Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.


THE vthe age of the worlde began from the transmigracion [folio 125a] of the Iewes and the brennenge of the temple whiche was made in the xjthe yere of Sedechias kynge of Iuda. Where|fore he that wylle annumerate the lxxti yere of the cap|tiuite of the Iewes from this xjthe yere of Sedechias, as Eusebius dothe, folowenge the auctorite of Zachary þe prophete, then he schalle finische those yeres in the secunde Page  107, vol.3 yere of Darius son of Ytapsis. But Iosephus and the glose of Ierom on Ezechiel, seem to annumerate þose lxxti yere from the xiijthe yere of Iosias kynge, in whom Ieremy began to prophecy, vn to the firste yere of Cirus kynge. But those yeres, lxxti by nowmbre, by accomptede of mony men from the laste yere of Ioachim kynge vn to the laste yere of kynge Cirus. But trewly those lxxti yere whiche be terminate in the thrydde, other in the laste yere of Cirus, be proprely the yeres of the captiuite of the peple of the Iewes. But the lxxti yeres terminate in the thrydde yere of Darius be proprely the yeres of the complete trans|migracion, other of the desolacion of the temple. Petrus, capitulo 154o. Men of Iuda, dredenge the presence of Nabugodonosor kynge, for the dethe of Godolias, whom thei hade sleyne, wente in to Egipte with theire childer and goodes. Ieremias the prophete, goenge in to Egipte, pro|pheciede that mischefe scholde comme to the Iewes goenge in to Egipte, wherefore he was stonede to dethe of theyme Page  109, vol.3 in the iiijthe yere of the transmigracion. But men of Egipte*. [Ieremyas the p[rophete] was stonede.] hade that prophete in grete honore, and beriede hym nye to the beryalles of kynges, for cause he causede serpentes and cocodrilles to flee from theyme thro his preyere. This prophete ȝafe a token to kynges of Egipte þat the ydoles of theyme scholde falle when a virgyn did bere a childe.*. [The gen|tiles ho[nour] an ymage of a virgyn before the incarna|tion.] Wherefore the pristes of the gentiles honorede the ymage of a virgyn with here childe, sette in a secrete place of the temple. The seide prophete Ieremye, knowenge the temple of the Iewes to be destroyede, toke the arke of the testa|mente with the contentes in hit, causenge hit thro his preyere [folio 125b] to be receyuede of the erthe in a ston betwene the mowntes Page  111, vol.3 of wildernesse, where Moyses and Aaron ar beryede, mark|enge the ston with his fyngers impressede the name of God. Whiche arke and place is couerede with a clowde, that from that tyme vn to the ende of the worlde neither the place may be knowen neither the scripture of hit be redde. And, as hit is seide, Moyses and Aaron schalle brynge furthe that arke of the testamente in the firste resurreccion, and schalle sette hit in the mownte of Syna, where holy men schal be gedrede, abydenge þe commenge of God. Nabu|godonosor, goenge in to Siria, made Amon and Moab sub|iecte to hym in the xxiiij. yere of his reigne; and destroyede Egipte, sleenge the kynge of hit, and made an other kynge; takenge the Iewes founde þer in to Babilon with hym. That kynge Nabugodonosor hade a dreame of a quadripartite ymage, of whom he was aferede, in the secunde yere of his reigne. This secunde yere is not to be vnderstonde from Page  113, vol.3 the begynnenge of this kynge, but from the perfeccion other consummacion of his realme, after that he hade subduede to hym other naciones and brouȝhte from Egipte the leuenges of Israel and of Iuda. The secunde vision of Daniel happede in this secunde yere, of the angel whiche delyuerede the childer from the fornace. The thridde vision happede this yere, and th' epistole of the kynge in whom he tellethe hymselfe to be signede or merkede in to a tre, and after*. [How Na|bugodo|nosor was trans|formed and did eyte hay.] that to be chaungede for his pride in to an ox as to the partes afore, and in to a lyon as in*. [Sic.] to the hynder partes, not by chaungenge of body, but to be transformede soe thro the alienacion of mynde, and to eyte hay vn til vij. tymes, that were vij. yere, were chaungede in to vij. monethes thro the preyers of Daniel. Petrus, capitulo 162o. After whiche yeres he was reuocate to hym selfe, neuerthelesse he reignede not, but ordeynenge vij. iugges for hym, did penaunce vn to the ende of vij. yere, absteynenge hym [folio 126a] from brede, flesche, and wyne, vsenge yerbes and potage, Page  115, vol.3 after the cownsaile of Daniel. Seruius, the vjthe kinge of the Romanes, succeded Tarquinius Priscus, whiche did reigne xxxiiijti yere. Eutropius, libro primo. This Seruius, son of a captiue woman, addede to the cite of Rome thre hilles the mownte Quirinale, the mownte Esquiline, and the mownte Viminale. In the tyme of whom lxxxti c. ml citesynnes and vij. ml were numerate in the cite of Rome. Titus. This Seruius toke his doȝhter, Tullia by name, to the wife of Tarquinius the prowde, whiche conspirede the dethe of his fader in lawe at the instigation of his wife, mouenge the peple and the senate ageyne hym, and then this Tar|quinius metenge the kynge, caste hym downe of a grete greece, whiche goenge home so yhurte was sleyne by the way of men hirede by Tarquinius. Tullia, the doȝhter of Seruius, herenge that, ascendede here chariette, causenge hit to goe over the body of here fader as sche wente to Page  117, vol.3 salute her howsebonde made newly kynge of Rome. Ezechiel the prophete was drawen with horses by þe men of the leuenges of Dan and of Gad, for cause he seide thei scholde not goe to Ierusalem ageyne. In whiche yere he see also the renouacion of the temple. Iosephus, libro decimo, capitulo secundo.

Capitulum secundum.

AFTER the dethe of grete Nabugodonosor, his son, Nabu|godonosor by name, succedede in Babilon, reignenge x. yere, whiche didde adde mony thynges to the regaly of his fader. For hit is seyde of Megastines, in his boke of Iuggementes, that this Nabugodonosor transcendede in magnitude and fortitude Hercules in his actes, for he wastede Libia and Hiberia, whiche made a gardyn of a werke to be hade in meruayle, in whom his wife myȝhte stonde and see here cuntre where sche was borne, whiche was the doȝhter of Page  119, vol.3 Darius, son of Astiages, son of Assuerus. This kynge Na|bugodonosor besegede the cite of Tirus thre yere and x. monethes. ℞. But trewely Marianus makethe noo mencion of this Nabugodonosor the secunde, seyenge that Euil|merodac and Balthazar were brether. Anexamander, Anexi|menes, [folio 126b] philosophres, and disciples of Tales Milesius, were in this tyme. Petrus, capitulo 162o. Euilmerodac, brother to this Nabugodonosor, began to reigne in this yere, whiche toke Ieconias furthe from prison, where in he taryede by xxxvij. yere, and sette his throne aboue the thrones of alle other kynges þat were with hym in Babilon. Whiche schewede this mercy to Ieconias, for Nabugodonosor, his brother, accusenge Euilmerodac, his brother, afore his fader, causede hym to be caste in to the prison where Ieconias was. Therefore when Euilmerodac began to reigne, he toke Ieconias from prison, whiche dredenge leste his fader scholde aryse from dethe vn to lyue, in that he returnede as from Page  121, vol.3 a beste in to a man, askede cownsayle of Ieconias. Then this Ieconias ȝafe to hym cownsayle, that the body of his fader scholde be taken owte from the erthe and diuidede in to thre c. partes, whom he ȝafe to iij c. gripes. For Ieconias seide his fader scholde not aryse*. [aryse MS. twice.] vn til alle these gripes mette to gedre. This kynge Euilmerodac hade iij. sonnes, Egessarius or Regusar, Labesordacus, and Nebar other Balthazar, to whom that realme was deuolute. Petrus, capitulo 169o. The story of Susanne happede in the tyme of this Euilmerodac, whiche story men of Hebrewe haue not in Daniel, but thei calle hit a fable for cause that a fals thynge is redde in hit, for hit is redde the pristes to be stonede whom Seynte Ierom testifiethe to be brente. And also for cause we say hit to haue bene wryten by Daniel, whiche story was wryten of a Greke, as hit may be schewede by wordes whiche be not hade in the langage of Hebrewe.

Page  123, vol.3

Capitulum tertium.

BALTHASAR began to reigne amonge men of Caldea and of Babilon. In the firste yere of whom Daniel see the iiijthe [folio 127a] vision of iiij. wyndes in the see and of iiij. bestes, that is to say, of a lyon, a bere, of a catte of þe mowntaunce, and of a boore. That is to say, of iiij. principalle realmes, and of x. hornes, that is to say, of x. other realmes, sub|alternate to theyme, procedenge of a lytelle horne from the iiijthe beste, that schal be made subiecte to Antecriste. Petrus, capitulo 16o. This Antecriste schalle be borne in Babilon, and geten of a woman of the tribe of Dan; but after the concepcion of hym a wickede spiritte schalle entre in to the wombe of his moder, thro the vertu of whom that childe schalle be norischede, be borne, and encrease, where of he is callede the son of perdicion, and schalle be callede. Also iij. of the firste hornes of the x. schalle be taken Page  125, vol.3 awey from hym, that is to say, thre of the x. kynges, for he schalle slee the kynge of Affrike, of Egipte, and the kynge of Ethioppe. Then the other vij. kynges schalle summytte theyme to hym. This Antecriste schalle do thynges to be meruaylede thro negromancy, and schalle fynde moche treasure hidde in the erthe; whiche schalle circumcide hym, seyenge that he is Messias. The Iewes schalle goe to hym in a grete multitude, whiche schalle reedifie theire temple, in whom he schalle putte his regalle seete, and schalle conuerte mony men to hym, with ȝiftes, thro feere, and thro miracles. This seide Antecriste schalle slee Enoc and Helias, and other holy men of God, vn to a tyme, and to tymes, and to the halfe of a tyme. That is to say, by a yere, and ij. yere, and the halfe of oon yere, Also xlv. Page  127, vol.3 daies schalle be ȝiffen to men that haue turnede to hym, in whom thei may do penaunce. Trogus, libro 2o. Abowte this tyme Pisistratus, a man of Athenes, after the dethe of Salon the discrete man, woundenge hym selfe, seide afore the peple that he suffrede that peyne of the maistres of the cite for the luffe of theyme. Wherefore he was electe in to the kynge, a certeyn nowmbre of ministres as|signede to hym, whiche reignede at Athenes xxxiiij. yere. Policr., libro octavo. This Pisistratus, movede by his wife [folio 127b] to sle a man that kyssede his doȝhter in the hie way, seide to here, "If we sle the men that luffe vs, what schalle we do to theyme that hate vs." Daniel see the vthe vision of a weder hauenge inegalle hornes, that is to say, of the Page  129, vol.3 realme of Medea and of Persia, and of a kydde, that was, of grete Alexander, whiche hade iiij. hornes, of whom oon was but litelle, whiche were iiij. successores, the litel horne was signifiede as by Antiochus Epiphanes commenge of Seleucus The vjthe vision of Daniel happede when Balthazar drunke with his concubines of the veselles of the temple of God, whom Nabugodonosor his grawntefader brouȝhte from Ie|rusalem, ageyne whom a honde apperede wrytenge in the walle, Mane, Techel, Phares; whiche thre wordes sownde as a nowmbre, a weiȝhte, and a diuision. Daniel the prophete, expownenge this worde, Mane, seide, "God hathe nowmbrede thy reigne other realme;" and for th' ex|posicion of this worde, Techel, he seide, "Thow art weiede in weiȝhtes hauenge but a litelle thynge," that is to say, "Thou schalle not lyffe longe;" Phares, that is to say, "Thy realme is diuidede and ȝiffen to men of Medea and of Persia." And hit folowede that the cite of Babilon was Page  131, vol.3 taken that nyȝhte, and Balthasar was sleyne by Cirus and Darius, as subiectes vn to hym. Orosius. When Cirus, subduenge the este partes of the worlde, made haste to Ba|bilon the floode of that water callede Eufrates ȝafe re|sistence to hym; wherefore a bolde knyȝhte, luffede moche of Cirus, attemptenge that water, was drownede in hit. That kynge Cirus, replete with sorowe for the dethe of his knyȝhte, made a protestacion that he scholde make that water that hit scholde not atteyne to the knees of women in deipenesse. Wherefore he made cccc. and lx. diuisiones of that water in the feldes of that cuntre, whiche watere was wonte to flowe thro Babilon. And so the enmyes entrede [folio 128a] in to the cite, and toke hit, whiche cite to haue bene de|stroyede was as a thynge incredible amonge mortalle men. Petrus, capitulo 165o. Mony men wylle that the doȝhter of Darius was moder to this Balthazar, for whom that hie gardyn dependente was made; other elles Darius, vncle to Cirus, ioynenge to gedre, occupiede that realme, in that Page  133, vol.3 Balthazar had noo son. Petrus, capitulo 166o. Balthasar ysleyne, Darius did translate the realme of men of Babilon and of Caldea in to Persia, and in to Medea. In whiche yere the vijthe vision of Daniel happede. But this prophete Daniel, folowenge Darius in to Medea, was sende by diuerse men in to a denne of lyones, for cause that he worschip|pede his God. Also the viijthe vision of Daniel happede in that yere, Gabriel certifienge hym of the final captiuite whiche scholde be by the Romanes, and of the commenge of Criste after lxxti wekes. For Gabriel seide to hym, lxxti wekes be abbreuiate on thy peple. But hit is to be vnderstonde that these wekes be not of daies but of yeres, so that vij. yere be oon weke. Gabriel callede the wekes abbreuiate, that we scholde vnderstonde þose wekes not to be of the son, but of the moone, for thei be schorter then the Page  135, vol.3 wekes of the sonne by the space of xj. dayes. For lxxti wekes of yeres of the sonne make cccc. yere lxxxvj., and lxxti wekes of the yeres of the moone make cccc. and xc. yere. Bede dothe annumerate these lxxti wekes other yeres of the moone from xxti yere of Artarxerses kynge, in whiche yere Neemias hade licence to reedifie the temple vn to the xviijthe yere of Tiberius, th' emperoure, in whiche yere Criste suffrede passion. Affricanus, the writer of stories, accordethe wt Bede as vn to þe begynnenge, but he dothe terminate the yeres in the xv. yere of Tiberius, in whiche yere Criste was baptisede. Tertullianus dothe acompte these yeres from the firste yere of Darius in whiche [folio 128b] yere this speche was made to Daniel, vn to the destruccion of the temple made in the tyme of Titus. Daniel see the ixthe vision, of a man clothede in clothes of lyne, the body Page  137, vol.3 of whom was of crisolitus, and the xthe vision, of the suc|cession of kynges of Persia, and of the successores of kynge Alexander, and of Anticriste, in the thrydde yere of the reigne of kynge Cirus. But trewely noo certitude is had when Daniel didde dye, other elles how longe he did lyffe. ℞. Neverthelesse hit is redde in the booke of Daniel, in the ende of the firste chapitre, that he lyuede to the firste yere of kynge Cirus.

Capitulum quartum.

THAT kynge Cirus occupiede the monarchye of the este after the dethe of Darius, whiche was son adoptiue to As|suerus other Astiages, the seete of whom he putte in Persia, thauȝhe the realme of Medea was moore honorable. For men of Persia made Cirus kynge. This Cirus was son of the doȝhter of Astiages. Trogus, libro primo. This Astiages other Assuerus hade a doȝhter, thenkenge hym Page  139, vol.3 to see in his slepe a vyne yspronge from the secrete mem|bres of his doȝhter, whiche spredde over the londe of Asia. By whiche dreame hit was seide by coniecture, that his doȝhter scholde haue a son, which scholde be lorde of Asia, and scholde expelle Astiages from his realme. Astiages dredenge this, mariede his doȝhter to a poore knyȝte, that a childe of nobilite scholde not be getten of his doȝhter. Whiche knowenge his doȝhter to be with childe, toke the childe to Arpagus to be sleyne; for he was secretary to the kynge. This Arpagus supposede that the realme scholde be after the gouernaile of a woman, wherefore he toke that childe to a scheparde longenge to the kynge, that he scholde sette furthe the childe in the wode. And when this scheparde hade sette furthe the childe, he tolde his wife þer of, whiche was delyuerede of a childe but in late daies a fore. Then sche preiede here howsebonde to brynge that childe, and to sette theire childe in the woode for hit. Page  141, vol.3 The scheparde returnenge to the woode founde a bycche ȝiffenge mylke to the childe, and defendenge hit from wilde bryddes. Petrus, capitulo centesimo septuagesimo tertio. This scheparde brouȝhte this childe to his wife, whom sche norischede tenderly day and nyȝhte, callenge hit Spertacus, sowndenge after theire langage, a whelpe. This childe, en|creasenge in age was callede by his felawes with whom he vsede to play Cirus, whiche made a kynge amonge the childer in plaies correcte theim that rebellede ageyne hym, and punyschede theym soore. The faders to the other childer hauenge indignacion at that childe, made a com|pleynte to the kynge Astiages of the son of the scheparde. That kynge callenge the childe to hym and inquirenge the cause, the childe answerede boldly, seyenge that he did so to theym as theire kynge. The kynge beholdenge that childe, and perceyvenge signes of nobilite in hym, callede the scheparde, of whom he hade knowlege of the trawthe. Page  143, vol.3 Wherefore Astiages toke this childe to Arpagus his secre|tary to norische, to whom he toke that childe to be sleyne afore, seyenge to hym that hit was the son of his schep|arde. But this kynge Astiages toke to the seide Arpagus to eite secretely his awne childe, in that he fullefillede not his commaundemente; and the kynge schewede to his secre|tary the other parte of his childe when he had eite well of his childe. Hit happede afterwarde that kynge Astiages toke a grete hoste to this Arpagus, to fiȝhte ageyne men of Persides, hym selfe remanent in Medea. Then this Arpagus hauenge in yre that wickede dede of the kynge, movede the hoste that thei scholde take Spertacus in to theire kynge, whom thei namede Cirus, as if he scholde say, thauȝhe Astiages wylle or nay, this Cirus schalle be his heire. Trogus, libro primo. After that the seide Ar|pagus sende to Cirus an epistole, what tribulacion and sorowe he hade suffrede for hym, and how he hade loste his sonne for his luffe, whiche epistole was sende in the bely Page  145, vol.3 off an hare. This epistole redde, Cirus was monyschede in his slepe, that he scholde take that man to his felowe, to whom he ȝafe metenge firste in the morowe nexte folow|enge. Whiche mette in the morowe a man callede Sebaris, hauenge fetures on his feete, broken from prison, whiche vnlosenge hym, brouȝhte hym in his felawschippe to Per|sipolis, where he, callenge the peple to gedre, causede theyme to kytte downe a grete woode. And in the se|cunde day folowenge he made to theyme a ryalle feste, whiche perceyuenge theyme to be mery inquirede of þeim wheþer the labores of the day precedenge pleasede theyme better or the festes of that day þen presente. Then alle the peple cryede that the meites presente were more to theire pleasure. Then Cirus seide to theyme, "Men that wille obey men of Medea schalle haue the labore of ȝister day, and men that wille folowe me schalle haue suche festes." Þro þe whiche comforte peple did resorte to hym, and ordeynede a batelle ageyne kynge Astiages. Petrus, Page  147, vol.3capitulo 173o. Astiages, dredenge this Cirus, desirede Darius, son to his sustyr, in to his son adoptiue; the batelle ybegunne, men of Persides that were with Cirus fledde. The wifes of men of Persides seenge that, schewede to theim theire membres secrete, seyenge, "Wille ye entre in to the wombes of your moders and be borne ageyne." The men of Persides ouercomme as with schame, returnenge ageyne to the felde, hade the victory. This Cirus ȝafe to kynge Astiages the realme of Hircanes while that he liffede, and to Darius, as brother to his moder, the realme of Medea, in hope that he scholde returne to hym. Petrus, [folio 130a] capitulo centesimo septuagesimo quarto. This Cirus her|enge the prophecy of Ysay, whiche was writen afore by a c and xxti yere, in these wordes, "Christo meo Ciro cujus apprehendi dexteram," loosede the captiuite of the Iewes in the firste yere of his reigne, abowte lti ml men, re|storenge Page  149, vol.3 to theyme veselles of golde and of siluyr abowte the nowmbre of v.ml and ccc., and ȝafe to theyme licence to reedifie the temple in Ierusalem. Aggeus, a yonge man, mouenge the Iewes to hit specially, not a prophete at þat tyme; and Zacharias the prophete, whiche blessede Sala|thiel, callenge hym Zorobabel, whiche sowndethe as the maister of Babilon.

Capitulum quintum.

DANIEL the prophete preyenge to Allemyȝhty God for the deliueraunce of his peple, Darius, kynge of Medea, pur|posede to haue delyuerede the peple in the firste yere of his reigne, but dethe causede his purpose not to be fulle|fylledde. Wherefore Cirus grawntede to theym the same licence in the firste yere of his reigne; but when the peple Page  151, vol.3 was slawe þer in, Daniel preiede Allemyȝhty God that he þat ȝafe to the kynges wille to delyuer the peple wolde ȝiffe wille also to the peple to returne ageyne. Petrus, capitulo 174o. In the thridde yere of the reigne of kynge Cirus the Iewes wente further vnder Zorobabel, and Ihesus*. [Ihū, MS.] the grete preste, gouernoures of theyme. And this was the lxxti yere of the captiuite, after Iosephus and after the glose of Ierom on Ezechiel, from the xiijthe yere of Iosias kynge, vn to the thridde yere of Cirus. But Eusebius, in his Cronicles, folowenge the auctorite of Zachary the prophete, seythe the secunde yere of Darius, son of Ytapsis, to be the lxxti yere of þe captiuite. Whiche thynge may be determinate in this wise, for þe secunde yere of Darius was the lxxti yere of the desolacion of the temple. But the thrydde yere of kynge Cirus was the lxxti yere of the captiuite made in the xiijthe yere of that kynge Iosias. Wherefore the Iewes [folio 130b] comen to Ierusalem caste vp the fundacion of theire temple. The Samaritanes herenge that, come to edifie the temple with Page  153, vol.3 theyme, in that thei worschippede oon Godde with theyme, and hade receyuede þe v. bookes of Moises with theym. The Iewes ȝafe an answere to theyme, seyenge that if hit be commune to vs bothe to worschippe oon God, hit is not commune to vs to edifie oon temple. The Samaritanes, hauenge indignacion at theyme, lette theire labore vn to the secunde yere of Darius son of Ytapsis. Orosius, libro primo. In the tyme of this Cirus there was a tiraunte in Sicille, Phalaris, whiche vnryȝhteuous scholde punysche a man ryȝhteuousely. That tyme þer was also a crafty man in brasse to be wrouȝhte, Parilius by name, whiche, de|sirenge the fauor of this tiraunte, made a bulle of brasse, conteynenge in hit mony concauites, in whom men that hade doen offence to dye scholde suffre dethe, made so that the voice of peple in theire peyne scholde appere lyke to the sownde of oþer bestes vnresonable. This tiraunte, commendenge that werke, seide to the maker of hit that experience scholde be schewede firste by his awne person, Page  155, vol.3 where in he suffrede dethe. Those thynges happede that yere whiche be redde of Cresus, the riche kynge of Liddia. For when kynge Cirus ȝafe batelle to men of Babilon, that kynge Cresus ȝafe helpe to theyme, whiche ouercommen in batelle by Cirus fledde. After that tyme Cresus was taken ageyne of kynge Cirus, to whom he grauntede life, whiche graunte was profitable for theyme bothe. For the grete hoste of Grekes, luffenge gretely that kynge Cresus, com|menge in to his socoure, herenge the fauor of Cirus, returnede ageyne. This Cresus hade a doȝhter, trowblede moche with a spiritte, whiche cownsaylede and mouede here fader to batelle. That Cresus askede then cownsaile of his Goddes, whiche deceyuede hym by a worde equiuocate, Alis, hauenge diuerse significaciones. Wherefore that kynge Cresus, re|bellenge [folio 131a] ageyne Cirus, was taken in the thridde tyme. Petrus, capitulo 176o. When kynge Cirus hade hurte Cre|sus nye to that water, Alis by name, he broȝhte the belli|cose Page  157, vol.3 peple of Liddia in to socordia, causenge theyme to occupye harpes, pipes, and other kyndes of instrumentes musicalle, and ouercome theyme in that maner whom he myȝhte not ouercomme in batelle. And so the realme of Liddia faylede, whiche contynuede by cc. and xxxj. yere. Trogus, libro primo. There were nowble kynges in Lidia afore kynge Cresus, but noon of theyme was comparable to Candalus in fortune, whiche hauenge a wife excellente in beawte schewede here nakede to Gigy his felowe. Thro the whiche schewenge that man Gigy, gretely attemptede to the luste of the flesche, causede Candalus the kynge to loose his wife and realme also.

Capitulum sextum.

LUCIUS TARQUINIUS the prowde, the vijthe kynge of Rome and the laste, sleynge Seruius Tullius, his fader in lawe, Page  159, vol.3 falsely, reignede xxxv. yere. This Tarquinius ymagynede firste kyndes of tormentes amonge the Romanes, as prisones, cheynes, fetures, whiche ouercome the Vulcones and Ga|biones, and made peace with men of Tuschia. Augustinus, libro secundo, capitulo quarto decimo. At the laste this Tarquinius made a temple to Iubiter, whiche place thei namede Capitolium, for cause that the hedde of a man was founde in hit, wherefore wicches prenosticate that place to be the chiefe place of the worlde. Titus Livius; et Augustinus, libro primo, capitulo decimo nono. As hit happede on a tyme Tarquinius the prowde to be abowte the sege of a cite callede Ardeia, not obediente to Rome, Tarquinius Sextus, his son, and Tarquinius Colatinus, spake to gedre of the castite of theire wifes as they sate in soper. Tar|quinius Colatinus, howsebonde to Lucrecia, seide in this wise, "Lette wordes reste and the dedes schalle schewe the precellence of oure wifes." Wherefore the Romanes, come in the nyȝhte vn to a certeyne place of the cite, founde Lucrecia, the wife of Colatinus, makenge sorowe, the wifes [folio 131b] Page  161, vol.3 of other men occupiede abowte the acte venerealle. Tar|quinius Sextus, inflamede with the luste of concupiscence carnalle, come to that Lucrecia in a season, desirenge to be loggede þer, was receyuede. Whiche commenge to here bedde, hauenge a swerde drawen in his honde, constreynede here to his pleasure, seyenge in this wise, "With owte þat thow consente to me y schalle putte a nakede man ythrotelede to the dedde in to thy bedde." Tarquinius fullefillenge his wylle, returnede ageyne. And this nowble woman Lucrecia, makenge moche sorowe, callenge here fader, here howse|bonde, and oþer nowble men, schewede to theym this offence, whiche promysenge to venge that dede, sche did slee here selfe with a litelle knyfe in theire presence. ℞. Mony men say that this Lucrecia did not slee here selfe of vertu, but for schame of man and of infirmite of a passion, sythe an innocente awe not to be punyschede by the lawe, neither Page  163, vol.3 a gilty person with owte a iugge. But this peple of Rome be moste covetous of laude and fame terrestrialle, wherefore sche thouȝhte if that sche hade lyuede after, men wolde haue seide that sche consente to hym voluntarily. Wherefor sche wolde not lyue longer in a signe of displeasure that sche scholde not renne in to infamy and susteyne blame. Eutropius. Wherefore the peple of Rome conuocate, Tar|quinius the prowde kynge and his son Tarquinius Sextus were exilede from the cite. The hoste of the Romanes that were at the sege of Ardeia with the kynge, refusede hym; that kynge commenge to Rome, and fyndenge the ȝates yschutte, fledde with his childer. From whiche tyme ij. con|sules were ordeinede to gouerne the cite and cuntre, whiche were Iunius Brutus and Tarquinius Collatinus, the howse|bonde of Lucrecia; but Tarquinius Collatinus was amouede Page  165, vol.3 from his office afore the ende of the yere, for hate of his name in that he was callede Tarquinius. For hit pleasede the Romanes that noo man of that name scholde not*. [Sic in MS.] haue eny rewle other gouernayle in that cite, for the detestacion of that name and of the advoutery. ℞. But Seynte Austyn, de Civitate Dei, libro 2o, capitulis 14o et 15o, rehersethe that Tarquinius, howsebonde to Lucrecia, was amovede from his office with in the yere by the frawde of that other consul, his felawe. Augustinus, libro 3o, capitulo 14o. Tarquinius soe expulsede, sende messangeres in to the cite for the goodes that he lefte þere; whiche messyngeres hade a secrete cownselle with the sonnes of Brutus the consul, and with the breþer of the wife off Brutus to brynge Tarquinius in to þe cite. Whiche thynge perceyvede and schewede to the senate, Brutus the consul causede alle to be sleyne. ℞. As Virgilius the poete dothe reherse in the vjthe boke of Enoyd, in the ende. Eutropius, libro primo. Tarquinius Page  167, vol.3 gedrenge a grete hoste, ȝafe batelle to the cite, that he myȝhte be restorede in that wise, in whiche fiȝhte Brutus the consul, and Arnus the son of [Tarquinius] did slee either other. But this Tarquinius, ȝiffenge batelle iij. yere to Rome, was deuicte, wherefore he fledde with his wife to Tusculum, where he tariede xiiij. yere. But Brutus the consul was so poore afore his dethe that he hade not goodes to berye hym but by the almes of peple.*. [Petrus, capitulo 176o, et Trogus, libro secundo.]

Capitulum septimum.

THAT kynge Cirus, after that he hade subduede to hym Asia, intendende to ȝiffe a batelle to þe Messagetes. Tha|miris the qwene was redy anoon with a grete hoste to mete, Page  169, vol.3 whiche suffrede hym to comme ouer a water called Araxes, that sche myȝhte fiȝhte with theym in the londe, and that the water scholde resiste theym if thei wolde flee. When kynge Cirus hade fixede his tentes with in that londe whiche repleneschede with victelles, feynede hym as to flee for fere. Thamiris the qwene sende here son to ȝiffe batelle to hym, takenge to hym the thrydde parte of here hoste, but this yonge man, not instructe in batelles, was deuicte rather with [folio 132b] wyne then with armes, whiche yonge man was sleyne by kynge Cirus. Thamiris the qwene, herenge that, wepede not for the dethe of here son, but thouȝhte that sche wolde recompense Cirus in like wise, whiche, feynenge here as to flee for the dethe of here son, drawede Cirus and his hoste vn to the streyte places of the hilles, where sche did sle Cirus the kynge and alle his hoste, that oon man of theyme Page  171, vol.3 remaynede not on lyue that myȝhte brynge message home to his cuntre of that fiȝhte. Thamiris the qwene toke the hede of Cirus, and put hit in to a veselle replete with mannes bloode, with suche an exprobracion "Fylle the nowe with bloode that þow hase desirede alleweies." And so Cirus was sleyne after that he hade reignede xxxti yere regally.*. [Petrus, capitulo centesimo septuagesimo octavo.]

Capitulum octavum.

CAMBISES, the son of kynge Cirus, succedede his Fader, callede by Esdras the prophete or scribe, Artarxerses or Assuerus, but he is callede Nabugodonosor in the story of Judith, for that thynge whiche is redde in the story of Judith happede in the tyme of this Cambises. Petrus, capitulo 189o. And hit is noo meruayle, thauȝhe he be callede soe, for Cirus his fader namede hym Nabugodonosor, Page  173, vol.3 and made Cambises his son to reigne on the men of Assiria, in the cite of Niniuen, by xij. yere afore his dethe. But after the dethe of his fader he ocupiede the monarchie of the este viij. yere. This Cambises wolde not suffre the temple to be redifiede in his tyme, whiche did slee Ar|phaxath, willenge to reigne in Medea. And when he wyllede to be honorede for a God in Israel, Iudith the wedowe did sle Olofernes, prince of his cheuallry, in the sege of Bethulia, in the secunde yere of the reigne of Cambises. Wherefore Cambises, in the vthe yere of his reigne, wastede Egipte, despisenge the rites of theyme, destroyede theire temples, whiche, goenge from that cuntre, diede in the cite [folio 133a] of Damascus in the viijthe yere of his reigne. Valerius, libro sexto. This Cambises, causenge the skynne of a Iugge Iuggenge vnryȝhteuousely to be taken from hym, putte hit in Page  175, vol.3 the seete of the iugge, makenge the son of the same man Iugge. In whiche seete this sentence was writen: "O thow Iugge, syttenge in this seete, stonde inflexible, expelle ȝiftes from thy hondes, and preiers from thyne eires. The skynne of thy fader may be to the a lawnterne and liȝhte, on whiche skynne thow syttes, occupienge the place of thy fader."*. [Trogus, libro primo, et Petrus, capitulo centesimo octogesimo.]

Capitulum nonum.

