Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

[Capitulum quartum.]*. [A space is left, but no mark of the chapter.]

TIBERIUS, the son in lawe to Augustus, began to reigne [folio 199a] in the same monethe of September in whom Augustus themperour diede, whiche reignede xxiijti yere and certeyne daies. Eutropius. Tiberius gouernede the peple with grete mekenesse in the begynnenge of his empire and domination, in so moche that he, movede by diuerse noble men to haue a tribute paiede of every province subiecte to hym, seide in thys maner: "The proprete of a goode scheparde is to clippe aweye the fleece of wolle, and not to sle the schepe." In the begynnenge of his gouernayle he was fortunate in batelles, Page  313, vol.4 and hauenge a schrewede wytte, fenynge hym to luffe theym that he hade in hate, moore scharpe and apte to an answere withowte deliberacion then with premeditacion. Whiche Tiberius sendenge for diuerse kynges to come to hym as for theire solace and recreacion, put theyme un to dethe. This Tiberius, callede Nero, was namede and callede of disporters Biberius Mero, for cause he ȝafe hym to drynke superhabund|antely wyne, willenge to be honourede of peple as god, for cause of letters sende to hym from Pilate. But the senate seyenge contrary to hym, he condempnede xxti consulles, and putte theyme to exile, off whom he lefte not tweyne in lyfe. Whiche was a myȝhty and prudente in armes afore that he was emperour, but after he ȝafe batelle by other men sende from hym. Polichronicon, libro tertio, capitulo quarto. And thauȝhe he was culpable in mony thynges, he seide that the Page  315, vol.4 langage or tunge and the myndes of citesynnes awe to ioye in liberte. Iosephus. This Tiberius Nero was so slawthefulle that he wolde unnethe amove the proctors that he hade made oones in alle the tymes of his lyfe, seyenge that he sparede the peple þerby, usenge this reason: There was a man hauenge mony woundes syttenge in the sonne, whiche hauenge mony flees abowte his woundes and sowkenge þeim wolde not remove theyme. At the laste, a frend of his commenge to hym seenge the flees abowte his soores, amovede theyme. To whom the seke man seide, "Thow hase doen ylle to me, for thow hase dryven aweye the flees that were replete and [folio 199b] hurte but a litelle, and now hungre flees wille comme and do moche more greuaunce to me." So in like wise newe officers use to do amonge the peple subiecte to theyme. Isidorus, Page  317, vol.4libro decimo septimo, capitulo quinto decimo. Somme men say that þer was a man in the tyme of this Tiberius that founde the arte to make glasse flexible and malleable. Themperour perceyvenge that, and knowenge by the man that þer was noon oþer that knewe the same arte, commaundede hym to be sleyne, leste, that connynge made open and knowen, alle other precious veselles scholde be hade in contempte. Ouidius Naso, the poete, diede at Sarmatas in the iiijthe yere of his exile, whiche makenge a boke of the arte of luffenge, excitede the hate of men of Rome gretely ageynes him, in that he in|flammede the yonge men of the cite of Rome un to the luste of the flesche. But hit was seide that he did lye with thempresse, wherefore he was putte in to exile. Pilate was Page  319, vol.4 made presidente in the Iewery that yere, of the byrthe and dethe of whom meruellous thynges be redde. For a kynge, Tirus by name, gate hym of a woman callede Pila, doȝhter to a mylner callede Athus, callede Pilatus by the names of his moder and of his grawntefader. This Pilatus was sende to his fader in the iiijthe yere of his age, whiche kynge, Tirus by name, hade geten a sunne by his wife egalle in age to Pilate. This childe lawefully geten by his wife, was more noble then Pilate in mony kyndes of armes, wherefore Pilate perceyvenge that, did sle his broþer. Tirus the kynge, and fader to Pilate, understondenge þat, sende hym to Rome as plegge for a tribute that he scholde pay to the Romanes. In whiche tyme a sonne to þe kynge of Fraunce was a plegge at Rome also for a tribute to be paiede to theym. Whom Pilate did sle also, in that he was moore noble in mony kyndes of armes then he. Wherefore the Romanes sende this Pilate Page  321, vol.4 to ȝiffe batelle to peple in an yle callede Pontus, not willenge to suffre eny gouernoure; whiche peple he subduede to hym, [folio 200a] what thro promisse and thro batelles, with other peynes hade and schewede to þeim that wolde rebelle. Wherefore he was callede Poncius Pilatus by the gettenge of that yle. Herodes Antipas herenge of this Pilate, made hym prince in the Iewery under hym. At the laste this Pilate hauenge grete treasure wente to Rome, Herode not knowenge þerof, that he myȝhte haue that principate by the confirmacion of Tiberius thempe|rour, whiche was taken to hym by kynge Herode; for whiche thynge Herode and Pilate were enemys un to the tyme of the passion of Criste, when Pilate sende oure Savioure Criste induede with a white clothenge un to Herode. In whiche tyme hit was schewede to