore he was callede Iames the more. Whiche consuetude is obseruede in Rome, and in mony other places, that he is callede the more that commethe afore, and he that commethe after the lesse. Also he was callede Iames ryȝhteuous, by a figure callede Autonomasia, for the merite of excellente holy|nesse. [folio 203b] This Seynte Iames was holy and devoute, for he drunke noo wyne ne sidere, neiþer he did eite flesche, his hedde was not schavede, usenge not bathes or oyntementes, whiche*. [Sic.] stones in his knees of ofte knelynge. To whom hit was lawefulle allon to entre in to Sancta Sanctorum; whiche seide the firste masse. Also he made a promyse in the passion of Criste on Goode Friday, that he wolde not eyte un til þat Criste hade rysen from dethe to lyfe. Also Mat|thias was subrogate in the stedde of Iudas, traytoure to*. [cyther, α.; sider, β. and Cx.; syþere, γ.]Page  353, vol.4 God, in that yere betwene the ascencion and Pentecoste, of whiche Iudas hit is redde in a story, thauȝhe hit be seide and callede Apocriphate: There was a man in Ierusalem, Ruben by name, of the tribe of Ysachar after Seynte Ierom, the name of the wife of whom was callede Ciborea. This Ruben takenge the pleasure of the flesche of Ciborea his wife in a nyȝhte, sche dremede that sche had childed a wickede son, traytour to his peple. This sone borne and callede Iudas, the fader and mother abhorrenge to sle theire owne son and to norysche theire childe whiche scholde be a traytour, putte hym in a wele in to the see. Whiche brouȝhte by the see un to the yle of Scarioth, the qwene þerof, fenynge her as grete with childe, made a lesynge, seyenge Iudas to be her son. After that the qwene of that yle of Scarioth con|ceyvede a childe by the kynge here howsebonde; whiche en|creasede and groen in age, Iudas hurte soore, causenge hym Page  355, vol.4 to wepe oftetymes. The qwene perceyvenge that, correcte soore Iudas and ofte, but hit profite nouȝhte. Then at þe laste hit was schewede that Iudas was not son to the kynge; Iudas did sle the lawefulle son getten by the kynge. Whiche dredenge dethe or other grete peyne þerfore, fledde with tri|butaries un to Ierusalem, and wente to þe cowrte of Pilate, presidente of the Iewery, hauenge grete favor of Pilate, for [folio 204a] like thynges take soone conuenience. This Pilate lokenge from his palice in to the gardyn of Ruben in a day, whiche was fader to Iudas, hade grete appetite to diuerse frutes in hit. Wherefore he sende Iudas that he scholde stele somme apples, whom Ruben metenge, and rebukenge hym for that offense, was sleyne by the hurte of a ston in his hedde thro Iudas his son. But Iudas fleenge secretely, peple supposede Ruben to haue diede sodenly. Then Pilate ȝafe the goodes Page  357, vol.4 of Ruben and Ciborea his wife to Iudas. This Ciborea, wife and moder to Iudas, sorowenge her wrecchede lyfe a fore Iudas, how that sche hade putte her son to the floodes of the see in grete perelle, and that sche was putte to mariage ageyne her wille after the dethe of her howsebonde, hit was perceyvede that Iudas hade sleyne his awne fader and mariede his moder. Ciborea, moder to Iudas, movede hym that he scholde folowe Criste, and so his synnes forȝiffen, he was made the proctor and apostle of Criste. The apostles mette in that yere at Ierusalem after the eleccion of Seynte Mathy, after the sendenge also of the Holy Goste, or thei were dis|persede in to the worlde, where they made the crede seide of commune peple, callede the crede apostolicalle. And Seynte Steven was stonede to dethe the same yere in the thridde day of Auguste. In the same yere Petyr the prince of apostles, son to John, of the province of Galilee, of the place callede Beethsaida, and broþer of Andrewe, began to be presidente in Page  359, vol.4 the partes of the este, where he was bischop iiij. yere, syng|enge masse, seyenge Pater noster. Jeronimus de viris illus|tribus. After that he wente to Anthiochia, where he was vij. yere. After that he wente to Rome, where he was presidente xxvti yere and vij. monethes. Seynte Paule was convertede this yere the viijthe kalendes of February, whiche was at the cite of Damascus, with the disciples, anoon after that he was bap|tisede [folio 204b] of Ananias, returnenge from that cuntre to Araby, and after that to the cite of Damascus, makenge iij. yere, whom scripture callethe mony dayes. From whiche cite he wente to Ierusalem to see Petyr, with whom he dwellede xv. daies, laborenge the gospelle of Criste with hym. After that he wente in to the partes of Siria, Silicia, and of Asia by xiiij. yere, returnenge after that to Ierusalem to þe apostles. After that an appellacion made to themperour, he come to Rome, where Page  361, vol.4 he hirede a berne withowte the cite, in whom he spake and tauȝhte the wordes of swete doctryne. Amonge whom Se|neca, the maister of Nero, visitte not Seynte Paule oonly by bodyly presence, but also with excellent epistoles. Parsius the poete was borne this tyme, and Tiberius themperour diede this tyme thro poyson, in the lxxviijti yere of his age, in the kalendes of October. Petrus, capitulo quinquagesimo. Whiche knowenge hym selfe to dye, callede to hym Gaius, the son of Germannicus his broþer, and Tiberius the son of Drusus, the noble men of thempire beenge presente, ordeynede to be his successor wheþer of theym ij. come to hym raþer in the mornynge. Wherefore he made a signe to Tiberius that he scholde comme afore in eny wise, but he seide pleynly that he wolde not comme afore that he hade dynede. Wherefore Gaius Page  363, vol.4 commenge in the morowe was made emperour and successor to hym. Kymbelinus kynge of Britones diede this tyme, levenge after hym too sonnes, Guiderius and Arviragus. But Guiderius succedenge in that realme did prouocate gretely the hate of the Romanes ageyne him, in that he denyede to pay a tribute to theyme.

Capitulum septimum.

GAYUS the son of Germannicus, callede Caligula, reioycede*. [Gayus.] that name in that he was borne in the myddes of an hoste, reignenge iiij. yere and ix. monethes. This Gaius was replete with wickydnesse, commaundede hym to be callede the lorde of heuyn and of erthe. Wherefore he causede an ymage, made [folio 205a] to his similitude, to be sette in þe temple of Ierusalem; Page  365, vol.4 abusenge his sustres, puttenge theym in to exile after that abusion. This Gaius made Herodes Agrippa kynge of Iewery, putte in prison afore by Tiberius, in the firste yere of his reigne. Also he condempnede, in the secunde yere off his reigne, Herodes Antipa for inceste with Herodias his wife, to perpetualle exile, by the accusation of Herodes Agrippa; and the earth openenge deuourede the doȝhter of the seide Herodias. Then Gaius putte Pilate to exile in to Vienna of Fraunce, accusede afore hym in mony thynges, in opprobry of hys kynrede, for he was borne in those partes. For the Iewes accusede hym that he did sle innocentes, and that he putte ymages of the Gentiles in the temple ageyne theire wille, and that he made condites of water to come in to his place of the siluyr of theire holy cofre. And also that he toke the prestes stole home to his place, and wolde not suffre theyme to haue Page  367, vol.4 hit in holy daies withowte that they scholde ȝiffe a certeyne summe of money to hym. Whiche putte in to prison, hauenge a knyfe to pare an apple, did sle hym selfe þer with, whiche was caste in to Tiber with a grete weiȝhte tyede and made faste to hym. But wickede spirittes ioyenge of that pray, movede the water moche, causenge grete thundre and liȝh|tenge. Wherefore the Romanes takenge hym owte of Tiber, caste hym in to the water callede Rodanus, at Vienna, callede then the place of cursenge, and Vigenna, as a way to helle. But that place trowblede soore, the citesynnes beryede hym at Lisania. Then men dwellenge in that place, trowblede with that carion, caste that body in to a pytte compassede with hilles in a circuite, where terrible voices and sowndes be herde. Also hit is redde in the story scolasticalle, that Pilate, accusede of Page  369, vol.4 the Iewes afore Tiberius, was sende to Lugdune in Fraunce. ℞. And either story may be salvede with owte repugnaunce, understondenge that Pilate was sende to Lugdune by the accusation of the Iewes, and that he was callede from exile after the commenge of the messynger Volusian from Ierusalem, that he myȝhte haue a more grevous condempnacion. And that Pilate did sle hym selfe, Bede and Eusebius bere [folio 205b] wyttenesse.

Capitulum octavum.

CLAUDIUS, the uncle of Gaius and of Drusus, began to regne after the dethe of Gaius, thro helpe of Herodes Agrippa, in the monethe of Auguste, whiche reignede xv. yere. This Claudius did noo thynge of commendacion in his tyme, but that he made the yle of Briteyne subiecte to Page  371, vol.4 hym; intemperate of meyte and drynke and of the fleschely luste. Whiche was in purpose to have made a lawe of re|mission and pardon to men sendenge furthe wynde from the partes posterialle, in that he hade passion oftetymes and peyne in abstenynge hym þerof. Iosephus, libro vicesimo. This Claudius hade iij. wives, whiche gate of Petiva, the firste of theyme, a doȝhter callede Antonia. After the dethe of whom he mariede Messalina, of whom he gate a sonne callede Britannicus, and a doȝhter callede Octauia. After that he mariede Agrippina, hauenge a son callede Nero, to whom Claudius mariede his doȝhter Octauia; and for the luffe that Claudius hade to Agrippina, he did sle his other wife Messalina. After the dethe of whom, Claudius syttenge at table, as in furiosite, wolde say oftetymes, and inquire of peple stondenge abowte hym, why Messalina his lady come not to the table. This Agrippina, dredenge leste that Britannicus, the son of Messalina, scholde succede hym in the empire, poysonede Page  373, vol.4 Claudius her howsebonde, that Nero her son myȝhte be emperoure. Whiche Nero, made emperour, ȝafe a condigne rewarde to his moder; for he did sle Britannicus, the son of Messalina and of Claudius, with Octavia wife to hym, and his moder also. ℞. Iuvenalis satiricus rehersethe that the seide Messalina was of grete luste; that sche wolde expresse here body to peple privately to haue the pleasure of the flesche, and after that openly, and as a commune woman, returnenge after that to the fowle luste of the flesche, not as fullefyllede but as made wery; whiche movede other noble women to lyke [folio 206a] synne. Beda, libro primo, capitulo tertio. A grete hungre was hade in this yere thro the cuntre of Siria, propheciede to comme by Agabus the prophete, in Actes of thapostles. Petrus, capitulo octogesimo primo. That grete hungre con|tynuenge in the Iewery, Helena, the qwene of Adiabenes, commenge to Ierusalem, bouȝhte grete plente of corne þat sche myȝhte norische trewe peple hauenge nede; whiche Page  375, vol.4 causede ij. beryalles to be made nye to Ierusalem, in whom sche commaunded her body to be putte, and the body off her sonne, the signes and tokens of whom appere ȝitte at þis tyme. Wherefore mony men deceyvede, suppose Helene the moder of noble Constantyne to be beryede þer, in that hit is redde that sche was at Ierusalem, and onournede hit with grete ȝiftes. Seynte Paule wente to Ierusalem in this yere, and laborede the gospelle of Criste with Seynte Petyr. In whiche yere, in the idus of the monethe of Iulius, thapostles were diuidede thro alle the worlde. Wherefore Petyr commenge to Rome, directe Marcialis to Lemonica, and Appolinaris to Rauenna, and Seynte Marke to Egipte. This Marcus, son to Petyr by baptym, and his disciple, come to Rome, where he did write the gospelle of Criste thro the supplication of trewe peple, whiche Seynte Petyr did approbate, and commaundede hit to be redde in chirches. After that, Marcus sende to Aquileia, convertede moche peple to þe feithe of Criste. After that he Page  377, vol.4 was sende to Alexandria in Egipte, where he suffrede passion. Whiche was translate from Alexandry un to Venece abowte the cccclxvij. yere of oure Lorde. This Marcus kytte a weye his thombe in a tyme, that he scholde not be a byschoppe; but the disposicion of God and auctorite of Seynte Petre preuaylede, whiche made hym bischop of Alexandria. Beda, libro primo, capitulo tertio. Claudius themperour come this tyme to Briteyne, Guiderius*. [In the margin is this note: "Britannice Gwydyr, there is, not far from Denbigh, a house bearing his name to this daye."] beenge in hit governoure and kynge, denyenge to pay a tribute to the Romanes, whiche conquerede hit as withowte eny batelle. After that he wente in to an yle, to whom noon enemy entrede with an hoste sithe Claudius was in hit, neither by noon other man afore, Iulius Cesar excepte. Also he adiecte to thempyre of Rome the yles of Orcades [folio 206b] sette in the ocean; returnenge to Rome in the vjthe monethe that he come from hit, callenge the name of his sonne Bri|tannicus. Lelius Hamo, a duke longenge to Claudius, did sle Page  379, vol.4 Guiderius the kynge of Briteyne at Portesmouthe; and that Hamo diede at a haven namede after hym, now namede Hampton. After that Claudius receyvede Arviragus, brother to Guiderius, un to grace, makenge hym kynge, and ȝiffenge to hym Gemissa his doȝhter, brouȝhte from Rome, to mariage, makenge a ryalle place for that mariage, callenge hit Chestre after his name. ℞. Whiche is callede, after the langage of Briteynes, Caerclau, that is to say, the cite of Claudius; whiche was callede afterwarde Glovernia, of Glora duke of Sowthewales, whom hit was seide Claudius to haue geten þer. After that Claudius themperour sende legiones of knyȝhtes in to Yrlonde; whiche returnede to Rome, Arviragus kynge of Britones wolde not be tributary to the Romanes in eny wise. Wherefore Claudius themperour sende Vespasian to Briteyne, whiche subduede to hym the kynge, the realme, and the yle of Wiȝhte. Herodes Agrippa wente to Cesarea in Egipte, after Page  381, vol.4 that he hade sleyne mony trewe peple of Criste, that he myȝhte make disportes þer in the honoure of themperoure, where he suffrede hym to be callede a Godde. Wherefore he was smyten of an angelle; whiche swellenge in the body, seide to his frendes, "Beholde, frendes, y am now constreynede with the bondes of dethe that was callede Godde;" and so he dyede. Petrus, capitulo quinquagesimo sexto. This Herodes Agrippa was son to Aristobolus, son to Herodes Ascalonita, a man of grete boldenesse, bellicose and liberalle, but of grete pouerte with alle. Whiche wente to Rome in the*. [Sic. The scribe has omitted life.] of Tiberius thempe|rour, that he myȝhte haue reioycede an oþer tetrarchye, beenge vacante þat tyme, where he felle un to the luffe and frende|schippe of Drusus, son to Tiberius, byndenge hym to Drusus in grete goodes, so that he wolde be a meane that he myȝhte haue the favor of the Romanes and his intente. But this [folio 207a] Page  383, vol.4 yonge man Drusus dedde, Tiberius themperour sorowede so moche that he myȝhte not suffre men familier with Drusus to be in his presence, leste that he scholde reduce to his mynde the dethe of his sonne by the siȝhte of theyme. Wherefore Herodes Agrippa returnede to the Iewery as desolate, puttenge hym selfe in a toure for schame, that he myȝhte dye for hungre: neverthelesse he was relevede by Herode howsebonde un to Herodias his sustir. Whiche rebukenge hym of the benefites schewede, Herodes Agrippa, hauenge indignacion þeroff, wente to Tiberius, in whose presence he founde suche grace that he longede to Gaius the son of Germannicus. Which sittenge in a tyme in the chariette with Gaius, preyede and desirede the dethe of Tiberius, that Gaius myȝhte be made emperour. The dryver of the charyette herenge that, schewede his seyenge to Tiberius, wherefore Herodes Agrippa was putte in to prison by vj. monethes, un to the dethe of Tiberius. Thys Herodes Page  385, vol.4 Agrippa beenge in prison, a man in captiuite schewede to hym by augury that he scholde be soone delyverede, after that he hade sene an owle syttenge on a tre, and that he scholde be promotede ageyne, in so moche that his frendes scholde haue grete envye þerof; and that he scholde dye in the vthe daye folowenge after that he hade seene the same kynde or eny of the same kynde to haue sytte in lyke wise. Themperour Tiberius dedde, Gaius delyverede Herodes Agrippa from prison, ȝiffenge to hym ij. tetrarchies, of Philippe and of Lysania; ȝiffenge to hym a diademe with the name of a kynge. Where|fore Herodias his suster, hade grete indignacion that Herodes Antipas here howsebonde reioycede not the name of a kynge, movenge hym that he scholde go to Gaius themperour and purchasse a diademe with the name of a kynge. But Gaius themperour hauenge letters afore sende from Herodes Agrippa, sende hym to Lugdune in to Fraunce. Neverthelesse he ȝafe choyce to Herodias to chose wheþer sche wolde goe with here Page  387, vol.4 howsebonde other elles to goe to Herodes Agrippa broþer to her. But Herodias did electe to goe to her howsebonde beenge putte in to exile, seyenge that sche wolde not leve here howsebonde in adversite with whom sche was in pros|perite. And so the thridde tetrarchye was ȝiffen to Herodes [folio 207b] Agrippa, whiche tetrarchye was occupiede before with Herodes Antipas. After Gaius sleyne, there was a contraversie be|twene the senatores and þe peple of Rome, the senate dredenge the cruellenesse of themperoures, the peple dredenge in contrary wise the cruellenesse of the senate. Neverthelesse Claudius was made emperour by the helpe of Herodes Agrippa, whiche ȝafe to hym the iiijthe tetrarchye, that was the Iewery or Iuda; whiche enhawnsede soe, wente un to the Iewery, and imprisonede Petyr, and did sle Seynte Iames. After that he wente to Cesarea, to make plaies and disportes in Page  389, vol.4 the honor of themperoure, where he diede miserably, as hit is rehersede afore. Whiche lefte successour to hym Agrippa his sonne, to ij. tribus and a halfe over Iordan; whiche was not callede Herodes Agrippa, but oonly Agrippa; to whom the trewe peple of the Iewery fledde afore the de|struccion of the cite of Ierusalem. Oure blessede Lady, moder to Criste redemptor of mankynde, diede in this yere, whiche was þe lxij. yere of her age, for sche hade xiiij. yere in age in the nativite of Criste, lyvenge with hym afterwarde xxxiiiti yere. And, after the sayenge of somme men, sche lyvede after his dethe xvj. yere, and after oþer men xij. yere; so þat sche was assumpte in the lx. yere of here age; for it is writen expresse that thapostles prechede in the Iewery and abowte hit xij. yere after the dethe of Criste. Philippe thapostle was crucifiede at Iherapolis, the lxxviij. yere of his age. Lazarus, the firste bischoppe of Ciprus, diede in the Page  391, vol.4 firste dethe, restorede to lyfe ageyne by miracle, contynuede in lyfe after that by the space of xxiiijti yere. Felix was sende to the Iewery by Claudius themperour, and made the proctor of the Iewes, afore whom Paule accusede made ap|pellacion to themperour afore hym to his defense. In whiche [folio 208a] tyme mony fals prophets were. Egesippus, libro 2o. Then the kynde of perellous men spronge in Ierusalem, whiche did sle men in the liȝhte day by arte imperceptible, in so moche that the drede of men lyvenge was more grevous then the compleynte of the dedde men; wherefore mony men lefte that cite and wente to wildernesse. Claudius themperour diede at the cite of Rome in his palice, the lxiiij. yere of his age, in the monethe of Marche, whom Agrippina, wife to hym, did extincte with poyson, that Britannicus his son excludede, Nero myȝhte be emperour, whiche was son to Agrippina.

Page  393, vol.4

Capitulum nonum.