HERMEIDES reignede after Cambises, whiche didde wedde the doȝhter of Cambises, feynenge hym selfe not to wille to reigne, but to kepe the realme to Mergus, broþer of Cam|bises, that tyme of tendre age, whom Cambises hade sleyne Page  177, vol.3 afore thro consente of this Hermeides. Whiche dienge after vij. monethes of his reigne made his brother kynge, seynge that hit was Mergus, broþer to Cambises, and son of Cirus. For suche occultacion other hidenge of kynges myȝhte be welle in the londe off Persides, to the kynges of whom noo man did entre, his awne seruauntez excepte. And anoon of the vij. nowble men and wicches of that cuntre hade hym suspecte, whiche man, hauenge a doȝhter amonge the concu|bines of the kynge, monyschede here that sche scholde at|tempte in the nyȝhte wheder the kynge hade eny eires. For Cambises kytte of the eieres of the brother of Hermeides for a certeyne offence. This knowen that he hade noo eieres, the vij. nowble men conspirede ageyne hym and putte hym to dethe. These men hauenge communicacion amonge theyme what man of theyme scholde mary the kynges doȝhter Page  179, vol.3 and reigne, condescende in this wise, that thei scholde comme on the morowe to a certeyne place in the palice, with theire horses, and whose horse made noyce firste, or did whrynny, he scholde be electe in to theire kynge. Darius, the son of [folio 133b] Ytapsis, was oon of theyme whiche spekenge priuely with the keper of the horses, commaundede hym to putte a mare to his horse in that place wheder thei scholde be brouȝhte in the morowe. That thynge doen, the horse of Darius made firste noyce, and did whrynny for the remembraunce of the mare putte to hym in that place in the nyȝhte afore, and so he was erecte in to theire kynge, whiche reignede xxxvj. yere.

Capitulum decimum.

DARIUS reignenge on a c. and xxvijti prouinces, Zorobabell, son of Salathiel, of grete familiarite with hym, movede hym Page  181, vol.3 diuerse tymes afore that he was kynge to make a promyse to God of Israel that and if he were kynge, he scholde restore the veselles of the temple, and ȝiffe licence to theyme to reedifie the temple. Wherefore Zorobabel began to re|edifie the temple, Zacharias and Aggeus, prophetes, mouenge hym to that edificacion, seyenge that thei offendede ageyne Allemyȝhty God in that the howse of God was desolate, and thei inhabite other vile places. Schewenge to Zorobabel a signe of the displeasure of Godde, that thei did sawe moche corne and hade but litelle encrease. But the princes of Persides, lettenge the werke of þe temple, Zorobabel wente to Darius kynge, whiche was receyuede with grete honor of hym. Josephus, libro xj o. This kynge Darius proposede in the morowe to thre of his kepers thre thynges, promisenge grete ȝiftes to the best answerer amonge theyme; the question was, of a kynge, of wyne, and of a woman, whiche of these thre scholde be moste stronge? The firste man seide a kynge Page  183, vol.3 to be moste stronge by this reason: A man is above alle other bestes; a kynge precellethe a man, for alle thynges be doen at his pleasure and commaundemente. The secunde man seide wyne to be moore myȝhty then man, seyenge that a man precellethe not other bestes but in the fortitude of [folio 134a] the sawle, but wyne precellethe the fortitude of the sawle, and makethe a man drunke. Zorobabel seide a woman to be moste of myȝhte, and by this reason; for women ȝiffe life to kynges, and to men that sette vynes and other norischenge, whiche commen to age, putte theire bodies in perelle for women. Zorobabel affermede hym to haue seene a concubine of a kynge to haue ȝiffen buffettes to hym, and sche laȝhenge the kynge to haue laȝhede, and sche beenge soory the kynge to haue beene soory. Neuerthelesse, he seide trawthe was the thynge moste stronge above alle other thynges; for these thynges visible thauȝhe thei be of pulcritude excellente, ȝitte thei be caduke and transitory; but trawthe is immortalle, immutable, and sempiternalle. The kynge, takenge a grete Page  185, vol.3 pleasure in his communication, grawntede to hym licence to re|edifie the temple, takenge to hym his letters þat noo*. [Sic.] scholde resiste theire labore. Therefore thei began to labore soore in the secunde yere of Darius abowte the temple, finisch|enge hit in the vijthe yere, whiche was the xlvj. yere from the firste yere of kynge Cirus, in whom thei hade licence to reedifie the temple. And so the wordes of the gospelle be trewe that temple was reedifiede in xlvj. yere. That temple finischede, thei dedicate hit in the monethe of Marche. And this was the secunde dedicacion, for the firste dedicacion was in herueste in þe tyme of Salomon. The thridde dedicacion was made in wynter vnder Iudas Macha|beus. Petrus, capitulo 182. In this yere the fire of the temple, whiche was taken from the awter and hidde in a pytte, was founde brennenge. Also certitude is not hade of the arke of the testamente, how and when the Iewes didde Page  187, vol.3 receyve hit. But and if the seyenge of Epiphanius be trewe, that arke schalle not be taken from that place where Ieremias the prophete putte hit vn to the day of iugge|mente. Aggeus and Zacharias, prophetes, diede in the monethe of Marche, after the complete reedificacion of the [folio 134b] temple of Ierusalem. Consules were made in this tyme, kynges expulsede from Rome, whiche were create as gouer|noures by oon yere ij. in nowmbre, that and if the oon were insolente, he scholde be restreynede by that other. Titus. The Romanes hade peace after the expulsion of Tarquinius a certeyne season, but, the space and tyme of xv. yere ypas|sede, a grete murmur and sedicion was hade betwene the gouernoures of the cite and the commune peple in his*. [Sic.]Page  189, vol.3 manere folowenge. For the Romanes vsede this consue|tude, that men vsenge batelles scholde lyve of theire propre stipendies and goodes; but the Romanes myȝhte not fulle|fille that consuetude for continuacion of batelles. Where|fore thei borowenge moneye of the gouernoures, and not restorenge hit in the tyme prefixede, were imprisonede; wherefore the commune peple wente furthe from the cite by the space of iij. myles to the holy mownte. But peace was reformede at the laste in this condicion, that the peple scholde haue certeyne maistres ouer theyme, callede Tribuni, whiche scholde defende theyme ageyne the insolence of potestates.

Capitulum undecimum.

PICTAGORAS the philosophre diede abowte this tyme. Tro|gus, libro secundo. This Pictagoras was borne in the yle callede Samos, son to Maratus, a ryche Merchaunte. This Page  191, vol.3 Pictagoras wente to Egipte to lerne the cause and movenge of sterres and begynnenge of þe worlde, whiche, returnenge from Egipte and Babilon, come to that cuntre of Creta and of Lacedemonia to knowe the lawes of Minoys kynge, and of Ligurgus. After that he wente to the cite of Crotines, resolute moche in vertues and in honeste, techenge men, women, and childer vertuous life þer by the space of xxti yere. After that he departede to Methapontus, where he diede afterwarde. Policronicon, libro septimo, capitulo quarto. Mony women folowenge the doctrine of Pictagoras, [folio 135a] wolde do of theire clothes of golde and other raymentes of grete richesse as the instrumentes of lecchery, and conse|crate theyme in the howse of a goddesse callede Iuno. For Pictagoras was wonte to say that clennesse was the trewe clothenge of women. Then xxxti yonge men of the cite, Page  193, vol.3 but more trewly ccc. men of that cite lyvenge after the pleasure of the flesche, and as departede from other peple, movede the peple of that cite ageyne Pictagoras, in so moche that the peple wolde haue brente the peple gedrede with Pictagoras in the howse. In whiche dede lx. men were pereschede, and other men were putte in to exile. This Pictagoras was of suche auctorite amonge olde men, that hit hade be sufficiaunte to the roboracion of a sentence if*. [Valerius, libro 3o, capitulo 7o.] hit hade be seide 'Pictagoras seide so.' Isidorus, libro primo. That clerke Pictagoras was hade so in veneracion of his disciples, that thei thouȝhte hit was wronge vtterly to make eny dowte of that thynge whiche thei hade herde by his disputacion. Isidorus, eodem libro. Pictagoras putte to other letters this letter Y, to the exemple of the lyfe of a man. Agellius, libro octauo, capitulo octauo. This Picta|goras laborede diligentely of the habite, contenaunce, and of Page  195, vol.3 the nature and disposicion of men commenge to here his doctrine and lecture. ℞. After Seneca in his Epistoles, the lvti epistole, and also after Ambrosius, libro primo, De Offi|ciis, capitulo vo, the disciples of Pictagoras scholde be stille and kepe silence by v. yere. Hugo, capitulo Didascalus. This nowble clerke Pictagoras hade this maner and consue|tude, that noon of his disciples scholde aske eny reason of the þinges that were seide by the space of vij. yere after the nowmbre of the vij. science and artes, but the disciple scholde ȝiffe credence to the wordes of his maister, and vij. year ypaste, to move by his awne reason dubitaciones to his maister. Polichronicon, libro septimo. The auctorite of Pictagoras was suche after his dethe, that men made the howse where he dwellede a temple, and honorede hym as Page  197, vol.3 for a god. The peple toke occasion of þat perauenture by the seyenge of Pictagoras, in that he seide in his life, the howse of a philosophre to be the holy place of sapience and the trewe temple of God. Also men reherse that [folio 135b] Pictagoras seide to men that the sawles of theyme were immortalle, and scholde receyve merites and rewarde after the actes of hit in this presente life. Ieronimus contra Rufinum. Pictagoras putte sawles after this dethe corpo|realle to goe from body to body. After the seyenge of Virgilius, vto libro Enoydis, the sawles begynne ageyne after dethe to wylle to be reuertede in to theire bodies. Tullius, de Natura Deorum, libro 30o. Pictagoras offrede an ox to his goddes when he founde eny newe thynge in geometrye, whiche thynge scholde not appere to be trewe, for he wolde not offre to Appollo Delphicus, leste that he scholde contaminate the autere with bloode. Polichronicon, Page  199, vol.3libro quinto, capitulo 4o. The bookes of Pictagoras were brente by men of Athenes, and he was putte in to exile in that he made dowte wheder those thynges were trewe whiche were seide of other men. Agellius, libro quinto. This Pictagoras in his yowthe, compellede as by necessite to labore for his exhibicion, wente to the woode, whiche makenge a fagotte, toke hit on his backe. Demetrius, the philosophre, metenge hym, seenge the beaute of þe childe, and his fagotte to be made and bownde as by geometry, inquirede of the childe who made that fagotte and bownde hit. The childe answerede and seide, "Y made hit." Then the philosophre causede hym to vnlose hit and to bynde hit ageyne, whiche perceyvenge the sapience of the childe, seide to hym: "Sythe that thow hase witte to do welle, folowe me, and thou schalle do better thynges." The childe makenge a promisse to goo with hym, lernede of hym philosophy. Polichronicon, libro 5o. A ryche yonge man, Page  201, vol.3 Enallius by name, come to Pictagoras for cause of his con|nynge, promisenge to hym a grete summe of moneye in that day he scholde be a proctor a fore a iuge and haue þe victory in his causes, ȝiffenge to hym a certeyne summe of moneye in the begynnenge of his informacion. This yonge man, nowbly instructe, wolde not be a proctor for [folio 136a] other men, leste that he scholde haue payede a grete summe of goode to his maister for his labore and doctrine. Where|fore Pictagoras callede hym a fore a Iugge, seyenge to hym: "Lerne, þow foole, thow schalle vnderstonde the summe of moneye to be paiede to me by ij. weies. For if the sen|tence procede on my parte, I schalle haue the seide summe by iuggemente. And if thow haue the victory in this cause, thow schalle pay the seide summe of dewte." The seide yonge man, Enallius by name, seide to his maister: "Lerne, maister, thow schal vnderstonde that y awe not to pay that Page  203, vol.3 summe of money, for if the sentence procede with me, þow schalle haue noo thynge of that summe, and if the sentence procede ageyne me, y schalle not pay þat summe, sithe that y hade not the victory." The Iugges herenge this, lefte hit as a dowte inexplicable, differrenge þe sentence in to a longe season folowenge. Isidorus, libro 2o, capitulo 24o. Thauȝhe Tubal, off the kynde of Cayn, afore the grete floode of Noe, be redde to haue be the firste fynder of musike, that is to say, the firste mover of consonancy, neuerthelesse Grekes reherse Pictagoras to haue beene the firste fynder of musike, thro þe sownde of malles and extension of wyres other strynges. Macrobius, libro secundo. As Pictagoras wente in a season in the hie weye, he herde smyȝhtes strykenge Page  205, vol.3 yrne ybrente with homers, corespondente in a certeyne ordre and proporcion of consonancy in whom the scharpenes was consonaunte to the gretenesse. Then Pictagoras causede the smyhtes to chaunge theire homers, but the same con|formite of the sownde remaynede stille. Whiche, takenge the measure of euery homer, causede theyme to make gretter homers, chaungenge that weiȝhte in to wires and in to strynges of the bowelles of bestes, and of the senowes of theyme, whiche, streynenge the strynges, founde the same consonancy in theyme whiche he founde afore in the homers. And after that he laborede to knowe the nowmbres and [folio 136b] acordes, and so he profite moche to the fyndenge of musike. ℞. Tullius rehersethe of Pictagoras, de Tusculanis Quæstionibus, libro 4o, that his disciples cowthe reduce theire myndes from wickede thouȝhtes thro musike and songe. Augustinus in Epistola 5ta, contra Julianum. When Page  207, vol.3 yonge men, ouercommen with wyne and drunke, wolde breke the durres of chaste women, Pictagoras wolde commaunde men to synge slawely, that the hasty luste and brennenge scholde passe aweye thro that slawe syngenge Seneca, libro 3o, de ira. Pictagoras constreynede and removede pertur|baciones of the sawle with an harpe. ℞. Discrete men reherse that Pictagoras goenge in a tyme by the places of smythes herde a swete sownde and consonante thro the ofte strykenges of the homers. Wherefore he takenge the measure and weiȝhtes of the homers, founde oon of theyme to weye that other twies, and that other to weie alle that other and the *. ["Thrydde" has been erased, and "halfe" written above it.]halfe parte moore, and that other homer to weie alle the other and the thrydde parte moore. As the thrydde homer Page  209, vol.3 of viij weiȝhtes and the iiijthe of ix. weiȝhtes, as this figure presente schewethe:{illustration}

These cordes yfounde, Pictagoras ȝave names to theyme, callenge hit in sowndes diapason, whiche is callede in nowmbres dupla proporcio, other a dowble proporcion. And that corde in nowmbres called sequal|tera is diapente in sowndes. And that corde whiche is callede sequitercia proportio in nowmbres is made diates|seron in sowndes. And that Page  211, vol.3 acorde whiche is in nowmbre a proporcion callede quadrupla, is in musike bis diapason, twies diapason. As hit may be schewed in the monocorde, when the wire extendede on a holowe body is distreynede diametrally by an instrumente restreynenge the wyre to a certeyne acorde callede magada, whiche is in [folio 157a] to ij. egalle thynges, then diapason resultethe on either parte of the wire. And if the wire be distreynede in to thre equalites, and the seide instrumente be putte under the oon extremalle diuision other departenge, the longer parte of the wyre ytowchede yeldethe diapente. And if the corde other wire be distreynede in to iiij. equalites, and that instrumente magada be putte under the oon extremalle diuision, the longer parte of the wire ytowchede yeldethe diatesseron. And if the wire be distreynede in to ix. partes, and that instrumente magada putte under hit in the oon extremalle diuision, the longer parte of the wire ytowchede yeldethe tonus, for ix. to viij. yeldeth a proportion sequioctaua, as hit schalle be schewede clerely in this presente figure. {illustration}
Page  213, vol.3Ieronimus contra Ruffinum. Mony men and disciples of Pictagoras, holdenge his preceptes in theire myndes, vsede theyme as for bookes, vsenge myche these prouerbes folowenge in his lyfe. Langor is to be departede from the body, lecchery from the bely, treason from a cite, discorde from a howse, and intemperaunce from alle thynges; seynge also trawthe to be luffedde after God, whiche oonly makethe men as neiȝhebores to Godde.

Capitulum duodecimum.

The name of Philosophres toke begynnenge firste of Pic|tagoras. For men of Grece in olde tyme callede theyme wise men. But this Pictagoras, inquirede of his name, answerede hym to be a Philosophre, that is to say, a luffer of sapience, thenkenge that it were a prowde thynge to name hym selfe a wise man. After that tyme philosophres toke theire names Page  215, vol.3 somme of theire auctores as men folowenge Pictagoras were callede Pictagorici, and men folowenge Plato, Platonici. Policronicon, libro primo. Other philosophres toke theire names of regiones; other philosophres toke theire names of staciones and of conuenticles of places, as Stoici, Achademici, [folio 137b] Peripatetici. Men calledde Stoici were namede of a porche in Athenes, whiche is callede Stoa in Grewe, where the gestes of wise men and myȝhty men were depicte. The firste of whom was Zenon, whiche put euery synne to be of vni|formite, so that he scholde synne as moche that did steyle chaffe as the man stelenge golde, and he that doethe *. [Sic.; slee is omitted.]a horse as moche as he that dothe slee a man. For he seide the beste or body is not in blame, but the sawle and Page  217, vol.3 the wille. This philosophre Zenon seide the sawle to peresche with the body; also he and his folowers knowlegede theyme not to be eternalle, neuerthelesse thei desirede lyfe eternalle. Men callede Achademici toke theire name of a towne callede Achademia longenge to Plato, whiche towne was ruinose and nye to Athenes where he was wonte to studye. Men callede Peripatetici other philosophres so namede, toke theire name of walkenge, in that Aristotille, the auctor of theym, was wonte to dispute walkenge. Augustinus, De Civitate Dei, libro octavo. There be thre diuersites of philosophres; Page  219, vol.3 for other thei be philosophres considrenge the natures of thynges, as Tales Millesius, Pictagoras, and theire folowers were; other elles thei be philosophres compound|enge vertues, as Socrates and hys foloers were; other thei be logiciones ȝiffenge reason of either thynge as Plato was and his folowers, whiche is commendede to haue made perfecte philosophy afore alle other philosophres. Ysidorus, libro octavo, capitulo sexto. Wherefore he is callede a trewe philosophre that knowethe thynge diuine and naturalle and kepethe the weye of trewe lyffenge. The philosophres that were diuines were precellente alle other kyndes off philosophres, in that thei laborede and made tractes of God. But mony of theyme did erre gretely in theire opiniones abowte God and the worlde, and thauȝhe mony of theyme hade knowlege of Godde thei glorifiede not theire maker, but euaneschede aweye in theire [folio 138a] thouȝhtes, whiche callenge theymselfe wise men were made fooles. The errores of whom inducede heresy in to alle Page  221, vol.3 the chirche denyenge the resurreccion of the body and seyenge that mater was egalle with Godde. Augustinus, De Civitate Dei, libro octavo, capitulo 4o. The philosophres knowenge the trawthe of God profite moche to the cogni|cion of trawthe; as Plato, whiche putte in God a cause of subsistence to be, and a reason of intelligence, and an ordre of goode lyvynge; wherefore God is to vs a begynnenge of nature, a trawthe of doctrine, and the felicite of life. Also, sythe þer were philosophres whiche contriuede theire wittes in the inquisicion of the natures of thynges and in the maner of lyffenge, those philosophres ar to be en|hawncede whiche, knowenge God, founde where he was, and cause of the makenge of the worlde, and that God was the welle off felicite. The philosophres laborenge abowte that knowlege come to hit in this maner vnder|stondenge that God was noo body, sythe a body is cor|ruptible and made of contraries. Also thei considerate Page  223, vol.3 that the similitude of the body iuggede by hyt whiche is oure sawle other wille is noo body. Then sithe oure sawle is noo body how scholde God the creator of a sawle be a body? But trewly the sawle and wille of man is mutable, for elles oon man scholde not ȝiffe better iuggemente of a thynge sensible then an other, and also euery thynge receyvenge moore other lesse is mutable. For truly the firste trawthe whiche is God may not be where mutabilite is founde, wherefore philosophres and diuynes vnderstode and concludede euery thynge mutable to be of hym þat is immutable and symple. To whom Page  225, vol.3 his beenge is noon other then lyfe neither other beenge then to vnderstonde neither other beenge then goode beenge other essencialite. Eutropius et Marianus.

Capitulum decimum tertium.

THE peple of Rome made treason, seyenge that þei scholde be oppressede by the senate and consules, wherefore thei ordeynede to theyme tribunes as theire defensores ageyne the consules and the senate. Quintus Marius, a gouernoure [folio 138b] of Rome, expulsede from the cite wente vn to a certeyne peple callede Vulsci, whom he hade trowblede theyme soore in schorte space afore whiche desirenge of theyme helpe founde Page  227, vol.3 grete socoure. Whiche goenge to the cite of Rome segede hit refusenge peace vn tille that his moder and his wife goenge furthe from the cite made a supplicacion to hym for the savegarde of the cite. Egipte wente from the kynge of Persida and wolde not be subiecte to hym. A woman callede Pompilia, taken at Rome in advowtery was beryede whicke in the erthe. Trogus, libro secundo. After the dethe of Pisistratus, the tiraunte of Athenes, oon of his sonnes raueschenge a virgyn by strenȝhte was sleyne by the brother of that virgyn oppressede. Then Hispias, son of Pisistratus, reioycenge that realme commaundede the sleer of his brother to be taken. Whiche man compellede by Page  229, vol.3 diuerse kyndes of tormentes to reherse þe names of men consentenge þerto namede alle the frendes of Hispias, that tiraunte. And when Hispias had sleyne his frendes he inquirede of that man wheþer eny men consentenge to the dethe were in lyfe. The man answerede and seide, there was not oon man in lyve worthy dethe but he hym selfe. Men of that cite perceyvenge the discrecion and vertu of the yonge man, expellede Hispias that tiraunte from the cite of Athenes. This tiraunte Hispias wente anoon to the londe of Persida to kynge Darius, movenge hym to ȝiffe batelle ageyne men of Athenes. Orosius, libro secundo. This Darius instorede a batelle ageyne Anticirus, kynge of Sachia other of the Messagetes in that he did not wedde his doȝhter after that he hade recurede men of Assiria and of the cuntre off Babilon goen from his realme. This Page  231, vol.3 kynge Anticirus metenge kynge Darius with lxxti c. ml. of armede men, made theim lesse in nowmbre by lxxti ml. Then kynge Darius returnenge from that cuntre made tame men of Macedonia and Ionynes, and ȝafe batelle to men of Athenes for cause thei schewede socour to the Ionynes. Whiche beenge [folio 139a] but ix. ml in nowmbre come to mete kynge Darius with ml infinite whiche were trawede of the peple now to be men and other while as bestes vnresonable in audacite and boldnesse. Trogus, libro secundo. Men of Persida losenge the victory, toke theire schippes, of whom mony were pureschede and mony were taken. To ȝiffe to eny man the firste lawde in suche a victory is an harde thynge. But trewly þer was a knyȝhte of Athenes, Cinegirus by name, whiche pursuede men of Persida in to the see where he did holde a myȝhty shippe gretely chargede with his ryȝhte honde Page  233, vol.3 til that hit was kytte aweye. After that he toke holde with his lifte honde vn til that he hade loste hit. That honde loste, he didde holde the schippe with his teithe so that he fauȝhte as a wilde beste with his teithe. In whiche batelle ij. c. ml. of men of Persida were sleyne and the tyraunte Hispias also. Darius, the kynge of Persida, diede soone after that tyme in the xxxvj. yere of his reigne levenge after hym mony childer; but Xerses his son as borne with in the realme reioycede hit after the dethe of Darius, his father.

Capitulum quartumdecimum.

XERSES, the son of kynge Darius and the vthe kynge of Persida reignede xxti yere. This Xerses recurede the londe of Egipte whiche wolde not be obediente to his fader and instaurede a batelle ageyne the londe of Grece y|begunne by his fader by the space of v. yere, vnder whom Iosephus seithe Esdras the scribe to haue goen in to þe Page  235, vol.3 Iewery in the vijthe yere of his reigne. Also he seithe Neemias boteler to hym to haue goen in to the Iewery in the xxvti yere of his reigne, and to haue reparede the walles of Ierusalem vnder the space of xij. yere. But Esdras seithe hym selfe to haue goen in to the Iewery in the [folio 139b] tyme of Artaxerses. Trogus. Damarchus, a nowble man of Athenes, put from that cite wente vn to Xerses whiche perceyvenge kynge Xerses to intende and labor for the destruc|cion of the cite, sende to the nowble men of that cite his en|tencion and labor in a peire of tables couerenge the writenge with wexe. The nowble men of the cite openenge the tables cowthe not fynde the intellecte of þeim, but at the laste the sustir of Leonida kynge takenge aweye the wexe founde the intellecte and sentence of that writenge. Xerses, the kynge of Persida, hade xcc ml of fiȝhtenge men, so that the waters Page  237, vol.3 semede to be made drye thro his hoste. Orosius, libro 2o. This Xerses hade so grete a multitude off peple and nowmbre of schippes that the waters and sees semede vnnethe sufficiaunte to theire drynke and the londe to theire goenge, whiche grete multitude of peple was ouercommen by iiij. ml men callede Spartani fiȝhtenge with theyme by iij. daies. Valerius, libro 6o. That multitude y-gedrede, a man off Persida seide the Grekes schalle not be oppressede oonly and ouercomme, but they schalle be troden vnder feete with such a multitude of men of Persida. An other man seide the kynge hathe not mater sufficiaunte where he may exercise his vertu. An other man seide the see is vnnethe sufficiaunte to the schippes, armor to the men, castelles to þe knyȝhtes, and the aier for dartes and arowes. Damarachus answerede and seide, "This multitude is so huge that hit is not Page  239, vol.3 for a kynge, wherefore it is to be dredde; for that hoste whiche is not for a kynge, may not dure long." And so hit happede for mony men inordinate were ouercommen of fewe men, obseruenge a dewe ordre. For this kynge Xerses and his hoste vexede soore by iijc men of Lace|demonia seide hym selfe to be deceyvede in that he hade mony men and fewe discrete in batelles. A man of the londe of Grece seide the sonne to haue been schadoede in that conflicte thro the schotenges of dartes and of arowes of men of Persida. An other man seide to hym in this [folio 140a] wise, "We shalle fiȝhte better in the schado or vmbre." Also an other man inquirede as in derision of a halte man why he wente in to the vowarde of þe batelle. The halte man answerede and seide that his purpose was to fiȝhte and not to fle. Trogus, libro secundo. Leonida the kynge of Athenes with iiij. ml men destroyede a grete parte of the hoste of men of Persida, and dispersede in the nyȝte that other Page  241, vol.3 parte of the hoste. Xerses the kynge of Persida ouercommen in too tymes on the londe ordeynede a batelle on the see, where his peple destroyede, Xerses hym selfe vnnethe escapede with the lyfe in to a fischenge veselle. Where there was so grete habundaunce of carion, that grete multitude and nowmbres of briddes folowede the hoste, for the carion of men deenge for hungre. Herodotus, the writer of storyes, Euripedes, Basilides, Diagoras, and Sophocles were abowte this tyme. Archabanus, the gouernoure of the hows of Xerses aspirenge to the realme of Persida, and commynge to þe kynges place with his vij. childer, did slee kynge Xerses and mony other moo. Whiche Xerses had ij. sonnes, Darius and Artaxerses; wherefore he movede Artaxerses in to the dethe of Darius, seyenge that he had sleyne Xerses his fader. Page  243, vol.3 Vagabaxus perceyvenge that rehersede to Artaxerses the trowthe of his labor and entente. This Artaxerses com|maundede anoone alle his noble men to comme afore hym in armoure, as if that he scholde intende to knowe the nowmbre of his knyȝhtes. And when the seide Archabanus was þer redy amonge oþer men, the kynge feynede hym selfe to haue more schorte armoure then was acordenge for his worschippe and person; wherefore he commaundede the seide Archabanus to chaunge his armoure with hym. Whiche beenge bare and nakede as of armoure the kynge Page  245, vol.3 commaundede him to be sleyne with his vij. childer; and so the kynge Artaxerses avengede the dethe of his fader and savede his broþer Darius and hym selfe also from his wickede entente and laboure.

Capitulum quintumdecimum.

ARTAXERSES, otherwise callede Longimanus, the vijthe kynge [folio 140b] of men of Persida, began to reigne after that Archabanus hade reigned vij. monethes, whiche reignede xlti yere; vnder whom somme men say those thynges to haue happede whiche be redde of Hester and of Mardocheus, whiche thynge semethe not to be trewe. For Esdras the scribe, whiche was in the begynnenge of this kynge, and rehersethe hym selfe and Neemias to haue returnede from Babilon, wolde not haue leyvede the trawthe of þat story. But more raþer Hester was vnder Artaxerses the xjthe kynge Page  247, vol.3 of Persida, and callede Assuerus. Dunwallo Molimicius, son of the duke of Cornewayle, began to reigne amonge the Briteynes, whiche sleenge the kynges of Loegria, of Cam|bria, and of Albania, obteynede the yle callede Insula Solis, and made to hym a diademe of golde, and lawes whiche be callede lawes Molimityne, whom Gildas did translate in to Latyn: after that kynge Alurede did translate þeim owte of Latyn in to Englische. And when this Molimicius hade reignede xlti yere, he diede, and was beryede nye the temple of concorde in the cite of Trinouante, callede nowe London. This is that Molimicius whiche ȝafe im|munite and socoure to man sleenge oþer, to temple of goddes, to plowes, cites, or to hie wayes. Petrus. Esdras the scribe come from Babilon with the kynges letters thro whom he scholde releysche the ministres of the temple from every tribute, and scholde ordeyn ministres of þe kynge, or move theym aweye, and punysche rebelliones Page  249, vol.3 other by dethe, other by exile, other in to prison or elles by þe losenge of theire goodes. Also this scribe Esdras hade with hym the veselles of the temple, þat he commynge to Ierusalem myȝte informe his peple in his lawe newely repayrede; to whom ije and xxti of the childer of Israel come, whiche were behynde the hilles Caspy, and ml lxxti c. men returnede with hym; where he correcte in his commynge the childer of þe transmigracion, and namely prestes for their wifes of [folio 141a] straunge cuntrees. Also Esdras the scribe repairede the lawe brente and also succendede by men of Calde, and correcte volumes corrupte by men of Barbre, and com|bynede hit in xxijti bokes, þat men of Hebrewe scholde haue as mony bookes in nowmbre as thei hade letters. The seide Esdras founde newe letters, whiche were more liȝhte to the writenge and pronunciacion, wherefore he was callede the hasty scribe. Also somme men reherse that þe Iewes did write afore from the lifte parte to the ryȝhte and from Page  251, vol.3 the ryȝhte to the lyfte in the maner of men plowenge. Empedocles, Permenides, and Zeno, noble philosophres, were þis tyme, and the philosophre Empedocles did chose his sepulture in Ethna, a mownte of Sicille. Permenides, after the testimonialle of Boice in his booke of consolacion, syttenge on a hille by the space of x. yere, laborede and founde the arte of logike; þe rewles of whom and causes of þe begynnenge Plato fyndenge encreasede hit moche; but Aristotille redacte hit in an arte. Stritides the writer of storyes was þis tyme, but Erodotus afore wrote the storyes.

Capitulum sextumdecimum.

