Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum octavum.

CLAUDIUS, the uncle of Gaius and of Drusus, began to regne after the dethe of Gaius, thro helpe of Herodes Agrippa, in the monethe of Auguste, whiche reignede xv. yere. This Claudius did noo thynge of commendacion in his tyme, but that he made the yle of Briteyne subiecte to Page  371, vol.4 hym; intemperate of meyte and drynke and of the fleschely luste. Whiche was in purpose to have made a lawe of re|mission and pardon to men sendenge furthe wynde from the partes posterialle, in that he hade passion oftetymes and peyne in abstenynge hym þerof. Iosephus, libro vicesimo. This Claudius hade iij. wives, whiche gate of Petiva, the firste of theyme, a doȝhter callede Antonia. After the dethe of whom he mariede Messalina, of whom he gate a sonne callede Britannicus, and a doȝhter callede Octauia. After that he mariede Agrippina, hauenge a son callede Nero, to whom Claudius mariede his doȝhter Octauia; and for the luffe that Claudius hade to Agrippina, he did sle his other wife Messalina. After the dethe of whom, Claudius syttenge at table, as in furiosite, wolde say oftetymes, and inquire of peple stondenge abowte hym, why Messalina his lady come not to the table. This Agrippina, dredenge leste that Britannicus, the son of Messalina, scholde succede hym in the empire, poysonede Page  373, vol.4 Claudius her howsebonde, that Nero her son myȝhte be emperoure. Whiche Nero, made emperour, ȝafe a condigne rewarde to his moder; for he did sle Britannicus, the son of Messalina and of Claudius, with Octavia wife to hym, and his moder also. ℞. Iuvenalis satiricus rehersethe that the seide Messalina was of grete luste; that sche wolde expresse here body to peple privately to haue the pleasure of the flesche, and after that openly, and as a commune woman, returnenge after that to the fowle luste of the flesche, not as fullefyllede but as made wery; whiche movede other noble women to lyke [folio 206a] synne. Beda, libro primo, capitulo tertio. A grete hungre was hade in this yere thro the cuntre of Siria, propheciede to comme by Agabus the prophete, in Actes of thapostles. Petrus, capitulo octogesimo primo. That grete hungre con|tynuenge in the Iewery, Helena, the qwene of Adiabenes, commenge to Ierusalem, bouȝhte grete plente of corne þat sche myȝhte norische trewe peple hauenge nede; whiche Page  375, vol.4 causede ij. beryalles to be made nye to Ierusalem, in whom sche commaunded her body to be putte, and the body off her sonne, the signes and tokens of whom appere ȝitte at þis tyme. Wherefore mony men deceyvede, suppose Helene the moder of noble Constantyne to be beryede þer, in that hit is redde that sche was at Ierusalem, and onournede hit with grete ȝiftes. Seynte Paule wente to Ierusalem in this yere, and laborede the gospelle of Criste with Seynte Petyr. In whiche yere, in the idus of the monethe of Iulius, thapostles were diuidede thro alle the worlde. Wherefore Petyr commenge to Rome, directe Marcialis to Lemonica, and Appolinaris to Rauenna, and Seynte Marke to Egipte. This Marcus, son to Petyr by baptym, and his disciple, come to Rome, where he did write the gospelle of Criste thro the supplication of trewe peple, whiche Seynte Petyr did approbate, and commaundede hit to be redde in chirches. After that, Marcus sende to Aquileia, convertede moche peple to þe feithe of Criste. After that he Page  377, vol.4 was sende to Alexandria in Egipte, where he suffrede passion. Whiche was translate from Alexandry un to Venece abowte the cccclxvij. yere of oure Lorde. This Marcus kytte a weye his thombe in a tyme, that he scholde not be a byschoppe; but the disposicion of God and auctorite of Seynte Petre preuaylede, whiche