Tiberius, laborenge in grete infir|mite, that þer was a man at Ierusalem healenge alle infirmites and diseases oonly by worde. Wherefore the seide Tiberius Page  323, vol.4 sende a noble man, Volusianus by name, un to Pilate, that he scholde sende that leche to hym. This Pilate askede respite to ȝiffe a answere by the space of xij. daies, in that Criste was putte to dethe, in whiche tyme the seide messyngere hade grete familiarite of Veronica, that noble woman, in so moche*. [Of the Ve|ronicle.] that he brouȝhte her un to themperour hauenge a clothe with the impression of the face of oure Lorde. And when that Tiberius themperoure hade seen that blessede face of Criste, he was restorede to heale; whiche perceyvenge that Pilate hade condempnede Criste to dethe, commaundede Pilate to be taken and to be brouȝhte to Rome. This Pilate brouȝhte afore themperour, hauenge the coote of Criste on hym, them|perour cowthe not say eny thynge to hym of his wickede dede, thus provede twyes or thryes, un til that clothenge was taken of hym, other by the wille of God, other elles by the exhortacion of somme Cristen man. After that he was Page  325, vol.4 putte un to prison, where he did sle hym selfe. Petrus. In the whiche tyme þer were iij. sectes of the Iewes in the Iewery, differente from the commune life of other peple, that is to say, Pharisees, Saducees, and Essees other Assideeis. The firste [folio 200b] men were callede Pharisei, as diuidede, in that thei were*. [Of the dethe of Pilate.] diuidede in conuersacion and habite from the rite and con|suetude of other peple, usenge litelle meytes and drynkes, makenge a determinacion of the tradicion of Moyses in theire statutes, berenge in the lyfte arme philacteria conteynenge the thynges and statutes of theire lawes in a memory of þeim, usenge also large hemmes prikkede and bownde to gedre with þornes, þro whom thei were prickede in goenge, ȝiffenge not contrarious wordes and answeres to their betters, supposenge and ȝiffenge to credence the resurreccion of the bodies to comme. The secunde secte, callede the Saduceis, denyede the resurreccion of bodies, and that þer were Page  327, vol.4 angelles, supposenge the sawles of men to dye with theire bodies; whiche receyvede the v. bookes of Moyses, callenge theym selfe Saducei as ryȝhteuous men. The thridde secte, callede Essei, exercisede and usede allemoste in alle thynges a life monasticalle, ȝiffenge litel attendaunce to weddynges, seyenge that women be selde trewe to theire howsebondes or men. The clothenge of theym was clene alleweye, hauenge noo cite of certeynte, spekenge not eny wickede thynge afore the risenge of the sunne, ȝiffenge lawde and honoure to the sonne in the apperenge and risenge of hit. This peple did eyte with silence, abhorrenge swerenge as periury, not takenge eny man to theire secte withowte pro|bacion by the space of a yere; refusenge a man taken yn synnes, whiche man so taken in synne scholde haue in penaunce to lyve by herbes un to the ende of his lyfe; lothenge to spytte on the ryȝhte parte or in the myddes of the company. Whiche peple keped theire Sabbatte day, and Page  329, vol.4 hade hyt in so grete veneracion, that thei wolde not ordeyne meyte þat day, kyndelle noo fyre, other elles to go and make clene theire wombes on that day. Iosephus, libro secundo. In other daies that peple diggenge the grownde couerede theyme and the grownde when thei scholde goe to sege, leste that þei scholde seme to haue doen iniury to the beames of the sonne; the dewte of nature doen, thei couerede that [folio 201a] place with erthe. Whiche peple contynuede longe in lyfe, in that thei were so moderate in meytes and drynkes; suppo|senge alle sawles to be create in the begynnenge of the worlde, and to be incorporate for a tyme. Also somme of theyme seide afore thynges to comme; eschewenge voluptuosite, despisenge vices, the patrimony of theyme was commune; usenge noo marchandise amonge theyme, but that eiche man Page  331, vol.4 scholde take of an oþer suche thynge as were necessary to theyme; ȝiffenge noo attendaunce to oyntementes; refusenge noo schoone, ne chaungenge theyme, but if thei were broken; kepenge hospitalite, usenge oon maner and kunyde of meytes, and to blesse hit with a certeyne benediccion or that thei tastede þerof; not usenge eny crye oþer rumor in theire places. Also that peple was not suffrede to ȝiffe eny thynge but by the sufferaunce of a dispensator amonge theym; supposenge theire worde to be more stronge then eny othe. A man receyvede amonge theyme after þe probacion of a yere scholde be con|streynede to swere that he scholde kepe fidelite to God, ryȝhteuousenesse to men, obedience to his souereigne. And if hit scholde happe hym to be a gouernoure amonge theyme, that he scholde not abuse theire lawes and do iniury to his subiectes, but that he scholde conuicte lyers and men doenge ageyne the lawe, un to þe iuggemente of whom a Page  333, vol.4 c. persones scholde comme, the ordinaunce and decrete of whom scholde stonde as immovable.