THE Romanes desirede lawes of men of Athenes by legates and messyngers. Then men of Athenes willenge to proue wheþer thei were worthy theire lawes, sende a discrete man, with the lawe of x. tables, to attempte the wisedome of the Page  253, vol.3 Romanes. But the Romanes sende a foole to answere, leste perauenture a moore discrete man scholde be rebukede. The man of Athenes in the firste metenge did erecte his fynger as to signifye the unite off the Godhede. The foole thenkenge that he wolde doo owte his eie with that oon fynger, extended to þe man off Athenes ij. fyngers, thenkenge to pulle owte his too cien. The Greke supposede the Roman to haue expressede the son with the fader consubstancialle, and extendede furthe his honde, signifienge by hit that alle [folio 141b] thynges scholde be open and be knowen to Allemyȝhty God. The Roman thenkenge to ȝiffe hym an other buffette, helde his honde y-folden to geder thenkenge þer-by his stroke to be of moore greuaunce. The Greke supposenge the Roman to haue schewede Godde as to haue disposede and con|clusede the worlde vnder his honde and powere, iuggede the Romanes worthy his lawes ℞. And thei were the lawes of Salon, for thei sende not to men of Athenes for the lawes of Ligurgus, other elles to the men of Lacedemonia, whiche were noble lawes, sithe thei hade hym suspecte of a lesynge in that he seide he hade receyvede those lawes of Appollo. The Romanes didde redresse and redacte these lawes of Salon in to x. tables, to whom thei didde adde ij. tables afterwarde, where of the famous lawe of xij. tables spronge, as hit is redde in the digeste de origine iuris in the secunde booke in the gloose. Ysidorus, libro quinto. Moyses ȝafe lawe to men of Hebrewe; Foroneus the kynge to men of Grece; Mercurius Trimegistus to men of Egipte; Salon to men of Athenes; Ligurgus to men of Lacedemonia; Numa Pompilius Page  255, vol.3 to the Romanes. The peple of Rome not suffrenge afterwarde the sedicion of þe magistrates, ordeynede x. men to write þe lawes, whiche did translate the lawes of Salon from Grewe in to Latyn. The grete Pompeius was the firste whiche willede to haue redacte the lawes in to bokes, but he was not perseuerante for drede of obtrectatores. And after hym Iulius Cesar, but he was sleyne soone after. And so the lawes decreasede by a lytel and lytelle vn tille that grete Con|stantyne founde newe lawes, but Theodosius þe yonger made a booke callede Theodosian. And sone after that Iustinianus redintegrate the lawes of the digeste allemoste of ij. ml bookes, and iijc. ml of versus. The power of the con|sulles seasede abowte this tyme in Rome, and x. men were create and ordeynede for the ij. consulles; but in the secunde yere after, as Seynte Austyn seithe, De Civitate Dei, libro primo, capitulo nono, oon of theyme, Appius Claudius, bren|nenge [folio 142a] Page  257, vol.3 in the luffe of a doȝhter of a knyȝhte of Rome, commaun|dede oon of his servauntez to aske the maide in to seruitute, whiche thynge y-grauntede, the fader did sle his doȝhter; whiche thynge rehersede to þe peple of Rome, the x. men create were ammovede, and tribunes and other gouernoures were subrogate. Petrus, capitulo 186o. Neemias, a man of Hebrewe, and boteler of kynge Artaxerses, wente from Babilon thro the graunte of his lorde vn to the Iewery, where he was gouernoure of the peple by xij. yere; whiche began to repaire in his vthe yere þe walles and ȝates of Ierusalem; whiche werke he finischede after the continuacion of hit by ij. yere and iiij. monethes, with suche impedimentes and tribulacion that the halfe parte of the peple stode with owte the cite in armes to fiȝhte ageyne theire enmyes and that other parte laborede in theire armoure, holdenge a swerde with the oon honde and laborenge with that other. After that, Neemias perceyvenge that the Iewes hade noo Page  259, vol.3 fyre from heuyn, openede vp a pitte in the vale of Iosephath where Ieremy the prophete hidde fire in the tyme of the capti|uite of men and peple of Ierusalem, where he founde coles and fatte water, where of thei hade fire. Therefore if thow wille annumerate the lxxti wekes of yeres whom Daniel propheciede to be abbreuiate on the peple of God from the xxti yere of Artaxerses, in whom Neemias come from Babilon, vn to Criste, that is to say, to the xviijthe yere of Tiberius Cesar, thou schalle fynde so þat a weke of yeres be vnderstonde of þe yere of the mone, and not of the yere of the sonne other embolismalle, ccccxc. yere of the moone, with owte monethes embolismalle, whiche make cccclxxv. yere of the Page  261, vol.3 sonne. ℞. Whiche thynge may be provede by Bede in his boke de temporibus: for the realme of the londe of Persida endurede from this xxti yere of Artaxerses vn to the vjthe yere of kynge Darius, in whiche yere he was ouercommen by grete Alexander, as by an c. and xv. yere. And the realme of Grece stode and contynuede vn to the tymes of Iulius Cesar [folio 142b] as by cclxxxij. yere; and from the begynnenge of þe reigne of Iulius Cesar vn to the xviij. yere of Tiberius be lxxxviij. yere, whiche yeres alle aggregrate to gedre make cccclxxv. yere of the sonne. Orosius, libro 3o. The nyȝhte was extendede abowte this tyme in to a grete parte of the day, and an haile of stones descendenge from the clowdes Page  263, vol.3 did bete þe erthe like to stones. Petrus, capitulo 188o. Esdras the scribe diede in a goode age, and Neemias the prophete wente to kynge Artaxerses, but he returnede a litelle afore his dethe to Ierusalem, and did chide the transgresores of the lawes, whiche dyenge was beryede nye to the walle whiche he made in Ierusalem. Beda de compot. The ordre of the diuine story is taken ȝitte hider after the computacion of men of Hebrewe, but these thynges folowenge be of þe writenges of Iosephus Affricanus, and taken owte of the bokes of Machabes. Also consulles were create at Rome ageyne. Ypocras, the noble man in þe arte of medicynes was in this tyme. Ysidorus, libro quarto. Appollo founde firste the arte of medicynes amonge men of Grewe; after that Esculapius his son did ampliate hyt, but he was pereschede thro a stroke of liȝhtenge, whiche arte was alle moste forgeten by vc. yere vn to the tyme of this kynge Artaxerses, in whos tyme Ypocras renewede that arte Page  265, vol.3 in the yle of Choo. The seide Ypocras made three bookes, the firste was callede Methodica, the secunde Emperica, the thridde Logica; but tweyne of the firste be erroneus, in that the firste, whiche is callede, Methodica, considrethe neither tymes neiþer the elementes nor ages, but oonly the substance of þe sekenes, and also hit folowethe wycchecrafte and charmes. The secunde, whiche is callede Emperica, inquirethe oonly experience. The thridde is approbate, whiche is clepede Logica.

Capitulum septimumdecimum.

XERSES the viijthe kynge of men of Persida reignede after Artaxerses by ii. monethes. In the tyme of whom Plato the [folio 143a] noble philosophre was borne. After whom Fogodianus reignede ix. monethes; after whom Darius other Nothus, the xthe kynge of Persida, whiche reignede xix. yere. Galfridus et Alfridus. In whiche tyme Belinus, the son of Molimicius, Page  267, vol.3 reignede amonge the Briteynes, reteynenge to hym Loegria with Wales, and ȝafe to Brennius his broþer alle his londe ouer the water of Humbre, with Albania, nowe namede Scottelande. The vthe yere of his reigne y-paste, Brennius began to rebelle ageyn Belinus his broþer, whiche Brennius putte to fliȝhte, wente to the duke of the Lesse Briteyne, whose doȝhter he had mariede, to haue that realme after his dissease. And after that he hade receyvede þat realme, in the firste yere he come to Briteyn with a grete hoste of Frensche men and of Allobroges, to ȝiffe batelle ageyne his broþer; but þeire moder, a woman of grete age, schewenge to theyme her breste, and pullenge down her eiere of here hede, procurede peas amonge theyme. And in the yere folowenge after the acorde made betwene the brether, thei coniuncte togedre, made Fraunce subiecte to theyme, and destroyede a grete parte of Germany, and at the laste thei lade sege Page  269, vol.3 to the cite of Rome. In whiche tyme Dionisius the firste exercisede grete crudelite in Sicille. And Furius Canillus made a dictator amonge þe Romanes, ouercome the Beneuen|tanes and Faliscones; whiche was putte and expulsede from the cite of Rome as for enuy, in that the peple seide that he diuidede ylle the pray and goodes thei hade geten. Titus, When that the Romanes in segenge þe Vegence hade sustenede grete infortunes by the space of x. yere, Furius Canillus put a grete siȝhte of connynges vnder the erthe in oon parte of the cite, thro the erthes of whom his knyȝhtes entrenge in to the cite toke a grete towre of hit, while that Furius Camillus oppugnede the walles in an oþer parte of the cite. The citesynnes seenge that, yoldede the cite, but Canillus displeasede so the peple in the diuision of theire pray that he was to a iuggemente. Whiche dredenge dethe went voluntaryly [folio 143b] in to exile in to the cite of Ardeia, whom the Romanes con|dempnede Page  271, vol.3 in a grete summe of goode; whiche commenge afterwarde dissoluede the sege of the Frensche men, and putte theyme to fliȝhte.

Capitulum octavumdecimum.

ARTAXERSES, the son of Darius, otherwise namede Memnon, and Assuerus of men of Hebrewe, whiche beenge the xjthe kynge of Persida reignede xlti yere from Ynde vn to Ethioppe, on a c. and xxvij. prouinces, the regalle seete of whom was in the cite callede Susis, callede in the story of Iudith Eg|bathanis, whiche was the chiefe cite of Elamites. And after Iosephus, Daniel the prophete made þer a ryalle beryalle for kynges, so maruellous that hit semethe to be made newly in the same day that a man dothe beholde hit. In whom kynges of Medea, Persia, and of Parthia were wonte to be beryede. This Artaxerses made a grete feste in the thridde Page  273, vol.3 yere of his reigne to the princes and nobles of his realme by a c. and lxxti dayes, in that maruellous place of whom hit is redde in the story of kynge Alexander, the pillers of whom were of siluyr, the couerenge of hit was concamerate lyke to the firmamente, hauenge in hit gemmes of diuerse coloures in the similitude of sterres. After that he didde eite with his peple in his gardyn of delices, where a vyne was hauenge brawnches of siluyr and of golde, and also clustres of gemmes; the tentes were hongede on pillers of siluyr, of marbole, of yuery, with ropes of clothe of golde and of pur|pulle; where the qwene of Vasthi recusenge to comme to hym was despisede, and Hester was electe for her. De|mocritus, the philosophre, diede abowte this tyme, of whom Agellius rehersethe that he pullede owte his eien for iij. causes. The firste cause was for the siȝhte exterialle lette [folio 144a] hym from meditacion interialle. The cause secondary was for he myȝhte not beholde women withowte concupiscence. Page  275, vol.3 The thrydde cause was for he see wickede men do wickedely, and that he miȝhte not suffre welle. Policronicon, libro septimo. Socrates the philosophre, beynge of xc. yere in age, diede, with a constante chere drynkenge poyson and venom. But hit is to be perceyvede and attendede that þer were iij. Socrates: oon Socrates Cassiodorus commendethe in his story tripartite; for this story was compilede of Seleucus, Theodori|cus, and Socrates. There was also an other Socrates, a noble clerke of Grece, of whom hit is rehersede primo libro Saturna|lium. The thridde Socrates was the maister of Plato, of Page  277, vol.3 whom it is rehersede in this processe. Policronicon, libro quarto, capitulo sexto. Socrates was accomptede and iuggede the moste noble philosophre in the oracle of Appollo, which exceded in sapience the vij. noble philosophres amonge the Grekes with owte contradiccion, whiche be rehersede, and were afore hym not oonly in oppinion of sapience, but also in vertu of lyvynge. Of whom Tullius spekethe, libro primo, de Tusculanis Questionibus, that Socrates was prince of philosophye, and callede it from heuyn vn to the erthe, and stableschede hit in mony citees. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro octavo, capitulo quarto decimo. A spiritte was felowe to Socrates, informenge hym in mony thynges, as Apuleus rehersethe in his boke De Deo Socratis, seyenge that Socrates was wonte by that spiritte to be amovede from thynges that scholde not be done. ℞. Also Calcidius rehersethe super Thimeum Platonis, that a spiritte was felewe to Socrates, not that he scholde move hym to Page  279, vol.3 eny acte to be inhibite or reprobable, but that he scholde prohibite hym of thynges whiche scholde not be doen. Valerius, libro octavo, capitulo septimo. Socrates in his olde age ȝafe his laboure to musike, thenkenge better to knowe that arte late than neuer, makenge hym selfe poore to lerne, [folio 144b] but he was riche to teche. And this Socrates seide hym selfe to knowe but fewe thynge, þauȝhe the contrary were Page  281, vol.3 trewe: whereof a prouerbe was seide of Socrates, "Y knowe that thynge oonly whiche y knowe not," as Ierom rehersethe Epistola tricesima quinta. Valerius, libro octavo. Socrates was not aschamede to take a reede betwene his legges, or elles a staffe, and play with his childer. Policronicon, libro octavo. Hit is a familiar thynge to a wise man to ioy otherwhile, not that the exercise off vertu scholde declyne by hit, but raþer that thei scholde be encreasede. This Socrates ȝafe grete resplendence in vertues heroicalle and philosophicalle, thro whom men be assimilate to goddes. for he florischede in temperaunce, as Agellius rehersethe, libro 2o. Also Valerius rehersethe, libro 2o, Socrates to haue seide mony men to lyve in vice, and to lyve that thei myȝhte eite; but he seide hym to eyte that he myȝhte lyve. Also he florischede in patience, for as Seneca re|hersethe, Page  283, vol.3 libro 3o de ira, Socrates walkenge in a cite, and strynken of a symple felowe, seide in this wise: "I am not wrothe, but y dowte wheþer y schalle be." Also he seide in a tyme to a wickede seruaunte of his, "Y scholde bete the but that Y am wrothe." Also this Socrates hade a cursede wife and wickede childer, more like to the moder then to hym, and also a greuous seruaunte, and ȝitte he was verey paciente for alle that. Of whom Seneca spekethe, Epistola 197a. Soe this Socrates was alle moste contynually other in tyrannesse other in liberte moore cruelle and grevous then batayle. Of whom Ierom rehersethe contra Iouin: and Page  285, vol.3 also Epistola tricesima tertia, that Socrates hade ii. liti|gious and malicious wifes, Zantipes, and Altipias, whiche stryvenge on a tyme Socrates skornede theym that thei made eny stryfe for suche a symple man, ylle proporcionede of face of continaunce, ballede the hedde, with a snattede noose, and with crokede legges. The women perceyvenge [folio 145b] his derision, and goenge in to an hie parte of the seller or chamber, made vryne in a veselle and caste hit on Socrates hedde. Then Socrates wipenge his hedde answerede to theyme in noon other wise, but seide, "I hade trewe knowlege, and perceyvede welle that after þundre of wordes a reyne scholde folowe." Agellius, libro secundo, et Poli|cronicon, libro quinto. When a man askede of Socrates in Page  287, vol.3 a tyme why he did not correcte his wickede wife, Zantipes by name, other elles put here from his feloweschippe, he answerede, "When þat y exercise and am vsede to penaunce at home, y may suffre the better by exercise the injury of oþer peple." Seneca de Ira. A signe of wrathe in Socrates was when he was in angre he wolde speke with Page  289, vol.3 a lawe voice and but lytelle. Policronicon, libro quinto. Socrates answerede to a man inquirenge of him how that he myȝhte gette a good name, and seide in this wise: "That man schal haue a goode name that dothe welle and spekethe litelle." Policronicon libro septimo. The*. [To avoyde envy of peple.] noble philosophre Plato, and disciple to Socrates, inquirede of hym how he myȝte expelle and avoide the envy of men. Socrates seide to hym in this wise: "Be a wrecche and poore like to Tersites, and men schalle not haue envy at the, for misery allone wontethe envye." Ysidorus, Ethi: libro 2o, capitulo vicesimo-quarto. This Socrates founde firste moralle disciplyne, to correcte vices and to plante vertues, diuidenge that arte in to iiij. vertues, in Page  291, vol.3 to prudence, justice, fortitude, and patience. This Socrates dienge, lefte mony disciples disputenge diuerse weies of the hie goode thynge and finalle felicite, but Plato was moste excellente amonge theym. ℞. The noble clerke Seneca spekethe of the dethe of Socrates, and of the cause of hit, Epistola centesima septima. An objeccion*. [The othe of Socrates.] was made to hym of the violacion of his religion and beleve, in that he usede to swere by creatures, and not [folio 145b] by goddes; wherefore he was iuggede to prison, and poysonede in prison. Augustinus de vera religione, capitulo primo. Socrates was namede of moore boldenesse in swerenge then eny other man in his tyme, in that he did swere by a Page  293, vol.3 dogge or a stone, and as y perceyve, hit was redy in his minde to swere by suche creatures, in that he knewe excellentely the werkes of nature, and how thei were or|deynede by the providence of God, rather þen by fals goddes ymages, and by the werkes of the labores of men whiche were worschippede that tyme in theire temples. Whereof the expositor of Boice, De Disciplina Scolarium, rehersethe in his iiijthe chapitre. A disciple of Socrates accusede hym in that he made a boke of God, and not of goddes. Wherefore Socrates was compellede to eite an herbe pestilente in þe name of that Godde, whiche eitenge hit was not poysonede. And after that he was compellede to eite an herbe pestilente in the name of goddes, and he was dedde anoone. Whereof Tullius rehersethe that after that Socrates was putte to dethe, men of Athenes were soory, and punyschede soore his accusers, and sette an ymage of golde in the temple in the worschippe of Socrates. The Page  295, vol.3 Commentor seithe, on the vthe boke of the Etykes, that Socrates accusede seide in this wise: "Men of Athenes may condempne Socrates, but thei can not make hym unryȝht|euous." Men of Athenes began to use xxiiij. letters, whiche vsede afore but xvj., as his rehersede afore. Eutropius et Gaufridus.

Capitulum nonumdecimum.

SENONES and men of Fraunce, with Brennius their gouer|noure, ouercome the Romanes at þe floode and water callede Alba, by xj. myles from Rome, whom thei causede to fle to the cite of Rome, and toke the cite vn to the capitoly. Titus Livius. The Frensche men commenge priuely in to the [folio 146a] cite in the nyȝhte by a weye made vnder the erthe, the Romanes beenge on slepe; but the chapiteyne of the cite was awakede by the noyce of gandres, whiche goenge to the walles of the cite with oþer Romanes, savede the cite from the powere of theire enmyes. Wherefore a feste of Page  297, vol.3 gandres was made solenne and kepede at Rome in the kalendes of Iune; which thei callede afterwarde the feste of Iuno, for thei supposede Iuno to haue causede the gan|dres to have cryede. The cenatores of Rome in that conflicte clothede theym with theire clothes longenge to the senate and sate in theire places. And when men of Fraunce did beholde theym, they supposede that thei hade bene goddes. But at the laste a senator, Marchus Papirius by name, did smyte a Frensche man in the hedde, with his staffe whiche he hade in his honde, as he gropede and felede his berde. The Frensche men movede soore þerof did sle firste þat senator with alle the other senatores. After that the Frensche men receyvenge a mlli for peace to be hade, returnede from the cite; whom Furius Canillus Page  299, vol.3 folowenge on the backe hurte theym, and did sle mony of theyme, and brouȝte grete treasure and goodes to the cite ageyne. And so this Furius Canillus, hauenge thryes victory of his enmyes, entrede in to the cite of Rome, and was callede the secunde Romulus. Policronicon, libro quinto. A maister hauenge gouernayle of the noble notable childer of the Falisces, takenge theym with hym as for to solace theym and to walke, comme to Furius Canillus when he laide sege to the cite of theyme, and brouȝte to hym the noble men sonnes of hit, seyenge that he myȝhte haue the cite delyuerede for the deliueraunce of the childer. Then Canillus, despisenge that falsenesse, sende hym to the faders of the childer, hauenge his hondes bounde behynde hym. And soe he hade that cite delyuerede to hym thro that benefite, whiche cowthe not haue hit by werre and malice. Trogus, libro quartodecimo. Thre c. thowsande of Frensche [folio 146b] men wastenge Ytaly, brente a grete parte of Rome, and Page  301, vol.3 spoylede Pannony and Macedonye, and did sle Tholomeus the kynge of Macedony. Paulus, libro secundo. The cause why that Frensche men comme yn to Ytaly was this folow|enge. For when men of Fraunce hade tastede of the wyne commen and brouȝhte from Ytaly, thei hade so grete pleasure in hit that thei wente to Ytaly. Brennius was theire gouernoure, reignenge then amonge the Senones, whiche commenge with iijc. ml men, sende an c. ml to spoile the Grekes, whiche felede þe swerdes of the Grekes nye to the temple of Appollo Delphicus. Also he sende an other c. ml to Galacia, a parte of the lesse Asia, whiche entrenge in to hit were callede firste Gallogreci, and after þat Galathe. The thridde c. ml which remaynede in Ytaly, edifiede mony cites, as the cite Papias, Mediolanus, Pergamus, and namede that cuntre cisalpyn of Fraunce. Policronicon, libro sexto, capitulo decimo. Men of Fraunce made that Page  303, vol.3 cite callede Verona Vincencia in Ytaly, and an oþer cite callede Senencium for olde men and seke; for the simi|litude of the peple beenge þer at this tyme schewethe hit bothe in coloure and in makenge of theire body, that thei be lyke to Britones and to men of Fraunce, thauȝhe that oldenes of tyme and site of climes and plage of the worlde have chaungede moche of theire maners. Gaufridus. Belinus returnenge from Ytaly to Briteyne, lyvede after|warde in peas, and repairede mony cites, makenge Caerhusce on a water callede Husca, nye to Seuerne. Also this Belinus made a ȝate, whiche is callede nowe of Englysche men Belynsgate, on Thamys in the cite of London, and made a towre above, in whiche towre the powdre of his body i-brente was putte afterwarde. Also the seide Belinus Page  305, vol.3 made lawes, and iiij. hie weyes, as hit is rehersede afore libro primo, capitulo Britannia. Trogus, libro vicesimo quarto. Brennius commenge from the este partes, ouer|come ageyn men of Macedonia, with Sostenes theire gouer|noure, [folio 147a] and spoilede the goddes of theym and temples, seyenge that the riche goddes lene somme of theire richesse to men; whiche spoilede also the temple of Appollo Delphicus, sette in the grete mownte callede Parnasus. Policronicon, libro sexto. The inhabitatores of that place seenge þat, preiede Appollo Delphicus of helpe, and anoone a grete parte broken, as þro an erthe qwake, depressede a grete parte of the hoste of men of Fraunce, a grete hayle destroyenge that other parte of the hoste. The gouernoure of theym, Brennius by name, not worthe ne able to suffre the nowmbre of his grete woundes and peyne, did sle hym selfe with a swerde. But men schalle attende that the vengeaunce schewede to that hoste was not doen by the power of Appollo, but by the iuste iuggemente of Allemyȝhty God, suffrenge ylle and wickede peple to be destroyede, whiche destroyede Page  307, vol.3 mony naciones, in whom wikkede spirittes of the aier hade grete dominacion thro þe permission of God.

Capitulum vicesimum.

Eutropius. DIGNITES were chaungede amonge men of Rome; for x tribunes of cheuallery were create in the stedde of ij. consules, whiche hade the power of þe consulles, and then Rome encreasede gretely in richnesse; but that dignite endurede not longe. Diogenes the philosophre was abowte this tyme, whom Iohn seithe in his Policronicon, libro 7o, to be the disciple of Anaximenes. But Seynte Austyn, De Civitate Dei, seithe that he was the disciple of Anaxagoras; and Seynte Ierom seythe, in his epistole ageynes Iouinian, that he was the disciple of Antistenes, whiche was the disciple of Socrates, whiche semethe to be trewe; for Seneca and Valerius seye that Diogenes was in the tymes of grete Alexander, with Page  309, vol.3 owte there were mony men of that name, as were of that name Socrates. Ieronimus contra Iouinianum. This philo|sophre [folio 147b] Diogenes inhabite moche in the porches of temples, to merke and to knowe vices whiche contaminate vertu; whiche beynge in a tunne, seide hym selfe to have a moueable howse, for in the wynter he turnede the mowthe of the tunne towarde the meridien or sowthe, and in the somer in to þe northe. And so this philosophre Diogenes movede his place after the movenge of the sonne. Valerius, libro quarto, capitulo tertio. In a tyme grete Alexander, the myȝhty conqueror, comme to this philosophre sittenge in the tunne, movenge hym that he scholde desire somme thynge of hym. Then the philosophre seide, "Y desire that þou wolde stonde owte of the sonne, and lette hyt not to schyne in to myne howse." Whereof a proverbe was spronge, that kynge Page  311, vol.3 Alexander myȝhte putte rather kynge Darius from his realme þen Diogenes from vertu. ℞. Seneca, libro quinto de beneficio, rehersethe that Diogenes was more myȝty and ryche then Alexander the conqueror, for hit was more that he wolde not take then þat kynge Alexander myȝte ȝiffe; and then kynge Alexander was rebukede in a maner, that he founde a man to whom he cowthe not ȝiffe eny thynge oþer elles take aweye eny thynge. Seneca, epistola 94o et Ieronimus contra Iouinianum. This Diogenes berenge a cuppe of tree with hym where in he myȝhte drynke water, perceyvede a childe to drynke water of his holowe honde, and brake his veselle of tre, seyenge, "How longe schalle y be a foole, and berre a voide burthon; y perceyvede not to þis tyme that nature hade ȝiffen a instrumente whereof a man myȝte drynke;" and so after that tyme he vsede to drynke water of his holowe honde. This Diogenes goenge Page  313, vol.3 in his age to beholde the actes Olimpicalle, was trowblede soore with the fevers; his frendes perceyvenge that wolde haue cariede hym with horses. To whom he seide, "Goe ye to the actes Olimpicalle, for this nyȝte shalle prove me other a victor other elles a man ouercomen; and if [folio 148a] y haue the victory of the fevers y schalle comme to the actes Olimpicalle, and if y haue not the victory y schalle goe to helle." But, as y suppose, he callede helle the state Page  315, vol.3 of the sawle after the dethe of the body. Valerius, libro quarto, capitulo tertio. Aristippus seide to Diogenes wasch|enge herbes in this wise: "If thow woldest glose Dionisius the kynge thow scholde not haue nede to wasche these herbes." To whom he seide, "If thow wolde eite these wortes, thow scholde not glose kynge Dionisius." Seneca, libro tertio de ira. Diogenes pletenge afore a iugge, a man spitte in his face. To whom he seide, "I schal afferme alle men to be deceyvede hereafter that sey, thow hase noo mowthe." Policronicon, libro octavo. A man beholdenge Diogenes in a tyme, seide that he hade unchaste eien, wherefore the disciples of Diogenes wolde haue sleyne þat man as a lyer. To whom Diogenes seide, "Sease, Page  317, vol.3 felowes, for y am so of nature as the man seithe, but y constreyne me by vertu." ℞. The poete Iuuenalis writethe, libro 4to, satira prima, that Diogenes goenge in to an open place wepede, thenkenge and iuggenge alle thynges miserable that he see. But Democritus the philosophre laȝhede when he come in open places, iuggenge thynges y-seen as foly, and thynges not to be attendede. In libro de dictis philosophorum. A fowle man did schewe on a tyme to Diogenes his place ornate with riche apparaile, whiche Diogenes spitte in his face. The man inquirenge of hym why that he did so, Diogenes answerede and seide that he see noo thynge so fowle in his howse as his face. Also an inquisicion made of Diogenes why he suffrede his berde to grow, he answerede and seide that a woman hauenge a Page  319, vol.3 berde is hade as a wonder. Tullius, libro primo de Tusculanis Quæstionibus. Diogenes afore his dethe com|maundede that he scholde be caste in to þe felde or in to the hille vnberiede; then his frendes seide that he scholde be devourede of bestes and of briddes. To whom he seide, [folio 148b] "Lay a staffe by me, that y may dryve the bestes and briddes aweye." Then his frendes seide to hym, "Where|to Page  321, vol.3 scholde thou have a staffe when thow maiste fele noo thynge." Then Diogenes seide þe devourenge and terenge of bestes schalle greve litelle a man that may not fele hyt.

Capitulum vicesimum-primum.

DIONISIUS the tiraunte, kynge of Sicille, diede after that Dionisius the yonger hade entrede in to his realme. Valerius libro quarto. Amon and Phiceas were ij. men and frendes luffenge moche to gedre, oon of whom Dionisius wolde putte to dethe in eny wise. The man imprisonede askede respite that he myȝhte make ordinaunce and prouision for his wife and childer vn to a certeyne day, in this condicion, that hys felowe scholde abide the iuggemente for hym if þat he come not ageyne. Whiche man departenge and makenge prouision for his wife and childer, faylede of the howre assignede, wherefore Dionisius iuggede his borowe to dethe, whiche brouȝte to dethe, anoon that oþer man comme Page  323, vol.3 in grete haste. That tiraunte seenge that meruaylede moche, and forȝafe theym dethe, preyenge that he myȝte be taken in felawschippe with theyme. Tullius de Tusculanis Quæs|tionibus, libro primo. When a man callede Damocles, luffer and frende of that tiraunte Dionisius, seide to hym in this wyse, commendenge his magnificence and habundaunce, sey|enge noo man to be so happy and fortunate as he; to whom the tiraunte seide, "Wille þow experte my fortune?" The other man makenge graunte, this Dionisius causede a ryalle table to be displeiede and leyede furthe, and noble ministres and kynde, with mony diuersites of meytes and of musiciones. Then he didde commaunde a scharpe swerde to be hongede over his*. [Sic.] with a threde of silke, whiche man sette in suche perelle attendede not to the meytes, neither to the myrthe and melody at the table for drede of the swerde hongenge over [folio 149a] his hedde. Then the tiraunte seide to hym, "My lyfe is lyke to the nowe, whom thow jugges to be so fortunate and Page  325, vol.3 happy." Valerius, libro sexto. Alle the Siracusanes preyenge for þe dethe of Dionisius the tiraunte, an olde woman preiede hertily for his state and welfare. The kynge mer|uellenge þerof, inquirede of the woman why that sche preide so intierly for hym. The woman answerede in this wise, and [folio 144b] seide, "When y was yonge we hade a cruelle gouernoure, and after hym a man more cruelle, and after hym we haue the to oure gouernoure, more importune and cruelle then bothe the other; wherefore I prey for thyne astate, dredenge that we haue after the a tiraunte more cruelle." Tullius de officio, libro secundo. This kynge Dionisius usede not to be shaven of barbores, for cause he dredde and suspecte þeim of treason; wherefore he usede to brenne his berde with bren|nenge cole off fire. The seide Dionisius, entrenge in to a Page  327, vol.3 temple in a season where ymages of golde were sette, toke the golde aweye from theyme, seyenge to men stondenge abowte, "These clothes be over hevy in the somer, and to colde for wynter." After that he toke a crowne of golde from the honde of an ymage of Mercurius, seyenge in this wise, "Sires, ye see that y take not this crown from hym violentely, but he offerrethe hit to me." Innocencius rehersethe in his boke, De contemptu mundi, that a philosophre induede with a symple habite and contemptible, willenge to haue goen in to the kynge's palice cowthe not be suffrede, wherefore he gate to hym a ryalle habite and clothenge, and after that he was suffrede to comme ynne to the palyce anoon. That philo|sophre entrede in to the kynge's palice seasede not to kysse his clothenge. The prince inquirenge of hym why that he kyssede his clothynge in that wise, he answerede and seide, "For y honoure a thynge causenge me to haue honoure, for clothenge hathe obteynede in your cowrte that vertu myȝhte [folio 146b] not." Aristotille, beynge that tyme of xviij yere in age, herde Plato his maister. Nectanabus, the kynge of Egipte, began to reigne, whiche reignede xix. yere. Policronicon, libro quinto. Furius Canillus, the gouernoure of the Romanes, Page  329, vol.3 of whom noble actes be rehersede afore, diede. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Gurguncius Batruz, the sonne of Belinus, commenge from Denmarke, kynge of Britones, toke xxxti schippes abowte the yles of Orcades, whom he sende to Irlonde to inhabite hit with theire gouernoure Bartholomewe, for Yrlonde was not inhabite that tyme of eny peple. ℞. Beholde more of that mater afore, libro jo, capitulo de Hibernia.

Capitulum vicesimum secundum.

OCHUS, other Artaxerses, the xijthe kynge of men of Per|sida, reignede xxv. yere, in the tyme of whom Furius Canillus dedde, a grete pestilence infecte and corrupte soore mony of þe Romanes, in so moche that a depe place as helle was open in the myddes of the cite. At the laste, wicches seide that hit wolde not be schutte vn tille a man wolde falle in to hit willefully; wherefore Marcus Cursius, the ryder of þe Page  331, vol.3 Romanes, felle in to hit voluntarily for the deliueraunce of the cite, and then that place was schutte. Then the Romanes ȝiffenge bataile ageyn the Frensche men wastenge Ytaly, Lucius Mallius callede a Frensche man to a singuler bataile, whom he did sle, whiche takenge the coler of golde from the necke of the Frensche man put hit abowte his necke, where|fore he was callede Lucius Torquatus and his successores after hym. ℞. This Torquatus, after Seynte Austyn De Civitate Dei, libro quinto, capitulo octavo decimo, did slee his awne sonne fiȝtenge for his cuntre, and hauenge victory, in that he did fiȝhte ageyne the commaundemente of his fader, leste þat more ylle scholde be in exemple of the empire contempte then of goodenesse in the glory of theire enmye sleyne. Philippus, kynge of Macedony, and fader putatiue of the noble conque|rour Page  333, vol.3 Alexander, began to reigne, whiche reignede xxvj. yeres In the tyme of whom Demostenes the philosophre was. [folio 150a] Agellius. This philosophre Demostines resistede the legates of the Molosynes commen to Athenes, and disputede ageyne Page  335, vol.3 theim in the firste day of theire commynge; but he was cor|rupte in the secunde day folowenge that he scholde not speke ageyne theyme. And when the matere awe to haue been discussede in the thrydde day, Demostines bownde a lytelle wolle abowte his necke, feynynge hym to have a passion callede the sqwinancy, and þerfore he myȝht not speke ageyne grete dogges. But a man stondenge by seide that he hade an infirmite callede argentinancia, as corrupte with silvyr. Then Demostines askede and inquirede of Aristodius, the auctor of fables, what summe of goode he hade to dispute. Then Aristodius answerede and seide, "A talente." Demo|stines seide, "Y hade more to be stille and to kepe silence." Valerius, libro septimo. Too men toke a grete summe of goode to a woman to haue hit in kepenge, commaundenge her that sche scholde not delyuer that summe to eny of theyme vn tille that thei come bothe to geder. A litelle season y-passede, the Page  337, vol.3 oon of theyme come as by a fraude to the woman for the summe of moneye, seyenge that his felowe was dedde, whiche receyvenge the money of the woman, was gladde and departede. After that the other man come for his goode in a schorte season folowenge, askenge his money off the woman. This woman stondenge in grete trowble was verey soory, inquirenge cownselle of Demostines how that sche myȝte do in that mater. Then that philosophre Demostines savede and dely|uerede the woman from trowble, commaundenge that man to brynge his felawe, after theire desire, and the goodes scholde be restorede by the woman to theym. And for cause thei come not for the summe bothe too, the woman was delyuerede from her trowble. Ysidorus, libro primo, capitulo tricesimo primo. When that kynge Philippe lade sege to the cite of Athenes, he desirede to haue x. noble philosophres sende to hym, and he wolde returne from the sege of that cite. This [folio 150b] philosophre Demostines movenge the contrary, usede this fable. The wulfes promisede in a tyme luffe and frende|schippe to scheperdes in a season on this condicion, that the Page  339, vol.3 schepardes scholde ȝiffe to theim there dogges, for whom alle the unkyndenesse was movede and caused. The schepardes makenge graunte þer-of, and sendenge furthe the dogges, the wulfes devourede alle the flocke, not oonly for meyte, but also for theire luste and malice. Soe in lyke wise Philippus, kynge of Macedony, scholde destroye sone the cite if that hit were vacuate and voide of discrete men. Ochus, kynge of Persida, did translate þe Iewery and Hircanny nye to the see Caspy. Dionisius the secunde was expulsede from Sicille by grete violence. Alexander, the noble conquerour, was borne this tyme in Macedony, and Dionisius was sleyne at the cite Sira|cusan. Lectrina, the poetresse, florischede this tyme, whiche expellenge Nectanabus obteynede Egipte vn to Ethioppe; neuertheles Ochus recurede the realme of Egipte, in whos tyme that realme was destroyede. The Romanes hade vic|tory of the Frensche men, in whiche fiȝhte a Frensche man callenge Marcus Valerius, a Roman, to a singuler stryfe, a raven come and sate on the riȝhte scholder of Valerius, in Page  341, vol.3 whiche fiȝhte the seide Valerius obteynede the victory, whiche was callede after þat Coruinus, contynuenge by xxiiij. yere after that.