NERO the son of Domicius and of Agrippina sustyr to Gaius, sonne in lawe to Claudius, began to reigne, whiche reignede allemoste xiiij. yere. This Nero luffede gretely instrumentes musicalle, in so moche that he enioyede hym to be callede in festes the prince of harpers; whiche ioyede so moche of the swetenesse of his voyce, that he wolde not ab|steyne oonly from meytes and drynkes, but also to haue a vomite in certeyne tyme. Whiche begynnenge to synge, noo man hade audacite to go furthe from the place un til that he hade endede thynges begunne. Neuerthelesse this em|perour Nero moste avarous, seyenge to the peple oftetymes, Page  395, vol.4 "He that is a prince hathe nede to alle thynge," ȝafe grete rewardes to mynstrelles, ȝiffenge to theym singuler pre|rogatives, and inconsuete of the noble dignites of Rome. Suetonius. This emperour usede not to were oon clothenge too tymes; usenge schone of siluyr, and schoenge his mules in lyke wise; fischenge with nettes of golde whiche were drawen with cordes made of purpulle. Whiche willenge to see the similitude of the cite of Troye in the brennenge of hit, causede a grete parte of the cite of Rome to brenne con|tynually [folio 208b] by vij. daies and vij. nyȝhtes, and then he songe a songe of Troy. Orosius. Nero was of so grete lecchery that he was waschen with hoote oyntementes and colde; whiche causede the wombe of his moder be kytte that he myȝhte see the place of concepcion. Martinus. Whiche reprovede of leches in that he hade doen to his moder so grete crudelite, Page  397, vol.4 seide to theym, "ȝe schalle suffre dethe withowte ye make me with childe, that y may knowe the maner and peyne of child|enge. The leches causede hym to be inflate with pociones, and to drynke a frogge priuely, whiche euomette that frogge after that he hade felede a lytelle peyne, as if he hade bene delyverede off childe. The lecches seide the deformite of the childe to be causede in that the dewe tyme of childenge was prevente. Neuertheles Nero causede that frogge to be kepede in a towre un to his dethe. Also this Nero made to hym an heuyn of the altitude of a c. foote, boorede þro with litelle hooles, borne up with xc. pillers of marbole, on whom he causede water to be caste, fallenge downe lyke as if hit hade bene water descendenge from heuyn. Also he made a lampe to be movede in hit by alle the day, and to goe downe at the weste lyke un to the sonne, makenge a myrrour onornede with Page  399, vol.4 gemmes to schyne in the nyȝhte in to the similitude of the moone. But these thynges were broken sodenly by the wille and power of Godde, that eny parte of theym cowthe not be founde. Also he made wheles and cartes to be made in hit and drawen þer, that hit scholde seme to peple that hit hade be the thundre. But Allemyȝhty God causede that instrumente to be brouȝhte in to the water as sodenly by a grete wynde. Eutropius. This Nero did sle diverse noble women, as Liuia the wiffe of Octouian, Agrippina his moder, the suster of his fader, and also his awne wife. Seneca Cordubens, uncle to Lucanus and maister to Nero, askenge a condigne [folio 209a] rewarde of Nero themperour for his doctryne, hade licence to chose on what bowȝhe he wolde be hongede. Then Seneca in|quirede what offense he hade doen that he scholde haue suche a dethe. Nero takenge owte a swerde and puttenge hit on his hedde, seide to Seneca, "Lyke as thow dredes this swerde, Page  401, vol.4 soe y drede the, lyke as y did in my yowthe, wherefore y can not be bolde thow beenge in lyfe." Wherefore Seneca chosede the kynde of his dethe, that he myȝht dye in a bathe thro the kyttenge of a veyne; and so the name of Seneca was fullefillede, callede Seneca as sleenge him selfe. This Seneca hade ij. brether; that oon of whom was callede Iulius Gallo, a noble declamer, whiche did slee hym selfe. That other broþer hiȝhte Mela, fader to Lucan the poete. This Lucan makenge a booke of the incommodite of ciuile batelle and dethe to Nero, that he myȝhte inclyne his herte to concorde, was seide to dye thro the kyttenge of a veyne thro þe pre|cepte of Nero themperour. Policronicon, libro octavo. Mony men haue audacite to despise Seneca, usenge for theire schelde Page  403, vol.4 the seyenge of Quintilian, whiche seme to deceyve me, sythe he hade grete familiarite with Seynte Paule, and is put in the nowmbre of holy men after the seyenge of Seynte Ierome; whiche made bookes and tretys allemoste of alle matters; the trewe keper of vertu, and the enmy of vices, in so moche that he scholde seme to reforme golden worldes, and to reconsile goddes to makynde. This Seneca made bokes of benefites, of clemency, declamacions, and tragedies, of naturalle questiones, and Tusculan, and of chaunces of fortune. Jeronimus de viris illustribus. Seynte Paule appellenge or makenge appellacion to themperoure, was sende to Rome y-bownde, where he taryede in fre kepenge by the space of ij. yere, and disputede ageyne the Iewes; after that he was dimitte and wente at liberte. In whiche yere Seynte Petyr ordeynede ij. bis|choppes at Rome, other ij. helperes to hym, Linus and Cletus, Page  405, vol.4 to fullefille the ministery off pristes to the peple commenge to theyme, and notte the pontificalles, for Seynte Petyr ȝafe his laboure to preier and to prechynge. Martinus. Hit is redde that this Cletus did wryte firste in his letters salutem et apostolicam benedictionem, whiche commended gretely pil|gremages, [folio 209b] and specially the visitation of thapostles at Rome, seyenge that the pilgrimage made to thapostles was more meritorius to the sawle then the faste of ij. yere. Seynte Luke and Seynte Paule did wryte the Actes of the Apostles in the cite of Rome, neverthelesse thei hade wryten afore the gospelle of Criste. Longius the knyȝhte and centurio diede abowte this yere, whiche openede the side of oure Lorde with a spere by the commaundement of Pilate, and receyvede siȝhte of that precious blode in towchenge his eien with hit. Whiche belevenge in Criste, and instructe in the feithe by thapostles, wente to Cesarea of Capadocia, where he lyvede a monasticalle Page  407, vol.4 life by xxviijti yere, and convertede mony peple to the feithe of Criste, and at the laste he diede a martir. Persius Satiricus the poete diede this tyme. ℞. There were mony poetes whiche were not callede Satirici, for the name of a poete is seide of feynenge, as Virgille was specially in Eneydos, and Ovidius was callede Satiricus of fullefyllenge of the mater, other elles of reprovenges whom they invecte ageyne tres|passoures. And of suche men were iij. specially, Persius, Oracius, and Iuvenalle. Isidorus, libro octavo, capitulo septimo. The office of a poete is to transmute those thynges whiche be doen truly in to other similitudes in oblike figuraciones with pulcritude. Therefore hit is that poetes enhauncede temples and ryalle edifications for the magnitude and beawte off theyme, and the similacres of theyme to be honourede as goddes. Wherefore somme poetes be callede diuynes, in that they made Page  409, vol.4 tretys and dites of goddes. Iames the lesse, bischop of Ieru|salem, was sleyne the viijthe kalendes of Aprile, in the tyme of Ester, in the xxxti yere after the passion of Criste. Whiche was stonede firste of the Iewes, chalaungenge in hym that he cowthe not putte Seynte Paule to dethe, and after that he was [folio 210a] putte to dethe on a fuller's perche. ℞. Eusebius in his story ecclesiasticalle rehersethe this Iames the lesse to haue bene the sunne of Ioseph howsebonde to oure Lady, and for that to have be callede the broþer of oure Lorde. But Seynte Ierom understondethe the trawthe, seyenge hym to haue bene the sonne of Alpheus, maryenge the suster of oure Lady. Mathewe theuangeliste, the disciple and interpretator of Seynte Petyr, the gospelle of whom sende to Rome Seynte Petyr didde ap|probate, Page  411, vol.4 diede this yere at Alexandria of Egipte. Linus the bischop suffrede passion at Rome this tyme, the viijthe kalendes of December, whom Cletus succeded xij. yere. Seynte Petyr wente to Rome to expugne Symon Magus in this yere, a Samaritan of kynde, whom he hade deuicte afore at Cesarea, and causede hym to fle from the Iewery. Thys Symon Magus hade gedrede the peple off Rome of his secte, seyenge hym to be trowblede with men off Galile, Petyr and Paule, wherefore he seide that he wolde leve Rome. Neuerthelesse he prefixede a day in whom he wolde ascende to hevyn, whiche commen he schewede his arte and connynge, and ascendede in to the aier, wherefore the Romanes seide Criste never to haue doen suche a thynge in hys lyfe. But Symon Magus hade a soore falle thro the preier of Seynte Petyr, where þro his body was broken. Nero themperour sorowenge his dethe, putte Seynte Petyr in to kepenge, whiche knowenge thende of hys lyfe to drawe nere ordeynede and made Seynte Clemente bischop, to reioyce his Page  413, vol.4 place and office. Seynte Petyr movede to escape from prison by his breþer, mette oure Savioure Criste at a ȝate in Rome, to whom he seide: "O Lorde, wheþer goethe þow?" Criste seide: "I goe to Rome to be crucifiede ageyne." Seynte Petyr understondenge that to be seide of his person, returnede to Rome, whiche taken of his kepers was hongede, his hedde beenge downwarde towarde the grownde. The body of whom Marcellus his disciple toke downe from the crosse, abydenge [folio 210b] not the sentence off eny man, and beryede hit in the laste yere of Nero. That emperour Nero commaunded Petyr and Paule to be sleyne, and to be putte to dethe in oon day, Seynte Petyr suffrenge þe dethe of the crosse, and Paule was heded with a swerde. Nero sende that tyme a noble man to the Iewery, Vespasian by name, to make the Iewes subiecte, not willenge to suffre the avarice of Florus presidente þer. Eutropius.Page  415, vol.4 This emperour Nero herenge Galba to be made emperour in Speyne, fledde with a certeyne men to a place of a libertyne of his, iiij. myles from Rome, and did sle hym selfe þer in the xxxij. yere of his age. In whiche place alle þe men of his felowschippe were pereschede. Clement the pope succeded after Seynte Petyr, whiche governede that chirche ix. yeres afore the dethe of Seynte Petyr, and after Seynte Petyr xxij. yere, that is to say, xij. yere with Linus and Cletus, and ix. yere allone after theyme un til that he was sende to exile. This Clemente made mony noble bookes of Cristen feythe, causenge Livius and also Cletus to be bischoppe afore hym, and so this Clemente was the firste by eleccion after Petur, and the thridde Page  417, vol.4 bischoppe in ordre. The body of whom drownede in the see Cerson, was founde by blessede Cirillus, thapostelle of men of Sclavia, and browȝhte to Rome in the tymes of þe firste Nicholas. Gaufridus. Marius the son of Arviragus reignede this tyme in Briteyne. In whos tyme a kynge of the Pictes Rodricus, commenge from Sichia, occupiede the northe partes of Albania, callede nowe Scottelande. Whiche sleyne by Marius, a ston was erecte in signe of triumphe and of victory in that prouince of Westemarelonde, by þe name of Marius, in whom hit is writen in this wise, "The victories of Marius." ℞. William Malmesbur was deceyvede here, supposenge the writenge of that ston to perteyne to Marius the consul of Rome, and noo mervayle, for he see neuer the boke of the gestes of Britones, in whom hit is expressede of Marius the kynge. This Marius hauenge the victory of Rodricus, ȝafe [folio 211a] Page  419, vol.4 licence to his peple to inhabite a cuntre in the laste costes of Albania callede Cateneyse, as hit is rehersede afore, libro jo. capitulo ultimo.

Capitulum decimum.

GALBA Seruius electe by men of Speyne and of Fraunce,*. [Galba.] in the lxxiij. yere of his age, a senator of olde nobilite, whiche reigned after Nero vij. monethes. The priuate lyfe of whom was noble, nowe a consul and an oþer tyme proconsul, the gouernoure of soore batelles. Whiche desirede a noble yonge man, Pison by name, to be his heire and successour. Neuer|thelesse thei bothe were sleyne in the markethe place of Rome by Otho themperour. Otho Lucius reignede thre monethes,*. [Otho.]Page  421, vol.4 whiche understondenge an other emperour to be made in Fraunce, instorede a ciuile batelle, in thre of the firste batelles of whom he hade victory; whiche seenge his men to be sleyne abowte hym in the iiijthe batelle, seide that he was not worthy that peple scholde be soe destroyede by hys meane, wherefore he did slehym selfe. Vitellius reignede after Otho vij. monethes, whiche*. [Vitellius.] was seide to haue ȝiffen suche attendaunce to glotony, that he wolde fede hym with meytes iiij. or v. tymes in a day. Whiche was seide to haue hade afore hym in oon soper ij. ml of fisches and vij. ml of briddes. This Vitellius dredenge leste that Vespasian scholde reigne, did sle Sabynus, broþer to hym; whiche includenge hym in a chambre for fere, was extracte by the noble men longenge to Vespasian, and ledde nakede thro the cite with his hedde borne up, hauenge a scharpe swerde Page  423, vol.4 holden to his þrote. That doen he was caste in to Tiber. Vespasianus themperour reignede viij. yere, whiche was fulle auarous, neuerthelesse ȝitte he wolde not take the goodes of oþer men wrongefully, suffrenge liȝhtely rebukes of philo|sophres. Whiche sende from Nero themperour un to the*. [Vespa|sianus.] Iewes, and herenge of his dethe, returnede to Rome, levenge Titus his sone ther; whiche made twyes or thryes soore con|flictes in Germanny and in other places. Policronicon, libro [folio 211b] tertio capitulo quartodecimo. An olde man seide in to þe impropery of Vespasian, "A fox may chaunge his skynne, but not his mynde;" for cause that age declynede not auarice from hym. To whom Vespasian seide, "We awe to ȝiffe disporte and laȝhenge to suche men as geve*. [as geve] written over in a later hand.] to us correccion, and peyne to trespassoures." This emperour Vespasian made presidente in the stedde of kynges, in Achaia, Lisia, in Rodus, Samus, in Page  425, vol.4 Tracia, and Silicia, whiche cuntres he hade subiecte to the empire of Rome. ℞. Ten yere wonte here after alle cronicles betwene the passion of Criste and the tymes of Vespasian, as hit is seyde afore in the prologe. Ierusalem was taken by Titus, the temple was brente and made egalle with the erthe. Iosephus, libro 7o. In the same monethe and day in whom hit was brente afore by men of Caldee, the viijthe day of the monethe of September, in þe yere from the firste construccion made by Salamon a ml c. and xxxti yere. And from the secunde reedifienge made by Aggeus the prophete vjc. and xxxix. yere; whiche cite was taken in the tyme of Ester, after Martinus and other men. Egesippus. In whiche sege, xj.c. ml peple of the Iewes were pereschede by fiȝhte and thro hungre, a c. ml of the Iewes were solde, and euer xxxti for a peny, and Page  427, vol.4 xc. ml. of the Iewes were dispersede. Ieronimus. That tyme þer was a grete multitude of the Iewes in Ierusalem, for in suche festes peple of alle the Iewery hade resorte un to hit. Iosephus, libro septimo. Hit is not to be meruaylede of that multitude of Iewes dedde, taken, and sleyne, for Cestius the presidente of the Iewery did write un to Nero willenge to knowe the nowmbre of the Iewes beenge in Ierusalem, whom he hade in contempte, lyke as he hade knowlege by the bischoppes of hit, that þer were peple in Ierusalem on a holy day un to the nowmbre xxti c. ml. and lxxti. c. ml. withowte peple viciate and pollute, to whom hit was not lawefulle to offre. The bischoppes collecte that nowmbre by the nowmbre of hostes, whiche were [folio 212a] ijc. ml lvj. ml. and lti ml., for ten men were assignede to euery hoste. Egesippus, libro tertio. The wisedome hade by the Romanes helpede theym moche, the Iewes hade woodenesse Page  429, vol.4 with temerite. For Vespasian themperour perceyvenge that hit was a grete dryenesse in that tyme, wente un to a cite callede Ioppen, where he stoppede alle the condites of water. Neuer|thelesse Iosephus founde a comente, in whom he made clothes moiste, and hongede theym on the walles; the Romanes seenge that, supposede theyme to haue water habundantely un to drynke. Wherefore Vespasian trowblede the walle soore with gunnes and with oþer engynes, but Iosephus putte sackes replete with chaffe betwene the walle and theym, that the gunnes myȝhte do litelle hurte. The Romanes toke longe sithes to kytte the ropes of the sackes. Þen Iosephus destroyede alle theire instrumentes in castenge brennenge oyle on hit. The emperoure Vespasian beenge abowte to haue the instrumentes repairede, was hurte soore in the hele. Titus perceyvenge that, sende furthe a sawte, and schotte gunnes to the walles, Page  431, vol.4 in so moche that the hynder parte of the hedde of a man stondenge by Iosephus was smyten by the space of thre for|longes. Also a yonge infante was smyten thro a gunne ston from the secrete wombe of the moder to hit by þe halfe of a forlonge. The secunde walle of Ierusalem broken by Titus, Iosephus was founde amonge esches, where he hade lyen priuely by the space of thre daies. The men fyndenge hym seide, "Where to wille þow lyve, sithe that it behovethe not neiþer besemethe the, neiþer hit is lawefulle. For other thy lyfe schalle be a rewarde of treason, other a peyne of serui|tute. Remembre Moyses, whiche hade leuer to haue bene doen owte of the booke of lyfe, then to haue lyvede longer then his peple. Also Dauid hade leuer take vengeaunce then to be reseruede after the dethe of his peple." To whom Iosephus seide, "What man wolde not be delyuerede and losede [folio 202b] Page  433, vol.4 in suche distresse and languor, if hit were lawefulle. But hit is not lawefulle to eny man to loose, but to hym þat hathe bownde, wherefore we awe to kepe welle that wedde of owre life so longe as we may, as the trewe seruaunteȝ of oure Lorde after his pleasure. For that man is unkynde that wolde dye raþer then his Maker wolde that he scholde, or to lyfe lenger then hit were his wylle, as hit may be schewede off Abraham, Iacob, Moyses, and of Dauid, whiche desirede to haue bene delyuerede from the prison of this lyfe, but ȝitte noo seynte induced dethe to hym. Wherefore and if hit be goode to lyve, hit is sacrilege to lette hit, and if hit be glorious to dye in batelle y refuse hit not, and if ye say that it be swete to dye for liberte y condescende there to. Page  435, vol.4 Neuerthelesse lyfe is swete, that man is a cowarde that wille not dye when oportunite requirethe hit, the proprete of women is to sle þeym selfe. Whiche thynge brute bestes wille not doe un to theym selfe, neiþer to their kynde, but ioye to gedre, usenge defense ageyne thynges contrarious to theyme." This Iosephus seenge theyme to be segede soore, seide in this wise to men beenge with hym: "Make we this conuencion, that he that departethe firste owte of the howse schalle be sleyne by him that folowethe." Þis condicion pleasede alle men. Other men departede owte of the house and sleyne, Iosephus contynuede in lyfe with an other man. To whom he seide cownsellenge hym to breke the conuencion Page  437, vol.4 made. That doen Iosephus was taken and brouȝhte to Vespasianus themperoure. Iosephus, libro quinto. Vespasian exaltede to thempire of Rome, lefte Titus his son at the sege of Ierusalem, whiche walkenge abowte the cite with vjc. horse men to see a place of vauntage in the sege, was compassede abowte with the Iewes, neuerþelesse he returnede and wente thro theyme manly un to his hoste. The Iewes beenge in the cite desirede pease. But Titus, dredenge treason, seide in this wise: "To use wacches and batelle is a signe of myȝhty men, and to eschewe treason, leste [folio 203a] that treason ȝiffe illusion to vertu and also un to myȝhte." Wherefore the firste walle destroyede, Titus ȝiffethe cown|selle to his men to fiȝhte discretely leste that folesche Page  439, vol.4 strenȝhte appere if that cownesaile fayle, seyenge that hit is a signe of victory the superior to dye with his subiecte. That other secunde walle destroyede and broken downe, Titus offrede pease; but Symon and Iohn, gouernoures of the Iewes, seyenge contrary, there was suche hungre in the cite, and cruellenesse, that byenge and sellenge seasede and sethenge of meyte; peple did eyte leder for hungre, the dungge of bestes, the skynnes of serpentes, and the carion of horses. Where|fore the Romanes hade moore compassion of the Iewes then thei hade amonge þeyme selfe; galoes were putte on the walles that noo man scholde flee; withowte the walles captiuite, hungre withynne, and drede off bothe. Titus compassede the cite of Page  441, vol.4 Ierusalem with a newe walle, whiche hade in circuite abowte the cite xlti forlonges; the compasse of the castelles was nowmbrede to the space of x. forlonges, that oon of the Iewes scholde not escape. That hungre was so grete there that the beryer was beryede ofte afore the peple to be beryede, where the peple diede so soore that the erthe and grownde within the cite wolde not suffice to the beryalles of dedde peple. Wherefore thei caste ml. of peple ouer the walles. Titus seenge that sorowede soore, makenge a protestacion of forȝiffe|nesse; then mony of the Iewes fleenge to the Romanes, Titus commaundede to refresche theyme, whiche wontede other myȝhte to eite for feblenesse, other naturalle vertu to digeste hit. Somme men flenge from the cite hade receyvede in to theire wombes grete summes of golde, leste that the Romanes scholde haue eny goode þeroff. A man of Assiria perceyvenge that, schewede that thynge to the Romanes, wherefore the Page  443, vol.4 belyes of the Iewes that fledde were dirupte or kytte, where thei founde grete plente of golde, thauȝhe Titus commaunded the contrary. Titus movede Iosephus that he scholde inclyne if that he myȝhte the hertes of þe Iewes to dedicacion thro scripture, exemples and promisses, but hit profite not. Iosephus, [folio 213b] libro sexto. But Iohn and Symon stoppede alle the places broken downe that the Iewes myȝhte not escape owte, neither the Romanes myȝhte haue entre in to the cite. The howses of þe peple were serchede besyly, if they myȝhte fynde eny thynge; men denyenge were sleyne, and if the durre was schutte men supposede that þei hade somme meyte, and drawede thyder, wherefore that howse was broken; symple men were spoylede theire goodes, and ryche men accusede for Page  445, vol.4 theire goodes were sleyne, seyenge that thei wolde flee other elles thei wolde betray the cite. Egesippus, libro quinto, et Iosephus, libro septimo. Then that dede to be abhorrede happede in Ierusalem, of Mary the aliaunte, whiche spake to her yonge infante in that hungre in thys wise: "My son, alle cruelle þinges compasse the abowte, batelles, hungre, brennenge, and thefes, wherefore restore to thy moder that thow haste receyvede of here; goe in to that secrete place from whom thow come. I did somme tyme that pite requirede, now lete us do þat hungre inducethe and movethe;" whiche seynge in this wise rostede her childe at the fire, eitenge parte and reseruenge parte of hit. But the savoure of that flesche soe rostede movede mony peple to comme thyder, to whom Mary that woman seide in this wise: "Be not aschamede to folowe a woman, kepe silence, y was not auarous in that y kepede parte for yow," spekenge to the Page  447, vol.4 parte that was lefte, and seyenge, "O my son, þow arte fulle kynde, the encreaser of my lyfe, the enmyes to us be now oure gestes, þerfore eite ye and taste þerof, or trewly y schalle incorporate or eyte the residu. Be ye not a schamede to folowe a woman whom ye haue causede to eite in this wise." That dede to be aborrede was commune anoon and expressede þro alle the cite. Titus herenge that was so much movede in his herte that he extendede his hondes up towarde heven, and [folio 214a] seide, "We come to ȝiffe batelle to men, but as me thenke we ȝiffe batelle to brute bestes. But ȝitte brute bestes absteyne from theire awne kynde in theire moste necessite, and norische theyme, but this peple devourethe theire awne childer; þerfore lette us destroye and doe aweye theyme, for the dedes of theyme ar to be abhorrede." Iosephus, libro septimo. There was a man amonge the Romanes of the*. [ben, Cx.]Page  449, vol.4 cuntre of Siria, Sabinus by name, a man of grete audacite, worthy to be hade in lawde perpetualle, whiche ascendenge the walles of Ierusalem with xj. felowes, putte peple innu|merable of the Iewes to fliȝhte, whiche pressede downe with stones, and despisenge arowes, fauȝhte on knees, and woundede mony Iewes, defendenge hym with his schelde un tille that he was smyte thro the body in mony places with arowes, where thro he diede. Eggesippus. Titus causede his gunners to schote at the temple, where thro thei profite but lytelle, neuerthelesse thei brente the ȝates of the temple couerede with golde. ℞. Iosephus rehersethe and seithe that the destruction of the Iewes and the dispersion of theyme was causede for the dethe of Seynte Iames the ryȝhteuous. But Page  451, vol.4 trewly hit was causede for the dethe of Criste, after the seyenge of Criste in the Gospelle, "They schalle not leve oon ston on an oþer in the, in that thou hafe*. [schal is written above hafe.] not knowe the tyme of thy visitacion." For, as scripture seythe, Criste willethe not the dethe of a synner, but that he be con|uertede and lyve; wherefore he ȝafe to the Iewes space of penaunce by xlti yere after his dethe, that thei scholde not haue eny excusacion for synnes or theire trespasses, causenge thapostles to preche amonge theyme, and schewenge to theym other meruellous signes. Egesippus et Iosephus, libro septimo. For the similitude of a swerde of fyre was seene to honge ouer the temple by a yere allemoste afore the destruccion of the temple. Also a yonge calfe to be offrede that tyme of Ester calvede a lambe in the myddes of the temple. Also the este ȝate of the temple, unnethe wonte to be schutte by Page  453, vol.4 the helpe of xxti men, was openede oftetymes in the nyȝhte, the barres off the durres broken. Also armede men were seen and chariettes to flye in the aiere. The prestes at Pentecoste afore the takenge of the cite herde voices seyenge, [folio 214b] "Goe we hens, departe we from the seetes." Ihesus the son of Ananias, ascendede in to the temple in the iiijthe yere afore the takenge of Ierusalem, in theire festes callede Scenophagia, where he cryede in this wise: "A voyce from the este, a voice from the weste, a voice from the iiij. wyndes; woo, woo, woo to Ierusalem," cryenge so day and nyȝhte, in so moche that he wolde not leve that crye for betynge neither for feire wordes and preyers. Whiche brouȝhte afore Albinnus, the presidente of the Romanes, and correcte soore, wolde not leve that seyenge; and in the laste day of the destruccion of the Page  455, vol.4 cite he wente un to the walles of the cite, where he cryede in lyke wise, and when he seide "Woo to me," he was sleyne with a gunneston. ℞. Marianus rehersethe in his firste booke that the temple of Ierusalem brente, the grownde of hit was broken and divided with plowes to the despite of þe Iewes. Ieronimus in prologo super Iose. Titus returnede to Rome after the destruccion of the cite of Ierusalem, takenge with hym Iosephus the Iewe, whiche did write in Grewe vij. bookes of the captiuite of the Iewes, whom Titus combynede and putte to the commune bible; whiche deseruede to haue an ymage made for hym after his dethe for thexcellence of witte in the cite of Rome. Also this Iosephus did write xxti bookes off antiquite from the begynnenge of the worlde un to the tymes of Domician; in the xviijthe bookes of whom he knowlegethe Iohn Baptiste to haue be a trewe prophete, and Ierusalem to haue beene destroyede for the dethe of Iames þe Page  457, vol.4 lesse, callede Iames the ryȝhteuous. Where he seyethe also Criste to haue bene a wise man, the werker and doer of mony meruellous þinges, the doctor and techer of the gentiles and of the Iewes, at the laste sleyne by iniury, and after that to haue apperede to his disciples in the thridde day folowenge. Vespasianus the emperour diede in the lxxti yere of his age, of the flixe, in his awne towne, nye to the Sabynes; whiche [folio 215a] stondenge in the tyme of his dethe, seide in this wise, "Hit semethe an emperour to departe from thys worlde stond|enge." Giraldus in Topographia. The disciple of Petyr, Appollinaris by name, suffrede passion, sende to Rauenna but a lytelle season afore; in whose day the rauenes, crowes, and dawes gedre þer a grete multitude, to whom the carion of an horse is ȝiffen as of a consuetude. Wherefore somme men Page  459, vol.4 coniecture that cite to be callede in the langage off þe Allemaynes Rauenesburghe, whiche soundethe in Englische the cite of ravenes.

