Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum primum.

OURE Saviour Criste Ihesu was conceyvede of his moste blessede moder Mary, mariede late to Ioseph, in the cite of Nazareth of Galilee, the xlijti yere of Octouian themperour, the xxxj. yere of Herode, the thridde yere of the cxc. and the thridde Olimpias, the vijc. and lj. yere from the edificacion of the cite of Rome, in the vj. monethe from the con|cepcion of Seynte Iohn Baptiste, the viijthe kalendes of [folio 193a] Page  255, vol.4 Aprile, the vjthe fery, the xthe moone, and the xiithe indiccion. Petrus. Fulle man in body and sawle, so that the liniamentes of his body and membres cowthe not be discernede by the siȝhte of man. ℞. And the vthe age of the worlde, as afflicte with moche tediousenesse, from the transmigracion of the Iewes un to Criste, is terminate. That is to say, from Marche afore the brennenge of the temple, made in herveste, un to Marche in the xlij. yere of Auguste, under xiiij. generaciones, havenge after Bede v.c. yere xlj., and after Isidor v.c. xlv., and after Elpericus v.c.lxxxix; but after the trewe calculacion v.c.xcj.; Page  257, vol.4 for Ysidor in the cronike of his vthe boke of Ethimologies levethe aweye Ptholomeus Philometor and Ptholomeus Sother, whiche reignede after his moder sleyne viij. yere. And so the vj. age of the worlde begynnethe from Criste, whiche is not finischede by eny ordre of generacions, to endure un to the ende of the worlde as þe laste age. Somme men wille the vjthe age of the worlde to begynne from the incarnacion of Criste; somme men say hit to begynne at the natiuite of Criste, after the seyenge of thapostle, "When the plenitude of tyme schalle comme." Somme men say from the baptyme of Criste, for the strenȝhte regeneratiue ȝiffen to waters, the circumcision finischede and terminate. Somme men say the vjthe age to begynne from the passion of Criste, thro whom Page  259, vol.4 the ȝate of heuynly Paradise was made open. After Orosius, from the begynnenge of the worlde, that is to say, from þe xv. kalendes of Aprile, in whom the worlde began, un to Criste incarnate be v. ml and cc. yere. But after the moore commune calculacion there be v. ml. yere xcvj., and after Marcius v. ml xcix. And lyke as Adam diede in the vjthe fery after ix.c. and xxxti yere y-paste, soe in lyke wise the secunde Adam Criste was induede with the nature of man, endede his faste, in the same fery. Also the thefe was brouȝhte in to Paradise in that howre of the vjthe fery in whom Adam was ejecte from Paradise. Marianus, libro 2o. And hit repugnethe not that the chirche holdethe after, other nye, the daies of the sonne [folio 193b] Adam to haue be made of therthe the x kalendes of Aprile, and Criste to haue be incarnate the viij. kalendes of Aprile, Page  261, vol.4 for the nyȝhte of the x. day of þe x. kalendes of Aprile, folowede the day in whom Adam was made.*. [create is written in the text, and then erased and made written above.] And now hit is made by the passion of Criste the nyȝhte of the ix. kalendes of Aprile; for the ixthe day of the kalendes of Aprile of his firste parte is made the xthe day of the kalendes of Aprile, of the laste parte, that is of the nyȝhte in whom Criste was bownde and skornede, that was the viij. kalendes of Aprile. Wherefore hit may be concluded þat Criste suffrede passion the x. kalendes of Aprile, and the ixthe day and the viij. day of the kalendes of Aprile. Also hit may be schewede by an other reason for sithe that the fery is chaungede euery yere from letter to letter in the kalendary, then hit is noo mervayle if the vjthe fery, whiche felle in the begynnenge of the worlde in the xthe kalendes of Aprile when Adam was made, be nowe after so mony yeres in the viijthe kalendes of Aprile when Criste suffredde passion; whiche seyenge the Page  263, vol.4 auctorite of the chirche and þe certeyne investigation of calculers dothe holde and approbate. For after the seyenge of Seynte Austyn, "Noo sobre man understondethe ageyne reason neither scripture, and noo trewe Cristen man ageyne the chirche." Also hit is to be attendede that Criste was seide to be in the body or herte of therthe thre daies and iij. nyȝhtes by a figure callede sinodoches, after Seynte Austyn, sythe Criste reste not in his sepulcre but by xlti howres. So that the firste day be taken after his parte posterialle with the nyȝhte goenge afore, the secunde day holly, the thridde day after the firste parte of hit. And after Seynte Austyn, eiche of these daies hade the nyȝhte goenge afore longenge to theym. Wherefore hit semethe the maister of storyes is not to be folowede, whiche seythe that the myddelle nyȝhte betwene the Seturday and the Sonday of the resurreccion of oure Lord was commune to the Seturday Page  265, vol.4 and to the Sonneday. Lucas; Beda. Mary arysenge after that sche hade conceyvede, comme to the cite of Zachary, [folio 194a] iiij. myles from Ierusalem, where sche tariede iij. monethes in ministrenge to Elisabeth her cosyn, un til that sche was delyuerede, then sche returnede un to her place at Nazarethe. Lucas. Whom returnenge, Ioseph wolde not take un to his wife, in that sche was with childe, un tille that he was mone|schede in his slepe by an angelle to take her unto hym. Lucas. That tyme a commaundemente was sende from Octouian, emperour of Rome, that alle þe worlde scholde be describede. Petrus. Octouian the emperour, wyllenge to knowe the nowmbre of regiones in the worlde subiecte to the empire of Rome, and the nowmbre of cites in euery region, and the nowmbre of men and women in the cites, commaundede that euery man of subarbes, stretes, villages, townes, and of Page  