Polichronicon, libro septimo. Capitulum vicesimum tertium.

Plato, the noble philosophre, diede after he hade con|tynuede in life by lxxxj. yere, whiche was hade in so grete veneracion and reuerence after his dethe that thei made a dubitacion wheþer he scholde be annumerate with goddes, other elles with halfe goddes. For the sonne was seen to haue [folio 151a] falle downe in the day of his obite. This Plato was the moste excellente philosophre amonge the discipulles of Socrates; callede Plato for the latitude of his breste, other of the fore|hede, or elles of largenesse betwene þe eien; for platos in Grewe sowndethe brode in Englische: whiche Plato was borne at Athenes. Tullius de divinatione, libro primo, capitulo sextoPage  343, vol.3decimo. Bees come and sate on the lippes of Plato, beenge but litelle and slepenge in his cradelle, wherefore hit was seide of wicches that he scholde be an excellente man in connynge. Valerius, libro primo, capitulo quarto decimo. Socrates semede in his slepe a thynge or signe to haue bene impressede in to his knees in the nyȝte folowenge that Plato was sette to scole. Valerius, libro octavo, capitulo septimo. After the dethe of that noble philosophre Socrates, Plato wente to the disciples of Pictagoras, worschippenge not oonly the reason of theyme, but also the continence and aspecte of theyme; after that he wente to Theodorus Cironense, that he myȝte lerne geometry, goenge after that to Egipte to lerne astrologye. Polichronicon, libro septimo. Mony men sup|pose Page  345, vol.3 Plato to haue lernede þer the oracles of the prophetes; but the supputacion of tyme wille not suffre hym to haue bene in the tyme of the prophetes. ℞. For after Seynte Austyn, de Civitate Dei, libro octavo, capitulo undecimo, Plato was borne almoste by a c. yere after the dethe of þe pro|phete Ieremy. And after the dethe of Plato, the scrip|tures off the prophecy were hade firste in Egipte by lx. yere after the dethe of Plato in the tyme of Ptolomeus. Wherefore Plato in that labore myȝte not see Ieremy, whiche was dedde by a c. yere afore, neither he myȝte not rede the scriptures of the prophecy in that thei were not translate in that tyme owte of Hebrewe in to Grewe. Neverthelesse, mony thinges be founde in the bokes of Plato consonante to the writenges of the prophetes. For Seynte Austyn, De Civitate Dei, libro sexto decimo, capitulo vicesimo, and also 7o libro Confessionum afore þe ende, rehersethe [folio 151b] that the gospelle of Seynte Iohn was founde in his bookes from the begynnenge vn to those wordes: "Et tenebræ eum non comprehenderunt." Whiche thynge y wolde not Page  347, vol.3 beleve, but that hit is writen in the bokes of holy faders, sythe that thapostle seithe suche men to haue euaneschede aweye in theire thouȝhtes. Ieronimus contra Iouinianum. When that Plato was ryche, and Diogenes hade defilede his bedde with ryalle apparaile with his feete fulle of myre and of cley, he chosede a ruynous towne callede Achademia and a fowle, beenge from Athenes by a myle, that the brennenge hete of the flesche myȝhte be resteynede Page  349, vol.3 by theire labore, not of hym selfe oonly, but also of his disciples, and that thei scholde not ȝiffe theire myndes to voluptuosite, but to theire doctrine and leson. Macro|bius, libro tertio. This Plato seide that þer were ij. dethes, oon by the whiche the sawle dothe leue the body, an other dethe when the sawle, beenge in the body, despisethe and refusethe the unlawefulle movenges and sensualites of the body. And that dethe is to be desirede of prophetes and of holy men. Seneca de natura, libro tertio. Plato beynge wrothe with his seruaunte in a tyme commaundede hym to do of his clothes and to make his scholders bare that he myȝhte bete hym, but he suffrede and refreynede hym selfe from correccion. Pseusippus, his luffer and frende, inquirede of hym what he intendede to do, whiche ansuerede and seide, "Y refreyne my selfe from correccion and suffre penaunce: do thy selfe correccion to this seruaunte, for Page  351, vol.3 y am wrothe; lest perauenture y scholde excede in cor|reccion, þat the seruaunte may be in his powere that is not in his powere." ℞. Elimandus rehersethe þat Plato usede to intitle and name his bokes by the names of his maisters, þat thei myȝhte haue moore auctorite þerof, other elles after the names of his disciples whom he luffede moche. Polichronicon, libro septimo. I suppose that be not trewe whiche is seide of Plato, that he scholde dye for schame in that he cowthe not ȝiffe a solucion to þe question of schippe men, but y trawe that to be trewe of Homerus, [folio 152a] after the testimonialle of Valerius Maximus; for oftetymes those ij. men be equiuocate for excellence of sapience, Page  353, vol.3 for the elegancy of speche, and for the latitude of breste. Valerius, libro nono, capitulo duodecimo. The noble poete Homerus diede for schame in that he cowthe not ȝiffe a solucion to þe question of the schippe men. ℞. The question of the schippe men was this, as Gregory Nazanzene rehersethe on this texte of thapostle, "Sapientia hujus mundi stultitia est apud Deum." Plato wente in a tyme nye to the see side, lokenge up to heuyn and beholdenge the firmamente, whom the schippe men mockede and skornede. Then Plato inquirede of theyme what thei hade. Thei seide, "As mony we toke we haue not, and we haue so mony as we tooke not;" for the seide schippe men hade made clene theire clothes of vermyn, and sleyne theym thei hade taken, and so thei hade not that thei hade taken. Then Plato settenge his thouȝhte on fysches, mervaylede moche; whiche not eitenge neiþer drynkenge for the in|quisicion of that thynge, diede in that wyse and maner. Polichronicon, libro septimo. Pseusippus, the sonne of his sustyr, and Zenocrates, þe amiable disciple of Plato, suc|cedede Page  355, vol.3 in his place after his dethe in the scole whiche was callede Achademia; wherefore theire successores, as Platinus, Porphirius, Apuleus, Afer were callede Achademici, as mony men were callede Platonici of Plato. Valerius, libro quarto. Hit is redde of this Zenocrates, that a beautuous woman of ylle disposicion hade made promyse to breke his continency for a certeyne summe of goode, whiche commenge and lyenge with hym cowthe not move hym to incontinency in eny wise. Wherefore the yonge men of the cite of Athenes hade that woman in derision, in that sche cowthe not cause hym to breke his continency. The woman ansuerede and Page  357, vol.3 seide that sche spake and made promyse of a man and not of a ymage. Ieronimus contra Iouinianum. Zenocrates, that noble philosophre, lefte at Athenes thre preceptes oonly to be obser|uede, whiche were of the lawes of Tritolomus: the firste was to honoure theire fader and moder, to worschippe goddes, and [folio 152b] not to eite flesche. Also hit is redde in a booke De Dictis Philosophorum, that Zenocrates seenge a man condempnede Page  359, vol.3 and brouȝte to the place where he scholde be hongede, did laȝhe, and seide, "Beholde, frendes, for grete theves lede a litelle thefe to hongenge." Policronicon, libro septimo, et Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro nono, capitulo undecimo.

Capitulum vicesimum quartum.

ARISTOTILES, the prince of philosophres, succedede Plato, a noble man in fame and in doctrine, excellente of witte, but not like to Plato in eloquence, but more noble then he in the arte of techenge and of suasion. This Aristotille made the secte of philosophres callede Peripatetici, in that he was wonte to dispute walkenge. The seide Aristotille deseruede by the excellence of his science the name of a philosophre, as a poete Virgille, a cite Page  361, vol.3 Rome: whome somme men affermede to be geten by a spiritte, for the agilite of his body, for thexcellence of witte, and for the appetite of glory, in whom he precellede other men. Alexander de natura. Aristotille the noble clerke tauȝhte eloquency amonge other thynges specially, as his Omericalle commentes declare and expresse, and the dialogge of poetes, and a tretes of rethorike. Aristotille beenge of xviij. yere in age, was sente to Athenes, where he drawede to Socrates by iij. yere, and after the dethe of Socrates he was con|uersaunte with Plato. For the seide Plato callede the howse of Aristotille the lectory or redenge place, and seide ofte in this wise, "Goe we to the reders howse;" and Aristotille absente he was wonte to say, "The auditory is domme." The seide Aristotille lyvede by xxiiijti yere after that Plato was dedde; in parte of those yeres techenge kynge Alexander and goenge Page  363, vol.3 with kynge Alexander thro mony londes and regiones, and in makenge bookes, and otherwhile attendenge to the doctrine of his discipulles, and so he contynuede in lyfe by lxiij. yere. This Aristotille movede kynge Alexander to reedifye a cite [folio 153a] callede Stagerica, destroyede by Philippe his fader and kynge of Macedony: wherefore men of that cite halowe a certeyn tyme in the yere, whiche feste thei calle Aristotileia, and the monethe Stagerites, in whom thei halow that feste. Also Aristotille dienge in Calcides was brouȝhte and beriede to Stagerica. This seide Aristotille did not absteyne from makenge of bokes when he wente with kynge Alexander to ȝiffe batelle to men of Persida, for in that tyme he made a story of ije and lti politikes, and added to the etikes felicite, provenge felicite not to be in thynges exterialle, and to philosophy the vthe essence. Also he made problemes medicinalle and phisicalle in lxxx. Page  365, vol.3 bookes, and problemes perspective and metaphisicalle, and iustificationes of cites of Grewe, with whom Philippus kynge off Macedonia determinate the debates of þe Grekes. This Aristotille left after hym his son Nichomachus and Pithaida his doȝhter, with mony other disciples, amonge whom Theofrastus was moste excellente, which made a noble processe de nuptiis. The tretis and bokes whiche Aristotille made be a ml in nowmbre; whiche hade euer de|lectacion to serche the trawthe, and not to discede from thynges open. Whom Auicenna commendethe, iijo libro Methaphysices; and Rabi Moyses, libro primo, capitulo 4o; and Agellius, libro octauo, capitulo 3o; and Iohn in his Policronicon, libro octavo. Also Plinius, libro septimo. The noble conqueror Alexander, Page  367, vol.3 inflammede with a feruente luffe and appetite to know the natures of bestes, sende to Aristotille, his maister, certeyne ml of men of Grece, of Tracia, and of Asia, with mony kyndes and diuersites of bestes, whiche scholde norische þose bestes in his cowrte, that noo thynge geten naturally scholde remayne unknowen to hym. Wherefore Aristotille [folio 153b] laborenge to know the natures of bestes, made allemoste lti noble volumes of bestes. Wherefore hit is seide de naturis rerum, libro secundo. Somme men ascribe to veyne glory and to envye that Aristotille wrote his bokes so breve and so hardely. Other elles hit may be seide that Aristo|tille made his bookes vnder such brevenesse and difficulte for the utilite of goode students, whiche is abowte a goode thynge and harde. Also this noble clerke Aristotille, a Page  369, vol.3 litelle afore his dethe commaundede alle his subtile werkes to be putte in his grave with hym, that thei scholde not profite his successores, whiche after his dethe appropriate so to hym his beryalle, y dar not say by nigromancy, other wheþer he did that thynge by eny other arte, soe that noo man may entre in to that place in to thys tyme. Mony men say that Anticriste schalle knowe that place, and to beholde those writenges: but what man wolde ȝiffe fidelite and credence to thynges incerteyne and dowtefulle. The grete clerke Gregorius Naȝanȝenus rehersethe of the dethe of Aristotille in a tracte that he made specially on þis texte of thapostle, "Sapientia hujus mundi stultitia est apud Deum:" seyenge in this wise: Aristotille goenge in to a place in the londe of Grece, callede on Englische the blake brigge, willenge to knowe the cause of the floenge and of the see þer as at oon tyme and refloenge to gedre; þis clerke Aristotille inquirenge the cause of Page  371, vol.3 hit, and not fyndenge hit, spake to the water as with in|dignacion, seynge, "For cause y mȝhte not take the cause of thy floenge and refloenge, thow schalle take me;" and*. [Of þe dethe of Aristo|tille.] with that he felle in to the water and drownede hym selfe. Theofrastus was his successore, callede by that name of excellence of speche, as the maister rehersethe in the storys on the boke of Machabees. This Theofrastus made a boke of weddenges, whom he callede Aureolus Theophrasti, Page  373, vol.3 where he disputethe nobly of the grevons of weddenges, of whom Seynte Ierom takethe moche ageyn Iouinian. Also he made an other boke of frendeschippe, whom he preferrede [folio 154a] above other thynges terrestrialle. This Theofrastus is seide to haue accusede nature, in that hit ȝiffethe longe life to bestes vnresonable, and schorte life to man.

Capitulum vicesimum quintum. Eutropius.

THE Romanes commaunde batelle to the Sampnites, whiche be as in the myddes betwene Campania and Apuleia, hauenge armoure of golde and of siluyr. The cause and movenge of that bataile was for that londe Campania, whiche is a ryalle cuntre and a pleyne. The chiefe cite of whom, Capua by name, is comparate in magnitude and habun|dance vn to Rome, other to Cartago. Lucius Cursius, a Page  375, vol.3 dictator, sende to ȝiffe batelle to the Sampnites, return|enge ageyn to Rome, commaundede Quintus Fabius, maister of the horsemen, that he scholde not ȝiffe bataile to theym in his absence in eny wise. This Quintus Fabius fyndenge an occasion and avauntage, ȝafe batelle to theyme, and ob|teynede the victory, subduenge the Sampnites to theyme. Wherefore he was condempnede to dethe by Lucius Cur|sius the dictator, in that he did fiȝte in his absence ageyne his commaundemente; neuerthelesse he was delyuerede thro the fauore of the knyȝhtes and peple, movede þerfore ageyne the dictator that thei hade sleyne hym allemoste. Titus Livius. The gouernoure of the Sampnites, Poncius by name, sette his hoste by a place whereby he supposede the Page  377, vol.3 Romanes to comme, whiche place was wallede abowte with hilles on either side, hauenge a pleyne in the myddes with a streyte entre and also a streite goenge furthe. This Poncius and gouernoure of the Sampnites sende afore diuerse of his knyȝhtes in the habite of schepardes, to say to the hoste of the Romanes, inquirenge of the Sampnites, that thei were goen to lay sege to a cite callede Lucre|cia, confederate to the Romanes. The Romanes herenge that, entrede in to that streyte place as for to socoure that [folio 154b] cite y-segede, and so thei were closede in that place with the Sampnites that they kowthe not goe furthe neither returne, for the Sampnites hade stoppede the goenges with gre*. [Sic.] multitude of trees, and toke theire stacion in toppe of the hilles. And so the Romanes were coacte to desire Page  379, vol.3 pease of the Sampnites, other elles to ȝiffe batelle. Poncius the gouernoure of the Sampnites sende worde to the Romanes that thei hade fauȝhten welle, wherefore he grawntede peace to theym in this condicion, that theire armoure delyuerede so thei hade noo other thynge but to kouer theire secrete mem|bres, and that thei scholde go on longe in the maner of oxen drawenge in a plowȝhe, vjc. men of armes of the Romanes putte in plegge. Eutropius. In the yere folowenge, the senate commaundede Lucius Papirius to ȝiffe batelle to the Sampnites, in whiche conflicte he hade the victory of the Sampnites. Orosius, libro tertio. A soore and grevous*. [A grete pestilence.] pestilente aier infecte the cite of Rome soone after that vic|tory, in so moche þat peple as innumerable diede, wherefore the noble men laborenge the bokes of Sibilla þe prophetisse hade cownselle by theyme how thei scholde save the cite. Wherefore thei sende to Epidaurus, kynge of Grece, for the similachre of Esculapius, whiche is feynede god of medicynes, whiche apperethe to men doenge honor to hym Page  381, vol.3 in the likenesse of a serpente. Item Orosius. The women of Rome feynenge theym as brennenge in luffe made drynkes to theire howsebondes, as schewenge and apper|enge to þeim drynke of pleasaunce and made for luffe, but the drynkes were made with grevous and soore poy|son, whiche thynge was schewede to the cenate by oon of theire maides. Then the cenatores perceyvenge the trawthe causede theire wyfes to drynke that confeccion, where thro a grete multitude of theyme diede as sodenly, also cc. and lxxti women begynnenge that myschefe were condempnede to dethe. Gaufridus. Guitelinus, the son of Gurguncius, reignede abowte this tyme in Briteyne; Marcia, the wife of whom, instructe in alle artes, made a lawe callede the [folio 155a] lawe Marcian. ℞. Beholde of that mater afore, libro primo, capitulo de Legibus. Gaufridus. The seide Marcia reignede a certeyn space after the dethe of here howse|bonde; after her Sisillus reignede, whom Kynmaurus suc|cedede; Page  383, vol.3 after whom Danius reignede, and Moruidius the cruelle tiraunte reignede, whiche was devourede of a wilde beste.

Capitulum vicesimum sextum.

ARSANIUS, other Xerses, son of Ochus, and xiijthe kynge off the realme of Persida, reignede iiij. yere. In the firste yere of whom Iadus the bischoppe of the Iewes was. Philippus the kynge of Macedonia was sleyne by a noble yonge man callede Pausanias by disseite and treason. Trogus, libro nono. This kynge Philippus was more besy abowte armore then abowte festes, ȝiffen more to gettenge of richesse then to the kepenge off theyme. Trogus, libro septimo.Page  385, vol.3 This kynge Philippe hauenge victory of men of Athenes, sende to þeim the men taken in captiuite withowte eny rawnson. After that kynge Philippe mariede Olimpias, the doȝhter of Neoptholomeus, kynge of þe Molosynes, moder to Alexander the noble conquerour. That kynge Philippe laborenge to expugne a cite callede Mathona, loste his ryȝte eie with the schote of an arowe, nevertheles ȝitte as for that wounde he was no moore hasty to his enmyes, neiþer schewede the more malice or wrathe to theyme, but he was meke and schewede mercy to þeyme, yoldenge to hym Page  387, vol.3 theire noble cite. Trogus, libro quarto decimo. Philippus kynge of Macedonia, ȝiffenge batelle to men of Scithia, whom he spoylede more by wylenesse then by vertu and myȝhte; in whiche conflicte he sente to Macedony xxti ml of childer, and xxti ml mares, to gendre moo horses in his realme. Whiche returnenge from theyme, the Thebanes denyede to hym passage; whiche was also hurte soore there in the hippe, in so moche that the horse under hym was sleyne thro the same wounde: of whom he hade the victory. Neuer|thelesse ȝitte as for that wounde he was not more cruelle neither made ioye amonge his peple of that grete victory. Whiche sende ayeyne withowte eny rawnson ccc. philo|sophres, [folio 155b] beenge of so grete constaunce that v. of þeim ac|cusede of a trespasse, alle the other seide thei were gilty of the same. After that this kynge Philippus gedrede Page  389, vol.3 a grete hoste of cc. ml foote men and xv. ml of horse men to ȝiffe batelle ageyne men of Persida, of whiche hoste he made Attalus gouernoure, whose suster he hade mariede, after that he hade refusede Olimpias the moder off kynge Alexander, for cause of adowtery confessede by her awne person. Wherefore kynge Philippe was sleyne in that weddenge by a yonge noble man callede Pausanias, whiche suffrede a grete rebuke first priuely by the seide Page  391, vol.3 Attalus, and after that openly; whiche yonge man makenge compleynte to the kynge þerof kowthe haue noon amendes, wherefore the seide yonge man intendede the dethe of the kynge. This kynge Philippe was monischede and warnede that he scholde kepe hym from the violence of a carte hauenge iiij. wheles, wherefore he commaundede suche cartes not to be occupiede after that tyme in his realme. Also he eschewede a place in Boetia callede Quadriga, never|thelesse he eschewede not the swerde of that yonge man Pausania, whiche hade a carte with iiij. wheles insculpte and graven in hit.

Page  393, vol.3

Capitulum vicesimum septimum.

THE noble conquerour Alexander hauenge xxti yere in age, began to reigne after the dethe of his fader in the realme of Macedonia, whiche reignede xij. yere and vj. monethes. This Alexander was more habundante in vices þen his fader, but the fader was more prudente in cownselle, not usenge crudelite or fiȝhte but vn to his enmyes; but Alexander usede crudelite to his frendes and also to his aduersaries and enmyes. The fader desirede to be luffede of men, but the son laborede to cause men to drede hym. Þe fader was ȝiffen to liberalite, the son vn to lecchery. Vincentius, libro quinto. Ochus, kynge of men of Persida, occupiede Egipte and expulsede Nectanabus in the xv. yere of the reigne of Ochus, and in þe xij. yere of the reigne of [folio 156a] kynge Philippe, and the xvijthe yere of Nectanabus kynge of Egipte. This Nectanabus was not wonte to gedre an Page  395, vol.3 hoste if that he dredde batelle with oþer naciones, but he wente secretely in to a secrete place, takenge with hym a basyn with clene water, where he made a similitude of the schippes and ymages of men made of wexe, whiche semede to lyve and to move. Also he made holowe certeyne wondes or roddes of a tre callede ebenus, whiche wille not brenne, where in he spake and callede certeyne spirittes bot*. [Sic.] superialle and inferialle, and þen he wolde besy hym to drowne the schippe of wexe in þe basyn with water, and so he drownede by þat meane the schippes of his enmyes in the see. In an other tyme he hade vnderstondenge that men of Inde, of Araby, men of Par|thia, and diuerse other naciones intendede to entre and destroye the realme of Egipte. Wherefore he wente to that secrete place with laȝhenge chere to prove his arte and connynge, where he hade a answer that he wolde Page  397, vol.3 be destroyede withowte that he fledde. The seide Nec|tanabus, kynge of Egipte, perceyvenge that, takenge to hym his treasoure and schavenge his berde, come to the londe of Macedony, whiche fenynge hym an astronomyer, obteynede the fauor of Olimpias qwene of Macedony, Philippe her kynge occupiede in batelles, that the seide Nectanabus, induenge hym as in þe similitude of Iubiter, corrupte and hade his pleasure of the qwene, of whom he gate Alex|ander the noble and worthy conqueroure. The seide qwene, Olimpias by name, beenge grete with childe, mony briddes did flye abowte kynge Philippe, occupiede then in batelles. But specially an henne, amonge alle oþer briddes, leyde an egge in the lappe of kynge Philippe, whiche egge caste downe to the erthe and broken, a serpente did crepe furthe of hit, other a dragon, whiche crepenge abowte and willenge to entre in to that egge from whom hit come, and myȝhte not, hit diede anoon. The noble clerke Antifon and coniec|tor, inquirede what that thynge scholde signifye, answerede Page  399, vol.3 and seide, kynge Philippe to haue a sonne whiche scholde be lorde of alle the worlde, and conquer mony regiones; but he scholde, or that he come to þe place of his natiuite, suffre dethe. For a dragon is a regalle beste, and hathe in a maner the forme of the worlde. Then this qwene Olimpias trauailenge of childe, ertheqwakes, liȝhtnenges, and þundres were herde. Quintus Cursius. Too egles sate on the toppe of the howse in the tyme of her childenge alle þe day, that signifiede ij. regalies, of Asia and of Europe. Alexander borne hade oon eie yelowe, that other blacke. Ieronimus, epistola octogesima quinta. Alex|ander yonge in age myȝhte not suffre Leonides his maister to be from hym, wherefore kynge Philippe removede hym aweye, and made Aristotille his maister. Seneca. Alexander caste that same Leonides his maister afterwarde to be de|uourede of a lyon. Vincentius. Alexander beenge of xij. Page  401, vol.3 yere in age, ioyede to be conversaunte amonge hostes and armes, usenge to ride, and exercisede the actes of chevallery. The seide Alexander priede Nectanabus in a day, in the absence of kynge Philippe, to teche hym his arte; then Nectanabus made graunte and promyse þerto. Alexander commenge with Nectanabus vn to a grete depe pitte, caste Nectanabus yn to hit, where þro he diede. Nectanabus inquirede of kynge Alexander why that he did so; to whom Alexander seide: "Thyne arte is to be reprovede that schewede not this to the before: lye now upryȝhte, and serche the causes of the sterres and of heuyn." To whom Nectanabus seide in this wise: "No man may flee his destene; for y knewe by myne arte þat myne awne sonne scholde be Page  403, vol.3 cause of my dethe:" where he confessede to Alexander how þat he gate hym, and how that he was kynge of Egipte; and after this communication he diede anoone. Then kynge Alexander did ordeyne to hym a beryalle. Philip|pus the kynge of Macedony, sollicitate and besy for the succession of þat realme, hade an answere of Appollo Delphicus that he scholde be lorde of alle the worlde, whiche scholde ride Bucefal his horse withowte eny hurte, and reioyce his realme after his dethe. Kynge Alexander herenge that kynge [folio 157a] Philippe his fader hade an horse in streyte kepenge, ferse as a lyon, wente in to hym and brouȝte furthe the horse by the mane, and did ride on hym withoute eny hurste. Kynge Page  405, vol.3 Philippe, fader putatiuus to kynge Alexander, herenge that, honourede hym as the lorde of alle the worlde. This noble conquerour Alexander hauenge xiij. yere in age, hade victory of a cite callede Methona, and made hit subiect to hym, whiche rebellede ageyne his fayder. Whiche returnenge to his fader after that victory, founde messengers of the kynge of Persida askenge certeyne tributes vsede to be paiede for his londe and water. To whom Alexander seide in this wise: "Do men of Persida chalaunge the elementes whiche be commune for alle men? Commaunde Darius your kynge in my name to cease from that insolence." Giraldus in Topographia. Alexander beenge in familier felowschippe and companye, and herenge an harpe, kytte the strynges, seyenge hit is better þe harpe strynges to be kytte then hertes: for hym semede his herte to be more inflexible to melody then to chevallery thro that swetenesse. ℞. Neuerthelesse storyes reherse that Anthi|gonus brake an harpe in the maner aforeseide, to whom Page  407, vol.3 Alexander ȝiffenge attendaunce seide, now hit is conveniente to thyne age to reigne, for hit is schame softenes and in|solence to haue dominacion in a knyȝghtes other elles in a kynges body. Tullius. Kynge Philippe understondenge that Alexander his sonne obteynede the fauoure of men þro money, wrote to hym in this forme: "What erroure hathe brouȝhte the to that hope þat thou scholde suppose those men to be trewe to the whom thow may corrupte with moneye." Darius the sonne of Arsanius, þe xiiijthe kynge of Persia, began to reigne in the secunde yere of kynge Alexander, whiche reignede vj. yere. Trogus, libro undecimo. Alex|ander reioycenge the realme of Macedonia, did slee Cranaus, the sonne of his stappe moder, and alle his cosynnes whiche semede apte to reioyce that realme, that noo treason scholde be in that realme in his absence occupiede in batelle in other londes and cuntrees. After that he wente to Corinthus, and [folio 157b] Page  409, vol.3 instorede a batelle ageyne men of Persida, whiche batelle his fader began to instore; and toke men of Lacedemonia and off Athenes rebellious to hym thro the cownsaile of Demostines, a noble philosophre; wherefore mony men of Athenes and of the Thebanes wente vn to Darius kynge off Persia. Diui|denge his patrimony to his frendes, reseruede Asia vn to hym selfe, iuggenge that realme to be sufficiaunte to hym. Where|fore he commaundede his knyȝhtes to spare the goodes and peple of hit, takenge with hym in his hoste olde knyȝhtes, men of hie discrecion and circumspecte, which exercysede che|vallery with kynge Philippe his fader, whiche putte also truste in theire armes and not in theire feete, and truste of the victory and not of fleenge. There were in the hoste of kynge Alexander xxxiijti. ml of foote men and v. ml off horsemen; wherefore hit is incerteyne wheþer hit was moore meruellous Alexander to haue ouercome mony londes and the kynges of þeim, and to haue conquerede the worlde, other elles to haue audacite to haue taken on hym soe grete batailes with so fewe Page  411, vol.3 and litelle nowmbres of peple in his hoste. Petrus, capitulo centesimo nonagesimo sexto. Alexander passenge the water Elesponte ȝafe batelle ageyne the dukes and gouernoures of the hoste of kynge Darius gedrede to resiste hym, nye to a water callede Granicus, of whom he hade victory. After that he wente and toke Liddia, Yconium, Pamphilia; and toke a cite calcde Sardis, sette betwene Frigia Maior and Frigia Minor. Trogus, libro undecimo. The commenge of Darius schewede, Alexander dredenge the streytenesse of the place wente vn to the grete hille - callede Taurus; commynge to Tharsum fulle of swote and duste thro la|boure, felle in to a water floenge þer by, þro whiche he hade suche a streynenge of his senowes togeder that he hade diede anoon, but that he receyvede a pocion of Phi|lippe his phisicion. Neuerthelesse the seide Philippe re|ceyvede letters send from kynge Darius promisenge to hym a grete summe of goode that he scholde poyson kynge [folio 158a] Alexander; of whiche thynge Alexander hade knowlege, and that he scholde not take in eny wise drynkes or medicynes Page  413, vol.3 of Philippe his phisicion. Neuerthelesse Alexander toke boldely his medicyne; but he causede Philippe his phisicion to rede the letters afore. Alexander recurede after the space of iij. daies y-paste, Darius kynge of Persia comme to the mownte callede Taurus with iiijc ml of foote men, and a c. ml of horse men, where a grete batelle was committe, in whom either kynge was woundede soore. Neuertheles kynge Darius fledde, of whose hoste iiijxx ml of foote men were sleyne, and x. ml of horsemen; and xxxti castelles of defence were broke; the moder and wife of Darius were taken, with his ij. doȝhters, whiche hade grawnte of theire lyves, and were mariede. From whiche tyme Alexander exercisede gretely the synne of lecchery, and luffede moche Barsen doȝter of Darius, of whom he gate a noble childe callede Hercules: after that he wente in to þe este partes, vn to a realme calledde Siria. Petrus, capitulo centesimo nonogesimo sexto. Then Sarra|balla movede kynge Alexander that the Iewes scholde be Page  415, vol.3 diuidede in to ij. partes, that hit scholde rebelle but litelle ageyne hym; whiche made a temple in the mownte Gaȝirim, thro licence of kynge Alexander, whiche remaynede þer vn to the destruccion made by the Romanes: in whiche temple he made Manasses his son in lawe byschoppe, brother to Iadus byschoppe of Ierusalem. Trogus, libro decimo octavo. After that Alexander wente to the cite of Tirus, where he putte to dethe on crosses alle men of that cite, the kynrede and progeny of Straton reservede in lyve. For seruauntes in that cite of Tirus, beenge off a grete multi|tude, conspirenge to gedre did slee sodenly alle theire lordes Page  417, vol.3 and free men of that cite, occupienge theire howses, and mariede þeire wifes, and gate free childer, where thei were not of liberte. Neuerthelesse oon seruaunte amonge mony thowsandes savede and norischede priuely Straton his lorde. Then the seruauntes made a conuencion among theyme that theke man scholde be electe in to theire kynge whiche see [folio 158b] firste the sonne in the morowe folowenge. That thynge expressede to Straton by his seruaunte, he cownsellede his seruaunte that alle other men lokenge into the este he scholde beholde in to the weste, where that seruaunte see the beames of the sonne firste in the morowe. The seruauntes inqui|renge of hym how that he come to that knowledge, and the auctor of hit, the seruaunte confessede that he hade that knowlege by Straton hys lorde. The seruaunteȝ herenge that, graunted life to Straton and to his childer, and made Page  419, vol.3 hym kynge amonge þeim. This wickede offense and myschefe was commune and vulgare vn to the tyme of Alexander allemoste thro alle the worlde, whiche takenge that cite did sle alle theyme, reseruenge on lyve oonly the progeny of Straton. Iosephus, libro undecimo. Alexander did write to Iadus, the bischoppe and prince of pristes in Ierusalem, that he scholde ordeyne to hym vitalles and the tributes whom he usede to ȝiffe to kynge Darius. The bischoppe denyede hit, seyenge that he hade made an othe to pay the tribute to kynge Darius, wherefore kynge Alexander manassede soore the peple of the Iewes. Petrus, capitulo centesimo nonagesimo sexto. Alexander goenge from that place toke Gaza, whom he segede by ij. monethes; after that he wente to Ierusalem, whom Iadus the bischop did mete in pontificalibus with oþer prestes, as he was monyschede in his slepe, schewenge to Alexander the prophecy of Daniel the prophete, in whom it was seide a man*. [Sic.] Grece scholde peresche and destroye the power of men of Persida; where Page  421, vol.3 thro he hade a releische of his tribute that he scholde haue paiede by vij. yere. Trogus, libro undecimo. After that Alexander made Roodes subiecte to hym, and Egipte, alle|moste with owte eny batelle; goenge after þat to Ammon þe godde, to knowe of his originalle; for his moder Olimpias knowlegede to kynge Philippe here howsebonde Alexander not to haue bene getten by hym, but by a grete dragon. Wherefore kynge Philippe knowlegede openly in the laste [folio 159a] daies of his lyfe, afore the nobles of his realme, that kynge Alexander was not his sonne. Wherefore he refusede Olim|pias his wife. Then Alexander, willenge to excuse the trespas of his moder, entrede in to the temple of Iubiter, where he was salutede as the sonne off godde; where thro his audacite was encreasede gretely. Whiche returnynge from Page  423, vol.3 that temple, made a cite in Egipte, callenge hit Alexandria; and after that he afflicte soore the cite of the Samaritanes, where he causede men of Macedony to inhabite, for cause the Samaritanes hade sleyne Andromachus, whom Alexander Page  425, vol.3 lefte to rewle that cuntre. Iustinus, libro sexto. Alexander hauenge victory off men of Siria, kynge Darius sende a letter to hym, or that thei mette in batelle afterwarde, in this forme folowenge: "Darius, kynge of kynges and cosyn of goddes, sende gretenge to Alexander his seruaunte. I commaunde the to goe and returne to thy fader and moder, my seruauntes, and lerne in thy moders lappe the office of a man. Where|fore y sende to the a bridelle, a balle, and a purs with siluer and golde in hit: the balle movethe the to play conueniente to thyne age; the bridelle moneschethe the to attende to dis|cipline, and the treasure in the purs to releve thy costes in this iourney. And if thow obey not this, I schalle sende to the myȝhty men, whiche schalle presente the beten like a Page  427, vol.3 childe to our majesty." Alexander redenge this letter to his noble men, thei began to be afraiede, to whom he seide to theire comforte: "Frendes, wherefore be ye trowlede, for this letter hathe rather wordes of pride þen of confidence. For the consuetude of smale dogges and feble is to berke raþer then myȝhty dogges." Then kynge Alexander did write ayeyn to kynge Darius in this wise: "Alexander, kynge of kynges and cosyn of goddes, sende to Darius gretenge. In that thow sende to me a briddelle, a balle, and a purs with golde in, hit signifye thre thynges to me, as by coniecture. For the firste, hit is oportune that y exercise the bridelle of cor|reccion amonge thy subiectes. The batelle,*. [Sic.] þat is rownde, dothe signifye me to be lorde of the worlde. The treasure of golde sende to me, dothe prenosticate me to be lorde of alle thy treasure in tyme to comme. And in that thou makeste so grete boste of thy treasure and richesse, in that thou [folio 159b] moveste and dothe excite vs to visite thy realme and cuntre, and to fiȝhte ayeyne the." Trogus, libro undecimo. Darius Page  429, vol.3 kynge of Persida, losenge the victory and fledde to Babilon, sende letters to kynge Alexander that he myȝhte redeme men taken in captiuite with his goodes. But kynge Alexander desirede not oonly moneye but also the lordeschippe of his realme. After that Darius offrede to hym his doȝhter vn to his wife, with parte of his realme. Alexander wolde not that in eny wise, but vtterly he wolde haue chiefe lordeschippe of his realme. Then Darius beenge as in desperation of pease, mette Alexander with cccc. ml of foote men and a c. ml of horse men, to whom it was schewede in his iourney, or that he mette with kynge Alexander, that his wife was dedde of delyuerynge of childe, and how that kynge Alexander hade beryede her regally acordenge to her astate, whiche thynge he did more for cause of manhode then for cause of eny luffe. Wherefore kynge Darius did write to hym the thridde tyme ȝiffenge to hym thonkynges that he schewede to his noo thynge of crudelite, offrenge with his doȝhter the moore parte Page  431, vol.3 of his realme vn to Eufrates, promysenge xxxti ml talentes for his peple whom kynge Alexander hade in captiuite. Kynge Alexander sende writenge to Darius seyenge: "the thonke of an enemye to be voyde, and not to be attendede where glosenge and adulation reignethe and is among batel|les, wherefore Alexander commandethe Darius other to be subiecte to hym other elles that he make hym redy to batelle, sithe that oon londe may not suffise egally ij. kynges of egallenes." Vincentius. When Alexander hade commen in priuely in to the felowschippe and palice of kynge Darius, nye to a water, to see his hoste, and ȝafe metenge to kynge Darius as sodenly, he seide to him: "I, a messynger of kynge Alexander, seye this to the; y accompte hym not a kynge þat is slawe to batelle." Then kynge Darius seide: "Arte not thow kynge Alexander þat spekes so boldely." Alexander seide: "Y am not he, but a messynger to hym." Darius desirede hym to soper; whiche beenge at soper, after Page  433, vol.3 that he hade drunke wyne sende to hym by the kynge, he putte the pece in his bosom. The ministres off kynge Darius schewede to hym how that messynger of kynge Alexander hade putte diverse peces of wyne in his bosom after that he hade drunke of theyme. Darius the kynge, [folio 160a] movede thro that tale, reprovede kynge Alexander of thefte. Alexander answerede the kynge, and seide that consuetude was obseruede and kepede in the cowrte of kynge Alexander, supposenge that the same consuetude hade bene here. Darius the kynge pleasede, and silence made, oon man beenge at the table hade knowlege of kynge Alexander, and ex|pressede his name to Darius. Alexander perceyvenge that fledde, and did slee a childe of the londe of Persida whiche did holde his horse at the ȝate, and soe commynge ouer the water resortede to his hoste. Darius, the kynge folowede that tyme kynge Alexander, but Alexander commaundede his hoste to suffre theyme to come ouer the water. Trogus, libro un|decimo. The hostes ȝafe soore batelle; at the laste kynge Darius fledde, and the knyȝhtes of kynge Alexander folowede theire pray by xxxti daies folowenge. Persipolis was taken that tyme, whiche was the principalle cite of Persida, con|teynenge Page  435, vol.3 in hit richesse as innumerable. Darius the kynge fledde woundede soore, whom his awne cosynnes putte in cheynes of golde, whiche dedde Alexander beriede hym re|gally. Trogus, libro duodecimo. After that letters were sente from Macedony to kynge Alexander, rehersenge that Antipater, keper of that realme, hade oppressede Eacides, the kynge of the Spartanes, and also Alexander, kynge of Epirus, whiche made insurreccions ageyne the realme of Macedony, and that Antipater was oppressede hym selfe. Zephiron, a go|vernour sende with xxxti ml ageyn men of Sithia, was deuicte. Alexander herenge that, made grete sorowe by the space of thre dayes, wherefore his knyȝhtes supposede that he wolde have returnede to Macedony; but kynge Alexander movede theym to go with hym, that he myȝhte tame the prowde hertes of men of the Este. For he seide to haue made a protestacion that he wolde not see only his body and richesse, but also the costes of his realme, wherefore he sub|duede to hym anoon þe Mardonnes and the Hircannes. Then Page  437, vol.3 Talestris, qwene of the Amazones, metenge kynge Alexander with ccc. women, desirede to be geten with childe, whiche hoste was soore oppressede by travayle by the continuacion of xxxti dayes. The aspecte and continance of whiche women was hade in meruayle as for that inconsuete message. [folio 160b] Whiche hauenge grawnte, and taryenge by xiij. daies in luste and pleasure of the flesche, returnede to theire cuntre. ℞. Neverthelesse the story of Alexander rehersethe that the qwene of þe Amazones did write an epistole to kynge Alex|ander askenge a tribute of theyme in this wise: "Hit is to meruayle of thy prudence that þou woldeste ȝiffe batelle to women; for and if fortune schewede to us fauor and victory, thow were confusede for alle the tyme of thy lyfe, sithe that þow were overcommen by women; and if thow haue victory of us þow schalle gete but litelle honoure in hauenge þe victory of women." Trogus, libro decimo.