Eutropius. Capitulum undecimum.

TITUS reignede after Vespasian his fader as thre yere,*. [Titus.] instructe nobly in the langage of Latyne. Policronicon, libro tertio, capitulo vicesimo quarto. This Titus onornede so by the avarice of his fader that he was accomptede the luffe and delices of mankynde, obseruenge this condicion and con|suetude, that he wolde not suffre eny man commenge to hym to departe withowte a rewarde other a promisse of a rewarde. Wherefore the men of his howseholde inquirenge why he promysed moo ȝiftes then he myȝhte ȝiffe, he seide to þeim Page  461, vol.4 that a man awe not to departe from a prince with soory chere. Whiche remembrenge that in a nyȝhte at soper, seide, "O my frendes, y haue loste þis day," in that he ȝafe noo thynge in hit. Whiche cariede in a chariette afore his dethe, extendenge his hondes to heuyn, seide that he didde never that thynge in his lyfe whereof he was soory and penitente, this thynge excepte, that euery man hade not of what disposicion he was. Iulianus, the bischop Cenomanense, diede abowte this tyme, whom men say to haue be Symon Leprosus, fulle of lepre, and healede of Criste, whiche was seide to haue receyvede Criste in his place. This Iulianus, made bischop Cenomanense after the assencion off oure Lorde, of thapostles or of theire foloers, lyvede vertuousely, whiche areysede from dethe to lyfe thre dedde men in his tyme. But [folio 215b] hit semethe to be an other Iulian that receyvede Criste, in the Page  463, vol.4 name of whom peple aske loggenge, that he did sle bothe his fader and moder ignorauntely, of whom it is redde: When this noble yonge man Iulian huntede in a season, and folowede an herte, the herte returnede to hym, and seide, "Thow folowes me whiche schalle slee bothe thy fader and moder." Thys yonge man dredenge that myschefe, and willenge to avoyde hit, departede priuely owte from that cuntre, and drawede to the seruyce of a noble prince, whiche was hade and accomptede of alle peple myȝhty in batelle, and gentil to peple in the palice, wherefore he was made knyȝhte by that prince hauenge a ryche wedowe taken to hys wife by his lorde also. The fader and moder to Iulian makenge grete sorowe for theire sonne, sekede hym in mony cuntres; whiche comme to his wife, and to the castelle where sche inhabite; whiche knowenge theyme to be the fader and moder of Iulian here Page  465, vol.4 howsebonde, by the rehersalle of here howsebonde, norischede and made theym grete chere, and causede theyme to reste theire bodies in here howsebondes bedde alle the nyȝhte. In the morowe the wife of Iulian wente to the chirche, they beenge in bedde. Iulian commenge home, and fyndenge theym in his bedde, supposenge his wife to haue bene of ylle disposicion, did sle theym bothe with his swerde. Whiche goenge furthe of the chambre ȝafe metenge to his wife, knowenge then that he hade sleyne his fader and moder after the prophecy of the herte. To whom he seide, "Fare welle, my sustyr welle|byloved, for y wylle not reste hereafter un tille the tyme y knowe that Godde hathe accepte my penaunce." To whom sche seide, "Brother, Godde forbede that y scholde leve yow in aduersite whiche was partener with yow in prosperite." Whiche goenge to gedre made an hospitalle nye to a water where peple were ofte in perelle, that thei myȝhte helpe to cary ouer peple, and to ȝiffe loggenge and other refreschenge to theyme. A longe tyme and season y-paste, while Iulian Page  467, vol.4 restede hym abowte myddenyȝhte in a colde forste, wery thro labore afore, he herde the voyce of a man callenge and preyenge that he myȝhte be brouȝhte ouer the water. Then Iulian did aryse, and brouȝhte the poore man in to his howse, semenge as destroyede and pereschede for colde, makenge a [folio 216a] fyre to make hym warme. Whiche seenge the man not to be refreschede, þerby, brouȝhte hym un to his bedde, and putte hys clothes abowte hym. And soone after that man, semenge colde and a lepre, ascendede up un to the aier with grete briȝhtenesse, seyenge to Iulian his hoste, "Iulian, Iulian, oure Lorde Ihesu Criste sendethe to the by me that he hathe accepte thy penaunce." And soone after that Iulian and his wife commendede theire sowles un to alle myȝhty God.*. [semede] om. β., γ., and Cx.]

Page  469, vol.4

Capitulum duodecimum.

Domicianus, the son of Vespasian, reignede xv. yere and v. monethes, the wife of whom was callede firste Augusta; and he commandede hym to*. [Sic.] callede god, and the lorde of all thynges; prohibitynge vynes to be plantede within the cite; puttenge in to exile mony mathematicions and philosophres. Whiche*. [Domi|cianus.] made a temple at Rome callede Pantheon, in the honoure of alle goddes, withowte eny trees, whiche is callede nowe Sancta Maria rotunda. This emperour hauenge victory of Danes and of the Germaynes, was so inflate with pride that he wolde not suffre eny ymage to be made in to his similitude but hit were of Page  471, vol.4 golde. Policronicon. This man was utterly unprofitable, doenge noo thynge accordenge to his honore and dignite, reioycenge the name of dignite withowte merytte. Whiche hade in exercise, by continuacion of a certeyne season and space, to take flees in his chamber, and to pricke theym thro with a scharpe pynne; in so moche that hit was seide to a man inquirenge who was with themperour, that oon flee remaynede not in the chambre with hym. This Domician causede the names of ij monethes in the yere to be chaungede, callenge September Germanicus, and October Domicianus. Anacletus the pope, borne at Athenes, succeeded Clemente, putte in to exile ix. yere. Eusebius callethe this man Cletus, [folio 216b] but he ouerskippede hym in his cronicles. Damasus the pope, writenge to Ierome the cronicle of the byschoppes of Rome, seyethe þat Cletus was a Roman, and Anacletus a Greke. Page  473, vol.4 Also the cronicle of Eusebius discordethe in mony thynges from the cronicles of other thynge. This pope ordeynede prestes to be honourede afore other men, and not to be vexede. Eutropius. Cornelia, the most noble of virgynes vestalle, was taken in the synne of carnalle pleasure, wherefore sche was put in to therthe on lyve. Euaristus the pope succedede Anacletus x. yere, whiche ordeynede vij. diacones, whiche scholde kepe the byschoppe prechenge, for the movenge or writenge of errour, whiche myȝhte be imputede to hym of thenmyes of trawthe, and that he scholde not be despisede liȝhtely or hurte. Nerua, the meke prince, succedede Domi|cian, reignenge by oon yere; whiche reuokede and made voide the actes of Domician; wherefore mony men putte in to exile comme from hit, of whom Seynte Iohn Euangeliste was oon, whiche commenge from the yle callede Pathmos wente to Page  475, vol.4 Ephesus. Coillus, the son of Marius, norischede at Rome of infancy, reignede amonge the Britones, whiche paiede the tribute unto the Romanes, and lyvede in pease. ℞. Mony men say the cite of Colchestre, which is þe principalle place of Este Saxones, to haue bene made by this Coillus.

Page  [3], vol.5

Capitulum tertiumdecimum.

VULPIUS Crinitus Traianus, borne in Speyne, was emperour xix. yere. This emperour Traianus was liberalle amonge his frendes, besy in batelles, hauenge grete delectacion to repaire cites; whiche made tame the Danes, men of Scichia, Sarmates, men of Hiberia, men of Colchos, and of Arabye. Also he sette a fleete of schippes, or a nauy, in the Redde see, that he myȝhte ȝiffe batelle to the costes of Ynde; schewenge hym egalle to alle men, visitenge his frendes for cause of salutacion, [folio 217a] hurtenge not eny man. This Traian toke not þe goodes of he Page  5, vol.5 other men to encrease his treasure; a man of grete mekenesse and of familiarite, whiche answerede to his frendes blamenge hym that he was so commune and familier to alle men, seyenge that he wolde be suche an emperour to priuate persones as an emperour wolde desire, and haue that the priuate persones scholde be to hym. ℞. Helmandus rehersethe that a poore wedowe come to Traian themperour, takenge his horse for the commune utilite, wepynge soore toke hym by the foote, preyenge hym to do ryȝhteuousenesse to theym that hade sleyne her son. To whom he seide, "I schalle satisfye the when y come ageyne." The poore wedowe seide to hym, "What and if thow comme neuer ageyne." Traian themperour seide, "My successor schalle iugge and do to the satisfac|cion." The wedowe seide, "What schalle that profite the and if thy successour do satisfaccion for me or eny other; Page  7, vol.5 þow arte dettor to me to receyve after thy meryte, and hit is a frawde not to restore that is dewe; hit is sufficiaunte for þy successor if he do satisfaccion for hym selfe." Traian themperour, hauenge compassion of that wedowe, lepede downe of his hors, and did satisfaccion to the wedowe, wherefore he hadde an ymage sette in the cite of Rome made to his simili|tude. Also hit happede, the son of this Traian themperour, rydenge on a wilde horse, to haue pereschede and sleyne the son of a pover wedowe; wherefore Traian toke his son to the wedowe for her childe þat was sleyne. For whiche hye ryȝtheuousenes hit semethe Seynte Gregory to haue revokede that sawle of his*. [of his, written above the line.] from helle. Alexander the pope succeeded Euaristus martir x. yere. This pope ordeynede water to be blissede with salte, and to be caste Page  9, vol.5 on peple and in theire howses. Also he ordeynede that brede ordeynede to synge with scholde be pure brede and clene, litelle in quantite, seyenge that a rare oblacion is more myȝhty then and if hit were of moore quantite. Also he addede in the masse, "Qui pridie quam pateretur" un to "Hoc est corpus meum." Also he ordeynede that water scholde be mixte with wyne in the chalice, to betoken the union of the churche un to Criste. Symon other Symeon, the [folio 217b] sonne of Cleophas, the successor of Seynte Iames, byschoppe of Ierusalem, was crucifiede, the peple meruellenge that a man of a c. and xxti yere in age myȝhte suffre suche peyne. Ignacius the bischop of Antiochia, and disciple of Seynte Iohn Euangeliste, brouȝhte to Rome, and taken to bestes, callede to helpe ofte the name of Ihesu in his peyne; the herte of whom was diuided after his dethe, in whiche or in euery parte Page  11, vol.5 of whom the name of Ihesu was founde with letters of golde inscripte and wryten in hit. Plinius, the noble philosophre and writer of storyes, made xxxvij. bookes of the batelles of Rome, and xxxvijti bookes of the story naturalle, notwith|stondenge the exercise of cheuallery, where in he laborede moche. In whiche bookes he dimencionate the worlde clerely with his contentes. Whiche goenge to serche the secrete causes of the grauelles whiche be in the region of the see Adriatike, betwene Ytaly and Grece, was seide to haue bene pressede to dethe with hepes of that grauelle. Sixtus, the pope succeeded Alexander, whiche was martiriȝate, allemoste a xj. yere; whiche ordeynede, "Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus" scholde be seide in the masse, and that the corporasse scholde not be of sandelle other of sylke, but of clene lynen clothe, not spottede, and that a woman scholde not towche theyme. And Page  13, vol.5 thauȝhe hit be seyde that Alexander, afore rehersede, suffrede dethe in the tyme of Adrian, neuerthelesse Adrian themperour reignede not that tyme. But perauenture þer was somme consul oþer some oþer gouernoure of that name, by whom he suffrede dethe. Hit happede in the tyme of this Traian that when Placidas, maister of knyȝhtes, wente to hunte in a season, he see the similitude of a crucifixe betwene the antelettes of an herte, whiche seide to hym that he with his wife and childre scholde suffre moche aduersite for his luffe. At the laste he was baptizede, and callede Eustachius, and his wife with his childer. Cassiodorus. This Traian themperour diede at Seleucia of the flix, in the lxiij. yere of his age; the bones of [folio 218a] whom be putte in a veselle of golde under a piller, hauenge a c. and xliiij. foote in altitude, whiche he causede to be edifiede; the memory of whom is hade ȝitte in ure, for hit is seide oftetymes, "A prince can not be nowe more happy then Augustus, or better then Traian."

Page  15, vol.5

Capitulum quartumdecimum.

ADRIANUS Helius, son of the sustyr of Traian, reignede xxj. yere and x. monethes. This Adrian was erudite in the langage of Grece and of Latyn, also whiche made a bible*. [In the margin is: "I thinke he meante a librarie."] of mervellous werke at Athenes; a musicion, a phisicion, a peynter, a curious worcher also in metalles. Whiche com|maundede by his epistoles that Cristen men scholde not be condempnede withowte obieccion of cryme. This Adrian made mony lawes, neverthelesse he hade envy of the glory of Traian themperour, in so moche that he lefte Siria, Mesopo|tamia, and Armenia, whom Traian made subiecte to thempire; whiche wyllenge to leve Denmarke in lyke wise, was sleyne Page  17, vol.5 by his awne frendes. This Adrian tamede the Iewes, beenge re|bellous, puttenge theym from Ierusalem, causenge other peple to inhabite hit, from whiche tyme hit was made that the place of the passion of Criste was within the walles of Ierusalem of the northe parte, whiche was afore withowte the walles. A noble philosophre was in the tyme of this Adrian, whiche kepede silence un to thende of his lyfe, and the cause of his silence folowethe. This philosophre beenge at study in Athenes, herde ofte of the instabilite of women, wherefore he returnenge home to the place of his moder as unknowen,*. [unkowen, MS.] attemptenge the constance of his awne moder by her servauntes thro grete ȝiftes ȝiffen to theyme. Whiche brouȝhte to bedde to his moder sche movede hym anoon to fullefille the pleasure of the flesche. To whom he seide, "Moder, hit is not conveniente that y [folio 218b] Page  19, vol.5 scholde pollute that place from whom y come." His moder herenge that dyede anoon for sorowe and schame. This phi|losophre seenge and perceyvenge that his speche was the cause of the dethe of his moder, kepede silence un to thende of his life, in so moche that he, brouȝhte afore Adrian þemperour, wolde not breke his silence in eny wise, as hit may be schewede in the questiones whom he did write in his silence. Theles|forus the pope, borne in Grece, succeedede after the dethe of Sixtus, xj. yere. This pope institute the faste of Lente or of xlti dayes to be doen afore Ester, and that noo priste scholde synge masse afore thre of the clokke. Also he ordeynede that thre masses scholde be saide on Cristes day,*. [In the margin is: "Christemas called heertofoer Christ his daye, theerfoer it is no new-fangled terme."] with Gloria in excelsis. Eustachius, other Placidas, suffrede passion in þis yere with his wife and his childer. Fides, Spes, Caritas, and*. [men, Cx.]Page  21, vol.5 Sapiencia moder to theyme, suffrede dethe at Rome. Adrian themperoure diede in Campania, of a swellenge, other a dropesye. Aquila, of the cuntre of Pontus, the secunde in|terpretator after the lxxti., was in this tyme. Yginus the pope succedede Thelesforus iiij. yere. This pope made a statute that noo metropolitan scholde condempne a suffragan but in the audience and siȝhte of conprovincialles and other bis|choppes and suffraganes.

[Capitulum quintumdecimum.]*. [The numbering is omitted in the MS. though a space is left for it.]

Antonius, the meke emperour, reignede with his sonnes Aurelius and Lucius, xxij. yere. This Antonius gate to hym this name, for he releyschede and forȝave alle his dettores theire Page  23, vol.5 dettes, restorenge to theyme theire cauciones. Wherefore he was callede the fader of the cuntre; whiche rehersede ofte the sentence of Scipio, seyenge that he hade lever kepe oon cite|synne then destroye a ml enemyes. Faustina the doȝhter of this Antonius seenge men play with swerdes, hade so grete luffe to oon of theyme that sche began to wexe seke for luffe. Which schewenge that to Marcus Antonius here howsebonde, he askede cownsaile of leches of Caldee, whiche ȝafe cownsaile [folio 219a] that man scholde be sleyne and the body of Faustina his wife to be noyntede with the bloode of hym, and so sche was restorede to healethe. Mony peple of barbre levenge theire contraversies wolde comme and submytte theym to his iugge|mente. Ieronimus de viris illustribus. Policarpus the bischop of Ephesus, and disciple of Seynte Iohn Evangeliste, come to Rome in the tyme of this Antonius, where he converte mony peple from heresy un to the feithe of Criste, and after that he Page  25, vol.5 was brente in his awne chirche. Pius the pope succeded Yginus xv. yere; thro the movenge of whom Hermes didde write a booke, whiche is callede Pastor by the monicion of an angelle apperenge in the habite of a scheparde, in whom hit is expressede that Esterday scholde not falle but on Sonneday. Trogus Pompeius, of the cuntre of Speyne, was abowte this tyme, whiche did write as alle the storyes of the worlde, from the tymes of Ninus, kynge of Assiria, un to the monarchye of emperoures, by xliiij. bookes. The abbreviacion of whom Iustinus his disciple and writer off storyes made; whiche Iustinus did write to Antonius Pius, þemperoure, a booke of the feithe of Criste; wherefore he hade hym in grete favor. Anicetus succedede Pius the pope as x. yere, whiche com|maundede that clerkes scholde be rownded like to a cercle, and that thei scholde not suffre theire heiere to be longe. Galienus Page  27, vol.5 the noble phisicion, borne at Pergamus, was of grete fame this tyme in the cite of Rome, whiche commentate not oonly the bookes of Ypocras, but also he made by his awne laboure as volumes innumerable. Of whom hit is seide that he lyvede a c. and xl. yere, for the discrete abstinence that he exercisede, eitenge not that he was fullefillede, neither drynkenge moche,*. [In the margin is: "A man diyng only for age."] refusenge rawe frutes, havenge thynges of swete odoure in hys hondes that he myȝhte smelle to hit, whiche diede oonly for age. Hireneus the bischop Lugdunense was this tyme, whiche expownede mony bookes of holy scripture. And also Ptholo|meus, a man nobly erudite in speculacions mathematicalle, [folio 219b] whiche made moo processesse in astronomye then were afore his tyme, as the almageste, the perspective, the quadripartite in iuggementes, and mony other bookes of astronomye. Amonge the proverbes of whom tweyne be specifiede in this processe. That man is hye that chargethe not in whose honde Page  29, vol.5 the worlde be. And he that is correcte by other men and other men not by him.*. [Sic.]