made hym bischop of Alexandria. Beda, libro primo, capitulo tertio. Claudius themperour come this tyme to Briteyne, Guiderius*. [In the margin is this note: "Britannice Gwydyr, there is, not far from Denbigh, a house bearing his name to this daye."] beenge in hit governoure and kynge, denyenge to pay a tribute to the Romanes, whiche conquerede hit as withowte eny batelle. After that he wente in to an yle, to whom noon enemy entrede with an hoste sithe Claudius was in hit, neither by noon other man afore, Iulius Cesar excepte. Also he adiecte to thempyre of Rome the yles of Orcades [folio 206b] sette in the ocean; returnenge to Rome in the vjthe monethe that he come from hit, callenge the name of his sonne Bri|tannicus. Lelius Hamo, a duke longenge to Claudius, did sle Page  379, vol.4 Guiderius the kynge of Briteyne at Portesmouthe; and that Hamo diede at a haven namede after hym, now namede Hampton. After that Claudius receyvede Arviragus, brother to Guiderius, un to grace, makenge hym kynge, and ȝiffenge to hym Gemissa his doȝhter, brouȝhte from Rome, to mariage, makenge a ryalle place for that mariage, callenge hit Chestre after his name. ℞. Whiche is callede, after the langage of Briteynes, Caerclau, that is to say, the cite of Claudius; whiche was callede afterwarde Glovernia, of Glora duke of Sowthewales, whom hit was seide Claudius to haue geten þer. After that Claudius themperour sende legiones of knyȝhtes in to Yrlonde; whiche returnede to Rome, Arviragus kynge of Britones wolde not be tributary to the Romanes in eny wise. Wherefore Claudius themperour sende Vespasian to Briteyne, whiche subduede to hym the kynge, the realme, and the yle of Wiȝhte. Herodes Agrippa wente to Cesarea in Egipte, after Page  381, vol.4 that he hade sleyne mony trewe peple of Criste, that he myȝhte make disportes þer in the honoure of themperoure, where he suffrede hym to be callede a Godde. Wherefore he was smyten of an angelle; whiche swellenge in the body, seide to his frendes, "Beholde, frendes, y am now constreynede with the bondes of dethe that was callede Godde;" and so he dyede. Petrus, capitulo quinquagesimo sexto. This Herodes Agrippa was son to Aristobolus, son to Herodes Ascalonita, a man of grete boldenesse, bellicose and liberalle, but of grete pouerte with alle. Whiche wente to Rome in the*. [Sic. The scribe has omitted life.] of Tiberius thempe|rour, that he myȝhte haue reioycede an oþer tetrarchye, beenge vacante þat tyme, where he felle un to the luffe and frende|schippe of Drusus, son to Tiberius, byndenge hym to Drusus in grete goodes, so that he wolde be a meane that he myȝhte haue the favor of the Romanes and his intente. But this [folio 207a] Page  383, vol.4 yonge man Drusus dedde, Tiberius themperour sorowede so moche that he myȝhte not suffre men familier with Drusus to be in his presence, leste that he scholde reduce to his mynde the dethe of his sonne by the siȝhte of theyme. Wherefore Herodes Agrippa returnede to the Iewery as desolate, puttenge hym selfe in a toure for schame, that he myȝhte dye for hungre: neverthelesse he was relevede by Herode howsebonde un to Herodias his sustir. Whiche rebukenge hym of the benefites schewede, Herodes Agrippa, hauenge indignacion þeroff, wente to Tiberius, in whose presence he founde suche grace that he longede to Gaius the son of Germannicus. Which sittenge in a tyme in the chariette with Gaius, preyede and desirede the dethe of Tiberius, that Gaius myȝhte be made emperour. The dryver of the charyette herenge that, schewede his seyenge to Tiberius, wherefore Herodes Agrippa was putte in to prison by vj. monethes, un to the dethe of Tiberius. Thys Herodes Page  385, vol.4 Agrippa beenge in prison, a man in captiuite