Capitulum vicesimum octavum.

AFTER this kynge Alexander toke to hym þe diademe of kynges of Persia, ageyne the maner and consuetude of men Page  439, vol.3 of Macedonia. Whiche commaundede also his frendes to were longe clothenges of clothe of golde, leste that he scholde seme to be a transgressor oonly, causenge also his hoste to be noryschede with mony diversites of meytes leste that the concupiscence of the flesche scholde decrease with abstinence. Also he onornede theire meytes with mony disportes, hauenge not in remembrance that richesse scholde decrease þerby rather then to be encreasede. The peple grucchenge that he refusede as consuetudes of theire cuntre of Macedony and of his faders afore hym, thenkenge to redresse that rumor by some pleasure, suffrede his knyȝhtes and men to mary women whom he hade taken in captivite, that they myȝte berre more liȝhtely the labores of chevallery, and haue the lesse remembraunce of theire cuntre, supposenge and iug|genge men of Macedonia to be more stronge mariede in [folio 161a] ferre cuntres then and if they scholde fiȝhte in theire awne Page  441, vol.3 cuntre. Also kynge Alexander ordeynede for the norisch|enge of theire childer, and horses and armor for yonge men, and rewardes to theire faders; and if the faders diede theire sonnes scholde haue theire stipendy, the childehode of whom was as chevallery. After that Alexander hauenge the victory of men of Parthia began to be fers and cruelle amonge his peple, and specially with his luffers reprouenge hym for his excesse or offense. Whiche did sle Parmenides with his son Phileta, in that thei seide he hade forgeten the consuetude of his progenitors and of his cuntre. Policronicon. Alexander laborenge ofte in drunkenesse, exercisede most specially that Page  443, vol.3 tyme crudelite, in whiche passion it happede him to haue condempnede a noble man of his hoste in a tyme to be hedede. That noble man herenge the iuggemente appellede from hym. Alexander meruailenge of that appellacion, sithe appellacion awe to be hade from the inferior to þe superior, and mouede more greuously ageyne hym, inquirede of hym from whom he appellede and vnto whom. The noble man seide openly, "From kynge Alexander drunke to kynge Alexander beenge sobre." Alexander mitigate þro that answere differrede the sentence, and after ȝafe to hym his lyfe. Trogus. After that kynge Alexander made subiecte to hym peple dwellenge at the foote of the hille of Caucasies, whiche edifiede a cite callede Alexandria, on the water of Thanays. ℞. Hit is to be attended that kynge Alexander made xij. cites in diuerse regions, namenge theyme by this name Alexandria, that is to say, at Thanays, Pontus, Sithia, at þe Messagetes, Egipte, Troada, Tigris, and at Staurum. In the walles of whom he causede to be write in Grewe in this wise: "Alexander of þe Page  445, vol.3 kynde of Iubiter the grete godde." Trogus, libro vicesimo secundo. The peple inclusede within Meotides paludes wrote to kynge Alexander in this wyse: "Thauȝhe goddes obeye and expresse the habite of thy mynde and body, neuertheles thei wille not condescende to the couetisenesse of thy mynde; for and if thei scholde, alle the worlde wolde not suffice to the. Knowes þow not trees that haue growen longe sodenly [folio 161b] to falle. Attende welle leste that thow takenge bowes falle downe with the tree. A lyon is seen oftetymes to be the meyte of smale bestes and briddes. Also harde irne is con|sumede ofte by rowste. Þer is noo þinge so sure but it is unstable by perelle, and ofte destroyede by a simple thynge. What wolde þou with us? we towche not thy londe; we desire not to be subiecte to eny man, neither to haue lordeschippe. Also thow hase ioy to folowe thefes, being as maister of alle theues. What nede hase thow to rich|esse, Page  447, vol.3 whiche cause the to be so covetous, noo man suffrethe gladdely a straunge gouernour and an aliaunte. And if thow be a god thow awe to schewe grace to thynges mortalle and benefites, and not to take theire goodes from theyme. And if thow be a man, haue remembraunce what thow arte; for thou may haue þose men frendes to the ageyne whom thow ȝiffes not bataile, also þow may haue those men suspecte alleweye whom þow hase made subiecte to the by werre and bataile. There is frendeschippe be|twene a servaunte and a lorde vnnethe luffe in pease." On a tyme in a feste þer was mencion made amonge the frendes of kynge Alexander of the gestes of kinge Philippe, where kynge Alexander began to boste of hym selfe. A noble clerke and an olde man, trustenge moche in the frendeschippe of þe kynge, commendenge kynge Philippe, was sleyne of kynge Alexander. After that, kynge Alexander remembrenge the Page  449, vol.3 dethe of his frende, the cause, and also the tyme of the feste, makenge grete sorowe began to weipe, whiche embracenge his frende y-sleyne, and felenge his woundes, toke þe wepyn owte from his wounde, and wolde haue pereschede hym selfe with hit. For that clerke was the broþer of the norische of kynge Alexander: whiche sorowe Calistenes the philosophre, and condisciple of kynge Alexander, kowthe vnnethe sease by the space of iiij. daies. Trogus, libro vicesimo primo. And after that kynge Alexander commaundede the seide philo|sophre to be pereschede, and to haue his membres kytte aweye, [folio 162a] and to be caste in to a diche with a grete dogge, thenkenge this philosophre to haue intendede treason in that he despisede the maner and consuetude of men of Persia. A noble man, Lisimachus by name, seenge the philosophre Calistenes laboure in so grete peyne, ȝafe to hym poyson to drynke, in to the remedy of his peyne and grevaunce. Alexander perceyvenge Page  451, vol.3 that, toke Lisimachus to a lyon to be deuourede; þis noble man perceyvenge that, put a clothe of silke lappenge hit mony folde abowte his arme, whiche goenge to the lyon putte his honde in his mowthe and drawede owte the tonge of þe lyon. Alexander seenge that ȝafe to hym pardon and grace, and luffede hym more better after that tyme. Solinus. After that kynge Alexander come to the hilles Caspy, where the childer of the captivite of x. tribus inclusede late, askede licence of kynge Alexander to go from that place, whiche vnderstondenge theyme to be so includede for theire synnes, and also hit was propheciede that thei scholde not go furthe: wherefore he made theym to be inclusede more streytely, stoppenge theire entre with hilles picchede. Neuerthelesse Alexander perceyvenge that labore not to be finischede by the power of man, preyede God of Israel to finische that laboure, and anoon the hilles mette to gedre, and so the place of theym was made inaccessible. ℞. This peple so inclusede Page  453, vol.3 schalle go furthe abowte thende of the worlde, and make grete destruccion of oþer peple, after the testimony of Iosephus. Valerius, libro 2o. Alexander ȝafe in a tyme a cite to a man askenge of hym a peny. The man seide that ȝifte was not conueniente to his fortune. Then kynge Alexander seide to hym: "I attende not to that thynge þow scholde seme to take, but that thynge whiche besemethe me regally to ȝiffe." Seneca. A noble man callede Antigonus answerede an other man a frende of his askenge a talente of hym, seyenge that hit was moore then a frende awe to desire. Then the man confusede as thro schame askede of hym a peny. To [folio 162b] whom Antigonus seide that hit was lesse then it semede a prince to ȝiffe. Alexander wente after that, abowte the x. yere of his reigne, vn to Ynde, induenge his knyȝhtes with armoure made of siluyr, and toke the noble cite callede Nisa. After that he brouȝhte his hoste to the siȝhte of the holy hille, where men couer theire secrete membres with yuy; from theym he wente to the hilles Dedalyn, whiche be in the realme of the qwene Cleofilis. That qwene not able to resiste kynge Alexander with armes, suffrede hym to take his pleasure of her, of whom sche conceyvede a childe, whiche childe borne and namede Alexander, reignede in Ynde after the dethe of his Page  455, vol.3 moder. Neuertheles þat qwene was callede a kynges hoore after that alle the tyme of her lyfe. After that kynge Alexander come to the ston of meruellous scharpenesse, to whom moche peple hade fledde for refute, at whiche ston Hercules was prohibite to goe eny forther. Alexander thenkenge to excede the actes of Hercules, þro grete labor made the peple subiecte to hym. After that kynge Alexander ȝafe metenge to Porus, kynge of men of Ynde, whiche dede sle Buxefal, the hors of kynge Alexander. Neuerthelesse Porus woundede soore was taken; which restorede to his realme by kynge Alexander, sorowede so moche that he was ouercommen, that he wolde neither eite ne drynke, neither suffre his woundes to be healede.

Capitulum vicesimum nonum.

WHEN that kynge Alexander hade compassede and goen abowte the este partes of the ocean, he intendede to go to the Page  457, vol.3 yle of the Bragmannes, and to ȝiffe batelle to þeim. The Bragmannes herenge that sende to hym an epistole contenynge this sentence: "O nowble prince, we haue herde thy victoryes and batelles, but what scholde suffisaunce auaile hym to whom alle the worlde is not sufficiaunte. We haue noo [folio 163a] richesse for whom thou wolde ȝiffe batelle to vs; the goodes of alle men be commune amonge vs; meyte is to vs for richesse, and fowle or vile clothenge for golde. Oure women be not onournede that thei may be pleasante to man, for clothenge is iuggede to burdon more then to feirenes or worschippe, couetenge noon other clothes but as nature ȝiffethe to vs. The dennes of the erthe ȝiffe to vs a dupli|cate use, for hit ȝiffethe to vs couerenge in oure life and a berialle in oure dethe. Also when we haue a kynge hit is not for ryȝhtewissenes, but for honeste of maneres to be conseruede: we haue noo iuggementes amonge us, for we do not thynges to be correcte. Also we desire noo thynge Page  459, vol.3 but that the reason of nature requirethe; we trawe that thynge to be necessary whiche is not superfluous; the egallenes of pouerte makethe alle men ryche; the lawe of oure peple is not to go ageyne the lawe of nature. Also we use not laboure whiche scholde moue and excite auarice; we eschewe fowle ydellenesse and the luste of the flesche; we do not eny thynge for whiche we scholde be punyschede. We thenke also wrong to deuoure the hilles with plowes. We ȝiffe not attendaunce to superfluous meytes, wherefore we be not seke. Heuen ȝiffethe couerenge to vs in habitenge the dennes of the erthe, and the erthe is oure bedde. We ȝiffe noo batelles, reformenge peace raþer þro vertues þen thro armes. Also the fader and moder sorowe not þe dethe of theire children. We inquire not playes and disportes, for the beautuous siȝhte of heuyn ȝiffethe to vs a pleasaunte dis|porte and spectacle. Also simple eloquency is vsede amonge vs alle. God the maker of alle thynges is oure God Page  461, vol.3 and Lorde, for he hathe delectacion in wordes and in preiers as in a similitude. Then sithe þat worde and son of God be a spiritte, he is not pleasede with riches terrestrialle, but with religious werkes and þonkenges of dedes." Responsio Alexandri. "O Dindimus, if these thynges be trewe that thow seyeste, oonly Bragmannes be contenede under þe nowmbre of men whiche wonte vices and terrestrialle substaunce, supposenge and iuggenge that thynge wronge and ageyne the lawe that we do; whiche suppose benefites grauntede to vs for necessites as thynges grevous, seyenge þe ministerys of artes as wickede thynges, destroyenge at the laste the lawes off lyvynge; wherefore other thei knowlege theim selfe to be goddes other elles to haue envye to God whos beautuous and noble creature thei reproue and blame." Responsio Dindimi regis Bragmannorum. "We be not the inhabitatores of this vale fulle of misery, but aliaundes where we haue noo permanente habitacion, but we knowe vs to departe from this worlde, hyenge to oure propre Page  463, vol.3 habitacion, not oppressede with the burthones of synne, neuer|thelesse we say not vs to be goddes, neiþer to haue envye at hym; but we say vs to not wille to vse ylle the goodenesse of God, neiþer we say not alle thynges to beseme and to be seide that be lawefulle. Then sithe God hathe ȝiffen the vse of thynges to be discernede to the arbitrement and wille of man, the man refusenge ylle and chosenge goode thynge is not to be acompte god, but he is þe trewe frende of God. But ye afflate and replete with pride, hauenge not in yre and remembraunce that ye be men, afferme and say Allemyȝhty God not to ȝiffe attendaunce to thynges mortalle, makenge to yow temples where ye schede blode; wherefore y may calle you woode, that ye know not what ye do; or elles, if ye despise God knowengely ye be astricte and cheynede with the synne of sacrilege." Epistola Alexandri ad Dindimium regem Bragmannorum. "O Dindimus, thou calles thy selfe blessede, for thow inhabites that place to whom þere is noo commenge, also ye commende the study and exercise off Page  465, vol.3 parcimony, but by that reason men imprisonede were blessede. For þe vse of goodes is alienate from yow as hit is from theyme. For prison takethe from theym that the lawe of nature denyethe to yow; and that ye exercise not the tillenge of londe and gardynes, the defawte and wonte of yrne [folio 164a] causethe hit, that oure cuntre ȝiffethe to vs. And that ye lyue by rootes ye may not chose, for ye may not go to eny other place, and so brute bestes lyue by rootes; wherefore hit is a laudable thynge to lyue temperately, not in disease and pouerte, but in plente; other elles blyndenes, in that hit may not see þat hit scholde couette, other elles pouerte, in that hit may not haue that hit wolde, scholde oonly be noble vertues. And that youre women be not ryally onornede y consente ther to, for neiþer richesse nor goodes habunde not þerto. Also that ye haue noo grete mouenge to the luste of þe flesche hit is not to be meruaylede, for the vile siȝhte and aspecte of the barenesse of theym causethe hit. Page  467, vol.3 Also ye say that ye haue noo lawes ne iuggementes, neither þat ye study in eny artes neither to aske mercy neither to ȝife mercy, whiche thynges ye haue as commune with wilde and bestes vnreasonable. For truly the mynde of man or sawle, after the diversite of tymes, and after the influence of bodies supracelestialle, is chaungede after the disposicion of þeim. For þe mynde of man is pregnante in a feire day, and feynte in a clowdy day; and lyke as the reason of the wittes of man is multiplicate, so he is mutable; wherefore hit is that infancy ioyethe in simplicite, yowthe in temeryte, age in debilite; so that alle wittes be noryschede thro the softenes of theire propre obiecte, the mater of whom the elementes Page  469, vol.3 ȝiffe to vs, and be supposede to be the begynnenges of oure lyfe; thro the permixtion of whom the stature of man com|pacte, is made that euery thinge may satisfye to his partes, and ȝiffethe to vs a familier subsidy þro theire dispensacion. Wherefore yf þou wille not vse þe benefites whiche be ministrede to vs of the elementes, as carnes, fisches, briddes, other hit schal be ascribed to thy pride that þou dose refuse thynges y-ȝiffen, other to envye that thei be ȝiffen of a better thynge." Responsio Dindimi ad regem Alexan|drum. "Ye moue batelles exterialle to men where hit is so that ye haue not victory of your enmyes interialle. But we Bragmannes be as in quiete, in that we haue the victory of oure enemys interialle. We beholde heuyn and here the songes of birddes; we be clothede with leues, eitenge frutes, drynkenge water, and if thonkenge to God, considerenge the Page  471, vol.3 life of the worlde to come, contente with fewe wordes. Ye say thynges whiche awe to be done, but ye do theyme not; your wisedome is in your lippes; ye thruste golde, hauenge nede to howses and to servauntes, and couette honoure. Water dothe repelle oure naturalle thurste, and golde your thurste: neverthelesse if hit procedede of nature, suffisaunce receyvede at oon tyme scholde be sufficiaunte. The writenge sende from vs to yow is hade in contempte, and honourede of vs." Then kynge Alexander sende a messynger Onesi|critus to Dindimus, with this wrytenge in sentence, whiche was sittenge on a tree in the woode. Littera Alexandri regis ad Dindimum. "Alexander son of the grete god Iubiter, and lorde of the worlde, commaundethe the to comme to hym. And if thow comme he schalle ȝiffe to the grete ȝiftes, and if Page  473, vol.3 thow despise to comme thow schalle lose thy hede." Re|scriptio Dindimi ad Alexandrum. Dindimus the kynge of the Bragmannes beenge on a tre answerede by writenge in this maner folowenge: "Allemyȝhty God luffethe noon iniury, but the liȝhte of a trewe sawle, lettenge batelles, and not excitenge theym; also Alexander schalle dye, wherefore he is noo god. Those thynges be not necessary to me that he dothe promise, y haue noo nede of þeim; y go wheder or to what place y have luste. Thauȝhe Alexander kytte myne hede he may not sle my sawle. The sorowes of men oppressede with iniury begynne to be tormentes of men doynge hurte; þerfore say to youre kynge Alexander, that and if he desire eny thynge of me that he comme to me." Alexander leuenge his pride come to Dindimus. To whom Dindimus seide, "Where to dothe thow trouble oure pease? we may not ȝiffe to the that thou dose couette, and that we haue is not necessary to the. We do honoure to God, we luffe man, we Page  475, vol.3 despise golde. But ye luffe golde, hate men, and haue God in contempte." To whom kynge Alexander seide, "Teche me that wisedome whiche þow seiste the to haue lernede of God." To whom Dindimus seide, "Thow hase not a veselle in whom thou myȝhte receyve wisedome: veyne [folio 165a] auarice and couetise haue fullefillede thy sawle, how scholde y satisfye the to whom alle the worlde is not sufficiaunte. Thow arte made lytelle of God, and þauȝhe thou couette alle thynges thow schalle haue noo more grounde in thy ende but as þou seeste me lyenge to occupy or the sittenge. Thow schalle haue alle, and if thow lerne this wysedome of me: Covetise is the moder of pouerte. But God is my frende, for y haue heuyn for a couerenge, the erthe for a bedde, water for drynke, þe woode for my table; for þe flesche of bestes cause not corrupcion in my body, y am not the sepulcre of dedde thynges, y lyve after my creacion, y knowe the secretes of God, for God wille me to haue Page  477, vol.3 communion and participacion with his creatures and werkes. Þerfore what thenkes thow, wheþer hit be more ryȝtefulle to hurte men or to defende þeim, to disperse theim or to kepe theym? And if thow sle me y schalle go to my God, whose hondes and power thou may not auoide. Wherefore be not in wille to destroye that God hathe made." To whom Alexander seide: "Thow lyves here in surete, and y in drede: y do drede my kepers and my frendes more then myne enmys, whom y may not wonte, neiþer to myne enemys ȝiffe conffidence. In the day y ȝiffe batelle to peple, in the nyȝhte y drede oppressede with laboure: y am sory if y sle þeim whom y drede, and if y doo noo correccion y am despisede." These þinges finischede, Alexander offerede to Dindimus golde, siluyr, clothes, brede, and oyle. To whom Dindimus seide: "May þou moue and excite the briddes sing|enge Page  479, vol.3 here in the woode to synge more meryly then thei were wonte for thy golde and siluyr? Then sithe thou may not, why supposeste þou me to receyve that thynge whiche wille not do servyce to me, also that wolde make me a seruaunte of a liberalle man? Neuerthelesse as for your pleasure y schalle receyve of the oonly that oyle:" whiche [folio 165b] receyvede he sette hit on fire, and ȝafe lawde to Allemyȝhty God. Alexander beholdenge that returnede and departede from hym.

Page  [3], vol.4

Capitulum tricesimum.

ALEXANDER after that compassenge abowte the Este ocean, in the xjthe yere of his reigne, ȝafe metenge to the bischoppe of the trees of þe sonne and of the moone, clothede with skynnes of wilde bestes. To whom the bischoppe seide that thei scholde entre and see the trees of þe sonne and off the moone if thei were clene from the synne of lecchery, theire clothes putte aweye; whiche trees hade an c. foote in altitude; whiche trees were seide to wepe in þe eclippes of the sonne. Petrus, capitulo centesimo nonagesimo septimo. Prestes eit|enge Page  5, vol.4 of the apples of these trees lyvede by vc. yere; and alle the tree of the moone schakede when the beame of the sonne towchede hit, and ȝafe answeres to peple beenge abowte hit. Vincentius. Alexander commenge to theyme wolde haue doen sacrifice; to whom the bischoppe seide that hit was not lawe|fulle to do eny sacrifice to þeim. Wherefore Alexander fallenge downe to the rote of the tre with kyssenge, herde at the risenge of þe sonne of the tree of the sonne in the langage of Ynde, and in the eve of the tree of the moone spekenge in Grewe, þat a man scholde be lorde of the worlde, and that he scholde not comme ageyne in to the propre place of his nati|uitie. Wherefore thei cownsellede hym that he scholde not go to Babilon; for if he come to Babilon he scholde be sleyne by poyson, and not by batelle, in the yere folowenge. Also he herde that his moder scholde die miserably, and that his susters scholde reioyce longe in lyfe. Petrus, capitulo cen|tesimo nonagesimo septimo. Alexander schewede the mer|vellous Page  7, vol.4 thynges of Ynde to Aristotille his maister and mony other moo. ℞. Mony storyes reherse that a man come to the knyȝhtes of kynge Alexander serchenge the hidde places of Ynde, reprovenge gretely the ambicion of theire kynge, takenge [folio 166a] to theyme a stonne to be brouȝhte to theire lorde, seyenge that he was lyke to that ston in alle thynges. That ston brouȝte to Alexander, mony men hade meruayle wherein the similitude scholde be: at the laste that ston put in a balaunce weiede alle thynges downe, vn to the tyme that theke ston was lappede in cleye, and þen hit was but of a litelle weiȝhte. Eutropius. Lucius Papirius, a dictator of Rome, was so fortunate in batelles that he wolde haue ȝiffen batelle to kynge Alexander if that he hade entrede the cuntre of Ytaly, whiche hade victory of the Sampnites by xlti yere, and destroyede theire cites, that the cite callede Page  9, vol.4 Sampnium is requirede of peple beenge in hit. Petrus, capitulo nonagesimo septimo. Alexander subduenge to hym the este partes of the worlde, returnede towarde his cuntre; to whom the legates of the weste cuntre, as of Affrike, Ytaly, of Speyne, come to do hym reuerence, and to make theyme subiecte to hym, and tariede for hym at Babilon. Then Alexander, supposenge hym to haue the monarchye of the worlde, forgate for ioy the answere of the trees of the sonne and of the moone, and entrede in to Ba|bilon to speke with the seide messyngers. Trogus, libro duodecimo. Alexander commaundede mony gouer|noures, whom he hade lefte to gouerne the cuntre in his absence, to be hongede, for cause of theire accusacion of the comprovincialles in the presence of the seide legates, takenge the doȝhter of Darius to matrimony, and mariede the noble maides of that cuntre to men off Macedony. Wherefore Alexander levede olde men, and drawede to yonge men, receyvenge letters sende from his moder of the Page  11, vol.4 falsenesse of Antipater, gouernoure of Macedony. This Antipater seenge hym not to be rewardede for his grete labores, and his cosynnes to be sleyne, and dredenge him selfe to be pereschede, sende Cassander, his son, to poyson hym. The myȝhte of that venom was soe stronge þat hit [folio 166b] myȝhte not be contenede in brasse, yrne, or in eny oþer metalle, but in the hoofe of an horse. Alexander was poy|sonede at the soper of Tessalus the leche, sorowenge as if he hade bene woundede thro the body with a spere, abhor|renge the towchenge of man as woundes, willenge to sle hym selfe for peyne, his frendes iuggenge that passion to haue commen by the intemperance off meytes. Petrus, ca|pitulo centesimo nonagesimo septimo. Alexander, loosenge the vse of speche, wrote his wille; willenge not the monarchye Page  13, vol.4 of the worlde to be taken to oon man, leste eny man scholde be rehersede egalle to hym afterwarde, ordeynede xij. yonge men to be successores to hym, whiche were felawes to hym of theire yowthe. But that institucion indurede not longe, for iiij. of theyme reignede, the oþer viijthe expulsede, as hit is schewede in Daniel. Trogus, libro duodecimo. The frendes of Alexander seenge hym lyke to dye, inquirede of hym whom he wolde haue to succede in his realme, he ansuerede and seide, "The worthieste man." Whiche laborenge þro infirmite and passion, thenkenge debate to sprynge by that answere, and hauenge no myȝhte to speke, toke a rynge from his finger, and ȝafe hit to a yonge man, Perdica by name, in the signe of succession. Alexander diede þe xij. yere of his reigne, and in the xxiijti yere of his age; whose dethe straunge men sorowede as the dethe of theire faders. An Page  15, vol.4 answere hade by the oracle of Iubiter that he scholde be beryede at Egipte, not in the cite of Memphis, but in the cite of Alexandria, whom he edifiede. Trogus, libro duo|decimo. Alexander beryede, diuerse philosophres comme to his berialle, the firste of whom seide, "Alexander was wonte to make a treasure of golde, but now golde makethe a trea|sure of hym." The secunde philosophre seide, "Alle the worlde was not sufficiaunte to hym ȝisterday, and iiij. elnes of clothe be sufficiaunte to hym this day." The thridde philosophre seide, "Alexander hade ȝisterday lorde|schippe of the peple, but peple haue lordeschippe now of [folio 167a] hym." The iiijthe philosophre seide, "Alexander ledde an hoste ȝisterday, and he is ledde nowe in this day of an hoste." The vthe philosophre seide, "Alexander pressede downe the erthe ȝisterday, and he is pressede Page  17, vol.4 downe of the erthe nowe this day." Petrus, capitulo centesimo nonagesimo septimo. Arrideus, the brother of Alexander, reignede in Macedony, in the londe off Grece, after the dethe of Alexander; Antigonus at the northe of Asia and of Pontus; and Seleucus Rucanor at the este of Siria and of Babilon; after whom Anthiocus Sother reignede, of whom other kynges succedenge were callede Anthiochi. Whiche be Anthiocus Theos, Anthiocus Galericus, Anthiocus Magnus, Anthiocus Epiphanes. Also Tholomeus, the son of Lagus, regnede at the sowthe parte in Egipte; after whom kynges folowenge were callede Ptholomei. Whiche be Philadelphius, Euergetes, Philopater or Eupator, Epiphanes, Philometor, Euergetes, Sother. Iosephus, libro duodecimo.