Capitulum sextumdecimum.

MARCUS Antonius and Lucius Comodus, the sonnes of An|tonius Pius, regnede after theire fader xviij. yere. These tweyne were coniuncte by consanguinite, thauȝhe thei were*. [not is evidently omitted.] uterynes or childer of oon woman. For Marcus Antonius was sonne in lawe of Antonius Pius, and Lucius Comodus was sonne in lawe to Marcus Antonius; and of these ij. men the Romanes usede to have ij. emperoures. This Marcus An|tonius was not inflate with pride in eny wise, beenge of so sadde conversacion that he chaungede never his chere from his infancy for sorowe or ioye. Whiche hade moore pleasure to distribute his goodes and the clothes of his wife to his Page  31, vol.5 knyȝhtes and men, after that he hade ȝiffen batelle to the Germaynes and to men of Sclavia, after that the commune treasure was doen and exspendede, rather then he wolde greve the senate other peple of his province. This Marcus An|tonius was not grevous, releschenge grete dettes to mony peple, and brente the tables of dettes longenge to hym in þe myddes of the cite, and moderate grevous lawes and constitutions with other of gretter moderacion. Egesippus the wryter of storyes was this tyme, whiche did wryte in Grewe of the destruccion of the cite of Ierusalem, the werke off whom Seynte Ambrose did translate. Praxedis the virgyne was this tyme, whiche beryenge the bodyes of mony holy peple, preiede allemyȝhty God that sche myȝhte departe from this worlde after theym in Page  33, vol.5 haste, and that preyer was herde of allemyȝhty God. There was suche dethe and pestilence thro the worlde that the hoste of the Romanes was allemoste destroyede. Wherefore Marcus Antonius fiȝhtenge ageyne the Germaynes his adversaryes, and his men allemoste dedde for thruste, God ȝafe theym water [folio 220a] from hevyn, schewenge to his adversaryes thundres and lyȝhtenge. Gaufridus. Lucius, the son of Coillus, began to reigne in Briteyne abowte the firste of the reigne of Marcus Antonius. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Whiche sende letters to Eleutherius the pope, that they myȝhte receyve the feithe of Criste, whiche feithe of Criste receyvede, the Britones kepede un to the tymes of Dioclician themperour. Sother the pope succeded after Anicetus as ix. yere, whiche constitute that a myncheon scholde not towche the palles of the awter neither cense afore the awter, but that sche scholde use a wymple. Page  35, vol.5 Eleutherius the pope succedede Sother xv. yere, whiche con|fermede that eny meyte scholde not be refusede of Cristen men that were resonable and hollesome to the body of man, and also eny man scholde not be deiecte withowte a lawefulle accusacion precedenge, seyenge that oure Savioure hade know|lege Iudas scholde betray hym and scholde be a thefe, but he was not deiecte from his degre, for he was not accusede. And so that he did amonge thapostelles abydede fre, for the dignite of his mistery. This Eleutherius sende Foganus and Damianus to Breteyne, at the peticion of Lucius kynge of hit, whiche baptiȝede the kynge and his peple, whiche ordeynede byschoppes and archebischoppes in the stedde of other ministres after the consuetude of Gentiles. And that feythe durede in this londe of Briteyne by ijc. and xvj. yere, un to the tymes of Dioclician themperour, when Seynte Albane was martiriȝate.

Page  37, vol.5

Capitulum septimumdecimum.

LUCIUS COMODUS reignede after Marcus Antonius xiij. yere. This Comodus, ȝiffen to alle incommodite and luste of the flesche, causede mony senatores and Cristen men to be sleyne, [folio 220b] and causede the monethe September to be callede after his name: whiche was sleyne in the place vestalle thro the procure and cause of his wife, with so moche cursenge that he was callede the enemy of man kynde. This Lucius sende Philippe the noble citesynne of Rome to Egipte, Eugenia the doȝhter of whom departede from Philippe here fader, that tyme a gentile, with her ij. breþer Prothus and Iacinctus, in the habite of a man; whiche were baptiȝede; and after that Eugenia was made a monke, seyenge that here name was Eugenius, and Page  39, vol.5 afterwarde abbotte of the place.*. [In the margin is: "A woman abbot of a monastery."] Neverthelesse a woman fixede her siȝhte unchastely, callede Melancia, un to the abbote, whiche refusenge that synne was accusede afore the seide Philippe that he hade oppressede that woman callede Melancia. This abbotte namede Eugenius was taken and brouȝhte afore Philippe her awne fader, where sche schewede that sche was his doȝhter, with Prothus and Iacinctus her breþer. The fader seenge þat was baptiȝede with alle his howseholde, and Melancia that woman defamenge Eugenia the doȝhter of Philippe was brente sodenly with the liȝhtenge. Victor the pope succeded Eleutherius x. yere, whiche directe letters to Theophilus the bischoppe Alexandryne, and to alle the breþer þer, that thei scholde kepe a cownselle for the trewe observacion of Estur. Marianus, libro primo, capitulo tertio. For after the dethe of thapostoles un til then, men of Fraunce Page  41, vol.5 kepede the day of the nativite of Criste in the viij. kalendes of Ianuary, in what day hit happede, and Ester in the viijthe kalendes of Aprile, in what day that hit happede, after the firste tradicion. But, as the story of Eusebius rehersethe, men of the Este kepede Ester in what day the xiiij. moone of Marche happede. The pope Victor, and Narcius the patriarke of Ierusalem, were at this cownsayle, and Hireneus the bischoppe Lugdunense; where hit was ordeynede that Ester scholde be kepede in the Sonneday from the xiiij. moone of the firste monethe un to the xxjti moone inclusively. The ordinaunce of whom Theophilus Cesariense helpede moche. Theodocion the thrydde inter|pretator [folio 221a] was in þis tyme. Helius reignede after Comodus vj. monethes, whom Iulianus, a man of lawe, did sle, and so he Page  43, vol.5 entrede thempire and reignede vij. monethes, whiche was sleyne by Severus.

Capitulum octavumdecimum.

Severus reignede after Iulian xvj. yere. This Severus was made emperour oonly of that cuntre of Affrike; whiche instructe in philosophye was made firste advocate of the kynges trea|sure, and so he come by diverse office that he was electe to be emperour; a grete sparer, whiche hade victory of men of Parthia and also of Araby, dienge and finischenge the laste daies of his lyfe at Yorke. Beda, libro primo, capitulo quinto. This emperoure governede thempire myȝhtely, but with gretely*. [Sic.] laboure; whiche commenge to Briteyne, made a walle of a c. and xxijti, ml passes from see to see, not of ston, as mony men sup|pose, Page  45, vol.5 but of turves, on whom grete trees were sette, makenge mony towres in hit. After that he diede at Yorke, levenge after hym ij. sonnes, Bassianus and Geta; but Bassianus, namede and callede Antonius, reioycede the realme. Gaufridus. Lucius the kynge off Britones dedde and beryede at Claudio|cestre, a discorde and debate were movede betwene the Britones and þe Romanes. Giraldus. The Britones electe Bassianus to be kynge, for cause his moder was a woman of Briteyne; and the Romanes electe Geta, in that a woman of Rome was moder to hym. Neverthelesse, these parties metenge in a con|flicte, Geta was sleyne. ℞. Eutropius rehersethe in his story Page  47, vol.5 of the Romanes that the seide Geta was sleyne at a cite callede Edessa, as he wente to ȝiffe batelle to men of Parthia of a tyraunte callede Carausius. Simachus, the iiijthe interpretator was this tyme, a Samaritan of nativite, made as an aliaunte amonge the Iewes. Eusebius, libro sexto. Narcisus the bischop of Ierusalem was of grete lawde in this tyme, whom men sayde to be inflexible in iuggementes. Thre wickede men percey|venge [folio 221b] that, and confederate to geder, feynede a mater ageyne that bischoppe, bryngenge furthe þeim as wittenesse ageyne hym. The firste preyede Allemyȝhty God that he myȝhte be consumede with the fyre of God if that the bischop were not gilty in that cryme they obiecte and bere wittenesse ageyne hym. The secunde preyede that he myȝhte be consumede with the kynges sekenesse if hit were not trewe thei testifiede ageyne hym. The thrydde prayede that he myȝhte be blynde if that he sayde not trawthe. Then soone after Allemyȝhty*. [aȝenst] and accused, Cx.]Page  49, vol.5 God brente the firste wittenesse with alle his howseholde, and consumede the secunde with the kynges sekenesse. The thridde man seenge this, and dredenge the wrathe of Alle|myȝhty God, knowlegede his offense and trespasse afore alle peple openly, with so moche wepynde that he was blynde þerwith. Zephirinus the pope succeded Victor ix. yere; whiche made a constitucion that alle peple of Criste excedenge xij. yere in age scholde receyve the moste precious body of Criste oonys in the yere on Ester day. This pope did wryte mony omelyes, oon of the innocentes, whiche begynnethe "Zelus quo tendat," and an other of the decollacion of Seynte Iohn Bap|tiste. Eusebius, libro sexto. Seynte Leonides, the fader of Origenes, was martiriȝate at Alexandrye in the kalendes of Marche. Thexemple of whom Origenes intended to folowe, havenge xviij. yere in age, but he was reservede by the meane of his moder, thro divine dispensacion, to the utilite of moche Page  51, vol.5 peple. For his moder took aweye his clothes in the nyȝhte afore that he wolde have goen to his fader; wherefore þat childe Origenes sende an epistole to his fader, certifyenge hym that he was compellede to tary by meanes of hys moder from hym, preyenge and comfortenge his fader to prosecute that he hade begunne. This Origenes movede questiones of his fader in his tendre age, how scripture is seide inspirate by the Holy Goste, and what thynge of divine cownsayle simplicite of wordes coverethe in hit. Wherefore hit is seide that Seynte Leonides, [folio 222a] fader to Origene, wolde uncover that childe Origenes beenge in slepe, and kysse his breste, worschippenge hyt as the temple of God, seyenge hym to be happy that he was fader to suche a sonne. Wherefore Leonides putte to dethe for the feithe of Criste, and his goodes eschete with his wyfe and childer, Origenes, lefte in grete pennury, helde a scole of grammar at Alexandrye, where thro he founde hym and diverse of his Page  53, vol.5 frendes. And in that tyme he converte mony peple to the feithe of Criste, and norischede men trowblede for the feithe of God, and made theyme bolde to suffre dethe for the luffe off theire Lorde that suffrede dethe for theym. Whiche laborede to performe and folowe the wordes of the gospelle, that he scholde not have ij. cotes, and that he scholde not thenke of the day folowenge, with thexemple of sure poverte, in so moche that he wolde expelle yonge men from his scole whom he per|ceyvede to reserve eny money to theym, havenge exhibicion competente. This Origenes usede to were noo schone by mony*. [Of Origenes.] yere, absteynenge from wyne withowte grete infirmite of the stomake movede hym to drynke wyne; whiche did gelde hym selfe in his tendre age, a signe of grete feithe and of chastite, that he myȝhte take aweye every occasion of fowle suspicion, not oonly for the obtente and wille of chastite, but also for cause he scholde preche openly and prively to men and to Page  55, vol.5 women. ℞. Mamea, the moder of Alexander themperour, herenge of Origenes, causede hym to goe from Alexandria un to Antiochia. This Origenes hade vij, yonge men and vij. yonge women that didde write like as he rehersede un to þeym,*. [Of his labours.] oþer writers excepte; whiche did write so mony volumes that Seynte Ierom seythe hym selfe to have redde iiii.ml volumes of the werkes of Origen, excepte epistoles. Of whom hit was*. [Of his life.] seide proverbially that his lyfe was lyke to his doctryne, slepenge not in bedde, and tastenge neither wyne ne flesche. Giraldus. Origenes scholde have bene accomptede oon of the moste noble writers if that he hade avoyded erroures in so grete laboures. And lyke as alle poetes of Latyne folowede [folio 222b] Ennius, soe in lyke wise alle expositores have folowede Origenes. Ieronimus, epistola quadragesima prima. Where Origenes Page  57, vol.5 seide welle, noo man myȝhte say better, and where he seide ylle, noo man myȝhte say wurs; whiche overcommenge alle|moste alle other doctors in mony werkes, overcome hym selfe on the Canticles; whiche did speke a ml tretys in the chyrche. Also he made commentaryes as innumerable, whom he namede thomus. But peraventur a man wylle obiecte to us his erroures; what thauȝhe oon be viciate, God for bede that his notable werkes scholde be refusede þerfore. For oon booke of his is viciate specially, whiche is callede Periarchon, where he understondethe ylle of the Fader, wors of the Sonne, and wurste of the Holy Goste; where in he seithe Criste of his grete mercy to redeme the angeles þat felle from hevyn with Lucifer, applyenge to his purpose these wordes: "Non in perpetuum irascetur." Neverthelesse Origenes did penaunce þerfore,*. [Origenes was peni|tente for his heresy.] as hit is schewede in an epistole whom he sende to Fabian pope of Rome, expressenge the cause of that offense in a boke, Page  59, vol.5 seyenge that his frendes were cause þerof, sayenge that and if y hade bene stille y scholde have be acomptede gilty, and if y hade answerede y scholde have bene iuggede an enemy. Either of these condicions is herde, þerefore y schalle chose þat thynge that is moste liȝhte. The vthe translacion was founde abowte this tyme at Iherico, whiche is callede the commune translacion, the auctor of whom is not knowen; of the whiche translacion oure usualle psawter semethe to have beene taken, sithe we folowe the translacion of Seynte Ierome in oþer bookes of divine scripture. Damasus the pope causede the churche of Rome to folowe Seynte Ierome in his sawter.

Capitulum nonumdecimum.

BASSIANUS Antonius, the son of Severus, reignede after his fader as vij. yere. This Bassianus was callede Marcus Aurelius, Page  61, vol.5 and Caracalla for a maner of clothenge þat he distribute at Rome, wherefore the bathes he made at Rome be callede Caracallane. This Bassianus was a man of wickede disposicion, ȝiffen moche to the luste of the flesche. ℞. In so moche that he mariede to hym Iulia the wife of his fader. Of the place of his dethe [folio 223a] auctores discorde, as hit is schewede afore. Galfridus et Alfridus. In the tyme of this emperour, a man of lawe bloode of Briteyne, Carausius by name, but prompte in cownsel, ob|teynede of the senate that he myȝhte kepe the costes of the see of Briteyn, whom men of Fraunce and Saxones grevede soore, whiche causede more grevaunce to the commune utilite then to the profite of hit. Wherefore he promisede the Britones that he wolde expelle the Romanes from theire costes so that thei wolde make hym kynge; whiche did sle Bassianus, and was governoure of that realme by vij. yere. For the Pictes, whom duke Fulgencius, broþer of the moder of Bassianus, hade brouȝhte from Sichia and other costes, corrupte thro the Page  63, vol.5 ȝiftes of Carausius, lefte Bassianus in that batelle. This Carausius beenge victor in that batelle, ȝafe to þe Pictes a place to inhabite in Albania, where in thei taryede as mixte with the Britones. The senate of Rome perceyvenge the treason of this Carausius, sende Allectus with thre legiones of Romanes un to Briteyne, whiche ȝiffenge batelle to Carausius did sle hym, and reignenge in Briteyne by the space of thre yere, restorede that realme to the power of þe Romanes. Giraldus. Asclepiodotus the duke of Cornewaile was electe to be kynge for cause Allectus punyschede soore the Britones that supportede Carausius; wherefore Allectus was sleyne after the thridde yere of his reigne, with mony ml of the Romanes, by Asclepiodotus made kynge of Briteyne at the cite of London. Gaufridus. And Gallus, the felowe of Allectus, segede longe in London, was sleyne at a ryver of hit calle Gallebroke after his name. This Asclepiodotus reignede in Briteyne by mony yeres un to the tymes off Page  65, vol.5 Dioclician, and then Coelus the duke of Colchestre did slee [folio 223b] hym. Beda, libro primo, capitulo tertio, folowenge Eutropius, seithe this Asclepiodotus was a grete governoure of Rome; whom Giraldus and Gaufridus seythe to have be the duke of Cornewaile. Eutropius. Opilius Macrinus reignede in thempire after Bassianus oon yere, sleyne with his sonne at Archelaides. Calixtus the pope succeded Zephirinus as v. yere; whiche ordeynede the observaunce of iiij. tymes for the grete habundaunce of frutes; whiche made a seyntuary in the cite of Rome, in the way callede Via Appia, to bery the bodies of martires, whiche is callede now the wey of Calixtus. Marcus*. [Marcus Aurelius.] Aurelius Antonius, the son of Bassian as men supposede, reignede ij. yere; whiche oversckippede not eny kynde of lecchery, sleyne at the laste in batelle.

Page  67, vol.5

Capitulum vicesimum.

AURELIUS Alexander was made emperour xiij. yere; whiche was so grete a corrector of his peple that he wolde expelle from hym diverse legiones grucchenge holly; whiche was sleyne at Nicapolis in Palestyne.*. [The translator has evidently confused the two sentences of the original.] In the tyme of whom the sexte translacion was founde. Martinus. Urbanus the pope succeded Calixtus putte to dethe by Alexander themperour, callede Urbanus primus, by viij. yere; whiche ordeynede that the oblaciones of trewe peple sholde not be convertede otherwise then in to the uses of the churche and to the indigence of the breþer, in that thei be þe promisses of trewe peple and the price of synnes. The churche of Rome began firste to have posses|siones in his tymes, of the proventus of whom Urbanus the pope Page  69, vol.5 deputede a certeyne lyffenge to the notaries and scribes whiche did write the deedes of holy seyntes. This is the bischop Urban whiche baptiȝede Valerianus the spowse of Seynte Cecily, with whom he was martiriȝate also under Aurelius Alexander. The body of whom Fabianus the pope brouȝhte to Rome and beryede hit. Whom Poncianus the pope succeded, whiche brouȝhte [folio 224a] to Sardinia suffrede passion þer. Hit is seide that a pope callede Ciriacus succeded this Poncianus by a yere, but he was not nowmbrede amonge other bischoppes, in that he wente un to Agrippina with vj.*. [Error of the scribe for xj.] ml virgines whom hade baptiȝede alle|moste. For the cardinalles supposede that he hade goen with theyme for the pleasure of the flesche, and to-lefte his benefice for the luffe of theyme, whiche was martiriȝate with those virgynes afterwarde, as hit is expressede in the legendes of theyme. Maximus Iulius reignede after the dethe of Aurelius,*. [Maximus Iulius.]Page  71, vol.5 whiche was made emperour by his hoste withowte consente of the senate, and reignede iij. yere. This emperour persuede the churche moche for Origenes; neverthelesse he was sleyne at the laste at Aquileia. Gordianus was emperour vj. yere, whiche was sleyne by Philippe, governour of the pretory, not*. [Gordianus.] ferre from the cite of Rome, after that he hade victory ageyne men of Parthia. Fabianus the pope succeded Ancherus as xv. yere, whiche spekenge to his frendes in traveylenge of the succession off the pope, a dovese come and sate on his hedde, seyenge that thow schalle be crownede bischoppe of Rome. Whiche electe so by the grace of God, ordeynede vij. notaries to write the gestes of martires, and also that creme scholde be blissede in the churche every yere. Novacianus, a preste of Rome, desirenge to be pope, and put from hit in the tyme of this pope, was made an heretike, denyenge mercy to synnefulle men arisenge from synne. Wherefore a cownselle was hade of lx. bischoppes. Affricanus the writer was þis Page  73, vol.5 tyme, whiche movede by Heraclides bischop, whiche did write the lyfes of holy faders in a booke callede Paradisus, wente to Alexandria, where he kepede a scole of grammer after the dethe of Origenes. Coelus the duke of Colchestre did sle Asclepio|dotus in this tyme, and reignede in Briteyne as xxxti yere un to the tyme and commenge of Constantyne.

Capitulum vicesimum primum.