schewede to hym by augury that he scholde be soone delyverede, after that he hade sene an owle syttenge on a tre, and that he scholde be promotede ageyne, in so moche that his frendes scholde haue grete envye þerof; and that he scholde dye in the vthe daye folowenge after that he hade seene the same kynde or eny of the same kynde to haue sytte in lyke wise. Themperour Tiberius dedde, Gaius delyverede Herodes Agrippa from prison, ȝiffenge to hym ij. tetrarchies, of Philippe and of Lysania; ȝiffenge to hym a diademe with the name of a kynge. Where|fore Herodias his suster, hade grete indignacion that Herodes Antipas here howsebonde reioycede not the name of a kynge, movenge hym that he scholde go to Gaius themperour and purchasse a diademe with the name of a kynge. But Gaius themperour hauenge letters afore sende from Herodes Agrippa, sende hym to Lugdune in to Fraunce. Neverthelesse he ȝafe choyce to Herodias to chose wheþer sche wolde goe with here Page  387, vol.4 howsebonde other elles to goe to Herodes Agrippa broþer to her. But Herodias did electe to goe to her howsebonde beenge putte in to exile, seyenge that sche wolde not leve here howsebonde in adversite with whom sche was in pros|perite. And so the thridde tetrarchye was ȝiffen to Herodes [folio 207b] Agrippa, whiche tetrarchye was occupiede before with Herodes Antipas. After Gaius sleyne, there was a contraversie be|twene the senatores and þe peple of Rome, the senate dredenge the cruellenesse of themperoures, the peple dredenge in contrary wise the cruellenesse of the senate. Neverthelesse Claudius was made emperour by the helpe of Herodes Agrippa, whiche ȝafe to hym the iiijthe tetrarchye, that was the Iewery or Iuda; whiche enhawnsede soe, wente un to the Iewery, and imprisonede Petyr, and did sle Seynte Iames. After that he wente to Cesarea, to make plaies and disportes in Page  389, vol.4 the honor of themperoure, where he diede miserably, as hit is rehersede afore. Whiche lefte successour to hym Agrippa his sonne, to ij. tribus and a halfe over Iordan; whiche was not callede Herodes Agrippa, but oonly Agrippa; to whom the trewe peple of the Iewery fledde afore the de|struccion of the cite of Ierusalem. Oure blessede Lady, moder to Criste redemptor of mankynde, diede in this yere, whiche was þe lxij. yere of her age, for sche hade xiiij. yere in age in the nativite of Criste, lyvenge with hym afterwarde xxxiiiti yere. And, after the sayenge of somme men, sche lyvede after his dethe xvj. yere, and after oþer men xij. yere; so þat sche was assumpte in the lx. yere of here age; for it is writen expresse that thapostles prechede in the Iewery and abowte hit xij. yere after the dethe of Criste. Philippe thapostle was crucifiede at Iherapolis, the lxxviij. yere of his age. Lazarus, the firste bischoppe of Ciprus, diede in the Page  391, vol.4 firste dethe, restorede to lyfe ageyne by miracle, contynuede in lyfe after that by the space of xxiiijti yere. Felix was sende to the Iewery by Claudius themperour, and made the proctor of the Iewes, afore whom Paule accusede made ap|pellacion to themperour afore hym to his defense. In whiche [folio 208a] tyme mony fals prophets were. Egesippus, libro 2o. Then the kynde of perellous men spronge in Ierusalem, whiche did sle men in the liȝhte day by arte imperceptible, in so moche that the drede of men lyvenge was more grevous then the compleynte of the dedde men; wherefore mony men lefte that cite and wente to wildernesse. Claudius themperour diede at the cite of Rome in his palice, the lxiiij. yere of his age, in the monethe of Marche, whom Agrippina, wife to hym, did extincte with poyson, that Britannicus his son excludede, Nero myȝhte be emperour, whiche was son to Agrippina.