Capitulum tricesimum primum.

PTHOLOMEUS, the son of Lagus, began to reigne in Egipte after the dethe of kynge Alexander, whiche contynuede þer Page  19, vol.4 by xlti yere, whiche was callede Saluator, other elles Sother, whiche caste to his realme Siria, and toke mony Iewes, beenge ydelle in the Sabbate day, and solde þeim. In the tyme of whom Iadus, the bischop of the Iewes, diede, whom Onias, his son, succedede; after hym Symon Iustus; and after hym Eleazarus, his brother. This Ptholomeus was so myȝhte and stronge that he restorede Pirrus, kynge of Epirotes, expulsede from his realme, to hit, and restorede to Seleucus a parte of Siria taken from hym, hauenge victory of Deme|trius, son of Antigonus. Agatocles exercisede grete cru|delite at the cite callede Siracusan, whiche hade a meruellous begynnenge, as Trogus rehersethe. Ptholomeus toke Ieru|salem by gyle and disseyte, and toke mony of the Iewes in [folio 167b] captiuite, and did selle theyme. The philosophre Theofatus, takenge name for the excellence of eloquency, and also Menander, were in this tyme. The story of Machabes comp|tethe Page  21, vol.4 the reigne of men of Grece from this yere. Seleucus, the kynge of Siria, edifiede the cites of Anthiochia, Laodicia, and of Seleucia abowte this tyme. Symon Iustus, the son of Onias, was abowte thys tyme. The Tharentynes ȝafe rebuke to the messengers of the Romanes, whiche attracte up|to theim Pirrus the kynge, with iiijxx. ml of fote men, and vij. ml of horse men, with xx. elephauntes, of whom the Romanes hade victory; and in the thridde conflicte Pirrus the kynge returnede to his awne cuntre, from whiche tyme the batelles punicalle began to sprynge. Eutropius. That kynge Pirrus hade victory of the Romanes in the firste con|flicte, and causede theym to go backe to a cite callede Prenestes, by xviij. myles from the cite of Rome, and occu|piede Ytaly, and sende to Rome his prisoners withowte eny redempcion, and beriede the men sleyne; whiche, percey|venge the Romanes so myȝhty in batelle, seide, that he myȝhte be lorde of the worlde if that his men were so Page  23, vol.4 bolde. This kynge Pirrus offrede to Fabricius, a legate of the Romanes, þe iiijthe parte of thempire of Rome, to con|descende and to helpe hym to gette hit; whiche messyngere wolde not condescende to hym in eny wise. The kynge seenge that he myȝhte not be corrupte with eny money, sende hym to Rome with grete ȝiftes, and desirenge pease of þeyme. Trogus, libro septimo decimo. Cyneas, the legate of Pirrus, sende with grete ȝiftes to the Romanes, cowthe not fynde oon man that wolde receyve the ȝiftes of his kynge; and also the men taken in captiuite, and sende to Rome, were hade in derision and contempte in that thei myȝte haue been taken in armes. Cyneas the messenger returnenge, seide to Pirrus, that he hade seene the londe of kynges, where alle men were like as Pirrus the kynge was amonge theyme. Then Pirrus the kynge was deuicte [folio 168a] in the secunde batelle and conflicte, his elephantes sleyne, and xxti ml of his men. ℞. For, as Isidorus rehersethe, the Romanes ordeynede to theyme wiȝhte yonge men, whiche sittenge behynde the horsemen, lepede downe from the horses Page  25, vol.4 in the metenge of the hostes, whiche hade instrumentes of yrne to scrape the forehedes of the elephauntes vn til that thei felle and diede. After that, Pirrus the kynge wente to Tarentus, and after þat to Grece, where he was sleyne afterwarde. Valerius. When hit was so that Pirrus and Fabricius hade theire hostes nye to geder, a leche of Pirrus come to Fabricius in the nyȝhte, promysenge that he wolde betray Pirrus, his lorde, if that he wolde ȝiffe to hym a con|digne rewarde. Fabricius, the gouernoure of the Romanes, herenge that, sende hym bownde to his lorde, expressenge the treason of his seruaunte. Then Pirrus the kynge hauenge meruayle seide, "This Fabricius is as indeclinable from honeste as the sonne from his naturalle cowrse." Titus. This Pirrus, desirede gretely off the Tarentynes to schewe theyme helpe ageyne the Romanes, askede cownselle of Appollo of the victory, whiche ȝafe to hym an answere, seyenge amphibologically: "I say to the thou may ouer|comme Page  27, vol.4 the Romanes." Pirrus made bolde thro that answere, come to Erechea, a cite of Campany, where the Romanes, ferede of the elephauntes, fledde in the firste batelle. But Pirrus woundede soore in the secunde batelle returnede. Bloode did renne downe of welles in mony partes of Ytaly, and reyne descendede like to mylke. Seleucus, kynge of Siria, hade mony Iewes to inhabite cites of his realme, grauntenge to theyme egalle honoure with men of Grece. The Romanes edifiede the cite of Beneuent in the cuntre of Sampnites. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Moruidus, the cruelle man, and son of Danius, geten of Tangustela his concubine, reignede abowte this tyme in Briteyne, whiche was deuourede of grete bestes and fisches, after grete exercise of his crudelite, [folio 168b] levenge after hym v. sonnes. Gorbonianus, the firste childe, and luffer of iustice and equite, reignede a season and diede. After that Archagallo, the secunde childe, reignede with grete Page  29, vol.4 crudelite, wherefore he was expulsede by the peple from the londe; and Elidurus, the thridde son, a man of mekenesse, was substitute in to the kynge. This Elidurus ȝiffenge at|tendaunce to huntenge, after þe vthe yere of his reigne, at a woode callede Calaterium, now callede Galtrees, nye to Yorke, [Gaufridus] founde his brother Archagallo expulsede from that realme þer, whom he hidde priuely in his chamber; whiche fenynge hym seke, movede the noble men of the realme to restore his broþer and to make hym kynge. Then Archagallo restorede and made kynge diede after that he hade reignede x. yere; and then Elidurus was electe in to theire kynge. But the oþer ij. breþer, Vigenius and Peridurus, expugnede hym and putte hym in prison at the cite of Trinouante, whiche reignenge diuerse tymes, and dyenge, Elidurus was take from prison and made kynge the thridde tyme, lyvenge in peace Page  31, vol.4 and tranquillite after that tyme. After whom xxxij. kynges reignede in Briteyne; but Bledgarec kynge precellede alle other in musike and in melodyes, in so moche that he was callede god of disporters. After that Hely, reignenge amonge the Britones by xlti yere, lefte thre noble childer behynde hym, Ludde, Cassibelanus, and Neninus. Petrus, capitulo ducentesimo.

Capitulum tricesimum secundum.

PTHOLOMEUS Philadelphius, the secunde kynge of men of Egipte, began to reigne, whiche reignede by xxxtiviij. yere. Somme men reherse this Ptolomeus to haue hade victory of his awne fader, and to haue hade in his hoste cc. ml of foote [folio 169a] men, xxti ml of horse men, ij. thowsande of charietes, and cccc. elephauntes. Petrus, capitulo ducentesimo. This Ptholo|meus sende the Iewes taken and putte into captiuite vn to Ierusalem, takenge to the lordes of theym for euery man cxx. Page  33, vol.4 dragmas of siluyr, whiche is xxxv. schilenges of oure moneye, sendenge precious veselles to Eleazarus, bischoppe of Ierusa|lem, by the cownselle of Demetrius, preyenge Eleazarus by discrete messyngers that he wolde sende to hym noble clerkes of the Iewes, that thei myȝte translate the lawe of Moyses owte of Hebrewe in to Grewe. Eleazarus sende to hym vj. men of euery tribe, lxxij. in nowmbre, but the consuetude of scripture is to omitte the litelle nowmbre if þat hit remayne after the grete nowmbre. These men be the lxxti interpretatores, whiche instructe lawe and psalmes of the cognicion of oon God, and gubernacion of theire realme, and translate prophecies, kepenge silence or spekenge similitu|dinary where eny thynge of the Trinite was in theire werke, leste that hit scholde seme theyme to haue taken iij. goddes to be worschippede. Also thei putte but oon name of God in the processe of Ysay, whiche was the angelle of grete Page  35, vol.4 cownselle, leste that hit scholde seme theim to haue seide man to haue bee deificate, in whiche processe thei fownde vj. names of Godde. These noble clerkes finischede that laboure in lxxijti daies. But Seynte Austyn, de Civitate Dei, libro octavo decimo, capitulo 42o, semethe to wille that the lxxti interpretatores were diuidede into diuerse chambres, and that thei alle accordede in oon. But Seynte Ierom semethe to vnderstonde that thei were alle in oon chambre, other elles that thei, diuidede by vj. daies, mette to gedre in the Sabbatte day, and combynede and compilede theire maters togedre. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro suo octavo decimo. lxxti men of diuerse tribus, departede in diuerse celles at a cite callede Alexandria in Egipte, translate diuine Scripture owte of Hebrewe in to Grewe, not discordenge in eny thynge, neiþer in valoure of wordes, neither in ordre. And thawȝe þer were men that did translate owte of [folio 169b] Page  37, vol.4 Hebrewe in to Grewe in the Newe Testamente, as Aquila Simachus, Theodocion, and the vthe edicion, the auctor of whom is ignorante, ȝitte the lxxti interpretatores be preferrede afore theyme. Mony men willenge to amende the interpretacion of the lxxti interpretatores by bokes of Hebrewe, hade noo audacite to detray that the lxxti inter|pretatores hade more then men of Hebrewe, puttenge signes þer callede obeli, to betokyn superhabundaunce. And thei made signes in the maner of sterres in the places where the lxxti interpretatores hade lesse then the men of Hebrewe, as to make briȝhte thynges defectiue. Ysidorus, Eth: libro sexto. This Ptholomeus hade lxxti bookes in his bible. Petrus, capitulo quinto decimo. Hit is sufficiaunte to speke at oon Page  39, vol.4 tyme of diuerse translaciones. The lxxti interpretatores were afore the incarnacion of Criste by ccc. and xlj. yere. Also Aquila did translate in the tyme of Adrian the prince, after the Ascencion a c. and xxiiij. yere. After þat Simachus, by xxxti yere, did translate in the tyme of the prynce Seuerus. After þat viij. yere the vthe translacion was founde at Ierusalem, þe auctor of whom was not knowen. After that by xviij. yere Origenes did translate, with asteriscus and obelus, in the tyme of þe prince Alexander; after þat Origenes did translate hym selfe withowte þeim. Alle these men did translate from Hebrewe in to Grewe. But mony men did translate owte of Latyn in to Grewe. Neuerthelesse Seynte Ierom did translate laste owte of Hebrewe in to Latyn, whose translacion is obseruede allemoste, excepte the translacion in his psawter. Eutropius. The Romanes haue Page  41, vol.4 doen a Punicalle batelle, or Cartaginense, ageyne men of Affrica, in whiche tyme the cite of Rome hade men in hit ijc. ml xcij. ml ccc. and xxxiijti men, thauȝhe batelles seasede never þer from the edifienge of the cite of Rome un to that tyme. And the Romanes were victores by v. yere continually, wherefore the Romanes transferrede the firste batelle to men of Affrike, Marchus Regulus electe to be þe gouernoure of the Romanes and a consul; whiche toke firste theire schippes, [folio 170a] other drownede theyme, other elles causede the peple to flee. At the laste he ouercomne iij. dukes and gouernoures of men Page  43, vol.4 of Affrike and theire hoste, and toke mony elephantes, and sende xxvij. ml men taken in captiuite to Rome. After that he did sle a serpente at the water callede Bragada, the skynne of whom brouȝte to Rome was of a cxx. foote. Then men of Cartago deuicte desirede peas, whiche Marchus wolde not grawnte to theyme peas, but on soore condiciones, and also grevous. Men of Affrike attracte to theym Zanȝippus kynge of Lacedemonia, and hade victory of the Romanes, in so moche that xxxti ml of theyme sleyne, Marchus Regulus was taken and putte in prison with v.c. After that men of Affrike were deuicte bothe by see and londe, that ij.c. ml of theyme sleyne, and a c. and xxxti elephauntes taken, men of Cartago sende Marcus Regulus to Rome, desirenge the permutacion of theire men in captiuite. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro primo. An othe made that Marchus Regulus scholde not*. [Sic.]Page  45, vol.4 comme to Cartago ageyne, whiche Marchus seide that hit was not profitable to the commune vtilite to permute so mony noble men for oon olde man, makenge a protestacion that he wolde goe ageyn, and specially for this cause, in that he myȝhte not haue the auctorite of an honeste citesynne in Rome after his capituite. Men of Affrike putte hym in a streyte tre fulle of nayles, with his eien open, and the liddes of theyme fixede with nayles, and so thei causede hym to stonde and to wake vn to the that he diede. Petrus, capitulo sexagesimo octavo. Ptholomeus ȝafe batelle ageyn Anthiocus Theos, kynge of Siria, but after that thei were confederate, for Anthiocus mariede Beronica, the doȝhter of Ptholomeus, geten by Lao|dices his firste wife refusede from hym; whiche commenge Page  47, vol.4 and obteynenge grace and fauor of her howsebonde poysenede hym. A peny of siluyr was made and institute firste in Rome aboute this tyme.

Capitulum tricesimum tertium. [folio 170b]

PTHOLOMEUS EUERGETES, broþer to Philadelphius, the thridde kynge of men of Egipte, began to reigne, whiche reignede xxvjti yere. This Ptholomeus wastede Siria for the dethe of the howsebonde of Beronica, and of her childe also, and Silicia a parte of Asia, and causede Anthiocus Galericus to fle. Whiche herenge his princes to haue con|spirede his dethe in his absence, returnede into Egipte, takinge with hym mony preyes, and ij. ml and vj.c. of similacres. Galericus lefte his ij. sonnes, Seleucus and Anthiocus Magnus; but at the laste Anthiocus reignede in Siria, his brother dedde, Page  49, vol.4 by the space of xxxvj. yere, whiche metenge in batelle with Philopator, kynge of Egipte, was ouercommen and allemoste taken. Ennius the poete was borne at Tharentus this tyme, whiche brouȝte to Rome by Cato, a questor, dwellede in the mownte Auentyne, was of litelle meite contente with the ministery of oon goose. Eutropius, libro secundo. xlti ml men of Fraunce were sleyne of the Romanes, whiche hade com|men to the hilles Alpyne. These men of Fraunce hade made an othe that thei wolde not putte awey theire girdelles of knyȝhtehode vn til thei hade occupiede the capitoly. And so hit was; for the consul Emilius destroyede and pereschede theyme Page  51, vol.4 taken in captiuite in the capitoly. Anthiocus Magnus began to reigne in Siria abowte this tyme. Ptholomeus Eupator or Philopator, son of Euergetes, began to reigne amonge men of Egipte, whiche reignede xvij. yere, in whose tyme those thynges happede whiche be wryten of the pennes*. [Sic.] of the Machabees. Trogus, libro tricesimo. This Ptholomeus was namede Philopator for the magnitude of his trespas; for he lefte þe actes of cheuallery and ȝafe hym to ydelnes, lecchery, and to superfluites, wastenge nyȝhtes in lechery and synne, and the daies in festes and in superfluites. After that Erudix his wife y-sleyne, and sustyr to hym, he drawede un to women [folio 171a] of ylle disposicion. Anthiocus Magnus provokede thro that hade occupiede alle Egipte, but that an hoste of men hyrede ȝafe to hym resistence. At the laste, this Ptholomeus dedde, the women of ylle disposicion to whom he drawede were hongede, levenge after hym a childe of v. yere in age, whom Page  53, vol.4 he gate by Erudix his wife and sustyr. Eutropius, libro tertio. The secunde batelle Punical began, continuenge by xvij. yere, in whom the Romanes were more deuicte then victores. Hanibal, the son of Amilcarus, a childe of ix. yere in age, made a promyse to his fader, at the awters of theire goddes, þat he wolde ȝiffe batelle to þe Romanes as soone as he myȝhte. Hanibal hauenge xxti yere in age segede a cite in Speyne, Saguntum, moste luffenge to the Romanes, by viij. monethes. The Romanes sende messyngers to Hanibal that he scholde leve the segenge of that cite by reason of promysse made betwene þeyme. Hanibal despisenge theire message, the messynge to Affrike*. [Sic.] compleynenge of the promyse broken to þeim, whiche reioycenge noo comforte returnede to Rome. Whiche cite was destroyede in þis maner folowenge: A knyȝhte longenge to Hanibal, and luffenge that cite, come to Page  55, vol.4 the peple of hit, after that thei hade suffrede grete hungre, cownsaylenge theyme to yolde vp the cite with alle theire goodes, hauenge your life grauntede to yow. This peple of the cite takenge cownselle togeder, sette fire in the cite, in to whom thei keste alle theire golde and siluyr, and after that they felle in to þe fire and were brente. That cite destroyede, Hanibal lefte Asdrubal his broþer in Speyne. This Hanibal hauenge with hym a c. ml of fote men and x. ml of horsemen, xlti elephauntes, passenge the hilles Alpyne in the tyme of ver, come to Ytaly, Cornelius Scipio beenge that tyme occupiede in batelle in Speyne. Orosius. This Hanibal passenge the hilles Pirene, made weye to hym with his swerde and with fire [folio 171b] amonge the cruelle peple of Fraunce, trowblede soore with theyme by the space of iiij. daies; whiche was conclusede with Page  57, vol.4 snawe by ij. daies in the hille Appenyne, where he loste mony men, bestes, and elephauntes. Eutropius. Mony meruellous signes causede the Romanes to be aferde; for the sonne was seene to fiȝhte with the moone at Arpos, and ij. mones were seen at a place callede Capena, and the firmamente was seene as to haue ben diuidede at Faliscos. The Romanes herenge of the commenge of Hanibal, Scipio was desirede to comme from Speyne, whom Haniballe mette at Ticinus, and hade victory of hym; after that Hanibal hade victory of Sempronius commenge from Sicille. After that Hanibal hade victory of Flammens, consul, sleenge xv. ml of Romanes, and takenge vj. ml in cap|tiuite. Titus. Where the peple did fiȝhte soo soore, that when there was that tyme a movenge of the erthe, destroyenge cites Page  59, vol.4 and diuidenge hilles, hit was not perceyvede of theyme. Eu|tropius, libro tertio. Fabius Maximus sende by the Romanes to ȝiffe batelle to Hanibal, kepenge coverte places and fyndenge avauntage, hade victory of Hanibal. After that consules of Rome were sende to ȝiffe batelle to Hanibal, whiche were Lucius Emilius Paulus and Publicus Terencius Varro, whom Fabius monyschede that Hanibal was invincible withowte that thei differrede batelle. But these consulles doenge not after the cownselle of Fabius, were deuicte at Cannas of Apulia, the wynde helpenge Hanibal and the grauel lifte vp by hit, where xlti ml of horsemen of the Romanes and v. ml men consulares and senatores other sleyne or taken. And withoute dowte the laste batelle of the Romanes hade ben finischede if that Hanibal hade goen to the cite and taken hit after that batelle. Page  61, vol.4 For þer was so grete murdre of the peple of Rome that he commaundede his peple to sease from the sleenge of theyme. Eutropius. Varro, the consul, returnede to the cite, whiche was commendede of þe senate that he putte not the commune vtilite in despeire, and hade not schaven his berde and heire; [folio 172a] whiche slepede not vn til that he hade taken vengeaunce of Hanibal. In that tyme seruauntes of Rome were made fre, thefes and also mansleers were made knyȝhtes. Orosius. And also men lefte in oþer tymes in the cite for multiplicacion; for that tyme alle the senate was but as a nouice. Eutropius. Hanibal offrede to the Romanes that thei scholde redeme the Romanes in captiuite. The senate seide those citesynnes be not necessary that be taken in to captiuite hauenge armor on theyme. Wherefore Hanibal did slee somme of theyme, and Page  63, vol.4 solde somme into other regiones, sendenge to Cartago iij. busch|elles of rynges of golde in a signe off victory, whom he hade of the hondes of the knyȝhtes of Rome. Titus. There was that tyme suche pouerte in the cite of Rome that brasse and yrne was spoilede from temples to repaire armour, takenge also armoures sette in temples after that they hade doen grete victoryes. Also thei hade not sufficiaunte takellynge for theire schippes, neither treasure sufficiaunte for theire hoste, where|fore a crye was made by the consulles and senatores that priuate persones scholde brynge theire goodes to the place of treasure. For the whiche thynge grete diuision was movede betwene the peple and the senatores, whom the consulle re|movede in this wyse, sayenge that the senatores and also the noble men scholde precede þeim in ȝiftes, like as þei precelle the peple in dignite. Wherefore the consul ordeynede that Page  65, vol.4 every man from the hieste degre to the laweste scholde brynge to þe place of theire treasure alle the golde and siluyr thei hade, excepte that he scholde haue oon rynge for hym selfe, an other for his wife, a gyrdelle of golde for his son, and certeyn unces for his doȝhters. Whiche þinge was doen, wherefore there was so grete goodes innumerable, that men deputede to receyve the goodes kowthe not write the goodes brouȝhte to theyme, [folio 172b] neither the names of men þat brouȝhte the goodes. Orosius, libro quarto. Rome was confracte with so mony infortunes in that tyme that the senate was disposede to haue lefte Rome and to haue goen to other cuntrees. Wherefore thei askede cownselle of Appollo, whiche movede theyme to laboure for an ymage of a godesse callede Sibela or Berocincia, and by hit thei scholde be salvede. Then legates were sende to Frigia for this godesse to be found. Apollo movede theyme to desire the helpe of Attalus, kynge of the lesse Asia. Also Page  67, vol.4 Apollo movede that the godesse scholde be receyvede firste of the moste noble man. That paste, Scipio Nausica was electe þerto, whiche, takenge with hym a grete multitude of women, mette that ymage callede Sibella other Berocincia, as moder of alle goddes, or the moder of hilles, or elles Ydea, for sche was [folio 165a] honourede specially in a woode of Frigia. ℞. Of whiche chaunce the Romanes usede euery yere to kepe a feste in the nones of þe monethe of Aprille, whiche was callede the feste of bathes, as Ouidius de Fastis rehersethe, for the ymage of that godesse brouȝhte from Frigia was waschede in a floode nye to Tiber, whiche thynge was doen with harpenges and other songes and instrumentes musicalle, and suche a geste was callede a messe. Hanibal movede his hoste from Campania Page  69, vol.4 vn to a place beenge but iij. myles from Rome, abowte the xthe yere of his commynge, whiche come to the ȝate Collyne with a certeyne nowmbre of horse men with hym. The consulles disposenge the wardes of theire batelles, and willenge to haue mette hym anoon, there was suche a tempeste of hayle that peple were gladde to fynde eny socoure. Also the peple willenge to make a felde in the secunde day, a tempeste more violente constreynede the peple to fle for refute and socoure. Eutropius. Too noble men of Rome whiche were callede by this name, Scipio, sende to Speyne, hade victory of Asdrubal, brother of Hanibal, sleenge of the host of men off Affrike [folio 173a] xxxv. ml. Philippus, kynge of Macedony, promisede to Hanibal helpe ageyne the Romanes; Sardinia the yle refusede to helpe the Romanes. Wherefore the gouernoures of Rome were sende in iiij. hostes in to iiij. partes of the worlde; oon hoste to ȝiffe batelle to Philippe kynge of Macedony, an other hoste to expugne the yle Sardinia, an other to Hanibal in Page  71, vol.4 Ytaly; the iiijthe to Speyne to Haniballes brother, Asdrubal by name. The consul Leuinus, getenge the favor of Attalus kynge of Asia, hade victory of Philippe, kynge of Macedony, and toke Sicille with lx. cites, and expugnede xxvj. cites, returnenge to Rome with grete victory. Hanibal beenge within the space of iiij. myles to the cite of Rome, herenge of his commynge, returnede to Campania. The ij. Scipiones beenge longe tyme victores in Speyne, were sleyne of the broþer of Asdrubal, neuerthelesse the hoste of the Romanes was holle. Wherefore Cornelius Scipio, as the moste noble man, son of an other Scipio, havenge xxiijti yere in age, was sende to Speyne. This is the Scipio whiche seenge the senate in purpose to haue fledde in to other londes, drawede owte his swerde prohibitenge þeim to do so, and promysede to theym that he wolde defende the cuntre. This Scipio goenge to Speyne, toke Cartago, a cite in Speyne, in whom was moche treasure of golde and of siluyr, and of bellicose apparaile, whiche yoldede the childer of Speyne as put in plegge to Page  73, vol.4 theire faders, and sende Magon, the broþer of Asdrubal, taken in captiuite vn to Rome, and toke a feire maide of Speyne to mariage, and ȝafe to her grete goodes. The howsebonde of the maide, seenge that grete curtesye and kyndenesse, causede allemoste alle Speyne to turne to Scipio. Then Fabius Maximus toke a cite callede Tarentus in Ytaly, and did sle Cartaligon, a gouernoure other duke of Hanibal, and solde xxv. ml men taken in captiuite. Hanibal, beenge then as in desperacion, sende to Asdrubal his broþer, beenge in Speyne, that he scholde comme to hym with alle his hoste; whom the consulles of Rome mette, fiȝhtenge nobly ageyne hym; in whiche fiȝhte Asdruballe, brother to Hanibal, was [folio 173b] sleyne, with lviij. ml, v. ml taken, and xliiijti ml of citesynnes of Rome were founde; and the hedde off Asdrubal was caste afore Hanibal, which seenge hit sorowede moche, and fledde to Briccia, and Scipio Magnus was callede to Rome from the cuntre of Speyne.

Page  75, vol.4

Capitulum tricesimum quartum.—Iosephus, libro xijo. Trogus, libro tricesimo.

PTHOLOMEUS Epiphanes, the vth kynge of men of Egipte, and son of Eupator, reignede xxiiij. yere. This Ptholomeus begynnenge to reigne the vthe yere of his age, legates of Alexandrye preyede the Romanes thei wolde be tutores of þat childe, and defende the realme of Egipte; whiche kinge Philippe, gouernoure of Macedony, and Anthiocus, kynge of Siria, hade intendede to haue diuidede hit betwene þeim. This message was accepte of the Romanes, whiche sende legates to those kynges that thei scholde not entre in to Egipte. Eutro|pius, libro tertio. After that Anthiocus Magnus mariede the doȝhter of Ptholomeus, grawntenge to her in the name of her dowery Siria, Iudea, and Phenicia. ℞. Wherefore the Iewes peiede tributes to bothe the kynges, Onias the bischoppe of Page  77, vol.4 þe Iewes denyenge that, and movenge the contrary as for the luffe of theire lawe, but rather for auarice, in that he wolde not go to the kynge. Iosephus, the son of the suster of Onias, wente to kynge Ptholomeus, whiche obteynede not oonly the fauor of the kynge and releische of his tribute by the space of vij. yere, but he was made also gouernoure of his howse, and the colector of tributes to be paiede by that kynge by the space of xxij. yere. Iosephus, libro duodecimo, capitulo quarto. This Iosephus willenge to prove the discrecion of Hircanus his son þe yonger, hauenge xij. yere in age, whom he gate by the doȝhter of his brother, toke to hym iij.e. yocke of oxen to ere and sawe in wildernes by the iourney of ij. daies from his howse, whiche hidde awey the thynges with whom the oxen scholde be bownde and drawe; whiche com|menge [folio 174a] to the place assignede, the laborers movede Hircanus that somme of theyme myȝhte goe home and brynge gere necessary for theym, he wolde not consente þer to; whiche sleenge diuerse of the oxen for the meyte of the peple, made Page  79, vol.4 instrumentes for the oxen of the skynnes of þeim. The fader meruellenge the discrecion of the childe, sende hym in his stedde to honoure the feste of Ptholomeus, kynge of Egipte, whiche hade a son borne to hym but late. The fader willenge to take to hym a certeyne summe of money for his costes by the weye, and to honoure the kynges son, Hircanus þat childe refusede that money, seyenge that he cowthe lyve sobrely, and not to spende so moche. Neuerthelesse, he movede his fader that he wolde sende to Arion, his proctor, of Alexandrye, letters that he scholde take to hym suche thynges as were profitable and necessary to hym. Iosephus supposenge x. talentes to suffise for the honour of þe kynges son, wrote to Arion that he scholde delyuer to his sonne x. talentes. This childe Hircanus commenge with the letters and delyuerenge theym to Arion, the same man inquirede of hym what summe he wolde haue. The childe answerede and seide a ml talentes. Then Arion seide that he wolde delyuer to hym but x. talentes, wherefore this childe Hircanus caste hym in prison. The wife of Arion compleynede to the kynge of that Page  81, vol.4 childe, to whom the kynge seide: "Why haste þow done soo?" Hircanus seide to the kynge that those ministres were worthy to be punyschede that cowthe not discerne a grete thynge from a lytelle. Arion herenge that the kynge did approbate the answere of the childe, toke to the childe a ml talentes, whiche bouȝhte anoon a c. childer litterate, and a c. virgynes, of men sellenge childer, payenge for eiche of theym a talente. The day commenge of the kynges feste, this childe Hircanus was sette in the loweste place of worschippe, in that he was but yonge in age, afore whom mony bones were sette as in derision. And anoon a disporter seide afore the kynge: "O [folio 174b] my lorde, beholde how this lytelle childe hathe eiten the flesche off so mony bones." Then kynge laȝhede, and in|quirede of the childe why that he hade so mony boones afore hym. The childe seide with a bolde spiritte: "My lorde, dogges devoure boones with flesche, as thy gestes do this day; Page  83, vol.4 but peple of discrecion leve the boones and spare þeim, as ye see me to do." This childe, familier in the kynges palice, inquirede in the morowe folowenge of the frendes of the kynge what thei wolde ȝiffe to the kynges son; the moste noble man intendede not to ȝiffe more then x. talentes. Then this childe Hircanus fenede him soory, seyenge that he hade but v. talentes to the honoure of the kynges sonne. The day of the honoure to the kynges son to be schewede commen, this childe Hircanus presentede the kynge with a c. yonge litterate childer, and to the qwene a c. virgynes, and eiche of theyme offrede a talente. Wherefore this childe was commendede moche of alle men, whiche receyvenge grete ȝiftes of the kynge, and letteres commendatiue, returnede home to his fader; whose fader was movede gretely for þe grete ȝiftes that þe childe had ȝiffen. Also his brether herenge of his commenda|cion and glory were movede in to envy, in so moche that thei ȝafe batelle to theire broþer. Neuerthelesse this childe obtenede the victory, his ij. breþer sleyne in that conflicte, whiche goenge Page  85, vol.4 ouer Iordan gedrede the kynges tribute of men and peple of barbre by mony yeres, where he made a meruellous towre, where he fauȝhte ageyne men of Araby alle the tyme that Seleucus Sother was presidente of Siria. Whiche dedde, Hircanus, dredenge the cowardenesse of Anthiocus Epiphanes, did slee hym. The noble man Scipio was sende from Rome vn to Speyne abowte the firste yere of this Tholomeus, and soone after vn to Affrike, where he made subiecte to hym Annon, the gouernoure of Affrike, and Siphas the kynge of Numidia. Men of Ytaly herenge that lefte Hanibal. This kynge Hanibal, desirede by men of Cartago to comme vn to [folio 175a] theyme, departede from Ytaly with wepynge in the xvijthe yere of his commynge in to hit, trowblenge the peace that Page  87, vol.4 men of Affrike hade made with the Romanes. And this was the condicion of peas, that men of Affrike scholde have but xxxti schippes, and that thei scholde ȝiffe to the Romanes lti mlli of siluyr, and that thei scholde sende to þeim alle the Romanes taken in captiuite. This Hanibal sende thre spies whiche scholde beholde the hoste of the Romanes, whom Scipio toke, refreschenge theym with meytes and drynkes, sende theyme to Hanibal. Then a grete and soore batelle was made betwene ij. myȝhty men, Hanibal and Scipio; but this Scipio hade the victory, Hanibal allemoste taken. Peas was grauntede to men of Cartago, and Scipio returnede to Rome, callede from that tyme Affricanus, and so the secunde batelle Punicalle was finischede. Plauctus diede at Rome abowte this Page  89, vol.4 tyme, whiche was hirede by a baker to grynde corne at qwernes and places apte for the honde, for pouerte of exhibicion, whiche did write on holy daies fables, and solde theyme. A batelle of Macedony folowede that secunde batelle Punicalle, ageyne Philippe kynge of Macedony, whom Titus Quiricius ouer|come, and brouȝhte afore his chariette the sonne of the kynge of Macedony and the son of the kynge of Lacedemony, redemenge the Romanes solde in to the londe of Grece by Hanibal, schavenge theire hedes in a signe of seruitute. The Romanes intendede that tyme to ȝiffe batelle to grete Anthiocus, in that he wastede diuerse regiones, and in that he noryschede but late Hanibal goenge from Affrike with hym. Eutropius, libro quarto. Anthiocus seenge that Hanibal spake ofte with þe messyngers of Rome, hade hym suspecte, and despisede hys cownesaile; and thauȝhe he callede Hanibal to him, hit was raþer that Hanibal scholde not perceyve hym as despisede then for to fullefille eny thynge after his cownselle. Hanibal ȝafe cownselle to hym that he scholde ȝiffe batelle to the Romanes, [folio 175b] Page  91, vol.4 and that he scholde not make taryenge in hit, for Hanibal seide þe Romanes to be invincible but in theire awne cuntre. The cownselle of Hanibal was not fullefillede, wherefore the hostes of Anthiocus were deuicte by the Romanes, bothe on the see and also on the londe. Then Anthiocus began to take Hanibal to cownselle. Eutropius, libro quarto. Philippus, kynge of Macedony, hade his son restorede to hym, in that he schewede helpe to the Romanes ageyne that Anthiocus. Scipio Nasia, son of the doȝhter of grete Scipio, hade victory ageyne Anthi|ocus, bothe in batelle on the see and on þe londe. Then Anthiocus toke to the Romanes his yonger son, Anthiocus Epiphanes, for Seleucus his elder son, promisenge peas per|petualle Page  93, vol.4 to the Romanes, so that he wolde kepe hym within the hylle Taurus, levenge Europe and the lesse Asia, and that he scholde take to theym Hanibal, the mover and causer of those batelles. Hanibal perceyvenge that fledde to Prusias kynge of Bithinia. Trogus, libro tricesimo tertio. Prusias kynge of Bithinia deuicte by Eumenes, brother of Attalus, kynge of Asia, Hanibal movede hym to ȝiffe a newe batelle, whiche gedrenge diuerse kyndes of serpentes, and puttenge theym in veselles of cleye, and caste theyme into the schippes of theire enmyes, where þro thei aferde fledde. The mes|sangers of the Romanes herenge that, sette those too princes in concorde and vnite, and desirede to haue Hanibal delyuerede vn to þeym. This Hanibal likkenge venom of a rynge that he hade, diede at Nichomedia; of whom hit is rehersede that he wente not to bedde with owte batelle, and that he loste neuer chastite amonge maides taken in captiuite of meruellous pulcritude; and that he was neuer betrayede, neither with his Page  95, vol.4 awne men neiþer with his aduersaryes. ℞. Orosius re|hersethe, libro quarto, that an yle apperede that yere in whom Hanibal diede in the londe of Sicille, callede Insula Vulcani, [folio 176a] brekenge up from the see, and taryethe þer vn tille this tyme. Polichronicon, libro sexto. Hit is redde that Anthiocus schewede vn to Hanibal an hoste armede in golde and siluyr, inquirenge of Hanibal wheþer that rychesse was sufficiaunte to the Romanes. Hanibal answerede and seide: "Y suppose that richesse were sufficiaunte, thauȝhe thei be moste covetous." Polichronicon, capitulo octavo. Hanibal hauenge victory of the Romanes, constreynede þe Romanes taken in captiuite to fiȝhte with wilde bestes, promisenge to oon his lyfe if that he hade victory of an elephaunte. The Roman hauenge victory of that beste, Hanibal sende diuerse knyȝhtes to slee hym. Polichronicon, libro primo. Hanibal seide that man was not worthy lyfe that myȝhte be constreynede to fiȝhte with Page  97, vol.4 wilde bestes; neuertheles hit is to be presupposede that hit was doen raþer of envy that a Roman scholde do suche a triumphe, and bestes to be infamede thro whom he inducede grete fere to peple. Eutropius, libro quarto. Scipio Affri|canus*. [Noble Scipio diede in exile.] putte in longe exile diede at Amiternum. Valerius, libro quarto. This Scipio accusede by the cenate of money, answerede in this wise: "When y hade made Affrike subiecte to the domi|nacion of the Romanes, y toke noo thynge but the name. Also neither the richesse of Affrike made me covetous, neither the richesse of Asia Scipio my broþer, sithe either of vs was more riche of envye then of moneye." Salustius. This Scipio perceyvenge and seenge the bucler of a man ryally onornede, seide, "Y meruayle not þerof, for he hathe more truste in hit þen in his swerde." Valerius. Emilia, the wife of Scipio, was of so grete goodenes and patience, knowenge oon of her Page  99, vol.4 seruauntes female to be kynde to her howsebonde, dissimilate that thynge, leste that the impatience of women scholde schewe the victor of Affrike gilty or culpable of suche a cryme; in so moche that sche abstenynge from that cryme mariede that maide after the dethe off her howsebonde, and ȝafe to her [folio 176b] liberte. Policronicon. Scipio dienge at a cite callede Palus|tris, ordeynede suche an epitaphy to hym: "O cuntre unkynde, thow schal not receyve my boones." Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro primo. Scipio Nasica did prohibite a place to be edifiede callede Theatrum in the cite of Rome afore the begynnenge of the thridde batelle Punicalle, seyenge that hit was noyenge to peple bellicose to norische slawthe, causenge the Romanes to selle alle the noble apparayle ordeynede for hit, commaundenge that the peple scholde beholde suche disportes stondenge, and not sittenge, to the conseruacion of manhode, whiche was*. [Sic.] consuetude was kepede by v.c. xlviij. yere. ℞. Page  101, vol.4 After auctores theatrum is proprely a flore semicirculer, in the myddes of whom was an howse whiche was callede scena, in whom poetes and makers of dites rehersede þeim in a pul|pitte; and mynstrelles were withowte whiche did expresse as in behaver of body thynges of whom mencion was made þer. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro primo, capitulo tricesimo primo. This disporte and institucion off disportes scenicalle began þro þe instincte and suggestion of the deuelle, that man scholde be movede to like thynges as thei herde in those dis|portes goddes to haue doen. Augustinus, libro quarto, capitulo vicesimo quinto. In processe of tyme a chorle, Titus Latinus by name, dremede in his slepe that he scholde say to the senate þat thei scholde ordeyne pleyes seenicalle, whiche chorle differ|renge hit in ij. tymes loste his son. And also the same man hade grete infirmite in that he expressede not that thynge to Page  103, vol.4 the senate in the thridde tyme; after that the man expressenge hit to the senate was restorede to heale. The senate seenge that miracle expende in iiij. tymes so muche moneye as to redeme þe negligence of that chorle. Petrus, capitulo centesimo quarto. Seleucus, other Sother, son of grete Anthiocus, began [folio 177a] to reigne in Siria and in Asia, whiche reignede þer xij. yere. For Anthiocus, his fader, was sleyne of prestes in Persida, in the temple of Nanea, whiche promisede to hym the secrete treasure of theire temple.

Capitulum tricesimum quintum.

PTHOLOMEUS Philometor reignede in Egipte xxxv. yere. Petrus, capitulo ducentesimo quinto. In whiche tyme Symon Page  105, vol.4 the son of Onias, bischoppe and gouernoure off the temple, redemede þe ordre of prestes of Appollonius gouernoure of Phenicea. Seleucus herenge that sende Eliodorus to destroye that conuencion, whiche commenge in to the temple to spoile hit, ij. yonge men did arise from theire berialles and did slee hym. Neuerthelesse Iosephus semethe to reherse that thei were ij. angelles in the similitude of men. Also hit is redde in the secunde boke of the Machabees that a ferefulle sitter of an hors apperede and caste hym downe, and did not slee hym. Iosephus, libro secundo. Ihesus, the son of Syrac, made that boke Ecclesiasticus abowte þis tyme, whom he namede Pane|rethon. In the thridde yere of this Philometor, Aristobolus, a Iewe, wrote to Ptholomeus the commentaryes of the explana|ciones in to Moyses. Eutropius, libro quarto. Philippe kynge of Macedony dedde, Perseus his son began to rebelle ageyne þe Romanes; whom Emilius consul ouercome, sleenge of the Grekes xxxti in a soore batelle. Whiche Emilius sette in a Page  107, vol.4 chariette by hym Perseus willenge to have fallen downe to his feete, and ȝafe to hym a releische of halfe his tribute, com|maundenge the men of Macedony to be of liberte, that hit scholde appere the Romanes to fiȝhte raþer for riȝhte then for money. Trogus, libro vicesimo secundo. Memmius Cato unsadellede*. [or unhorsed is written in red in the margin.] in that batelle fauȝhte manly on foote, whiche desyrenge to hurte a noble man aduersary to hym lette falle [folio 177b] his swerde, whiche willenge to take hit ageyne defendede hym manly, and returnede to his hoste, the audacite of whom was a grete helpe to the Romanes of the victory. And then Perseus y-taken, and then the realme of Macedony was subiecte to the Romanes; whiche londe hade from Cranaus unto this Perseus xxxvti kynges by viij.e. yere and xxxiiijti. Isidorus, libro 6o. Page  109, vol.4 This Emilius Paulus brouȝte from Grece bokes to Rome firste. After that Iulius Cæsar take that werke to be compilede to Marcus Varro. After that Pamphilius Martir, whom Eusebius writethe to haue hade xxxti ml volumes in his bibelle. After that Origenes precellede alle oþer men afore hym, off the volumes of whom Seynte Ierom rehersethe hym selfe to haue redde vj. ml. But the grete and noble clerke Seynte Austyn precellede alle other, the werkes of whom may be redde vnnethe of oone man. Anthiocus Epiphanes reignede in Siria and Asia xj. yere. This Anthiocus, beenge as plegge for his fader to the Romanes, herenge of the slawthe and cowardenesse of his broþer, departede secretely from Rome, thauȝhe mony men say that he hade licence of the senate. This Anthiocus schewede hym in the begynnenge as meke and ientylle, wherefore he was callede Epiphanes, as noble other superapparente, whiche reignede after the dethe off Seleucus his brother. This Page  111, vol.4 Epiphanes mariede his sustir to Ptholomeus kynge of Egipte, that he myȝte occupy Egipte thro disseyte; whiche entrenge in to Egipte in a tyme, as to see his broþer and sustyr, causede Ptholomeus the kynge of Egipte to be sleyne at meyte, that he myȝhte occupye Egipte in that wise. But men of Egipte putte hym aweye, after that he hade reignede ij. yere in that londe, wherefore he lade sege to þe cite of Alexandrye. Trogus, libro 34to. The legates of the Romanes, sende for the [folio 178a] liberacion of men of Egipte, ȝafe metenge to Anthiocus walkenge by the side of the see. To whom they seide, "The senate and peple of Rome commaunde the that þow departe from men of Egipte theire luffers and frendes." Whiche de|sirenge respite for to ȝiffe an answere, Marcus Publicus made a cercle with a rode abowte hym in the sonde, seyenge, "The cenate and peple of Rome commaunde the that þou passe not this cercle vn tille thow ȝiffe an answere." To whom Page  113, vol.4 he seide, "Thauȝhe the Romanes commaunde that, beholde y goe furthe of the cercle;" whiche goenge in to the Iewerye exercisede grete crudelite. Wherefore Onias, the bischop of the Iewes, wente vn to Egipte, whiche obtenynge þe fauor of the kynge, edifiede a temple at Elyopoleos, lyke to þe temple of the Iewes, seyenge hym in that to fullefille the prophecy of Ysay, seyenge, "The alter of Godde schal be in Egipte, and the tytle of hit within the costes of hit." That temple re|meynede þer by cc. and lti yere, vn to the tymes of Vespasian, whiche destroyede that temple and cite. Onias þe bischop departenge from Ierusalem un to Egipte, Ihesus and Iohannes, his breþer, made grete debate and stryfe for the bischopryke afore Anthiocus, whiche willenge to please hym declynede to the ryte of gentiles, in so moche that thei toke to þeym the names of Gentiles. Wherefore Ihesus was callede Iason, and Iohannes Menelaus; after the exemple of whom mony men of Israel inducede the rytes of the gentiles makenge in Ierusalem Page  115, vol.4 howses of women ylle disposede, callenge theym Anthiocheni. This seide Anthiocus makenge Iason bischoppe, removede hym and subrogate Menelaus in to þat office, whiche movede Andronicus to sle Iason his brother, in that he folowede Anthiocus to Antiochia to chaunge his purpose; and so Andronicus did sle Iason, wherefore Andronicus was sleyne by Anthiocus. Petrus, 207. The fire of sacrifice, whiche [folio 178b] brente vnder the waters by lxxti yere, was extincte after that*. [The fire of sacrifice was ex|tincte.] Iason hade boȝte that office of Anthiocus. This Anthiochus toke Ierusalem thro the treason of the citesynnes, takenge from hym x. ml. citesynnes, constreynenge the inhabitatores of hit to ydolatry, sleenge men that wolde not, offrenge flesche of swyne, takenge a weye veselles, pottes, with lawnternes and veyles, and putte an ymage of Iupiter in the temple, prohi|bitenge the sacrifices after the lawe of Moyses. The vij. Page  117, vol.4 brether Machabees were sleyne with theire moder in the tyme of þis Anthiocus. In whiche tyme Matathias, a preste in the cite of Modyn, supportede by the helpe of his v. childer, chalangede the lawes and ȝiȝte*. [Sic.] of his fader, amonge whom Iudas was callede Machabeus by a figure antonomasia. Petrus, 207. Mathathias tauȝhte the Iewes to fiȝhte on þe Sabbatte day leste the lawe scholde peresche with the peple; whiche dienge after that he hade gouernede theym oon yere, ordeynede Symon his son as fader to cownselle, but Iudas as gouernoure in batelle. Ennius the poete diede thro an infirmite articuler, and was beryede in the towmbe of Scipio. Iudas Machabeus kepede the lawes of his fader by the space of iij. yere, and hurte soore Appollonius, the duke other gouernoure of Samaria, with the swerde of whom Iudas did fiȝhte afterwarde. Anthiochus goen in to Persida for his tributes not paiede, Iudas hade victory of the gouernoures of Page  119, vol.4 Anthiochus, and made clene the temple, and renewede hit. And so the thridde dedicacion of the temple was made under Iudas Machabeus, callede encenia, whiche contynuede after|warde. Petrus, 211o capitulo. Antiocus causede to flee by men of Persida, herenge his princes to be deuicte in the Iewery, manassede the Iewes; and a disease of his partes interialle toke hym anoon, þat he felle from his chariette and was hurte soore. From whom a grete stynche and as intoller|able [folio 179a] come, wormes comenge from his body, that the savour grevede alle the hoste. Whiche returnede to hym selfe know|legede that he suffrede that peyne for the violacion of the temple. Wherefore he promisede that he wolde be a Iewe, and to delyuer theyme, and make theym like to men of Athenes, seyenge that a mortalle man awe to be subjecte to God; whiche Page  121, vol.4 diede in the mowntes. Anthiocus Eupator, son to Epiphanes, reignede after his fader, whiche gedrede ageyne þe Iewes an hoste of c. ml foote men, of xxti ml horse men, and of xxxijti elephauntes, to whom thei schewede the juse of grapes to make theym scharpe in batelle.

Capitulum tricesimum sextum. Petrus, capitulo 213o.

DEMETRIUS Sother, son of Seleucus, gone from the cite of Rome, occupiede cites of the coste of þe see, and began to reigne in Asia and Siria xij. yere. This Demetrius wente to the cite of Rome in his childehode to accuse Anthiocus Epiphanes, his uncle, whiche expulsede hym from his realme. Wherefore the childe herenge of the dethe of his uncle re|turnede to that cuntre, where the noble men of the cuntre Page  123, vol.4 receyvede hym, in so moche that the peple of Siria did sle Lisias, and Anthiocus iunior, willenge to reigne. Alchinius the preste accusede Iudas Machabeus in mony thynges afore Demetrius, whiche sende with Bachides to destroy the Iewery, profite but litelle, for the resistence of Iudas, and returnede to the kynge. Nichanor directe from the kynge to ȝiffe batelle to Iudas Machabeus was sleyne, whos hedde and honde thei hongede ageyne Ierusalem, in that he spake so prowdely ageyne the Iewes, and was receyvede in to the frendeschippe [folio 179] off the Romanes, and the forme of the luffe and convention made was wryten in tables of brasse. Iudas Machabeus was sleyne of Bachides and of Alchinius, and Ionathas, broþer to Iudas, was gouernour amonge the Iewes xix. yere. Alchinius destroyenge the howse of God, was smyten with the palsy and diede; Bachides returnede to the kynge; and so the Iewes hade reste ij. yere. Alexander, the son of Anthiochus Epiphanes, occupiede Tholomaida other Achon; whiche con|federenge Page  125, vol.4 to hym Ionathas did sle Demetrius, and reignede in Siria and Asia ix. yere; whiche mariede the doȝhter of Ptho|lomeus, Cleopatra by name. Petrus, 219o. Ionathas accusede to Demetrius that he expugned the towre of Syon, sende ȝiftes to Demetrius, and obteynede grace, in so moche þat he re|ceyvede a renewede principate. This Demetrius assurede that the cuntrees were quiete and obediente to hym, lefte the multitude of the peple, takenge to hym but a poore hoste. The peple hauenge indignacion, Ionathas sende iij. ml men to Page  127, vol.4 the kynge, that correcte the peple soore. At the last Triphon, oone of the frendes of kynge Alexander, wente to Araby, and brouȝht with hym a infante, the son of kynge Alexander, and crownede hym kynge; whiche ȝafe batelle to Demetrius, and hade the victory of hym. This Anthiocus made a promyse of luffe with Ionathas, sendenge to hym precious ȝiftes, and made Symon, his broþer, gouernoure of his hoste. Ionathas renewede frendeschippe after that with the Romanes and Spartanes. Eutropius, libro quarto. The thridde batelle*. [The thrydde batelle Punicalle began.] Punicalle began. Men of Cartago, lenynge theire armoure to oþer peple were soory, makenge to theyme armoure of golde and of siluyr, chosenge to theire governoures ij. Asdrubales, whom Scipio, the yonger son of the doȝhter of grete Scipio, ouercome in a soore batelle, and toke the cite of Cartago, and destroyede hit, whom he brente continually by xvj. daies, in [folio 180a] so moche þat the stones were brente in to powdre; and so the*. [The de|struction of Cartago.] cite of Cartago was destroyede abowte the vij.c. yere from the Page  129, vol.4 makenge of hit. ℞. Whiche thynge is trewe if the compu|tacion be taken from the daies of Dauid, as þe maister of the storyes rehersethe: see moore of this mater libro primo, capitulo de Affrica. Then þe wife of Asdrubal kynge brente her selfe with her ij. sonnes in the cite of Cartago, like as Dido did, the firste lady of þat cite. Augustinus, libro primo, capitulo 29. The thridde batelle Punicalle finischede, Marcus Cato cownsailede that cite to be destroyede utterly; Scipio seide nay, seyenge that the cite destroyede utterly mony inconuenientes; and so þer did; for grete treasones, destruccion of citesynnes, robbenge and prescriptiones folowede, in so moche þat the Romanes, levenge the honeste consuetude of theire maneres, Page  131, vol.4 semede more cruelle to theire awne citesynnes þen to þeire enmyes.

Capitulum tricesimum septimum.

PTHOLOMEUS Euergetes reignede in Egipte xxix. yere. The iunior Scipio, made too tymes consul, hade victory of the Numentanes in Speyne in a soore conflicte and batelle, whom the Romanes supposede to haue escapede raþer then to haue hade the victory of theyme. Then Scipio inquirede of a knyȝhte, Tiresus, citesynne of that cite taken, why that cite myȝhte not be geten afore, and why hit was geten by hym. The knyȝhte answerede and seide: "Concorde of the cite|synnes causede victory, and discorde destruccion." Petrus, capitulo 221o. Triphon intendenge to reigne thouȝhte to sle the yonge kynge Anthiocus, but he dredde Ionathas as the Page  133, vol.4 defensore of Anthiocus, wherefore he did sle firste Ionathas with his ij. sonnes, and after that Anthiochus his kynge; whiche reignede for hym in Asia. Symon, broþer to Ionathas, was electe in to the office of Ionathas, whiche made concorde with Demetrius in to the hate of Trifon. But Demetrius goen unto men of Medea for helpe that he myȝte expugne [folio 180b] Triphon, was taken of Arsax kynge of Persida, and sleyne afterwarde. After whom Anthiocus, his sonne, did reigne in Siria ix. yere, whiche made firste acorde with Symon, and pro|sewede Triphon fleenge by the costes of the see in to Anthio|chia; but this Anthiocus brake the conuention made with Symon afterwarde, and ordeynede Sendebeus to expugne the Iewery, whiche was ouercomme by the Iewes. Symon, go|uernoure of the Iewes, renewethe the conuencion made with the Spartanes, men of Lacedemonia, and with the Romanes, sendenge to the Romanes a schelde of golde of a ml talentes. Page  135, vol.4 And the concorde was made soe that Lucius, the consul of Rome, wrote to the regiones of the Este that thei scholde not do eny greuaunce to the Iewes. Petrus, 225. Ptholomeus, a gouernoure of Iherico, and son in lawe to Symon, callenge hym to a feste, did sle hym with his ij. sonnes. But an oþer son of the seide Symon, callede Hircanus in that he hade victory of the Hircannes, herenge this, occupiede Ierusalem, and folowede Ptholomeus. Neuerthelesse the seide son of Symon returnede from the sege, for cause that Ptholomeus hade sette his moder on the walles of the cite made redde with bloode, with ij. childer. Anthiochus Ponticus, kynge of Siria, besegede Ierusalem, wherefore Iohn Hircan open ij. of Page  137, vol.4 the grete purses and veselles that were abowte þe sepulcre of Dauid; whiche takenge from theym iij. ml talentes, ȝafe to Anthiocus iij.c. þat he scholde breke the sege, makenge with oþer talentes ȝiftes to the peple, that he myȝhte constreyn the murmur of þe peple in that wise. The seide Iohn bischoppe of Ierusalem hade victory of the Hircannes, and was con|federate to the Romanes. Orosius, libro quinto. A grete multitude of flees were in this tyme in Affrike, in so moche that thei destroyede corne, herbes, leves of trees, and frutes, whiche were drownede at laste in the see of Affrike. Whiche cariede to the brynke of the see did cause so pestilente a corrupcion that briddes and wylde bestes as innumerable diede þerby. Also lxxx. thowsande of the Romanes diede at Nu|midia, [folio 181a] at Cartago ij.c. ml, at the cite callede Utica xxxti ml of the Romanes lefte to kepe the cuntre. Cartago was edifiede ageyne by the commaundemente of the senate in the xxijti yere Page  139, vol.4 after the destruccion of hit, and mony citesynnes of Rome were hade to inhabite that cite. Anthiocus Trilius reignede in Siria and Asia xij. yere; and Iohn Hircan destroyede Samaria, whom Herode instorede after and callede hit Sebasten. Marcus Terrencius Varro, the philosophre and poete, were this tyme borne at Rome. Orosius, libro 5to, et Augustinus, libro 3o. The mownte callede Ethna in Sicille brente more then hit was wonte, in so moche þat hit brente the cite Catinense, and also the burdes of schippes nye to hit, and destroyede mony men thro the pestilente savoure of hit. Wherefore the senate of Rome releschede peple of the cite Catinense of theire tribute by ten yere folowenge.

Capitulum tricesimum octavum.

PTHOLOMEUS other Sother, son of Cleopatra, reignede at Egipte xvij. yere. Marchus Tullius Cithero, þe philosophre of Page  141, vol.4 the kynde of Vulsconnes, was borne þis tyme. Valerius. The adolescency of whom was occupiede in kepenge bestes. After that he gouernede thempyr of Rome. Hit was meruayle of hym that he was the despiser of connynge men, sithe that he was a pregnante and plentuous welle of connynge, instructe in alle langages of sapience. Orosius. This Cithero polischede and onornede alle rethorikke; whiche inquirede of a man how that he come to the noble eloquency and connynge that he hade, answerede in this wise, seyenge that the connynge of eloquency is the grete ȝifte of God, and that a man of grete intellecte myȝte speke welle. This Cithero did write so sub|tily alle the batelle of Troy that hit semede as inclusede with|ynne the schelle of a nutte. Policronicon, libro quinto, capitulo sexto. Cithero beenge in the palice wyllenge to bye an howse, and wontenge money, borowede a certeyne summe of a man [folio 181b] callede Silla, a trespassoure of the cite, whiche thynge was expressede or þat Cithero hade bouȝhte the howse. Whiche Page  143, vol.4 reprouede of the senate denyede that he was in that purpose, and after that he did bye that howse. The senate reprovenge hym þerfore, he answerede in this wise: "Ye be not wise, for ye knewe the byers and sellers to dissimilate that matter that thei wolde bye and selle;" and so he turnede hit to a dis|porte and to a game. For the seide Tullius other Cithero hade this condicion, that if there were a fowle thynge obiecte to hym, he wolde avoide hit soone and make a disporte of hit. This Tullius made mony bookes, as iiij. bokes de hortensibus, v. bookes of Questiones Tusculane, and vj. bookes of lordeschippe, of senectute, of frendeschippe, of rethorikke, of office, and of the commune vtilite. Titus. In the vj.c. yere after the edifienge of Page  145, vol.4 the cite of Rome a batelle was movede betwene Stertorius and Pompeius, in whom vj.c. knyȝhtes were sleyne on that oon parte, and vj.c. on that other parte, and so nyȝhte causede theyme to departe from the firste batelle. In the morowe folowenge a knyȝhte of Pompeius perceyvenge hym to haue sleyne his awne brother, did sle hym selfe, and felle downe on the body of his broþer for sorowe. Petrus, capitulo tertio. Iohn Hircan dyede after that he hade gouernede the Iewery xxxiij. yere, levenge after hym his wife, a woman of grete discrecion, with v. childer. Aristobolus, his eldeste son, hauenge grete appetite*. [The realme of Iuda was re|stored by wyckede|nesse.] and affeccion to reigne, pereschede his moder for hungre in prison with thre yonger breþer, wherefore he lyvede but oone yere after that kynge and bischoppe more then his broþer Antigonus, whom he luffede in so moche that he made hym as secunde person in his realme; whom he causede after that to be sleyne commenge from the Iewery, in that he despisede the Page  147, vol.4 pleasure of the flesche with his sustyr. And so the realme of Iuda was restorede, whiche was interrupte from Sedechias vn to this Aristobolus by cccclxxv.*. [Sic.]Petrus, capitulo quinto. This Aristobolus dedde, his wife toke his ij. brether owte of prison, and made Alexander, the elder brother, kynge of Iuda, [folio 182a] in that Aristobolus hade noo childe. This wikkede and vn|happy man Alexander did sle the secunde broþer to hym and causede the thridde to lyve priuately by the space of v. yere. Also the seide Alexander did sle lti ml of seniours for cause thei reprovede hym of his wickede lyvenge; whiche inquirenge how he myȝhte please the Iewes, hit was answerede, if that he diede: he hongede also iiijxx wedede men with theire wyfes and childre. Þe seide Alexander diede after the þe xxvij. yere of his reigne, after Iosephus, levenge after him ij. sonnes, Hircanus and Aristobolus, whiche knowenge theym to exercise grete crudelite, made Alexandria his wife gouernoure, whiche Page  149, vol.4 pleasede the peple moche. Marcus, a gouernoure of the Romanes and consul vj. tymes, after the victory hade of Iugurta in Numidia, did sle ij.c. ml of men callede Cumbres commenge ageyne the Romanes, and toke lxxx. ml. Also þer felle of theyme with a man callede Catulus a cxlti ml. Ptho|lomeus other Alexander reignede in Egipte x. yere, for Ptho|lomeus Sother was expulsede by his moder Cleopatra vnto Ciprus. Lucrecias the poete was borne this tyme, whiche was distracte afterwarde þro a drynke of luffe, whiche wrote diuerse bookes whom Cithero did correcte, and after that did sle hym selfe in the xliiij. yere of his age. Eutropius, libro quinto. The realme of Siria failede, and was obediente to the Romanes. A batelle was mouede in the londe of Ytaly ageyne Page  151, vol.4 the Romanes by iiij. yere, in whiche batelles ij. consulles were sleyne, Porcius and Cato; but at the laste thei were overcommen by Marius, Pompeius, and Silla.

Capitulum tricesimum nonum.

PTHOLOMEUS SOTHER, expulsede by Cleopatra his moder, whiche was sleyne by Ptholomeus Alexander, recurede the realme of Egipte, in whom he reignede viij yere. For the cite|synnes expulsede Tholomeus Alexander for the sleenge of his moder. Salustius, the writer of storyes, was borne this tyme. [folio 182b] Mony meruayles were seen abowte this tyme: for a quantite of fire apperede vnder the sonne at the risenge of hit; and bloode ranne owte from brede kytte, as if hit hade commen from a wounde, in a feste amonge the Aretynes; and hayle made holowe the grownde thro the fallenge of hit continually by Page  153, vol.4 vij. daies. Also at the Sampnites and amonge the Beneven|tanes therthe openynge, a flamme brekenge up from hit was seene to be extendede vn to hevyn. Also bestes vsede to be and lyve amonge men levenge theire stables and pastures, ranne up to the hilles, and dogges lefte the companye of men. Orosius, libro quinto. Men were seen as fiȝhtenge in mony daies by continuacion in a pleyne grounde in Campania, where the strokes were herde, and after that the stappes of men apperede þer and of horses. And a batelle ciuile folowede soone after, whiche was movede by ij. breþer german for the lawe of feldes, in whom it was rehersede that þe senate scholde not intromitte of the feldes of eny man dyenge whom he hade afore in his lyfe, but the grownde scholde be taken to the Page  155, vol.4 nyeste of his bloode. But the senate did other wise that tyme, for thei occupiede the londes and possessiones of mony other peple. Wherefore a man callede Graccus desirede those pos|sessiones to be restorede to the peple in a day of Rogacion, when thynges to be restorede awede to be askede. Anoon the noble men did arise, and did slee cc. of the commune peple, whom thei caste in to the water of Tiber; and also that Graccus was sleyne, lyenge long after or that he was beryede. Also Silla the consul, beenge in Campania to finische the batelle socialle ageyne Mitridates, Marius, whiche was consul vj. tymes covetenge to be consul in the vijthe tyme, offrede hym selfe to take that batelle ageyne Mitridates. Silla, the consulle, hauenge knowlege þeroff, returnede to the cite of Rome with iiij. legiones, which entrenge in to hit did slee the messynger Page  157, vol.4 of Marius, desirenge fyre to brenne the cite, segenge Marius within the Capitolye. This Marius gedrenge helpe, and not able to ȝiffe resistence to Silla, fledde ageyne to the Capitoly, from whiche place he fledde with grete difficulte, mony of his men sleyne. Marius departenge from the Capitoly fledde in to [folio 183a] myry places, whiche founde by scheperdes amonge elmes, was sende to Silla the consul, whiche sende hym to his moste adversaries, the Cumbres, a certeyne peple, whiche prisonede hym anoon, and sendenge þis Marius to be hedede, the hondes of the heder began to tremble, and a voice was herde in the aier, þro whom the Cumbres, aferde, returnede, and suffrede Page  159, vol.4 Marius to departe. Titus. This Marius delyverede thro the helpe of the godesse Marica, to whom he hade made promyse of honor to be doen to here, takenge with hym Cynna his felowe grevonde the Romanes in mony wise, and occupiede the consulate the vijthe tyme, wherein he contynuede but xiij. dayes, that is to say, from the kalendes of Ianuary, when the consulles were wonte to receyve theire power and noble thynges, vn to the idus of Ianuary. This Marius wente to Affrike after his delyueraunce, whiche gedrenge a grete hoste wente to Rome, and dividede the hoste in to iiij. partes, of whom he hade oon parte, Carbo an other, Sextorius an other, Synna the iiijthe. Sertorius ȝafe soore batelle to Pompeius; Marius, and Synna entrenge the cite, did sle mony of the senatores and consulles. Augustinus de Civitate, libro tertio, capitulo 24o. This Marius causede Octavus the consul to be Page  161, vol.4 hedede, commaundenge his hedde to be sette up to a siȝhte in the cite, where the citesynnes were wonte to sitte and talke. ℞. And as Lucanus reherseth he causede the hedes of the noble men of Rome, in a feste that he made, to be seruede to hym and to be sette on the table. Titus. The cruellenesse of Marius was soe grete that mony men hade leuer to sle theym selfe then to putte theyme in his mercy. Wherefore Catullus the consul drunke poyson, and Merula the byschop Iouialle bledde to dethe þro the kyttenge of a veyne. This Marius ȝafe a commaundemente that his men scholde not spare eny man thawȝhe the man askede mercy of men, withowte that he did holde up his riȝhte honde in signe of mercy. Wherefore the [folio 183b] residu of the senatores and noble men fleenge to Silla in to Grece, causede hym thro theire preiers to helpe the cite of Rome. Eutropius. Silla the consul hade devicte Archelaus, Page  163, vol.4 gouernour of the hoste of Mitridates, at Athenes, that c. ml men sleyn, that Archelaus lay bare in a marras by the space of iij. dayes. Mitridates vnderstondenge that askede peas. Silla made grawnte to hym þerof, in that he myȝhte be moore sure ageyne his enmyes knowenge noo treason to be behynde hym as by Mitridates. This Silla commenge to Rome did slee as peple innumerable, in so moche that Quintus Catulus seide un to Silla the consul: "What men schalle we haue hereafter to fiȝhte with vs if we slee so mony men?" Augustinus, libro tertio, capitulo 24o. In whiche conflicte a wey of malice was made open, in that Silla the consul ȝafe to his men licence to sle whom thei wolde for betwene Marius and Silla peple as innumerable were sleyne. Eutropius. This batelle civile Page  165, vol.4 contynuenge as by x. yere destroyede and wastede cl. ml of the Romanes, excepte senatores, consulles, and mony men of other grete offices. ℞. Wherefore hit is to be attended that þer were vj. civile batelles amonge the Romanes. The firste was of Marius ageyne the cite. The secunde was of Silla ageyne Marius and his supporters. The thridde was of Stertorius ageyne Pompeius. The iiijthe was of Catilena ageyne the cite. The vthe was of Lepidus ageyne Catulus. The vjthe was betwene Iulius and Pompeius. Eutropius. Cilla departenge from Rome after that batelle, hade a victory glorious of Mitridates. Trogus, libro 17o. Mitridates, the son of Mitridates and kynge of Pontus, rebellede ageyne the Romanes by xlvj. yere, whiche was more myȝty after that he semede to haue loste the victory. This Mitridates delyverede from the power of his moder, whiche hade sleyne v. childer of Page  167, vol.4 her awne, by his cosynnes was taken to tutores, whiche settenge that childe on a wilde horse, tauȝhte hym to ryde. But when this Mitridates hade connynge to rewle an horse, his tutores ordeynede poyson for hym, whiche removenge that drunke diuerse pociones and medicynes for poyson, where þro he [folio 184a] cowthe not be poysonede thauȝhe he wolde hym selfe. This Mitridates dredenge hym to be sleyne priuely of his tutores, feynede hym as to go to hunte, where he wente up and downe in þe woodes, and hade his bedde in the hilles, and comme not in eny cite or towne by the space of vij. yere, where he vexede wilde bestes oftetymes thro rennenge, puttenge his body oþer|while in grete exercise of laboure. Whiche made kynge hade victory of men Scicia, whiche were afore that tyme as vincible, and made þeim tame, occupienge Pontus and Macedony. Page  169, vol.4 Also this Mitridates entrede secretely in to Asia with fewe men of truste with hym, to knowe the costes of þat region alle abowte, whiche taryenge a longe season, his wyfe conceyvede a childe by a concubyne, wherefore sche ordeynede poyson for Mitridates. But that treason expressede to Mitridates by a maide longenge to his wife, that treason was fullefillede by his awne wife poysonede thro Mitridates, in that sche wolde haue destroyede hym. Also in wynter he usede to labor in the feldes, causenge his hoste in the same wise, whiche causede theyme to be invincible in a maner. After that Mitridates entrede in to Galacia, despisenge in a maner the Romanes and theire powere. The secunde wife of Mitridates, schauenge the heire of her hedde, chaungede her clothenge, and usede her to armes, that sche myȝhte helpe to avoide the perelle and Page  171, vol.4 treason of her howsebonde. Giraldus. This Mitridates ap|perede ever moore myȝhte and victoryous after that þe noble consulles of the Romanes, Silla and Pompeius, hade victory of hym, for he occupiede Babilonia and Asia, and hade reste with men of Scicia, subduenge to hym Capadocia, Midarmenia, and encreasede hys realme vn to Ynde. Whiche commenge to Ephesus causede alle the Romanes beenge lefte in that cuntre to kepe hit to be sleyne in oon day. Also Archelaus, a prince lungenge to hym, haue*. [Sic in MS.] an hoste of a c. thowsande men with [folio 184b] hym, made the londe of Grece subiecte to hym. Which holden of his awne son, Farnax by name, drunke poyson voluntaryly, but hit grevede hym not; whiche was sleyne of a knyȝhte whom he hade offended, desirede by Mitridates to do so. After the dethe of whom Pompeius made Tigranis kynge of Siria, and brente also the temple of Ierusalem.

Page  173, vol.4

Capitulum quadragesimum.

PTHOLOMEUS Dionisius reignede in Egipte xxxti yere. In the tyme of whom Plauctus Latinus, maister to grete Pompeius, was at Rome, a noble man of fame, and Silla the consul diede at Rome after the victory of Mitridates. Nicholnedes, kynge of Bithinia, diede, levenge the peple of Rome his heire; after þe dethe of whom Mitridates brekenge peace, entrede in to Asia and in to Bithinia, ageyne whom ij. consulles of Rome were sende, oon of whom Mitridates ouercome; but the oþer consul causenge hym to fle, did sle a c. ml of the hoste of Mitri|dates. A newe batelle was movede to Ytaly of lxxiiij. ml men, whiche vsenge to brenne, to robbe, and to do adultery, hade victory oftetymes of the Romanes; but they were deuicte after that in Apulea by Marchus the proconsul of Rome. Alex|andra Page  175, vol.4 and Sabrina, the wife of Alexander, reignede amonge the Iewes ix. yere, whiche did sle mony of the Iewes, other putte theyme in exile, by the cownselle of the Pharisees, the secte of whom sche folowede. Eutropius, libro sexto. Virgi|lius Maro, the poete laureate, was borne nye to Mantua. Shippe|men kepede the see ageyne þe Romanes, whom Pompeius destroyede. This Pompeius ȝafe batelle after that to Mitridates, and Tigranis kynge of Armenia in that he norischede Mitridates fledde ageyne the Romanes. Wherefore Pompeius hauenge the victory of Mitridates, did slee xlti ml of his hoste in a batelle in the nyȝhte, and toke Tigranis in to dedication, takenge from hym Armenia and Asia, causenge hym to pay a tribute of vj. ml talentes of siluer, in that he movede batelle Page  177, vol.4 to þe Romanes withowte any cause. This Mitridates, fleenge with his wife, exercise grete crudelite, in so moche that he did slee ij. of his sonnes. Farnaces, the thridde son, perceyvenge that fledde, whiche drawede to hym an hoste sende from Mitri|dates his fader to sle hym, in so moche that this Farnaces besegede his fader at Bosforus. Mitridates perceyvenge that, [folio 185a] askenge mercy, and hauenge noo grawnte þerof, ȝafe poyson to his wife and to his ij. doȝhters, þro the whiche thei dyede, but he receyvenge venom other poyson hade noon hurte þerof. Wherefore he desirede a knyȝhte whom he hade trowblede afore to throtelle hym, and so this Mitridates diede in the lxxti yere of his age, and the lx. yere of his reigne. After that Pompeius made subiecte to hym the Albanes, Hiberia, and hade victory ageyne men of Siria, and also of men of Araby. Marianus, libro 1o. Oracius Flaccus, the poete sati|ricus and liricus, was borne this tyme at a cite of Ytaly Page  179, vol.4 callede Venusia. Petrus. Alexandra dedde, whiche seide Hircanus here firste son to be bothe bischoppe and kynge, Hircanus and Aristobolus stryvenge for the gouernayle, movede the Romanes to entre in to the Iewery. Wherefore Pompeius commenge to Ierusalem gate hit unnethe by the space of iij. monethes, xiij. ml of the Iewes sleyne, makenge the walles of the cite egalle with the erthe, and ȝafe the bischopryke to Hircanus, and brouȝte Aristobolus bownde with his ij. sonnes vn to Rome, and made Staurus presidente in Siria. And sithe that this Pompeius was most fortunate in batelle, he hade neuer victory after that tyme, for cause he sette his horses Page  181, vol.4 in the porches of the temple. Sergius Catilena, a noble man of bloode, but wickede in vitte, entendede the destruccion of the cite, drawenge mony other men to hym, and thauȝhe Caius Iulius defendede his parte in pletenge for hym, ȝitte he was expulsede from the cite by Tullius and Cithero consulles, Marcus Cato pletenge ageyne hym. And his felawes taken by Antonius, an other consul, caste in to prison, were throtelede in hit, of whom Salustius makede a boke of the coniuracion of Catilene. Titus Livius, the writer of stories, was borne [folio 185b] this tyme at the cite of Rome, and Virgilius the poete was tauȝhte at Cremena. Gaius Iulius Cesar made a consulle, hade Fraunce and Iliricum assignede to hym with x. legiones, whiche ȝafe batelle by ix. yere ageyne men of Fraunce and of Page  183, vol.4 Germanny, whiche destroyede cccc. and xlti ml of the Ger|maynes that hade commen passede the flode callede Rhenus, to subduew Fraunce to theyme. Whiche makenge a brigge over the floode Rhenus, made tame the men of Sweuia, after that alle Fraunce and Britones, also makenge theym tributaries to hym whiche fauȝhte but thryes ylle amonge alle these batelles and victoryes. Iulius Cesar comme to subiecte Briteyne to hym, after Bede, in the lx. yere afore the incarna|cion of Criste, takenge with him a c. and xxxti grete schippes Page  185, vol.4 laded with men; where he hade grete resistence of Britones, in so moche that he loste a grete parte of his schippes and of his men. After that he returnede vn to Fraunce, and sende vn to Irlonde a certeyne legiones of peple; whiche entrenge the see to comme to Briteyne ageyne, loste sodenly xlti schippes; whiche was ouercomen by the Briteynes in the firste batelle, and Labienus the tribune was sleyne. And so Iulius putte the Briteynes to fliȝhte the secunde batelle by soore fiȝhte, and with grete difficulte, for the Britones hade stopped the mowthe of Thamys with trees, where that Iulius londed. The Romanes perceyvenge þat, and avoidenge perelle, toke the cite of Tri|nonaunte by consente of Androgius, where thei occupiede also a ryche and plentuous towne off Cassibelanus, sette in a fenny cuntre. After that Iulius returnede from Briteyne vn to Fraunce, Lud the kynge of Briteyne dedde, whiche namede and callede the cite off Trinouante Caerlud, and made a ȝate Page  187, vol.4 in that cite callede Ludgate, Cassibelanus, his broþer, suc|ceedede hym in the realme of Briteyne. For Lud hade lefte ij. sonnes, Androgius and Tenuantius, to yonge in age to haue gouernayle of a realme. Wherefore Cassibelanus ȝafe to Androgius the cite Trinouante, with the duchery of Kent, and [folio 186a] to Tenuantius the ducherye off Cornwayle. This Cassibelanus was made tributary to Iulius Cesar, lyvenge after the de|partenge of Iulius vij. yere, Crassus the consul, and felowe of Pompeius, sende to fiȝhte ageyne men of Parthia after the dethe of Gabinus, and made presidente of Siria, toke ij. ml talentes from the temple of Ierusalem, from whom Pompeius abstenede, that he myȝte supporte his hoste. Wherefore he was taken and overcommen by men of Parthia, in the throte of whom men of Parthia caste golde y-meltede with suche an Page  189, vol.4 exprobracion, seyenge, "O thow Roman, thow hase thurstede golde, now drynke golde."

Capitulum quadragesimum primum.

CLEOPATRA, the doȝhter of Ptholomeus Dionisius, reignede in Egipte xxij. yere, that is to say, ij. yere afore Iulius Cesar, and v. yere vnder Iulius Cesar, and xv. yere vnder Octaui|anus Augustus. A ciuile batelle began to sprynge betwene Iulius and Pompeius, his fader in lawe. Giraldus. For Iulius askede condigne honores after the x. yere y-paste in whom he hade soore and grevous labores. But Pompeius, Cato and Marcellus seide contrary þerto, commaundenge hym that he scholde comme to the cite withowte eny hoste. Eutro|pius, libro 6o. Pompeius Magnus was sente to the legiones Page  191, vol.4 lefte at Liceria by the auctorite of Marcellus the consul, wherefore Iulius Cesar come with his hoste to ȝiffe batelle to the cite of Rome. Suetonius. Sythe there were mony dignites of Rome, of whom somme durede by oon yere, somme by the space of ij. yere; neuerthelesse the dignite of dicta|tours was moste excellente, endurenge by the space of v. yere. Firste oon dictator was made, and after that thre, for this con|sideration, that and if þer were dissencion betwene tweyne of theyme, the thridde scholde remove hit. Hit happede that [folio 186b] Pompeius, Crassus, and Iulius were dictatores to gedre, and Pompeius was lefte at the cite of Rome for cause that he was of grete age, and owte of the rewarde or meritte of cheuallery. Crassus was sende to ȝiffe batelle to men of Parthia beenge ageyne the Romanes, whiche was taken thro treason and sleyne. Page  193, vol.4 Iulius Cesar sende in to þe weste partes taryede by the space of v. yere in subduenge to hym men of Fraunce, and the peple callede Allobroges, whiche prolongede his office by his awne autorite by v. yere foloenge, in whiche tyme he made Briteyne subiecte to hym. Whiche returnenge from Fraunce and comenge to Alpes, sende to Pompeius, the doȝhter of whom he hade mariede, that he scholde ordeyne to hym con|digne honoure for his grete tryumphes and victoryes. But Pompeius denyede to hym that honoure by the consente and cownsaile of the senate, in that he hade prorogate his office by the space of v. yere. Wherefore Iulius movede in wrathe, made haste to the cite to ȝiffe batelle to Pompeius. Eutropius, libro 6o. This Pompeius dredenge hym, fledde with the senate and consulles vn to the londe of Grece, where he instorede a batelle ageyne Iulius. But Iulius entrenge in to the cite of Rome as voide, brake up the place of þeire treasure. Orosius, libro 6o. Whiche brouȝhte owte from hit iiij. ml c. et xxxtiPage  195, vol.4liof golde, and lxxxxti mlli of siluyr, and distribute hit to his knyȝhtes. Eutropius. This Iulius occupiede that tyme allemoste alle the dignites of Rome. After that he wente to Speyne, where he hade victory of thre gouernoures and dukes of Pompeius with theire hoste. After þat Iulius wente to the londe of Grece, and ȝafe batelle to Pompeius. But Iulius was ouercommen in the firste batelle, and fledde, and Pompeius wolde not folowe for cause that hit was nyȝhte. Wherefore Iulius seide that Pompeius cowthe not haue victory, in that he folowede hym not, seyenge that Pompeius myȝhte haue hade victory oonly in that tyme. After þat thei fauȝhte at Thessalia, where the wowarde longenge to Pompeius hade xlti ml of foote [folio 187a] men, vj.c. horse men in the lifte parte, and v.c. horse men in the ryȝhte honde, and alle the helpe of the este, with the senatours, pretors, and consulles. Iulius hade in his hoste abowte the nowmbre of xxxti ml foote men and ml horse men. This batelle begunne, the hoste of Pompeius fledde, and Pompeius Page  197, vol.4 fledde to Ptholomeus, yonge that tyme of age, kynge of Egipte, to whom he was tutor, desirenge helpe of hym. But this Tholomeus, folowenge fortune rather þen frendeschippe, causede Pompeius to be sleyne, sendenge to Iulius his hedde with his rynge. Iulius seenge that wepede soore, and wente anoone to Alexandria, but Ptholomeus hade ordeynede an hoste to resiste hym, where thro Iulius compellede entrede in to a schippe, whiche was drownede thro the multitude of peple entrenge in to hit. Where Iulius did swymme by cc. passes with the oon honde, hauenge writenge in that other honde, vn tille that he comme to an other schippe. After that he other drownede the schippes of Tholomeus other toke þeim. Then the seide Iulius grawntede life to Tholomeus the kynge, at the instance of the citesynnes of Alexandria. To whom Iulius ȝafe a monicion that he scholde attempte after that the frendeschippe of the Romanes raþer then batelle ageyne theyme. But this Tholo|meus Page  199, vol.4 restorede to liberte, ȝafe batelle ageyne to Iulius, but he was sleyne anoon, and a grete parte of his hoste destroyede also. The body of Tholomeus borne vn to the londe by the impulsion of the see was knowen by hys haburion of golde. Then Iulius Cesar toke that realme to Cleopatra, with whom he taryede by the space of ij. yere, vsenge here at his pleasure. Hugo, capitulo Ianus. In whiche tyme Iulius correcte the kalendary and founde the reason of bisexte. ℞. The Romanes began the yere from Marche, like as men of Hebrewe did vn to the tyme of Numa Pompilius; and þauȝhe that Numa Pompilius did adde to the yere confuse Ianuare and February, neuerthe|lesse the yere remaynede as incorrecte vn to the tymes of Iulius Cesar. In the worschippe of whom the vthe monethe [folio 187b] from Marche, callede afore Quintilis, was callede Iulius, for cause he was borne in that monethe, other elles in that he hade a grete and solenne victory in that monethe; and also the sexte monethe was callede Augustus in lyke wise in the worschippe of Augustus Cesar. Eutropius. Then Iulius Page  201, vol.4 Cesar returnenge from Egipte hade victory of Farnaces, the son of Mitridates, in that he ȝafe helpe to Pompeius ageyne hym, and hurte hym to dethe. After that he returnede to þe cite of Rome, and made hym the thrydde tyme consul; goenge from thens vn to Affrike, where he hade victory ageyne Scipio and Porcius Cato with the kynge of Mauritany, whiche did Page  203, vol.4 slee þeim selfe at the laste. Also hit is to be attended that þer were mony noble men amonge the Romanes callede by this name Cato. For oon Cato was a questor, whiche brouȝhte Ennius þe poete from Tharentus to Rome. An other was callede Meninus Cato, whiche fauȝhte nobly ageyne the Grekes with Emilius Paulus. An other Cato was namede Porcius Cato, and also Uiticensis, for cause he did sle hym selfe at Utica, a cite in Affrike, of whom hit is spoken of nowe. And perauenture this Cato was callede Censorius Cato, of whom Seynte Ierom spekethe to Nepocianus, seyenge that he beenge of grete age schamede not neithe dispairede to lerne letters of Grewe. And this Cato was a philosophre of the Page  205, vol.4 stoicalle secte, whiche made a science moralle whiche is callede the etike of Cato, of whom that litelle boke vsede to be redde to childer in scoles is abstracte. Eutropius. Iulius Cesar returnenge to Rome after a yere i-paste, made hym selfe consul in the iiijthe tyme; after that he wente to Speyne, where the sonnes of Pompeius hade instorede a grete batelle ageyne hym. In the laste batelle of whom Iulius was so wery and deuicte, his men fleenge from hym, that he was in purpose to haue sleyne hym selfe, leste that so noble a werreour after so huge and grete glory geten scholde falle in to þe hondes of childer. At the laste this Iulius gedrenge his hoste togedre and ȝiffenge batelle to theyme hade the victory. Whiche returnenge to the cite of Rome, causede hym to be namede and [folio 188a] callede an emperour, where he vsede insolence by iij. yere and vij. monethes ageyne the consuetude of the liberte of Rome. Isidorus, libro nono. This Iulius was called an emperour Page  207, vol.4 and Cesar firste of alle the gouernoures of Rome; callede emperours for the singuler lordeschippe of oon monarchye, and Cesar in that he was taken from the wombe of his mader sche beenge dedde. ℞. Other governoures succedenge hym were callede emperoures, Cesares, and Augusti of encreasenge þe commune utilite. Eutropius. This Iulius Cesar ȝiffenge the dignites of Rome after his pleasure, vsede to be ȝiffen of the peple, and not risenge to the senate commenge vn to hym, and vsenge other cruelle actes; wherefore lx. senatores conspirede and intendede his dethe, specially ij. men of this name Brutus, with oþer ij.c. noble men of Rome; whiche commenge to the Capitoly in the day of the eleccion of the senate, was woundede in xxiijti places, where thro he diede.

Page  209, vol.4

Capitulum quadragesimum secundum.

IULIUS CESAR goenge to the Capitoly receyvede letters ex|pressenge his dethe, the brynger of the letters seyenge that he scholde dye if that he entrede the cownselle howse. To whom Iulius seide: "Y schalle speke with an astronomyer, and then y schalle rede the letters after that y comme from the Capitoly." This astronomyer brouȝhte to the presence of Iulius themperour, whiche hade schewede to hym that he scholde suffre dethe in the kalendes of the monethe of Ianuary, Iulius seide "The kalendes of Ianuar be þis day, and ȝitte y lyffe." To whom the astronomyer seide: "The kalendes be now, but thei be not passede: y wolde that y scholde be pro|vede a lyer." Iulius departenge from hym in to the Capitoly was sleyne anoon with the senatours in the kalendes of [folio 188b] Marche, and after his dethe no wounde apperede in his body. Page  211, vol.4 The liȝhtenge descendede in the c. day afore his dethe afore an ymage of Iulius in the myddes of the cite, and toke awey this letter c from his name Cesar. Also in the nyȝhte afore his dethe the wyndowes of his chambre were openede with so grete a noyce that Iulius Cesar did arise from his bedde, supposenge his chambre to haue fallen downe. Also in the day afore his dethe thre sonnes apperede in the este, whiche come to gedre in oon body of the sonne, signifienge þerby the lorde of the threfolde worlde to haue comme in to oon mo|narchye, but raþer to the knowlege of thre persones and oon God to be knowen to alle þe worlde. Also an ox did speke to a man beenge at the plowe in the subarbes of Rome, seyenge that he was constreynede in veyne, for men schalle fayle in the Page  213, vol.4 cite raþer then oxen or whete. ℞. Mony men did wryte mony thynges in the lawde of Iulius Cesar: for after Eutropius, libro sexto, noo man was punischede in that day in whom Iulius Cesar entrede in to the cite of Rome; whiche made his knyȝhtes to make to theim armoure of grete coste, that thei scholde fiȝhte more boldely for losenge of so grete goodes and richesse. This Iulius was a noble man in batelle and in armes, whiche did sle his enemys xj.c. and xcij. ml, excepte men that were sleyne in ciuile batelles, þe nowmbre of whom he wolde not attende; whiche fauȝhte lti tymes in sore batelles. And ȝitte for alle these labours he ȝafe hym selfe to grete writenge; whiche wolde rede and endite epistoles at oon tyme; and so Page  215, vol.4 þer was noo day that scholde passe for his batelles, but he was ȝiffen to enditenge other to other makenge. This Iulius was a man of grete pacience, in so moche that he wolde suffre his knyȝhtes to say in his presence: "The Cesar or emperour hathe a glory of victory that hathe subduede men of Fraunce; Then wherefore hathe not Nichomedes, kynge of Bithinia, a triumphe of victory, whiche subduede to hym Cesar;" with whom Iulius Cesar hade grete familiarite. Wherefore hit is seide Tully to haue seide to Iulius Cesar in þis wise, "Hayle kynge and qwene;" and after that, "Hayle qwene off Bithinia: [folio 189a] thow was the woman of alle men, and now thow arte the man of alle women." Polichronicon, libro tertio. Iulius Cesar Page  217, vol.4 come in a tyme in to the scole of Tullius, whiche rysenge to do reuerence to hym, Iulius seide in this wise: "Rise not to me, for wisedome is more noble then power." To whom Tullius seide: "Schalle y not arise to the lorde of the worlde?" Then Iulius Cesar seide: "Thow hase geten more lawde then to passe by or to go thro mony londes of the worlde." Wherefore a lawe was made that a maister beenge at lecture scholde not aryse to eny man. Valerius. Actius the poete Page  219, vol.4 did not arise to Iulius Cesar commenge to his scole, whiche inquirede the cause þerof seide: "Þe inferior awe to do reuerence to the superior, an egal man to a man egalle to hym; but wisedome precellethe all other thynges:" the seyenge of whom Iulius did approbate and commendede gretely. ℞. Also there were ij. childer, þe male and female, brouȝte afore Iulius Cesar like to other, that a man cowthe not welle discerne the male from the female, as vn to þe sighte; whom Iulius beholdenge sende the childer home ageyne, ȝiffenge to theyme riche ȝiftes. Apuleius. The coniuracion of Catilene was schewed and expressede to the senate and condempnede; where the nobilite of blode neiþer the nobilite of the man pletenge Page  221, vol.4 for hym, Iulius Cesar, myȝhte haue eny fauor, Marcus Cato laborenge and movenge the sentence to procede ageyne hym. Salustius. Marcus Cato and Iulius Cesar were ij. noble men, the bloode, age, and eloquence of whom were allemoste egalle, and like of audacite; but thei were diuersificate in glory, for Cato was grete in vertuous lyfe, and Iulius in magnificence and mansuetude, exercisenge cruellenesse or cruelte, and Cato liberalite, thro whom he hade glory. Iulius Cesar was com|mendede in ȝiffenge, and Marcus Cato was commended ȝiffenge noo thynge, in that he was the luffer off vertu, of trawthe, of ryȝhteuousenesse, causenge iuste sentence and iuggemente to procede ageyne wickede men and oppressores of the poore peple, whiche desirenge litel glory hade moche. Gaufridus [folio 189b] Page  223, vol.4et Alfridus. Cassibelanus dedde at Briteyn, and beriede at Yorke, Tenuantius, son of kynge Lud and duke of Cornewaile, was made kynge, for Androgius, his elder broþer, wente to Rome with Iulius Cesar.

[Capitulum quadragesimum tertium.]*. [The numbering of the chapter is omitted in the MS.]

IULIUS Cesar sleyne, Octauianus, a Roman of kynde geten by Octauius, a senator of Rome, commenge by his moder from the stocke of Eneas, whom Iulius assignede to be heire to hym in his testamente, whiche hauenge xviij. yere in age, was sende to pursewe Marcus Antonius, iuggede by the senate commune enemye to theyme, in that he movede batelle ageyne theyme, for cause thei hade putte Iulius Cesar to dethe. After that, this Marcus Antonius fleenge to Lepidus, a noble man in the hoste of Octauian, was accordede with Page  225, vol.4 Octauian thro the meane and labor of that noble man Lepidus, the oþer ij. consulles of Rome dedde in the way. Wherefore Octauian commenge to Rome in the xxti yere of his age, did sle mony of the senate and of the consulles for the dethe of Iulius, where he reignede afterwarde lvj. yere vj. monethes and certeyne daies, that was from the monethe of Marche vn to the kalendes of October. Whiche reignede xij. yere with Antonius and xliiij. yere alloone; and so he redacte the worlde in to oon monarchye; and like as the princi|palle gouernoure of Rome was callede Cesar from Iulius Cesar, so emperoures folowenge were callede Augusti of this Octauianus Augustus. Hugo, capitulo Augeo. This Octauianus was not callede Augustus oonly of encreasenge of thempyre, but for Page  227, vol.4 cause he was borne in the monethe of Auguste, other elles for cause he hade victory of Antonius and Cleopatra. This Augustus was son of Actia, the doȝhter of þe sustyr of Iulius Cesar. Eutropius, libro 7o. This Augustus condempnede the senate in the firste yere of his reigne, in vengenge the dethe of Iulius, and chasede from the cite Brutus and Crassius, takenge Cithero to Antonius in the lxij. yere of his age callede as to acorde. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro 8o, [folio 190a] capitulo tertio. This Tullius norischede Octauian beenge tender of age, trustenge and supposenge the seide Octauian to comme to honor ageyne Marcus Antonius and the malice of hym. But Octauian suffrede Marcus Antonius to sle Tullius as by a conuencion of concorde. And when this Antonius kytte aweye the tunge of Tullius, in that Tullius hade writen mony thynges ageyne hym, Tullius seide in this maner: "Antonius, þow dose nouȝhte, for the writenge remaynethe." Page  229, vol.4Eutropius. Octauian takenge with hym Antonius, and goenge to Macedony, did sle Brutus and Cassius þe sleers of Iulius Cesar with a grete multitude of peple, and then thei diuidede thempyre betwene theyme, so that Octauian scholde haue Speyne, Ytaly, and Fraunce, and Antonius scholde reioyce the cuntre of þe este. Valerius,libro 4to. Porcia, the doȝhter of grete Cato, knowenge the dethe of here howsebonde, and hauenge noe knyfe nye to her, receyvede hot brennenge cooles of fire into her mowthe. Ouidius Naso, the poette, was borne this tyme after the sentence of diuerse men. Salustius the writer of stories diede abowte this tyme at Rome. This Salustius was contrarious alleweyes to Cithero, whiche toke Terentia to hys wife refusede of Cithero, wherefore Cithero made mony menciones and writenges ageynes hym. Isidorus, Ethimologia, libro primo. This Salustius, maister of disportes, founde firste Page  231, vol.4 this letter K, makenge in maner a distincion in sownde betwene C and K, whiche letter oonly men of Latyn vse. Petrus, 17o. The principate of þe Iewes faylenge, Herodes Ascolonita, son of Antipater Idumeus, reignede amonge the Iewes xxxvj. yere. Hircanus the son of Aristobolus, and Antipater fader of Herode aforeseide, were frendes, and hade grace schewede to þeim in the tyme of Iulius, as thei hade of Pompeius. Hir|canus was made by Iulius gouernour of Ierusalem, so that he scholde not be calledde kynge. Antipater accusede of in|fidelite afore Iulius, schewede hym the woundes whom he hade suffrede for hym at Egipte, wherefore he was made the proctor of the Iewery. After that he made Herodes Asco|lonita, þe secunde son to hym, namede Ascolonita for the repara|cion [folio 190b] of a cite callede Ascalon, gouernoure of Galilee; but Antipater dedde this Herode hade suche fauor of Antonius, Page  233, vol.4 that he and his breþer were made tetrarches, as hauenge the iiijthe parte of a realm, from proctors. Petrus, capitulo vicesimo 4to. At the laste, this Herode folowenge Antonius to Rome was made kynge of the Iewery, thro his helpe, and crownede in the Capitoly afore Augustus. After that this Herode was sende ageyn to the Iewery with ij. noble men of Rome, whiche scholde putte hym in to that realme by the auctorite ȝiffen to theyme. But a prince callede Antigonus, whiche occupiede the realme of þe Iewery thro helpe of men of Parthia, corrupte oon of the Romanes, in so moche that Herode myȝhte not reigne vn to the iiijthe yere foloenge. But Herode thro the helpe of Antonius, beenge that tyme at Athenes, segenge the cite of Ierusalem v. monethes, and takenge hit, was made kynge the iiijthe yere of his corona|cion. Petrus, capitulo 21o. This Herode hade ix. wifes, Page  235, vol.4 whiche refusenge theyme, maryede a noble woman callede Mariamnes, for luffe of whom Herode circumcidede hym selfe, of whom he gate ij sonnes, Alexander and Aristobolus. Also he gate of Diosides Antipater; of Matheta Archelaus, of Cleopatra Philippus and Herode Antipas. But Aristobo|lus, the son of Herode, gate of Beronica, the doȝhter off Salome his frende, Agrippa and Herode, whiche is redde to be smyte with an angelle in the Actes of thapostles. Also he gate of the same Beronica ij. doȝhters, Mariamne and Herodiades, whiche was mariede afterwarde to Philippe her uncle; and after that, he beenge in lyfe, sche was mariede to Herode, brother to the same Philippe. At the laste a dis|cencion movede betwene Mariamnes, wife of the more Herode or firste, and Solama his suster, Herode, folowenge the cown|selle Page  237, vol.4 of his sustyr, did sle firste Hircanus the bischop, after þat Ionathas the broþer of Mariamnes, whom he hade made bischoppe in the xvij. yere of his age, ageyn the lawe of God. After that he did sle Mariamnes his wife, with the howse|bonde of Salome sustyr to hym, whom Saloma seide to luffe togedre inordinately. This Herode, as lunatyke for the dethe [folio 191a] of Mariamnes his wife, callede ageyn to him Dosides with her son Antipater, sendenge Aristobolus and Alexander, the sonnes of Mariamnes, to be instructe at Rome, whom he did sle after|warde. This Herod did mony noble thynges in his lyfe; for he onornede the temple, and repaired Samaria, whom he callede Sebasten in the honoure of themperour, and made a temple nye to the welle of Iordan, and finischede a cite in Palestina, callenge hit Cesarea in the worschippe of themperoure. Also he putte an egle of golde of a grete weiȝhte at the ȝate of the Page  239, vol.4 temple of Ierusalem callede speciosa, for the honoure off the Romanes, the Iewes hauenge grete indignacion þerof.

Capitulum quadragesimum quartum.

ANTONIUS puttenge from hym his wife and suster to the emperour, mariede Cleopatra the qwene of Egipte, to whom he ȝafe Araby. Whiche hauenge grete affeccion to reigne at the cite of Rome, movede here howsebonde to ȝiffe batelle to Octouian. This Antony, mouenge a ciuile batelle ageyne Octouian, was ouercommen in the londe of Grece. Petrus, 28o capitulo. Herodes was not at that batelle, for he was sente ageyne the kynge of Araby thro meane of Cleopatra, that sche myȝhte be exaltede if eny of theym hade victory. Eutropius, libro septimo. This Antonius losenge the victory and fleenge in to Egipte, did sle hym selfe, and Cleopatra Page  241, vol.4 folowede themperour Octouian, that sche myȝhte inclyne his herte to fullefille the pleasure of the flesche with her. Whiche preuaylenge not, was commaunded to kepenge, and brekenge from hit comme to the beryalle of Antonius here howsebonde, where sche, receyvenge a serpente, diede thro the venom of hit; after that Egipte longede to thempire of Rome. Petrus, capitulo 18o. After that, