Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum tertium.

AUGUSTUS themperoure of Rome was hade in so grete luffe and fauour with men of Barbre, of Scichia, and of men of Ynde, to whom the name of emperours afore tyme was un|knowen, sende*. [Sic in MS.] to hym grete ȝiftes by messyngeres. The Page  295, vol.4 kynges of whome made mony cites in the honoure namenge theym Cesarea. Also mony kynges levenge þeire cuntre, and clothenge theyme after the use of the Romanes, wolde comme to do hym honoure. This Augustus was off so grete pacience that he wolde not ȝiffe batelle to eny peple but for a ryȝhteuous cause seyenge that hit was but foly and a symple thynge to putte mony noble men and peple of his cite in perelle of dethe for a litelle glory and pride of victory, seyenge that batelle awe not to be made but for a ryȝhteuous cause, leste that þer be grete losse for a litelle lucre; lyke to a man fischenge with a hoke of golde, whiche, losenge hit, can not be re|compensede by takenge of fische. This emperour Augustus was meke to the citesynnes, feithefulle to receyve frende|schippes, constante in studyes, liberalle, and specially ȝiffenge laboure diligente to eloquency, in so moche that noo day scholde Page  297, vol.4 escape but he wolde other rede, wryte, other decleyme. Isi|dorus, libro primo. This Augustus founde firste þis letter x., for [folio 197b] whom men were wonte to use the letter c., and conuenientely,*. [X. letter.] whiche letter representethe the crosse of Criste, whiche was borne in his daies. Eutropius. Augustus encreasede the cite of Rome with noble edificacions, where in he hade grete glory, seyenge: "Y leve the cite edifiede and made stronge with marbole, whom y founde diȝhte with tile stones. This Augustus was a beawtuous man of body, not wontenge vices, for he was a grete player at the dise, impaciente, envious, interialle, whiche ȝiffen oftetymes to surfettes in meytes and drynkes, ȝafe the nyȝhtes folowenge to the lustes of the flesche, that mony peple wolde speke fulle ylle of hym be cause of that vice. Whiche refusenge Scribonia his wife, and mariede a Page  299, vol.4 woman callede Liuia, usenge to lye amonge xij. maydes and xij. oþer women corrupte, hauenge ij. sonnes, Tiberius and Drusus. And thauȝhe Augustus was ȝiffen gretely to the luste of the flesche, he punyschede and correcte soore other men for that synne. Suetonius. The Romanes seenge þe beawte of Augustus, wolde haue namede and callede hym a god, whiche refusenge hit, asked respite; wherefore he inquirede cownselle of Sibille Tiburtyne of that matter. Whiche fastenge iij. daies, seide to hym in this wise: "Iudicii signum tellus sudore madescet. De cœlo Rex adveniet per sæcla futurus." The capitalle letters of whom expresse this sentence, "Ihesu Criste the re|demptor of man schalle be borne of a virgyne." Marianus. Then themperour see anoon, heuyn beynge open, a virgynne*. [The vision of Octa|uian.] of beawte excellente stondenge on the awter, holdenge a feire childe in her armes, herenge a voice seyenge, "This is the awter of the sonne of God." Themperour trowblede in Page  301, vol.4 mynde thro that siȝhte felle downe to the grownde in his chamber, where a chirche of oure lady was made afterwarde, callede in Ara Cœli. Valerius, libro tertio. When Tiberius schewede to his fader Augustus that men spake wickidely of hym, he seide: "We haue noo indignacion in that thei speke ylle of us, hit is sufficiaunte to us that thei may not hurte us." Policronicon, libro tertio, capitulo tertio decimo. When that Antonius despisede the originalle of Augustus, he [folio 198a] was not vexede, but mariede his sustyr un to hym. Macro|bius in Saturnalibus. A man seenge Augustus goe by the weye, callede hym a tyraunte. To whom Augustus seide: "If that y were a tiraunte thow durste not say so." Also the gouernoures of Rome observede this thynge in the honoure of Augustus, that noo man was putte to dethe or to penaunce in the day of commenge of themperour un to the cite. Hit happede that a yonge man comme Page  303, vol.4 to Rome like to Augustus, whiche broȝhte to his pre|sence Augustus inquirede of the yonge man wheþer his moder hade bene in Rome. The yonge man seide his fader hade ben in Rome, but not his moder. Wherefore themperour rewardede the yonge man, and suffrede hym to departe. Seneca ad Clementem. The treason of a man callede Cynna detecte to the emperour, he was so vexede that he cowthe not slepe. To whom Liuia his wife seide, "Do after the cown|seyle*. [Of the cownsaile of a woman.] of a woman, and like to the cownselle of a leche, for thei attempte the contraries when usede or usualle medicynes wille not profite; þerfore forȝiffe Cynna his trespas, for now he may not hurte yow, hit is knowen so openly; he may profite youre honore afterwarde." Augustus made gladde thro the cownsayle of Liuia his wife, causede that noble man Cynna to be brouȝhte to his presence, to whom he seide, "Cynna y haue founde the myne enemy, y haue kepede Page  305, vol.4 thy lyfe, y haue ȝiffen to the thyne enheritaunce, I haue made the familier to me; I ȝiffe to the nowe in this tyme grawnte of thy life, afore as myne enemy, and now entendenge my dethe; lete luffe and frendeschippe begynne betwene us too, and lete us stryve in fidelite to be kepede amonge us." After that Augustus made hym a consul, provenge hym a feithefulle frende and eiere to hym afterwarde. Macrobius in Saturna|libus. A noble man stondenge in perelle as in iuggemente for hys lyvelode, wente to Augustus themperour, preyenge hym to ȝiffe iuggemente for hym. Themperour commaunded an aduocate to here the causes and to ȝiffe iuggemente. Then the noble man, Veteranus by name, seide, "O my lorde emperour, y commaundede not an other man to suffre soore woundes for the in the batelle Actiake, but y fauȝhte in my awne person, and suffrede soore woundes for thy luffe;" [folio 198b] schewenge þe woundes that he toke in that batelle afore themperour and other peple presente. The emperour Page  307, vol.4 seenge that come and was iugge, leste that hit scholde haue ben seide that he hade not ben prowde oonly, but also unkynde. A man ȝafe metenge to themperour Augustus commenge from the batelle Actiake, hauenge a popyngay in his honde, seyenge to hym by the doctrine of her maister, "Hayle emperour and noble victor." Themperour herenge that speche as of a bridde, bouȝhte hit for xxti ml penyes; whiche salutede in like wise of a pye, and of a sterlynge, causede theym to be bouȝhte. A poore sowter perceyvenge that, informede a dawe to speke in lykewise; whiche was wounte to say to the bridde not willenge to speke, "Now suche speche and attendaunce is pereschede." After that, the dawe perceyvenge themperoure to comme by the place of her maister, salutede hym in lykewise. Themperour herenge that salutacion seide, "We have ynoe of these at home." Page  309, vol.4 The bridde remembrenge the ofte seyenge of her maister, seide to themperour, "Attendaunce of suche speche is pere|schede now." Themperour herenge that causede the bridde to be bouȝhte. Eutropius, libro septimo. At the laste this noble emperour Augustus diede at Campany, alle men of thempire seyenge and cryenge, "Wolde that he hade neuer be borne, or that he scholde not haue diede, a man lyke to a god, happy in batelle and moderate in peace." Policronicon, libro suo sexto. This noble man and emperoure Augustus seide the same cownsayle to be occupiede ageyne an enemye as un to sekenesse, for thei be ouercommen raþer with hungre then with armes or yrne. Also Augustus causede his sonnes to exercise Page  311, vol.4 lepynge, rydenge, iustenge, and actes of cheuallery; and his doȝhters to spynne, to make clothe, that they myȝhte lyffe by that crafte if thei come to pouerte after his dethe.