PHILIPPUS, with Philippe his sonne, was emperour the space [folio 224b] of vij. yere. This Philippe was the firste emperour that recey|vede the feithe of Criste, baptiȝede of Poncius martir; whiche was of so grete feithe, that he confessenge his synnes wolde receyve the blissede sacramente in the feste of Ester afore alle peple. Also his sonne was of so constante feithe that he cowthe not be movede to laȝhe in eny wise, stryvenge with Page  75, vol.5 vices and drawenge to vertu. Eutropius. The ml yere from the edifienge of the cite of Rome was complete in the iiijthe yere of his reigne; wherefore he made solenne thynges, and did sle bestes as innumerable, makenge disportes and playes in a grete felde by iij. daies and iii. nyȝhtes contynually. Fabianus the pope suffrede dethe under Decius consul, whom Cornelius succedede iij. yere; whiche ordeynede that an othe scholde not be re|quirede of the hie pristes but for the ryȝhte feithe of Criste, and that a preste scholde not committe his cause to the iugge|mente of other peple afore that he have appellede to the cowrte of Rome. This pope causede the blissede relikes of Seyntes Petyr and Paule to be taken from theire beryalles at the desire of Seynte Lucina, and the body of Seynte Paule to be sette in*. [The bodyes of Seynte Petyr and Paule were taken from Rome by Grekes.] the weye Ostiense, and the body of Seynte Petyr in Vatican nye to the place of his passion. In the tymes of thys pope the bodyes of Seynte Petyr and Paule were stollen by men of Grece, Page  77, vol.5 that they myȝhte have theym in to þeire londe. That doen, the develles inhabitenge the ydoles, coacte by the vertu and power of God, cryede, "Ye men of Rome, helpe, for youre goddes be taken awey." The trewe peple of Criste understondynge that to be seide of thapostles, and the unfeithefulle men sup|posenge hit to be seide of þeire goddes, pursewede the Grekes. The Grekes trowblede soore, and dredenge the persecucion of the Romanes, caste the bodies of Petyr and Paule in to a pytte. Whiche takenge furthe, and the bodyes of theym not knowen perfitely whiche were the boones of Seynte Petyr and whiche of Seynte Paule, the trewe peple of Criste preyenge God to be certifiede of the trawthe. Then hit was schewede to theym [folio 225a] by revelacion þat the moore boones were of Seynte Petyr. Philippus themperour was sleyne at Verona thro treason of Decius, and Philippus his sonne was sleyne at Rome. ℞. Hit is redde in the legendes of seyntes that Philippus the elder Page  79, vol.5 sende Decius his myȝhty knyȝhte to subdewe Fraunce, whiche returnede from þat victory did slee the seide Philippe at Verona. The yonger Philippe understondenge that, fledde to Rome, and toke the treasures of his fader to blissede Sixtus the pope, and to Laurence his diacon, that thei scholde distribute theyme to poore men. This Decius made emperour, began to do perse|cucion to the trewe peple of Criste, that hyt scholde be seide he did sle his lorde for ydolatry, and for noon oþer treason; whiche reignede thre yere. This Decius willenge to have in|duede Decius his sonne with a diademe imperialle, the childe refusede hit, sayenge, "I drede that and if y be an emperour y schal forgete to be a sonne, þerfore y hade lever be noon emperour and be a meke sonne, then to be emperour and be a sonne indevoute; þerfore y wylle the fader be emperour; myne empire schalle be to obeye to emperour.

Page  81, vol.5

Capitulum vicesimum secundum.

DECIUS Oros*. [Sic in MS.] was emperour thre yere and þre monethes, and after the cronicle of Eusebius hit semethe þat þis Decius reignede viij. yere. And after the martiloge hit semethe that he reignede xv. yere, or elles it may not stonde that so mony popes suffrede dethe by this Decius, as Fabianus, Cornelius, Lucius, Stephanus, and Sixtus. Wherefore somme men wylle xvj. yere and ij. yere of Galerius to restore the harme and wontenge of xviij. yere, whiche fayle in the cronicles of Eusebius and of Bede from the xv. yere of Tiberius themperour un to us. But hit is to be advertisede that Decius the senior, whiche did sle Philippe themperoure and was his successour, was emperoure but thre, as hit is rehersede here. But an oþer Decius, yonger to hym, was Cesar and not emperour, and so betwene þese tweyne were somme emperours and somme Page  83, vol.5 popes, as Gallus and Volusianus; after whom Valerius reignede with Galienus his son as xv. yere, in the tymes of whom v. [folio 225b] popes suffrede passion, Seynte Lawrence, and Ypolitus with alle his howseholde. For this seyenge semethe to conferme thynges seyde, for this Galienus hade ij. names, for he was callede Decius, for hit is not redde in the story of Seynte Lawrence of Decius themperoure, but of Decius Cæsar. Where|fore hit seme Seynte Lawrence to have suffrede dethe in the time of Decius made Cæsar by Philippe themperoure. For mony emperoures were callede afore Cesares, after that Augusti, and then emperoures. Therefore the vij. slepers began to slepe*. [The vij. slepers began to slepe.] in the mownte Selius in the firste yere of Decius themperoure, whiche contynuenge in slepe by cc. yere, arysede abowte the tymes of Theodosius. Antonius the monke of noble fame was borne in Egipte abowte þis tyme. Cornelius the pope suffrede Page  85, vol.5 passion, whom Lucius succeded, which contynuede in that office iij. yere. Also Abdon and Sennen and Seynte Agatha suffrede passion at a cite callede Cathina. In whiche yere Decius was sleyne with his sonne of the Gothes at Tracia. Neverthelesse hit is redde in the passion of Ypolitus that Decius and Valerianus vexede with a spiritte, after the dethe of Seynte Laurence, dyede. Gallus with Volusian his sonne reignede as ij. yere, whiche goenge furthe of the cite of Rome were sleyne by Emilianus, whiche usurpenge thempire was extincte in the thrydde monethe folowenge. In that daies a pestilente infirmite occupiede alle the worlde, and Origenes dyenge was beryede at Tirus in the lxxti yere of his age.

Capitulum vicesimum tertium.

VALERIANUS, with Galienus his sonne, reignede xv. yere. This emperoure hade seyntes in so grete reverence that his Page  87, vol.5 howse was supposede to be a churche. Whiche deceyvede by a wickede man hade not seyntes in honour, and didde grete per|secucion [folio 226a] to the tru peple of Criste; whiche was so destitute by the sufferaunce of God, that he taken of þe kynge of Persia and made blynde, was putte to this schamefulle servitute, that he turnenge his face to grownde and lyenge, scholde suffre the kynge of Persia to take his horse from his backe. Paulus the firste heremite wente to wildernesse, where he taryede as un|knowen by lx. yere as Seynte Ierome wryteth in vitis patrum. Stephanus was pope after Lucius thre yere; whiche ordeynede that ministres of the churche scholde not were the haloede clothes to theire exercise. Seynte Ciprian made a preste and byschoppe of Cartago, suffrede passion in the same day with Cornelius the pope, but not in the same yere. Sixtus the Page  89, vol.5 pope succedede Steven, martiriȝate for the feithe of Criste, as ij. yere; whiche ordeynede masse to be seyde on an awter. After that he suffrede dethe under Decius, after the martiloge, with Felicissimus and Agapitus; for hit is raþer to ȝiffe credence to the martiloge then un to cronicles apocrifate, for this em|perour Galienus was callede Decius. This Sixtus goenge in a tyme un to Speyne, brouȝte with hym ij. of his cosynnes to Rome, Vincencius and Laurencius; Laurence taryenge with hym at Rome; and Vincencius returnede un to Speyne, whiche suffrede passion after that under Dacian the presidente. Dionisius beynge a monke was made pope, and succeded Sixtus vj. yere; whiche dividede the paresches and the churcheyardes to theym, assignenge to eiche of theym certeyne prestes. Felix the pope succedede Dionisius iiij. yere. Eugenia, Prothus, and Iacinctus suffrede dethe at Rome. Gregory Naȝanȝene was of grete fame this tyme in the londe of Grece, byschoppe of Con|stantinople. Page  91, vol.5 This bischoppe thro hys preyers causede a grete water fulle of fische to be made drye thro his preyer,*. [Sic in MS.] for cause þer was movede grete dissencion for hit betwene ij. breþer germayne. Also when hit was so in that costes that a grete rocke or roche of the este parte and a floode of the weste parte denyede a place sufficiaunte to the edifienge of a churche,*. [A miracle.] thys Gregory ȝiffen to preyer in the nyȝhte, the roche was movede so ferre from the place where hit was afore, that men hade sufficiaunte space to the edificacion of the chirche. Also [folio 226b] this Gregorius entrenge in to the temple, the priste kepenge that temple cowthe not have eny answere of the ydoles; whiche preste offrenge was monyschede in his slepe that Apollo was expulsede from the churche in the entrenge of Gregory in to hit, and myȝte not returne withowte his licence. The preste herenge that folowede Gregory Naȝanȝene, and desirede to Page  93, vol.5 have an epistole; whiche made an epistole to þe preste in this wyse: "Gregory to Apollo gretenge; y suffre the to returne to thy place, and do as thow was wonte." That epistole putte in the temple, Apollo ȝafe answeres. The preste perceyvenge that vertu, returnede to Gregory, preyenge hym that he myȝhte receyve the feithe of Criste, whiche was byschoppe of Constan|tinopole*. [Claudius.] after this Gregory. Claudius the secunde was empe|rour oon yere and certeyne monethes; whiche hade victory oon tyme of the Gothes, and diede at Smirnus. Quintilius, the*. [Quintilia|nus.] broþer of whom, made emperour by the cownsayle of his knyȝhtes, was sleyne in Aquileia in the xviij. day folowenge. Euticianus the pope succeded Felix sex yere. This pope beryede cccc. and lx. martirs hym selfe.

Capitulum vicesimum quartum.

AURELIUS, borne in Denmarke, was emperour v. yere and certeyne monethes; like to grete Alexander or to Iulius Cesar, Page  95, vol.5 for Alexander persynge the costes of Ynde in xij. yere, and Iulius Cesar subduenge to hym Frensche men and men also of Germany in x. yere. This Aurelius instorede the cite of Rome in iiij. yere. In the firste tymes of whom the state of the churche was encreasede gretely, in so moche that a noble cownselle of bischoppes was hade at Anthiochia, in whom Paulus the heretyke was condempnede. Whiche excitede afterwarde by ylle cownselle, persewede the churche. This emperour hade victory v. tymes of the Gothes, whiche usede firste clothes of golde of themperours of Rome, and putte a diademe on his hedde onornede regally with gemmes, ordeynenge the use off [folio 227a] eytenge of swyne flesche; whiche commenge at the laste to Fraunce, martiriȝate mony trewe peple of Criste, callenge the cite callede Senalius, Aurelianus, after his name; sleyne after that nye to Constantinopole. After whom Tacitus reignenge vj. monethes, was sleyne at Pontus. After whom Florianus reignede iij. monethes, and sleyne at Tharsum. Gayus the Page  97, vol.5 pope succeded Euticianus xx. yere; whiche ordeynede diverse degres of ordres in þe churche, as hostiary, reder, benette, accolette, and oþer, and also that noo man scholde accuse the ministres of the churche afore a secular iugge. Anatolius Alexandrinus, bischop of Laodicia, made a boke of Ester and x. bookes of arismetrike. The heresy of the Maniches began to sprynge this tyme, for Manicheus, by kynde of Persida, subtile of wytte, in maneres after the consuetude of men of barbre, was callede firste Manes, of whom the men callede Manichei toke theire name. These men say theire be ij. be|gynnenges or principles, oon of goodenesse, an oþer of ylle; oon of lyȝhte, an other of derkenesse. Giraldus et Alfridus. Constancius was sende from Rome to Briteyne abowte this tyme to subdue Coelus kynge of that cuntre, and to receyve a tribute denyede to be payede. But Coelus dedde, after a monethe of the commenge of Constancius to Briteyne, Con|stancius*. [Of Helen moder of noble Con|stantyn. Probus.] reioycenge that realme, maryede Helena, doȝhter of the seide Coelus, of whom he gate noble Constantyne. Probus was emperour vj. yere and certeyne monethes. This emperour Page  99, vol.5 restorede in to Fraunce and to Pannony, men of that cuntre expulsede, men of barbre, suffrenge theyme to have vynes; and when he hade sette thempire in reste, he seyde within schorte space folowenge knyȝhtes wille not be necessary; sleyne after that in batelle at Sirmius. Carus, with Carinus and Nume|rianus*. [Carus.] his sonnes, was emperour ij. yere; whiche was drownede in the water callede Tigris. Numerianus, cariede in a chariette for infirmities and grevaunce, specially of his eien, was sleyne by treason of Aprus his fader in lawe. And Carinus was sleyne at Margus.

Capitulum vicesimum quintum.

DIOCLICIANUS, the sonne of Dalmata the scribe, of a con|sulle [folio 227b] made emperour, was emperour xxti yere. Whiche did Page  101, vol.5 smyte Aper or Aprus, fader in lawe to Numerianus, in the cownselle howse of knyȝhtes, swerenge that he was notte gilty of the dethe of Numerianus. This Dioclician was a subtile man of witte, in so moche that he cowthe explete his cruellenesse thro envy of other men. Whiche commaundede hym selfe to be worschippede as godde, usenge clothes and schoone replete with gemmes; sythe afore this emperoure other emperoures were contente with a robe or mantel of pur|pull, by whiche themperoures were knowen from oþer men of worschippe. Eutropius. This Dioclician perceyvenge batelles to be movede ageyne hym, toke a felowe to hym, Herculeus Maximianus by name, to governe thempire with hym, a man of grete crudelite, schewenge his scharpenesse by the ferefulle chere and contynaunce of hym. Neverthelesse Dioclician made hym firste Cesar, and after that an emperour; whiche Page  103, vol.5 oppressynge a multitude of chorles, restorede pease to men of Fraunce. After that Dioclician made Galerius and Constancius Cesares, that lyke as thempire was governede by ij. empe|roures, so the commune utilite scholde be disposede by ij. Cesares. For hit is of moore noble dignite to be an emperour then to be Cesar. This Dioclician causede Constantius to leve Helena his firste wife, and to marye Theodora the stappe|doȝhter off Herculeus Maximianus, of whom he gate vj. sonnes. Also he causede Galerius to mary his doȝhter Valeria, his wife refusede also. At the laste, Dioclician and Maximian levenge thempire voluntaryly, began to be philosophres. Then Constancius and Galerius were made emperoures, and dividede thempire betwene þeym, soe that Galerius scholde reioyce Grece with oþer regiones of þe Este, and that Constancius scholde reioyce the weste regiones; nevertheles, Constancius contente with Fraunce and Speyne, ȝafe the other cuntres to Page  105, vol.5 Galerius. Wherefore Galerius made ij. Cesares, Maximianus in the Este, and Severus in the Weste and in Ytaly, reteynenge [folio 228a] to hym selfe oonly the londe of Grece. After that Dioclician intendede to have sleyne Constantyne the son of Constantius, geten by Helena his firste wife; but Constantinus knowenge that, fledde to Constancius his fader. Seynte George, a tribune by office, of the cuntre of Capadocia, suffrede dethe for the feithe of Criste in Persida, at the cite callede Diospolis nye to Ioppen, under Dacian the presidente. The legende of whom is hade amonge scriptures apocriphate by the decrete of þe cownesayle Nicene. Marcellinus the pope succedede Gaius viij.*. [A wikked dede.] yere; whiche consente in a tyme to do sacrifice to ydoles by the compulsion of Dioclician; whiche was penitente þerfore afterwarde, in a cownesayle hade at Campania afore a c. and Page  107, vol.5 iiijxx bischoppes, clothede with an hair*. [Sic in MS.] havenge asches caste on hit, submittenge hym mekely to the correccion and censure of the churche. The bischoppes seide, "Thow hase denyede Criste; and Petyr denyede Criste also, whiche not iuggede by eny other man, wente furthe and wepede soore; þerfore iugge thy selfe." Then Marcellinus seide, "And y iugge me to be deposede; and y ȝiffe my curs to the man that puttethe my body, after my dethe, to the sepulture of the churche." Whiche goenge after that to Dioclician, and knowlegenge hym a Cristen man, was hedede. And when the body of that pope Marcellinus lye unberyede by xxxti daies openly in the hie way, Seynte Petyr apperede in the nyȝhte to a preste callede Marcellus, whiche was successor to Marcellinus, seyenge in this wise, "Marcellus, why dothe thow not bery my body," understondenge by that the body of Marcellinus; "Hase þow not redde that every man makenge meke hym selfe schalle be exaltede; þerfore bery him by me, that sepulture may not divide theyme whom the same grace Page  109, vol.5 iustifiethe." Constancius did slee lx. ml of the Alemannes nye to Lingones; whiche conclusede in the cite, was putte downe of the walles by a rope, the hoste beynge ignorante. Galerius devicte by Narsus, fledde to Dioclician, whiche was seide to be receyvede of Dioclician with so grete honoure, and obtenede so grete favor, that Dioclician clothede in purpulle [folio 228b] wolde renne by the chariette of Galerius by certeyne ml passes. Martinus. Marcellus the pope succeded Marcellinus, after that the seete hade bene vacante by mony dayes; whiche con|tynuede in that office by v. yere. This pope ordeynede xv. places for so mony cardinalles, for the ministracion of baptym and of beryenge. Maximian themperour compellede this pope to kepe bestes, for cause that he wolde not do sacrifice to ydoles, but hit is*. [Sic in MS,] clerkes toke hym aweye in the nyȝhte. Whiche haloenge a churche in the brode weye, Maximian made that churche a stable, and causede Marcellus the pope to kepe bestes þer openly, whiche coverede there with an hair*. [Sic, ut supra.] diede. Page  111, vol.5 Whom Eusebius succeded, made pope of a leche. ℞. After the cronicle of Eusebius and Bede, the xviij. year of Dioclician was the firste yere of the grete persecucion under Dioclician in the Este and Maximian in the Weste, whiche persecucion was moore longe and more cruelle then other persecucions, durenge continually by x. yere; for thauȝhe Dioclician and Maximian lefte thempyre in the thridde yere of the persecucion, as hyt is schewede afore, neverthelesse that persecucion i|begunne, contynuede un to the vijthe yere of grete Constantyne; whiche was seide to have bene so grete that the churches destroyede, and the bokes of the lawe of God brente, xvij. ml martirs suffrede dethe thro diverse places of the worlde within the space of oon monethe. In whiche tyme the noble martirs folowenge suffrede dethe: Pancracius, Primus, Feli|cianus, Sebastianus, Felix, Adauctus, vij. breþer with Beatrice theire moder, Quatuor coronati, Grisogonus, Vincente, George, Page  113, vol.5 Pantaleon, Vitus, Modestus, Ciprian with Justina, Cosmas and Dannanus, Puerbarala, Fidis, Eufemia, Lucia, Anastasia, Agnes, Gorgonius, and a cite of trewe peple of Criste brente at Frigia with alle peple inhabitenge hit. Beda, libro primo, capitulo septimo. Seynte Alban suffrede dethe þat tyme in Englonde.*. [Of Seynte Alban.] This Alban beynge a pagan loggede a clerke in his place, by whom he was convertede to the feithe of Criste; whiche [folio 229a] clothenge hym in the habite of that clerke, whiche was callede Caracalla, and presentede hym selfe to þe iugge. Whiche iuggede to dethe, converte mony peple to the feithe nye to a welle brekenge up from the grownde at hys preyer; after that an oþer welle did sprynge in the toppe of that hille on whom he suffrede dethe, and convertede his heder in to the feithe of Criste, suffrenge passion nye to a cite callede in Englische Verlamchestre or Watlingestrete. Item Beda, capitulo octavo.Page  115, vol.5 The heresy of Arrius spronge this tyme, whiche infecte not the worlde oonly, but also the yles of the worlde, whiche ioy to here newe thynges, not holdenge theyme contente with thynges certeyne. Dioclician and Maximian levede thempire this tyme, and lyvede privately, that oon at Nichomedia, that other at*. [Of the heresy of Arrius.] Mediolanus. Melchiades þe pope succeded Eusebius iiij. yere; whiche prohibete fastenge on the Sonneday and on Thursday, in that the paganes do not*. [not] sic in MS.] worschippe in those dayes. Galerius was emperour oon yere, whiche create ij. Cesares, Maximianus and Severus. Beda, libro primo, capitulo octavo. In whiche tyme Constancius diede at Briteyne at the cite of Yorke, levenge after hym Constantyne his firste son, geten of Helena, makenge hym kynge off Briteyne and of Fraunce in the xiij. yere of the reigne of Constancius.

Capitulum vicesimum sextum. Orosius.

CONSTANTINE doynge grete actes of chevallery, the knyȝhtes*. [Constanti|nus.] pretorian of Rome namede Maxentius the son of Maximian Page  117, vol.5 emperour. Ageynes whom Galerius themperoure sende Severus to Rome with alle his hoste, whom he hade made Cesar. This Severus puttenge sege to the cite of Rome, be|trayede thro his knyȝhtes, fleenge to Ravenna, was sleyne þer. Herculeus fader to Maxentius perceyvenge that, intendede to have reioycede thempire ageyne; whiche devicte in batelle fledde to his sonne in lawe Constantyne in to Fraunce, to take aweye his possessiones from hym by treason; whiche was detecte [folio 229b] to Constantyne by his wife Fausta, doȝhter of the seide Herculeus, whiche fleenge unto Marsilia was sleyne. This Galerius ȝiffen to grete persecucion by x. yere, hade the partes interialle of his breste and exterialle putrefiede and Page  119, vol.5 corrupte so soore, in so moche that the corrupte and pestilente savour and aier of hit destroyede mony of his lecches. Wherefore oon leche seide to hym that hit was the punyschenge of God; wherefore Galerius revokede and ȝafe licence to Cristen peple put in to exile; neverthelesse he diede miserably in that peyne. Silvester the secunde was successor to Mel|chiades the pope xxiiijti yere; whiche made clene Constantyne themperour of a grete lepre in baptisenge hym, and delyverede the cite of Rome from the pestilence of a dragon, areysenge a dedde bulle to lyfe thro his preyer, and confusede the Iewes in disputacions. Whiche kepede the firste grete cownsayle of Nicene, of ccc. and xviij. bischoppes; havenge the names of Page  121, vol.5 pover childer, of pover men, and of wedoes, wryten in a litelle rolle, to whom he providede þinges necessary to theire lyvynge. Whiche ordeynede that peple scholde faste in the iiijthe fery, the vjthe fery, and on Seturday, willenge Thirsday to be haloed as the Sonneday, for that cause that Criste ordeynede and institute the blessed sacramente of his body, ascendenge to hevyn also on a Thursday, and in that holy creme was made and blessede on a Thursday. Giraldus, distinctio prima. Constantyne makenge haste to ȝiffe batelle ageyne Maxencius, the vijthe yere of his reigne, se in his slepe in the firmamente a signe of the crosse schynynge with briȝhtenesse excellente, and angelles assistenge, and seyenge, "Constantyne, thoy|canata;" that is to say, "Thow schalle have victory by this signe;" whiche awakenge and arysenge causede the signe of the crosse to be peyntede in þe baners of his knyȝhtes. Page  123, vol.5 This Maxencius extincte at Pownte Mylyne, Constantyne entrede in to Rome, causenge the ymage or signe of the crosse to be peyntede in the ryȝhte hondes of the ymages whom the senate made in his honoure for that grete victory, and to be wryten under, "This is the*. [Sic in MS.] of God invincible." Gaufridus et [folio 230a] Alfridus. Constantyne returnenge from Briteyne to thempyre, a duke of the Gewiseyes, Octavius by name, entrede in to the realme of Briteyne; wherefore Constantyne sende to Ynglonde or Briteyne Traerhn,*. [Here is a note: "Helena was a Brittaine or Welshe woman, and the righte name of her uncle is Trahaern, the same countryman: Trahaern is a Welshe name."] uncle to Helene his moder, with iij. legiones of knyȝhtes, to ȝiffe batelle to Octavius; whiche ȝiffenge diverse batelles togedre, Traerhn was sleyne by treason; and so Octavius reignede in Briteyne un to the tymes off Gracian and Valentinian emperoures. Giraldus, distinctio prima. Constantyne was smyten and infecte with a grete lepre after that he hade victory of Maxencius. ℞. Somme men wille Page  125, vol.5 that he was smyten with a lepre for his merite, in that he did persecucion to the churche, as hit is redde in Legenda Sanc|torum, in the life of Silvester; in whiche persecucion Seynte Silvester fledde from the cite. But withowte dowte hit is pleyne that he was made clene of that lepre by Seynte Silvester, for what so ever cause hit come to hym. Giraldus, ubi supra. Thre ml yonge childer were brouȝhte to Constan|tyne that he myȝhte be bathede in the bloode of theyme, after the cownesayle of the senators and of the gentile bischoppes. Then Constantyne beholdenge the moders of the childer*. [Of pyte.] makenge grete sorowe seide, "The dignite of thempire of Rome is spronge of the welle of pite and of compassion, for a man were worthy to be punyschede sore that did slee an infante in batelle." De Legenda Silvestri. "Then how cruelle is hit to us to do to oure awne childer þat we be prohibite to do to other. What profitethe hit to have victory of men Page  127, vol.5 of barbre, if we be overcommen amonge oure selfe? to have victory of straunge peple is a vertu of myȝhte, and to overcome vices is a vertu of goode disposicion. In those batelles we be stronger then oure enemyes, in these batelles we be stronger then oure selfe; wherefore pite and com|passion schalle have victory in this progresse, that we may have rather victory of oure enemyes. For hit is better to us to dye, the life of these innocentes salvede, then to recure oure cruelle lyfe by the dethe of theyme; and ȝitte to be healede by theyme y have noo certenty, but hit is certeyne that life so recurede is cruelle." Seynte Petyr and Paule*. [Seynte Petyr and Paule ap|pered to Constan|tyne.] apperede to hym in the nyȝhte, seyenge, "In that thow abhorreste to schede the blode of innocentes, take cowne|sayle of sawlehealethe, and calle to the Silvester, lyenge prively in the mownte callede Seraptis." Whiche brouȝhte [folio 230b] to Constantyne, brouȝhte with hym the ymages of Petyr and Paule whiche apperede to hym, whiche beholdenge theym was Page  129, vol.5 restorede to heale. After that, Silvester movenge hym to take the feithe of Criste, commaundede hym to faste by a weke, whiche baptiȝede at the laste confessede that he see oure Lorde Ihesu Criste. ℞. Neverthelesse Ambrose and Ierom in his cronicle reherse that Constantyne differrede to be baptiȝede un to the laste dayes of his age, that he myȝhte be baptiȝede in Iordan. Constantyne baptiȝede by Seynte Silvester, causede prisones to be openede, and the temples of ydoles to be de|stroyede, churches to be openede, olde churches to be repairede and newe to be made, to whom he grawntede grete immuni|tees and privileges, makenge the pope of Rome the hieste bischop of the worlde, assignenge the xthe parte of alle his possessions to churches. Whiche toke also a mattoke in his honde firste to repaire the churche of Seynte Petyr, and bare Page  131, vol.5 x. leepes fulle of erthe to hit on his schulders. Giraldus, ubi supra. The churche of Rome made ryche by Constantyne, began to be of lesse devocion, and the peple usede more to pride then they were afore. For hit is seide that this graunte and ȝifte made to þe churche by Constantyne, the enemy to mankynde seide in the aiere, "Poyson is infusede this day in to the churche of God." Wherefore Seynte Ierom writethe in vitis patrum that the churche decreasede in vertues sethe hit encreasede in possessiones. Also themperour made a churche in to the honoure of Seynte Iohn Evangeliste in the palice Lateranense, in whom he made a fonte or baptistery of a ston prophiritike onournede withyn with silvyr, in the myddes of whom was a piller berenge a cruette of golde with bawme Page  133, vol.5 brennenge faste in hit. In Legenda Silvestri. Silvester dedicate that churche in the ixthe day of November; in whiche day an ymage of oure Savioure apperede in the walle of hit [folio 231a] to alle peple, not made by the honde of man, but by allemyȝhty God, remaynenge þer un to this tyme presente. This Silvester commaundede the awters to be made of ston, settenge oon awter made of woode in that churche, in whom mony peple seyde Seynte Petyr to have songe masse. For un tille that tyme þer was noo certeyne stacion of*. [Sic in MS.] bischoppes, for grete persecucion syngenge masse in secrete places on awters por|tative. Helene beynge at Briteyne, herenge that sodeyn disposicion of Constantyne here son, sende letters to hym commendenge hym that he hade refusede the honoure of ydoles, commendynge not hym in that he belevide in a man crucifiede. Page  135, vol.5 Constantyne did write un to his moder a letter remissive, movenge her to brynge maisters of the Iewes, and a disputacion hade the trawthe scholde appere. Wherefore Helena, moder to Constantyne, brouȝhte with her a c. and xlti grete clerkes of the Iewes, whom Seynte Silvester with other trewe clerkes of Criste mette. At the laste a certeyne of the Iewes and of the gentiles electe to dispute were convicte by Silvester. After longe disputacion hade, oon of the Iewes rehersede certeyne wordes in the eer of a wilde bulle, where thro he diede anoon; wherefore a grete multitude of peple cryede and holdede ageyne the feythe of Silvester. To whom Silvester seide that he rehersede not the name of God, that may brynge to dethe and restore hit ageyne to lyfe, as David rehersethe in the person of Criste, "I schalle sle, and y schalle make whicke and to lyve the thynge that is dedde." But he expressede oonly the name of a develle, whose powere is oonly to peresche and to sle, and that by the permission of God; for to slee and not to restore to lyfe is lyke to the powere of lyones and of wulfes and of oþer bestes. "Wherefore if he Page  137, vol.5 wille that y schalle beleve after his ryte, lete him brynge to lyfe the bulle that he hathe sleyne; and if he can not, lette the Iewes make promisse that thei wille receyve the feithe of Criste if that Silvester reyse hym to lyve." That bulle re|storede to lyfe at the preyers of Seynte Silvester, Helena the moder of Constantyne, and the Iewes, were baptiȝede, and receyvede þe feithe of Criste. After that Constantyne [folio 231b] sente his moder to Ierusalem to brynge from thens the holy crosse on whom Criste suffrede passion. This Helene, moder to Constantyne, commenge to Ierusalem putte parte of the*. [Seynte Helene, moder to] holy crosse y-founde in a holy place, bryngenge an other parte Page  139, vol.5 with iiij. nayles to her sonne, tweyne of whom sche putte in the brydelle of her sonne; the thrydde in the ymage of the crucifixe, castenge þe iiijthe in to the see Adriatyke, whiche was un tylle that tyme the devourer and sqwalowe of schippes sayl|enge in hit; from that tyme the feste of the invention of the*. [Constan|tyne, founde the holy crosse of Criste.] holy crosse was halowede. After that themperour Constan|tyne departede from Rome to Biȝantium, whom he namede afterwarde Constantinopole, after his name; whom he honourede with edifyenges, churches, and with dignite of a patriarke, bryngenge mony noble men from Rome to inhabite hit. Giraldus, ubi supra. There were thre patriarkes oonly in the*. [The patriarkes.] primitive churche, after the thre patriarkes Abraham, Ysaac, and Iacob; oon in Asia at the cite of Anthiochia, the secunde in Affrike at Alexandria, the thridde in Europe at Rome. Seynte Petre consecrate those thre seetes, in tweyne of whom he was presidente, and Marcus his disciple occupiede the Page  141, vol.5 thrydde seete at the cite off Alexandria. But after that the cownesayle Nicene ȝafe to the bischop of Rome that privilege, that he scholde be fader and principalle of alle bischoppes, lyke as themperour of Rome is above alle other kynges. And then the place of the patriarke was chaungede to Constanti|nopole,*. [Of the super emi|nence of the churche off Rome.] as un to the secunde Rome. That other seetes of the patriarkes bene chaungede, as the patriarke of Antiochia to Ierusalem, and the patriarke of Alexandria to Aquileia, is supposede to be doen for this cause, that wickede peple of Criste scholde falle in to the hondes and power of þeire enemyes and untru peple, and so by a consequente thei scholde loose hooly places. Eusebius in Historia Ecclesiastica, libro decimo. Constantyne themperour ȝafe grete reverence and honoure to prestes, wherefore he commaunded a cownesayle to be kepede at Nicene, by the cownesayle of Seynte Silvester, that the feithe of [folio 232a] Criste myȝhte encrease, and that it myȝhte be declarede and made open. But mony of the bischoppes hade gedrede compleyntes eiche ageyne other, and brouȝhte theyme to themperour that Page  143, vol.5 he scholde do ryȝhteuousenes þerof. Themperour perceyvenge that, and thenkenge the causes of the churche, for whom thei com thider, to be made voide þerby, assignede theym a day after theire cownselle to decide the maters y-movede, writenge theire maters in a booke, and brente theym prively, seyenge: "God hathe made yow as oure iugges, þerfore me thenke it incon|veniente that we scholde iugge yow as oure lordes. But ye awe to speke raþer of your transgressiones and offenses amonge yor selfe, that the disclaunder of your ylle disposicion scholde not be knowen amonge your enmyes; and if ye wille stryve nedely, abyde youre iuggemente of God, as the prophete rehersethe, 'Deus stetit in,' etc. For truly and if y see oon man or eny man of yor religion synne with a woman y wolde cover hym with my mantelle or palle, leste that detraccion scholde sprynge of your religion. Wherefore, brether, procede Page  145, vol.5 in this processe, for the utilite of the feithe of Criste;" and these wordes y-seyde he brente the libelles of the compleyntes. Blessede Martyne was borne in this yere, and movede to þe feithe of Criste in þe xij. yere of his age, laborenge in cheval|lery in the xvj. yere, and was baptizede in the xviij. yere of*. [Seynte Martyne borne this tyme.] his age, usenge werre and actes of chevallery by ij. yere under Iulius after that tyme. The cownsayle Nicene was kepede by ccc. and xviij. bischoppes at the cite callede Nicena in Bithinia, ageyne the Arrianes, Fotynes, and Sabellianes, the seventeen kalendes of Iulius, in whiche cownselle Seynte Nicholas the*. [Seynte Nicholas. Of the ordi|naunce of Lente.] bischop was. Where hit was ordeynede that Lente, or faste of xlti daies, whiche began afore in the viij. idus of Ianuary unto the xv. kalendes of Marche, scholde begynne and endure after the maner and consuetude usede nowe, and that for iij. causes. The firste cause that oure faste myȝhte be cowplede to the passion of Criste. The secunde cause was that peple myȝhte Page  147, vol.5 receyve the blissede body of Criste in the ende of that faste and abstinence. The thrydde cause was that Criste myȝhte fynde us fastenge. Eusebius and Pamphilus write the story ecclesiasticalle un to this processe, whiche story is callede tripertite. Seynte Ierome writethe after this un to the tymes [folio 232b] of Theodosius the yonger, and Theodosius*. [Sic in MS.] the bischop endethe this story. Arnobius the rethoricion was of grete fame in Affrica abowte this tyme; whiche, monyschede in his slepe to receyve the feithe of Criste, cowthe not be admittede by the bischope of that place to the feithe of Criste un tylle that he hade made certeyne bookes of the feithe. Marcus the pope succeded Silvester viij. monethes; whiche ordeynede that the bischoppe Ostiense scholde were a palle, and that he scholde consecrate the pope; to whom Atthanasius Alexandrinus did write, with other bischoppes of Egipte, for lxxti chapitres made commune in the cownsayle Nicene, in whiche epistole þe seide Attanasius, bischoppe of Alexandria, knowlegede the bookes of Page  149, vol.5 the Arrianes to be brente. Iulius the pope succeded Marcus xvj. yere; whiche was putte in to exile in the tyme of Con|stantine the secunde. The boones of Seynte Andrewe tha|postole and of Seynte Luke were translate to Constantinopole. Constantyne the noble emperour diede at Nichomedia, and Seynte Ierom was borne this tyme. That Seynte Ierome seythe Constantyne to have bene baptiȝede of Eusebius the bischoppe of Nichomedia, is to be understonde of Constantyne son to Constantyne the nowble emperour. For Seynte Gregory, in his registre, writenge to Mauricius themperour, callethe Con|stantyne a man of goode memory; and his departenge also is approbate in þe story tripartite; and Seynte Ambrose, on the xiiijthe Psalme, seithe Constantyne to have bene of grete merite afore God. Also Isidorus in his cronicles seythe that he hade Page  151, vol.5 an happy ende. In honour of whom men of the cuntre of Grece halowede the xjthe day of the monethe of May.

Capitulum vicesimum septimum.

CONSTANTIUS, the sonne of noble Constantyne, reignede with his breder Constantyne and Constante or Constans, after the dethe of his fader, xxvjti yere. Whiche infecte with [folio 233a] heresy of the Arrianes, despisede churches, and causede Cristen peple to flee, puttenge Iulius the pope in to exile by the space of x. yere, and chasede Atthanasius the bischoppe Alex|andryne alle moste thro the worlde. Arrianus the heretike, supportede by themperour, in goenge to dispute ageyne þe feithe of Criste to a churche of Constantinopole, returnede to do the dewte off nature by the place of Constantius, where he avoidede þe interialle partes of his body, endenge his lyfe Page  153, vol.5 miserably. The pope Iulius, willenge to returne from the region of Cersona, goenge thider to destroy the heresy of Arrius, was monyschede by an angelle to translate the body of Seynte Clemente, whiche laborenge abowte the translacion, the see withdrawede hit selfe in that maner as hit was wonte in þe byrthe of hym, and his body was brouȝhte to the brynke of the water, where a churche was made afterwarde. And the sepulcre, whiche was lefte in the see, recte hit selfe with the erthe, and was made an yle, to whom hit is goen by schippe, where a churche was made aftyrwarde. Paulus, the firste*. [The firste hermite.] heremite, diede abowte this tyme in Egipte, in the c. and xiij. yere of his age. Eusebius in historia ecclesiastica, libro un|decimo. Grete persecucion was movede that tyme ageyne Atta|nasius, whiche hade a disciple callede Arsenius, whiche dredenge his maister for certeyne offenses that he hade doen, fledde from hym. The enemyes of Attanasius perceyvenge that, Page  155, vol.5 seide that he hade kytte the arme aweye of Arsenius his dis|ciple, for the exercise of wycche crafte. Neverthelesse, Arse|nius herenge of that rumor excite ageyne his maister, come to hym the day afore the conflicte and iuggemente, to be schewede to Atthanasius. Whom Attanasius commaundede to be in his chamber secretely, the enmyes brouȝhte furthe an arme, inquirenge of hym to what use he kytte hyt. Arsenius apperenge, schewede bothe his armes unhurte, and so the enemyes were confusede. Neverthelesse they movede a woman to say a fore a iugge that Atthanasius hade oppressede here by violence; wherefore Atthanasius commaundede his preste that he scholde inquire of the woman wheþer that he hade doen suche violence to here, the woman affermenge hit boldely, and [folio 233b] Page  157, vol.5 so the enemyes of Atthanasius were confusede. At the laste, this Attanasius wente to Constans Cesar, brother to Con|stancius, taryenge by a certeyne season with the bischoppe Treverense, where he made "Quicumque vult salvus esse." After that Atthanasius was restorede to his sete, by the meanes of Constans Cesar, brother to Constancius. But Constans Cesar dedde, debate and obieccions were made to Atthanasius, in so moche that grete rewardes were promisede to men that wolde brynge hym whicke or dedde. This Atthanasius fleenge by water in the tymes of Iulianus Apostata, an erle deputede to do persecucion folowede hym in the water callede Nilus. Atthanasius perceyvenge that causede the schippe in whom he was to be returnede un to londe. The erle sende to do Page  159, vol.5 persecucion to Atthanasius, inquirede of hym syttinge in the foreschippe, wheþer he see of Atthanasius. Then Atthana|sius seide he supposede that he was not ferre a fore hym, and so the erle was deludede. When Sapor, the kynge of Persia, layde sege to a cite callede Nisibius by ij. monethes, the nostrelles of the elephantes and the eeres of theire horses*. [Seynte Nicholas dyede.] were replete with flees, at the preier of Seynte Iames, bischoppe of that cite, in so moche that thei causede the hoste to be dispersede. Seynte Nicholas diede in this tyme, at the towmbe of whom a welle of oyle did sprynge at the hedde, and a welle of water at þe feete; at the laste his boones were translate un to the cite callede Barrus, in the yere of oure Lorde God a ml lxxxviij. Liberius the pope succeeded Iulius xix. yere, putte iij. yere in to exile, in that he wolde not favour the heresy of Arrius, by þe cownsayle of whom the clergy ordeynede an other pope, Felix by name. This pope Felix kepede a cownesayle of xlviijti bischoppes, in whom he Page  161, vol.5 condempnede ij. prestes, Ursacius and Valens, susteynenge the heresy of Arrius. Constancius themperour, herenge that, callede Liberius from exile, as schewenge more favor to men sustenynge the heresy of Arrius then Felix; whiche beenge gladde of þat revocation and of the takenge ageyne of the bischoppehode, declinede hym selfe to þat heresy, and Felix deposede, he occupiede the churches of Petyr and of Seynte [folio 234a] Laurence violentely, in so moche that prestes schewynge noo favour to Liberius, but to Felix, were sleyne in the churche. Felix the pope was martirizate. Victorius the rethoricion, and Donatus the gramarion, were at Rome in this tyme. An|tonius the monke diede in Egipte in the c. and vthe yere of his age. Seynte Hillary, bischoppe Pictavense, was put to Frigia in to exile, by the laboure of the bischoppe Arelatense, infecte with the errour of Arrius, where he made noble bookes of the feithe of Criste. A cownsayle was kepede at Seleucia in Ysauria, where a libelle porrecte to Constancius, whom Hillarius hade made, the seide Hilliarius was suffrede to go to Page  163, vol.5 his seete at Pictavia. Martinus. Hit is seide that Leo the pope, infecte with heresy, scholde have seide to this Hillarius, in a cownesayle of bischoppes, "Thow arte a cocke, but not a henne." And this Hillarius scholde have answerede in this wyse, "Thou arte a lyon, but not of the tribe of Iuda."*. [Of Seynte Hillarius.] Also this bischoppe Hillarius commynge in to the cownsayle, and noo man arysenge to hym, scholde have seide, "Domini est terra," wherewith the grownde was elevate in maner of a hepe to receyve Hillarius. But this seyenge is not approbate in eny cronicle autenticalle, sithe þer was noo pope callede Leo in his tyme, withowte hit were Liberius the pope ȝiffenge favor to heretykes callede by that name Leo.

Page  165, vol.5

Capitulum vicesimum octavum.