267, vol.4 cites scholde comme to the place of his byrthe, and offre a peny in valoure of oure x. d. usualle, and take hit to the presidente of the prouince, knowlenge*. [Sic in MS.] hym subiecte to the empyre of Rome. Lucas. Wherefore Ioseph wente from Nazareth to Bethleem, the cite where he was borne, with Mary his wife, beenge with childe, that he myȝte offre, where Mary his wife was delyuerede of oure Savioure. Petrus. Therefore oure Savioure Criste was borne in the ende of the xlij. yere of Augustus, in the nyȝhte of the holy Sabotte, whiche folowede the day then, in the xiiijthe yere of the age of oure blessede lady, the viijthe kalendes of Ianuare, at Bethleem. And after that he was circumcisede on Sunday, in the kalendes of Ianuare; he was worschippede of thre kynges in the xiijthe day after, in the viijthe idus off Ianuare, and Page  269, vol.4 in the xlti day from the Natiuite he was presentede in the temple. And after that she fledde in to Egipte with Ioseph here howsebonde, takenge Criste oure Savioure with theyme, after the monicion of the angel made to Ioseph, taryenge þer by vj. yere un to the dethe of Herode. For the seide Herode thouȝhte to extincte and slee alle childer of tender age within the Iewery, be cause of Criste, that he myȝhte sle hym amonge other childer. The ydoles of Egipte felle downe when that [folio 194b] Criste entrede in to the londe of Egipte. Wherefore there were cc. daies lxxvj., whiche nowmbre dothe complete ix. monethes of the moone and vj. dayes, so that xxxti daies be assignede to every monethe, after the obsueracion of olde tyme, from the viijthe kalendes of Aprile, the sexte fery, in whom Criste was conceyvede, un to the nyȝhte of the Sonneday in Page  271, vol.4 whom Criste was borne. ℞. And for cause that a dowte may be movede in the concurrente of the yeres of Criste and of kynges, the begynnenges and endynges off whom be incerteyne oftetymes in calculacion, and also abowte the yeres of oure Lorde God, in what yere he was baptizate, or in what yere he suffrede bitter passion for the redempcion of man, that alle ambiguites and dowtes may be removede, hit is to be aduer|tisede*. [Of di|uerse be|gynnenges of the yere [after dy|verse naci|ones.]] that after Bede, libro de temporibus, that the Romanes afore the tymes of Numa Pompilius began the yere in the monethe of Marche, like as men of Hebrewe did. But thei began the yere at Ianuare after the time that Numa Pompilius hade caste to the yere Ianuare and Februare; whom men of the weste partes of the worlde folowe in theire kalendary and usualle yere. Men of the londe of Grece, that founde dis|portes Olimpicalle, other a numeracion of yeres callede Olimpias, Page  273, vol.4 began the yere from the solstice of wynter. Men of Hebrewe began the yere from þe equinoccialle of ver when the worlde was made. Men of Egipte began the yere from herveste. Men of the Este, as off Calde and of Araby, beganne the yere from October, after that thei hade gete in theire cornes and frutes, and offrede the tithes in the temple, as hit is schewede in the vision of Daniel, where hit is rehersede of the iiijthe monethe, whiche was Ianuare. ℞. Also þer is a yere callede emergente, excepte the diuerse incepcion of the yere schewede afore, by chaunce of a thynge begynnenge in euery tyme of the usualle yere, as is usede to be in the begynnenges of kynges. [folio 195a] Also we may nowmbre the yeres of oure Lorde in ij. maneres, other after his natiuite, other after his age. Sithe that Criste Page  275, vol.4 was borne in the ende of oure usualle yere, after the sonne, he hade but oonly vii. daies of the firste yere of his natiuite. But the firste yere of his age of xij. monethes of the son, that is to say, from the xxv. day of December, is complete and finischede un to that tyme the yere revolute, and so he finischede the secunde yere of his natiuite, after the son, in the firste yere of his age allemoste. Wherefore the yeres of oure Lorde God, after the cowrse of the son, be xxxiiij. and allemoste halfe a yere. And the yeres of his age be xxxiij. and allemoste a halfe. In the xxxti yere of whom after age, or xxxj. after natiuite, Criste was baptizede, whiche yere acomptede with the laste halfe yere, hit is trewe that Criste prechede iiij. yere, or elles after the gospelle of Seynte Iohn iij. yere and a halfe, and so Criste suffrede passion in the xxxiij. yere of his age, and xxxiiijti yere Page  277, vol.4 of his natiuite after the cowrse of the sonne. ℞. Therefore þe xlij. yere of Octouian, in whom Criste was borne, dothe ende in Marche like as hit began in Marche, þerfore, he takethe begynnenge in the cxc. and iiijthe Olimpias, after Eusebius, and concludethe the ende of hit in the iiijthe yere of the same Olimpias in the monethe of Marche. And for cause diuine sapience providede his natiuite where men of Grece begynne the yere with the Olimpias, þerefore the yeres of oure Lord God begynne with thOlimpias, and do ende with theym. But the yeres of kynges and of emperoures be acomptede but selde with the Olimpias, or with the yeres of oure Lorde God, sithe the begynnenge or ende of the yeres of theyme is not founde in certeynte, in that thei haue the begynnenge of the firste yere and ende*. [Between ende and in there is a space left in the MS.] in diuerse yeres of the Olimpias. Then sithe the reigne of Augustus is nowmbrede from Marche, and Criste began the firste yere of his Natiuite in the ende of the Page  279, vol.4 xlij. yere of Augustus, then þe thre and xlti yere of Augustus begynnethe in the firste yere of the age of Criste, and the iiijthe*. [Sic in MS.] yere of Augustus in the secunde yere of Criste.