IULIANUS thapostata, made emperour of a Cesar after the dethe of Constancius, reignenge as ij. yere, under whom Pig|meus the preste, somme tyme maister to him, Iohn and Paule suffrede dethe and also Quiriacus, other Iudas, þe bischoppe of Ierusalem, in that he founde the crosse of Criste. ℞. Hit is redde of this Iulian in the xjthe booke of the story tripar|tite,*. [A narracion folowethe.] that Constancius, broþer of grete Constantyne, hade ij. sonnes, Gallus and this Iulian; but grete Constantyne dedde, Constancius his sonne did slee Gallus at Histria. Then this Iulianus, brother to Gallus, dredenge dethe, made hym selfe [folio 234b] a monke. Whiche apperenge a man of grete devocion, a woman perceyvenge his sadde disposicion, brouȝhte to hym thre pottes fulle of golde, havynge asches caste over hyt, Page  167, vol.5 preyenge hym to kepe theyme. But this Iulianus takenge aweye the golde, and fillenge the pottes fulle of asches, re|storede the pottes to the woman, whiche cowthe not be con|victe, for the wyttenesse beynge by see noo thynge but asches. And so Iulianus hade that golde, whiche goenge to Rome, was made a consul by hit, and at the laste he was made emperour. This Iulianus instructe in nigromancy of tender age, openenge a booke of that arte in the absence of his maister, and redenge in hit, a multitude of spirittes apperede afore hym, whiche dredenge theym, merkede hym with the signe of the crosse, and they evaneschede aweye. This Iulianus schewynge what that he hade doen to his maister, his maister seide that spirittes hate specially the signe of the crosse. At the laste thys Iulianus commynge to Rome, a spiritte apperede to hym by the meane of a nigromancyer, promysenge to hym thempire if that he wolde forsake the feithe of Criste, and soe he didde. Con|stancius Page  169, vol.5 made hym Cesar afterwarde, and sende hym to Fraunce, whiche havenge mony victoryes þer was insignite mervellousely with a crowne of laurer, hongenge there betwene ij. grete pillers, the rope brekenge sodenly with whom hit was made faste. Men seenge that, seide that hit was a prenosticate and a signe that he sholde reioyce thempyre. Constancius dedde, and Iulianus made emperour, willenge to please alle peple, grauntede to alle peple that they scholde use what ryte thei wolde. Neverthelesse he destroyede the signe of the crosse after his power, supposenge to gette grace of wickedde spi|rittes þerby, openenge temples and doynge safrice*. [Sic in MS.] to ydoles. Whiche doynge sacrifice in a tyme, a dewe descended on his clothes in the maner of a crosse, and on the clothes of peple beynge presente. Also the signe of the crosse apperede in an other tyme in the bowelles of a beste y-offrede; the ministres seenge that, seide that hit prenosticate the interminable vic|tory of the crosse of Criste. To whom Iulianus seide that Page  171, vol.5 hit was a signe to constreyne the doctryne of Criste, and that hit scholde not be made large and commune over the com|passe of this cercle. The bischoppe Calcedonense rebukede Iulianus sore, for cause that he did sacrifice to ydoles at Con|stantynenople, whiche bischop was blynde for grete age. To [folio 235a] whom Iulianus seide, "Thy man of Galilee for alle his myȝhte can not restore to the thy siȝhte." The bischop seide, "Y ȝiffe lawde to my Maker that y am blynde, and may not see the voyde of pite and compassion." Also þis Iulianus*. [A dede of grete con|tempte.] commenge to Antiochia, toke holy veselles and palles of the awters and wipede his partes posterialle, or the instrumente of egestion, and wormes avoidenge from hit grevede hym soore un to the tyme of his dethe, and cowthe not be helpede þerof by eny medicyne. An oþer governoure of his hoste made uryne in the usualle veselles of the awters, seyenge, "Beholde in what veselles peple ministre to the son of Mary;" and*. [A mowthe was turnede in to the organ of egestion.] þerfore his mowthe was turnede in to that other secrete instru|mente of egestion as sodeynly. This Iulianus themperour commaundede þe temple of þe Iewes to be reedifiede in to the Page  173, vol.5 hate of Cristen peple, ȝiffenge grete treasure þerto, but hit felle downe in the nyȝhte as faste as men did edifye in the day, and fire goenge from the temple brente mony of theyme, and in the nyȝhte foloynge the signe of the crosse apperede in the clothes of alle men beynge þer. After that Iulianus putte mony cookes and barbres from his servyce, seyenge that oon barboure wolde suffice to mony men, and his cookes in that he ȝafe not hym selfe to grete delices, after the dethe of his wife, makenge mony bookes, in whom he reprovede moche emperoures his predecessoures. And in that he expellede his cookes and barboures from hym, hit was a signe of a philosophre, and not of a prince; in that he detracte princes, hit was a signe neither of a prince neither of a philosophre. As hit is redde in Vitis patrum, Iulianus goenge to Persida, sende a spiritte to regions of the weste, to brynge an answere from thens, whom a monke callede Publicus did lette by x. daies, that þe spiritte myȝhte not brynge an answere to his maister. The Page  175, vol.5 wickede spirites promysenge victory to Iulianus themperour, a man longenge to hym inquirede of a Cristen, "What doethe your God now, that smythes son?" The Cristen man answerede seyenge, "He makethe redy a beryalle to Iulianus thy lorde." This Iulianus emperour, goenge to ȝiffe batelle to men of [folio 235b] Persida, come to a cite callede Thesifon, whiche segende the kynge of that cuntre refusede a grete parte of his realme, supposenge the sawle of Alexandre to have bene incorporate in hym, after the sentence of Pitagoras and of Plato, whiche seide the sawles of men to goe from body to body. But at the*. [Of þe dethe of Iulian.] laste a spere was fixede in his body, or elles a darte, where thro he diede. ℞. Nevertheles Eutropius and Orosius, libro sexto, do reherse that Iulianus goenge to men of Persida, was ledde thro deserte places by a gyde, whiche as oppressede thro hete of the sonne and laboure, was sleyne by an enemy of his. But hit is redde in the lyfe of Basilius, that Iulianus goenge to men of Persida, blessede Basilius dwellenge at Page  177, vol.5 Capadocia, sende to hym for a ȝifte certeyne loofes of barly brede. Iulianus refusenge theyme, sende to Basilius hey. Then Basilius seide, "We sende to hym suche brede as we do eyte, and he sende to us heye, meyte of brute bestes." Then Iulianus themperour seide, "I schalle destroye that cite after that y comme from Persida, that hit schalle be moore apte to berre hey then corne." Basilius preyenge besyly for the*. [Seynte Basilius preyede to God for salvacion of his cite.] salvacion of his cite, a multitude of angelles apperede in the chyrche in the nyȝhte, and in the myddes of theyme a woman sette in a trone, whiche seide, "Calle to me Mercury my knyȝhte, whiche schalle venge my Soon and me of that blas|femer." That knyȝhte Mercurius was sleyne but litelle before of that Iulianus for the feithe of Criste, and beryede in that churche where the vision apperede. And then Mercurius takenge his armour, which hongede in that churche, wente ageyne Iulianus, and persede hym with a spere in the myddes of his hoste, and evaneschede sodenly. Then Iulianus takenge Page  179, vol.5 owte the bloode with his honde, caste hit on brode, seyenge, "O þow man of Galilee, thow hase the victory, and ȝitte y schalle denye the; fylle þe here after." Blessede Basilius awakynge, founde in the churche þe spere of Mercurius made redde with bloode, and the armor of þat knyȝhte Mercurius, [folio 236a] as thei were hongede afore. Iovinianus was emperour after Iulianus viij. monethes, a myȝhty prince, and of the feithe of Criste. Iulianus commaundenge in a tyme that knyȝhtes of the feithe of Criste scholde do sacrifice, other elles be deposede of chevallery, Iovinian loosede his gyrdylle anoon. Whiche de|sirede of the knyȝhtes to be emperoure, seide to theyme that he beynge a Cristen man wolde not have governayle of paganes; the knyȝhtes herenge þat, receyvede the feithe of Criste. Whiche compulsede by grete necessite, ȝafe a grete parte of Mesopotamia to Sapor kynge of Persida. Whiche diede soone after other of the hugenesse of the savoure of Page  181, vol.5 cooles, whom he causede to be brente for the grete coldenesse other elles of the grete savoure of lyme whiche was in his chambre.

Capitulum vicesimum nonum.

VALENTINIANUS, with Valens his brother, was emperour a xj. yere. This emperour was a man of grete curtesy, whiche saide to þe Romanes, willenge that he scholde have a felowe to governe thempire, in this wise: "O ye knyȝhtes, hit was in your power to ȝiffe me thempire, and sithe y am emperour, hit longethe to me to provide for þe commune utilite." Never|thelesse he made his broþer felowe to hym of thempire, whiche hade victory of the Sarmates and of the Saxones. Gracianus, his fader, was callede Funarius, in that v. knyȝhtes cowthe not take a roope owte of his honde, whom he brouȝhte to selle, wherefore he was made a knyȝhte. In the tyme of this em|perour Page  183, vol.5 a movenge of therthe made thro alle the worlde, the see brake upon the londe moche moore then hit was wonte to do, and destroyede mony citees. Damasus the pope succedede Liberius xix. yere; whiche made mony versus on the tumbes of seyntes whom he founde, ordeynynge that psalmes scholde be*. [A movynge of þe erthe.] songe bothe on þe day and on the nyȝhte in churches, and that Gloria Patri scholde be thende of every psalme. Seynte Ierome did translate the Bible at the instaunce of this pope, [folio 236b] from Hebrewe in to Latyn, and correcte the psawter off the lxxta interpretatores, usede in alle churches alle moste un til þat tyme, whiche translacion viciate, Seynte Ierom did trans|late hit ageyne. Seynte Hillarius, the bischop Pictavense, Page  185, vol.5 diede this tyme, whiche added to Gloria in excelsis Laudamus te, benedicimus te, glorificamus te. Seynte Didimus Alexan|dryne, blynde after the vthe yere of his age, herenge this texte, "That thynge is possible anendes Godde whiche is impossible to man," ȝafe hym abowte the illuminacion of his mynde,*. [Of Seynte Didimus bischoppe of Alexandrye.] that he hade as perfite knowlege of the vij. sciences liberalle. Whiche made a grete doctor, commentede mony expositoryes by writers. Seynte Martyn was made bischoppe Turonense*. [Seynte Martyn was made bischop.] in the lxj. yere of his age, where he contynuede xxvjti yere. Grete Basilius, and*. [Sic in MS.] bischoppe Cesariense, diede at Capadocia, whiche reconsilede to God a man obligate to the deville for*. [Seynte Basilius, bischop of Cesarea, diede this tyme.] þe luffe of a mayde, and causede the obligacion to be restorede to þe man ageyne. Whiche convertede also Ioseph the Iewe, an experte leche, thro the prorogacion of his lyfe by oon day; Page  187, vol.5 makenge mony tretys of the feithe and of þe rewle off monkes. Seynte Ambrose, a man of consular dignite, prechenge to the peple, was made bischop Mediolanense thro the seyenge of a yonge infante. Seynte Patricke was borne in Briteyne, by Fodinus and Conches, sustyr of Seynte Martyn of Fraunce,*. [Seynte Ambrose.] callede in baptyme Sucat, by Seynte German Magonius, and by Celestinus the pope Patricius, as fader of citesynnes. Va|lentinianus*. [Seynte Patryck.] themperour, movede at the legates of Sarmates, dyede thro brekenge of a veyne, whom men of Grece calle apoplexeia. Venerable faders of religion were in Egipte in*. [Of honor|able faders of religion beynge this tyme in Egipte.] this tyme, as pastor Pambo, ij. Macharyes, Arsenius, Paphnu|cius, Agatho, Moyses, Ioseph, Evagrius, Theodorus. Pambo wolde lerne but oon verse of the psawter tyl that he hade fulle|fillede Page  189, vol.5 hit, and this was the verse, "Dixi custodiam vias meas," whiche verse he seyde unnethe to have fullefillede in xlixti yere. Also ij. Macharies, oon of Egipte þat oþer of Alexan|dria, bothe noble men of abstinence and of doctryne, a woman accusenge oon of theyme, seyenge that he hade geten her with [folio 237a] childe, cowthe not be delyverede tyl that sche hade schewede the trawthe. Arsenius, made a monke of a senator of Rome, erudite in the langage of Grece and of Latyn, herde a voice seyenge to hym, "Arsenius, flee men, and þou schalle be salvede." This Arsenius hade contynually a litelle clothe in his bosom, to wipe the teres rennenge from his eien, thro whom the brees of his eien were putte awey. Whiche knelenge on the grownde, the sonne beynge in the weste, wolde turne his face un to the este, knelenge and preyenge til he myȝhte see Page  191, vol.5 the sonne in the morowe, and then he, wery thro þat laboure, wolde speke as un to slepe, seyenge, "Come thow ylle servaunte." And so he wolde slepe and reste hym in syttenge a litelle season, seyenge that to slepe by oon howre were sufficiaunte to a monke laborenge in perfeccion by a naturalle day.*. [Of an ylle servaunte.] The testamente of his fader was brouȝhte to hym, assignede to be hayre to his fader, whiche seyede, "How may a man lyke to dye assigne a dedde man to be his successor?" This Arsenius wolde not ȝiffe metynge to eny man liȝhtely, not excessive in speche, neither he usede not to endite epistoles, thauȝhe he was a man of grete connynge; fleenge the company of men, seynge that he myȝhte not be to geder with men and with God; movenge mony questions off the passions of the sawle and of other temptacions. Whiche goenge to an olde man in to Egipte, that he myȝhte have communicacion with hym, his Page  193, vol.5 disciples seide to hym, "Where to goe ye to that chorle, sithe ye be of so excellente instruccion?" Arsenius seide, "Y have be instructe in Latyn and Grewe, but y perceyvede not the a. b. c., or alphabete of that chorle." And lyke as Arsenius, beynge in the palyce of themperour, was cladde in ryche clothes, so in lyke wise, he beynge in deserte, was clothede with vile clothes, havenge a longe berde un to his bely; lyvenge by xlti yere in the palice of Theodosius the senior, and after that lvti yere in wildernesse. Paphnucius þabbotte, indu|enge hym in a seculer habite, convertede Thaisis, a commune woman. This man preide thryes to Allemyȝhty Godde that he myȝhte have knowlege to whom he was lyke, whiche wolde not see his moder in this worlde, that he myȝhte see here rather in hevyn. Agatho thabbotte bare a ston iij. yere in [folio 237b] his mowthe, that he myȝhte lerne to kepe silence, whiche Page  195, vol.5 wolde not slepe eny nyȝhte havenge eny thynge ageynes eny brother, other suffrenge eny man to have eny thynge ageyne hym. Moyses thabbot, desirede to comme and iugge a broþer culpable, toke a lepe fulle of gravelle on his backe, seyenge, "These be my synnes folowynge me, and considrenge not þeym goenge to iugge other peple." Paphnucius goenge to visitte a broþer laborynge in infirmite, causede the sonne to stonde stille thro his preyer, un tille that he hade fullefillede his mistery; whiche blissenge gravelle brouȝhte to hym, and caste in feldes, causede grete habundaunce of frutes and cornes. Sara thabbes was movede ofte by the spiritte of fornicacion by the space of xiij. yere; neverthelesse sche preyede not God that the temptacion scholde go aweye, but sche preyede to God that he wolde grawnte to here grace of resistence. Wherefore the spiritte of fornicacion apperede to here seyenge, "Sara, thow hase victory off me;" to whom sche seide "Y have not overcommen þe, but my Lorde Ihesu Criste hathe, whiche helpethe peple trustenge in hym." ℞. Evagrius Page  197, vol.5 thabbotte, and disciple of Macharius, did write Vitas patrum in Egipte, as Gennadius in libro suo de viris illustribus reher|sethe. Valens, with Gracianus and Valentinianus, sonnes of Valentinianus his broþer, was emperour iiij. yere, whiche re|baptisede of the Arrianes, persewede soore trewe peple of Criste, makenge a lawe that monkes scholde either use cheval|lery or elles thei scholde be beten with clubbes; and þen the martirdome of monkes was hade at Nitria in Egipte. The Gothes sende to this emperour that he wolde sende to theym bischoppes, that they myȝhte receyve the feithe of Criste. Whiche sende to theym bischoppes infecte with the heresy of Arrius, and so that peple was infecte in that errour. Þerfore the Gothes hade victory ageyne the hoste of the Romanes, by the wille of God, and Valens themperour was compellede to goe furthe of Antiochia. Whiche fleenge in to a place, was woundede with an arowe, and his place brente with alle his howseholde, and wontede sepulture.

Capitulum tricesimum.

GRACIANUS reignenge firste with Valentinianus his fader, Page  199, vol.5 and with his uncle Valens, reignede with Valentinianus his brother, and with Theodosius Hispanus, vj. yere. Beda, libro quarto, capitulo nono. This Gracianus seenge the state of the commune utilite allemoste destroyede, made Theodosius gover|noure of thempire of theste, whiche hade victory ageyne men [folio 238a] off Scichia, Alanes, Hunes, and Gothes, makenge pease at the laste with Atthanaricus, kynge of the Gothes. Pricil|lianus, a bischoppe of Fraunce, made an heresy of his name after the doctryne of the Manichees and men callede Gnostikes. Theophilus the bischoppe Alexandryne was this tyme; and a cownesayle of a c. and of lti bischoppes was hade at Con|stantynopole, by Damasus the pope, ageyne Macedonus the heretike, whiche denyede the Holy Goste to be God, whiche*. [Sic in MS.] the crede songe in the churche was made. Stephanus the pope succedede Damasus or elles Siricius xv. yere; whiche hade a cownesayle of ccc. and lti bischoppes for the feithe of Page  201, vol.5 Criste to be made open ageyne heretikes. Alfridus et Gau|fridus. Octavius kynge of Britones, wexenge olde, desirede a senator of Rome, son of þe doȝhter of Helena, Maximus by name, to take the realme of Briteyne with his doȝhter. Then Conanus, son to the kynges doȝhter, whiche scholde receyve that realme, havenge indignacion þerof, ȝafe batelle oftetymes to Maximus. Whiche acordede at the laste, toke theire hostes with theym, and expugnede the province of Ar|moryke. Eutropius et Beda, libro primo, capitulo nono. This Maximus, a man of grete myȝhte, doynge ageyne his promisse, thro sedicion off knyȝhtes made governour of Briteyne, wente to Fraunce and un to Germanye subduenge theyme by soore batelles, did sle Gracianus themperour at Lugdune as sodenly, and chasede Valentinianus, his brother from Ytaly. Whiche Page  203, vol.5 fleenge un to Theodosius in the este partes, was restorede to thempire, and Maximus, closede abowte by Theodosius, was sleyne at Aquileia. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Conanus the duke off Armorica, despisenge the weddenges of women of Fraunce, sende to Dinotus, kynge of Cornewayle, for women to be mariede to his peple. Whiche sende to hym Ursula his*. [Of xj. ml. virgynes.] doȝhter, with xj.ml virgynes, of whom somme were drownede thro grete tempestes, and somme schippes londede amonge nacions of barbre, and mony of theyme were sleyne by [folio 238b] Guanius and Melga, ij. dukes. This Guanius was kynge of Hunes, and Melga kynge of Pictes, whom Gracianus and Valentinianus did chase un to the see costes of Germanny. These ij. wickede men, knowenge the noble men of Briteyne to be with Maximus theire lorde, takenge to theire felow|schippe yles colateralle, occupiede Albania firste. Maximus Page  205, vol.5 the tyraunte, understondynge that, sende too legions of knyȝhtes to Gracianus, whiche causede theyme to flee in to Yrlonde, whiche herenge Maximus to be dedde, was made kynge of Briteyne, whiche usenge crudelite was sleyne by his peple. In the place of whom, a man of lawe degre, Constan|tinus, was electe for the vertu of his name, whiche goenge to Fraunce, causede grete hurte to the commune utilite. Where|fore Constancius, sende by Honorius emperour, did sle Con|stantinus at Arelaten, with Constancius his son, whom the erle Geroncius made a Cesar of a monke.

Capitulum tricesimum primum.

THEODOSIUS, the son of Gracianus, reignede with Valenti|nianus his uncle, after the dethe of his fader, a xj. yere; the Page  207, vol.5 fader and moder of whom were monyschede in theire slepe to name hym Theodosius, whiche sowndethe ȝiffen to God; whiche wolde not ȝiffe batelle voluntaryly, and þen he hade victory. Historia tripartita. This Theodosius usede armes in the day, and to discusse the necessites of his subiectes, and attendaunce to study in nyȝhtes. This emperour was likenede to Traian, mylde and meke to alle men and to God, declinede soone to wrathe. Wherefore he was tauȝhte by a philosophre, that he felynge hym trowblede with a passion of wrathe scholde say xxiiij. letters softely, or that he did eny correccion, that the passion myȝhte avoide in that space. This Theodosius entrenge the qwhere of clarkes at Mediolanus to here masse, was prohibite to entre in to hit by Seynte Ambrose, un til that Page  209, vol.5 he hade made satisfaccion for the dethe of xxxti knyȝhtes whom he putte to dethe in hastynesse at Constantinopole. Wherefore themperour doynge penaunce, made a statute that the sentence of princes doen and made on people scholde be differrede un to þe xxxti day by the executors. Victor, sonne of Maximus the tyraunte, was sleyne of Arbogastes. A childe was borne in the castelle Emaus abowte this tyme, divided [folio 239a] from the navelle upwarde, havenge ij. brestes and ij. hedes, with wittes dividede, in so moche that the oon slepynge or eitenge, that other did not eyte neither did slepe. Whiche lyvenge by ij. yere to gedre, oon lyvede, that other dedde by iij. daies afore. Valentinianus themperour, trowblede soore by Arbogastes, hongede hym selfe at Vienna in Fraunce. Where|fore Arbogastes made a man callede Eugenius emperour; Page  211, vol.5 wherefore Theodosius inquirede of Iohn, an eremite at Égipte, of the victory of batelles afore Eugenius, whiche seide that he scholde be victor. ℞. Seynte Martyne diede abowte this tyme, the vertuous lyfe of whom, a preste callede Severus Sulpicius, of the cuntre of Aquitannia, did write; whiche was begylede in his age by the heresy of Pelagius, as Genadius libro suo de viris illustribus rehersethe. Wherefore he kepede silence after that un to his dethe, that he myȝhte amende thro silence the synne he hade doen thro speche. Archadius, the*. [Archadius.] sonne of Theodosius, reignede xiij. yere after the dethe of his fader, havenge thempyre of the Este, and Honorius his bro|ther thempyre of the weste. Claudianus the poete was in this tyme. Donatus, bischoppe of Epirus, did sle a dragon with*. [Of a dragon sleyne.] spyttenge in his mowthe, whom viij. yocke of oxen myȝhte unnethe drawe to the place where hit scholde be brente for in|fection Page  213, vol.5 of peple. A grete cownsayle was hade in this tyme at Cartago. Martinus. Anastasius the pope succedede Siricius v. yere, whiche ordeynede that a man viciate of body scholde not receyve ordres, and that peple scholde stonde when the gospelle scholde be redde. Beda, libro primo, capitulo xo. Pelagius movede his heresy abowte this tyme, thro helpe of*. [Of the heresy of Pelagius,] Iulianus, late deposede from the bischophode of Campania, seyenge the wille of man and arbitre to be sufficiaunte to deserve blisse withowte the grace of God; also that the synne of Adam infecte hym selfe oonly. Also he seide in|fantes to be borne in as grete innocency and withowte synne as Adam was afore the transgression, wherefore hit is not necessary that thei be baptizede that thei be savede from synne, but that thei be honowrede with the sacramente of adop|cion. Page  215, vol.5 Ageynes whom Seynte Austyn and other grete clerkes laborede soore, but they myȝhte not correcte theym, as Prosper schewethe in his versus heroicalle. ℞. Mony men say this Pelagius to have bene a monke of the famose monastery of Bangor, beynge þat tyme x. myle from Chestre, in whom ij.ml [folio 239b] monkes were somme tyme, un til that Ethelfride, kynge of*. [Of a multi|tude of monkes in oon monas|tery.] Northumbrelonde, did slee the monkes at Chester. Innocencius Albanense, the pope, succedede Anastasius xiiij. yere; whiche ordeynede that peple sholde faste on Seturday, and to ȝiffe the kyssenge of pease at masse, and to ministre holy oyle to seke men. Also he condempnede Pelagius the heretike, and his werkes, and cursede Archadius themperour, in that he consente to the expulsion of Iohn Crisostom. For Eudoxia thempresse*. [Seynte Alexius confessor diede.] procurede his ejeccion, in that he prechede ageyne women pleyenge abowte the ymage of Eudoxia thempresse. Seynte Page  217, vol.5 Alexius the confessor diede at Rome abowte this tyme, as Genadius, libro de viris illustribus, rehersethe. Ticonus, of the cuntre of Affrike, was in this tyme, whiche did write rules to the intelligence of scriptures to be entracede and founde, whiche be famose nowe amonge doctors.

Capitulum tricesimum secundum.

HONORIUS reignede with Theodosius son of his brother, after the dethe of Archadius, xv. yere. This emperoure was a man of grete mekenesse, whiche rebukede of his knyȝhtes in that he did not slee men rebellenge to hym, answerede in this maner, seyenge, "Wolde God that hit were possible to me to restore dedde men to lyfe." Eutropius, libro nonodecimo. The hoste of the Gothes was sleyne in Tuscia, and Ragadaisus the governour of theym taken, whiche come with ij. ml Gothes, makenge a promyse to do sacrifice to his goddes, in whiche Page  219, vol.5 congression suche a multitude of men was taken, that mony men were solde for a lytelle money in the maner of bestes. After Alaricus a Gote*. [Sic in MS.] commenge from Affrike and entrenge Ytaly, desirede of Honorius to have an habitacion for hym and his peple, whiche grawnte to hym a place in Fraunce. Whiche goenge to Fraunce was hurte soore on Ester day, and mony men of his hoste, of ij. dukes longenge to Honorius; whiche gedrenge his hoste hade victory of his enemys. After [folio 240a] that he returnede to Rome, destroyenge cites and townes in the weye with fyre, takenge also the cite of Rome and bren|nenge hit, grauntenge lyfe to men and peple takenge sanctuary, so that he myȝhte take his prey withowte effusion of blode. Paulus, libro ij. And so Rome was taken of the Gothys and*. [Alaricus toke Rome.] broken in the ml c. lxiiij. yere from the edificacion of hit. From whiche*. [Sic in MS.] of Rome taryede in the este partes, and the Page  221, vol.5 Romanes seasede to reigne in Briteyne, whiche had reignede in hit from the tymes of lulius Cesar as by cccc. and lxxti yere. Eutropius. Alaricus departede from the cite of Rome in the thrydde day after that he had entrede in to hit, wastenge þe provinces nye to hit, whiche goenge to Cicille, diede soone. Wherefore the Gothes returnenge thro grete laboure the water*. [Alaricus was beryede in the water.] Basente, beryede theire kynge Alaricus with grete richesse in the myddes of that water; that doen, the water hade his propre course. After that þei made Attulfus kynge, cosyn to the seide Alaricus, whiche returnenge to Rome toke the goodes they myȝhte fynde, and the clere and noble places of the cite, whiche cowthe not be brente with theire enemyes, were destroyede by the liȝhtenge, and hit was schewede for the*. [Of the correccion of God for synne.] blasfemye of God reignynge in that cite, and the honour of God was refusedde. Also the Gothes takenge Galla Placida, Page  223, vol.5 doȝhter of Theodosius, and sustyr of Honorius, mariede here to theire kynge, whiche thynge causede grete profite to the cite, for sche causede theyme to leve Rome, pease made afore with the Romanes, and to goe to Fraunce. The bodies of Steven and of Gamaliel were schewede by revelacion by Lucianus, a*. [The revela|cion of the bodyes of Seynte . . . of Gama|liel, and of . . . The miss|ing words have been cut away in the binding of the MS.] preste of Ierusalem. Seynte Austyn sende Orosius, his disciple, abowte this tyme to Bethlem to Seynte Ierome, for to be in|structe in diverse reasons of the sawle, for Seynte Austyn was makenge a booke of the begynnenge of the saule that tyme. But Orosius goenge to holy places brouȝhte the boones of Steven and of Gamaliel to partes of the weste. Then Honorius made Constancius a Cesar, to whom he mariede his suster Galla Placida, coplede afore to Attulphus, of whom Constan|cius gate Valentinianus, whiche occupiede thempire longe afterwarde. Zozimus the pope succeded Innocentius ij. yere [folio 240b] and vj. monethes; whiche ordeynede that a servaunte scholde Page  225, vol.5 not be a preste, and that a preste scholde not be a taverner, and that the serge scholde be blissede on Ester eve. Bonifacius the pope succedede Zozimus as iiij. yere. The dethe of Maximus the tyraunte knowen, and also of Constantine, Guanius and Melga, rehersede afore, takenge with theym Scottes and men of Norway, trowblede theym soore that were in Briteyne from see to see. Wherefore the Britones sende to þe Romanes*. [Of the misery of Britones.] askenge helpe, promisenge to theym continualle subieccion; to whom a legion of knyȝhtes was sende from Honorius, whiche hade victory of Guanius and Melga. Whiche tauȝhte the*. [Of a walle in Yng|londe.] Britones to make a walle for the defense of the cuntre betwene ij. armes of the see. That legion of the Romanes returnede to Rome, men of those costes not experte in that arte made a walle of stones and of turfes to noo profite to theym, from a Page  227, vol.5 place callede Penulton un to the weste, un to the cite of Alcluit. But the enemyes to theyme commenge by schippe, wastede the cuntre, destroyenge the walle, takenge mony prayes. Wherefore an other legion was sende from Rome to the Bri|tones, whiche havenge victory of theire enemyes, made a walle of stones havenge viij. feete in brede and xij. in altitude from see to see, betwene the cites where Severus made a walle somme tyme. Wherefore they movede the Britons to use armoure, in that the Romanes hade grete werre with other cuntres, and seyenge þerfore they myȝhte not comme to helpe þeym. Wherefore the Britones made a large walle havenge diverse towres of defense after the sides of the ocean where Page  229, vol.5 they supposede theire enemys to londe. The Romanes toke leve of theym not intendenge to returne to that cuntre. The Romanes returnede, the Scottes and Pictes commynge owte of caves clothede as in skynnes of bestes, like to vermyn in a feyr hoote day, wastenge the costes of Briteyne, sleenge the kepers*. [The dethe of the Bri|tons.] of the walles, and the inhabitatores of that cuntre. Celestinus the pope succeded Bonifacius x. yere; whiche ordeynede that this psalme, Iudica me, Deus, scholde be seide afore masse, and Page  231, vol.5 that the grayle and offertory scholde be seide afore the sacrifice. This pope sende Seynte Patrikke the firste in to Yrlonde, and Palladius, þe diacon of Rome, to converte þe Scottes, in the ixthe yere of his bischoppehode. In the iiijthe yere of whom, thro helpe of Theodosius themperour, and of Cirillus the [folio 241a] bischoppe Alexandryne, a grete cownsayle off ccc. bischoppes was halowede at Ephesus ageyne Nestorius the heretike. Seynte Ierome the preste, þat was borne at Bethleem, diede*. [Seynte Ierom dyede.] þer in this tyme, havenge xc. and vj. yere in age. In whiche tyme themperour sende an hoste to Hispeyne ageyne the Wandalynges, whiche hade noo victory for cause themperour hade amovede Bonefacius the noble knyȝhte from his company. Whiche goenge to Affrike was cause of grete hurte to the cite of Rome.

Page  233, vol.5

Capitulum tricesimum tertium.

THEODOSIUS the yonger, and sonne of Archadius, reignede with Valentinianus his son in lawe xxvj. yere. In the tyme of whom the realme of Fraunce began to have name under Fera|mundus the sonne of Marcomirus, as hit is schewede afore, libro primo, capitulo Gallia. Theodosius understondynge of the dethe of Honorius his uncle, made Valentinianus son of Galla Placida, his frende, a Cesar, whom he sende to governe the Weste with Galla Placida his moder. They tweyne hade victory of oon noble man callede Iohn, whiche trowblede that cuntre soore, lyfe grauntede to Aecius, a noble knyȝhte, in that the Hunes were returnede, whiche hade intendede to have destroyede the weste partes of thempire. That Bonefacius aforeseide perceyvenge that he myȝhte not kepe Affrike ageyne Page  235, vol.5 Valentinianus and Aecius his noble knyȝhte, desirede the Wandalynges and the Alanes, with Gisericus theire kynge, un*. [Sic in MS.] to Affrike. Whiche commynge to Affrike wastede hit, and maculate the feithe in hit. In whiche tempeste Seynte Aus|tyn dyede in the lxxxviij. yere of his age; whiche made so*. [Seynte Austyn the grete and noble doctor diede in this tyme.] many bookes that unnethe they cowthe be redde of eny oon man. This Gisericus reignede in Affrike, after the cronicle of Eusebius in the ende, xxxvijti yere, þauȝhe he ȝafe grete batelles in Speyne in the meane tyme, and ageyne men of [folio 241b] Fraunce, and also to the Romanes. After whom Hunericus reignede viij. yere, whiche did schutte the churches, and putte ccc. bischoppes un to exile; whiche fyllede with vermyn did dye by the ordinaunce of God. After whom Gunctamundus reignede, son of the broþer of Gisericus, xij. yere; whiche openede the churches in the xthe yere of his reigne, and callede Page  237, vol.5 þe bischoppes from exile. Whom Transamundus, broþer to Hunericus aforeseide, succeedede xxviijti yere. After whom Hildericus his sonne, geten of the doȝhter of Valentinianus, reignede viij. yere, whom Gilomaurus the tiraunte expulsede from his realme, and reignede in Affrica for hym thre yere; and so þer were a c. yere from the begynnenge of the Wan|dalicalle persecucion begunne by Gisericus un to the goenge owte of theyme from Affrike. Sixtus the pope succeeded Celestinus ix. yere. ℞. In the tyme of whom blessede Maximus, the bischop Cavernense, a man of excellente con|nynge, made an omely of martirs, which begynnethe, "Religi|osa caritate miratur," as Genadius rehersethe. Cassiodorus the senator flowrede this tyme, whiche expownede the psawter, and made a cronicle of bischoppes and of emperours. Also Orosius Hispanus was of grete name this tyme, whiche com|mynge to Rome after the dethe of Seynte Austyn his maister, made vij. bookes of the misery of the worlde. In whiche tyme Page  239, vol.5 Eudoxia, doȝhter of Theodosius, and wife of Valentinianus, commynge from Ierusalem brouȝhte the cheynes with her in whom Seynte Petyr was made faste, the solemnite of whiche feste ys halowede in the kalendes of Auguste, notwithston|dynge the educcion of Seynte Petyr from prison was abowte*. [The feste of Seynte Petyr ad vincula was institute firste.] the feste of Ester. The solemnite of Augustus themperour was halowede from the tymes of Octavian un to that tyme in the kalendes of Auguste. The develle apperede in the lyke|nesse of Moyses abowte this tyme, at the yle callede Creta, to*. [The develle appered un to the Iewes.] the Iewes, promysenge to brynge theym drye thro þe see to the londe of promission. Mony of theyme drownede, the residu were convertede to the feithe of Criste. Leo þe pope suc|cedede [folio 242a] Sixtus xxjti yere. This pope was of soe grete devocion that he wolde say masse v. tymes or moo in a day. A woman kyssenge his honde on a Ester day, the pope was movede so soore in to temptacion, that he kytte aweye his ryȝhte honde in vengeaunce þere off. At the laste the peple grucchenge Page  241, vol.5 ageyne hym that he seide not masse as he was wonte to do, he commendede hym to the blissede virgyne Mary, preyenge entierly to her. And oure blissede Lady Marye restorede to hym his honde, whiche seyenge masse as he was wonte to do, publischede that miracle. A cownsayle universalle of vjc. and*. [A miracle of Seynte Mary, moder of Criste.] xxxti bischoppes hade at Calcedonia, in the tyme of this pope and of the prince Marcianus, ageyne Euticen thabbot of Constantinopole, and ageyne Dioscorus the bischoppe Alexan|dryne,*. [The heresy.] whiche denyede verey humanite to have bene in Criste, and also they denyede the resurreccion of oure feithe.*. [Sic in MS.] This Leo the pope makenge an epistole of the trewe feithe of Criste,*. [An epistolle sende to that cownsayle.] whiche scholde be sende to that cownsayle, putte hit writen on þe awter of Seynte Petyr, fastenge by xlti dayes, preyenge Seynte Petyr that he wolde correcte if eny thynge were to be correcte in hyt; and so hit was. This pope Leo faste an oþer*. [Seynte Petyr appe|rede to Leo the pope.] tyme xlti dayes, preyenge Seynte Petyr to purchase to hym forȝiffenes of his synnes. To whom Seynte Petyr apperenge*. [Sic in MS.]Page  243, vol.5 seide, "Alle thy synnes be forȝiffen to the, but the indiscrete kyttenge awey of thy honde schalle be requirede of the." The vij. slepers did awake and aryse in þe mownte Selius in the tyme of this pope, and in the laste dayes of Theodosius themperour at Ephesus, whiche confermede gretely the feithe*. [The vij. slepers did awake.] of oure resurreccion thro theire awakenge. These men hidde theyme in a denne that they myȝhte avoide the persecucion of Decius Cesar, where thei slepede cc. yere. Whiche awakenge by the vertu of God, sende theire servaunte with penyes and moneye to the cite to buy meyte for theym, and to inquire of the state of the persecucion þer. Where thei were detecte by the olde moneye y-schewede, not usede þer, where hit was comperte that thei hade slepede cc. yere. And so the feithe of resurreccion, whom thEuticianes denyede, gretely con|fermede, thei slepede ageyne, Theodosius themperour beynge presente. Eutropius. Athila, kynge of the Hunes, govern|enge [folio 242b] Page  245, vol.5 Denmarke and Pannony, hade an hoste with hym of cc. ml men, whiche supportede by peple subduede to hym, wente to Alvernia ageyne the Romanes and allemoste alle the Weste; a man borne to the confuscion of moche peple, luffer of batelles, and a discrete man in cownesayle. Valentinianus intendenge to ȝiffe batelle to hym, sende an epistole to the Gothes in this sentence: "Hit longethe your prudence to con|spire ageyne the tiraunte of the worlde, whiche desirethe the generalle servyce of the worlde; whiche requirethe not causes of batelle, supposenge that thynge to be lawefulle that is to his pleasure. Withowte dowte he deservethe the hate of alle men, that makethe hym selfe voluntaryly an enemy to alle men." The Gothes did write to Valentinia|nus in thys wise: "Ye have made Athila youre enemy, ye have your desire." The hostes mette to gedre at Alvernia in the feldes Cathalamite, whiche conteynethe a c. lewkes in lengthe Page  247, vol.5 and lxxti in latitude. A soore batelle was made þer, noon suche seen afore by eny man, in so moche þat a clxxx. ml men sleyne of bothe partes, a grete ryver of bloode was made þer of, in so moche that hit toke with hit a grete multitude of dedde men. The kynge off Burguyne and the kynge of Gothes were sleyne of the parte of the Romanes. Eutropius, libro nono. Athila devicte returnede to Pannonia that he myȝhte gedre a gretter hoste. ℞. Hit is redde in the life of Seynte Ger|manus that Athila trowblenge Fraunce soore, segede that cite Tricasyne where blissede Lupus was presidente that tyme. This blissede man Lupus ascendynge the ȝate of the cite segede, inquirede what man hit scholde be that trowblede the cite soe. To whom Attila seide, "I am Attila the rodde of God." The bischoppe seide, "And y am a wulfe, waster of the flocke of God, nedynge correccion;" whiche openenge the ȝates, theire enemyes were made blynde by the myȝhte Page  249, vol.5 and power of Godde. Whiche goynge from ȝate to ȝate cowthe not fynde eny man. Athila the kynge off Hunes putte to fliȝhte by Aecius þe noble knyȝte from the costes of Fraunce, returnenge to Pannonia, destroyede a grete parte of Ytaly, leyenge sege to the cite of Aquileia by thre yere, and gate [folio 243a] hit. Then Leo the pope fastenge thre dayes and so mony nyȝhtes, preyenge besily to Seynte Petyr, seide to his ser|vauntes,*. [Leo the pope mette kynge Athila.] "Folowe me who that wille." This pope commynge nye to kynge Athila, he liȝhte downe of his horse, and felle downe at the feete of the pope. preyenge hym to desire what thynge so ever he wolde. The pope desirede that he wolde departe from Ytaly, and so he didde, and also that he scholde delyver alle men taken in to captivite. His men rebukede hym that he beynge a victor of þe worlde was overcommen soe sone by oon preste, whiche answerede seyenge, that he see a myȝhty knyȝhte on his ryȝhte honde with a swerde drawen Page  251, vol.5 manassenge hym and his hoste, knowenge that he scholde have been sleyne and if he hade not obeyede hym. Athila levenge Ytaly and goenge to Pannonia, diede soone after that. Eutropius, libro quarto decimo, et Beda, libro primo, capitulo tertio decimo. The peple that were lefte of the Britones sende the thrydde tyme an epistole to Aecius the noble knyȝhte in this forme: "To Aecius the noble*. [The pituous compleynte of the Bri|tons.] knyȝhte, thryes a consul, the sorowes of Britones. Men of barbre repelle us to the see, and the see repellethe us to theyme, and so ij. cruelle kyndes of dethe be spronge amonge*. [Misery.] us, for we be other sleyne or drownede." But Aecius was occupiede in soore batelles in Fraunce ageyne Athila. Gau|fridus et Beda ubi supra. A grete hungre was that tyme*. [Hungre.] amonge the Britones, causenge mony off theyme to yelde theym to theire enemyes. And mony of theyme in the mowntes and hilles of that cuntre, trustynge in Godde, resiste Page  253, vol.5 theire enemyes to theire power. After that theire enemyes returnenge to Briteyne, makenge theire habitacion in the extreme partes over Deira, in an yle, pereschede mony of the Britones, and toke mony prayes also. In whiche tyme a grete hungre was at Constantinopole with a soore pestilence, and with an aier corrupte, in so moche that the walles of the cite felle with lvii. towres, where thro mony peple and other bestes diede. Gaufridus et Alfridus. A cownesaile hade amonge [folio 243b] the Britones, Guitelinus tharchebischop saylede un to Briteyne Armorike, un to Aldroenus the governoure of hit, whiche prey|enge hym of helpe and socour, that governoure of Briteyne Armorike sende to Briteyne with the bischoppe Constantyne his broþer, with a ryalle hoste, whiche was made kynge at Cirencestre. This Constantine hade iij. sonnes; Constans his firste sonne was made monke at Wynton in the churche of Seynte Amphibalus, takenge his other ii. sonnes to the Page  255, vol.5 bischoppe that they myȝhte be instructe,*. [instrute, MS.] the names of whom were Aurelius and Uther. This Constantyne sleyne abowte the xthe yere of his reigne thro treason of a Picte beynge in servyce with hym, Vortigernus a consul of the Gewiseies, intendenge to reigne, toke Constans the monke from Wyn|chestre,*. [A monke was made kynge.] in that he was but of symple discreccion, and made hym kynge. Then Vortigernus callede and sende for a c. Pictes, whiche promysenge to theyme a grete summe of goode to sle Constans the kynge of Briteyne, the Pictes percey|venge that Vortigernus wolde reigne, sleenge Constans the kynge, brouȝhte his hede to Vortigernus, whiche fenynge hym as not gilty of his dethe, causede þe Pictes to be sleyne afore the noble men of the cuntre. And so he was made kynge. The kepers of the other ij. childer herenge of the dethe of Page  257, vol.5 Constans, fledde to the kynge off Briteyne Armoricke with the childer.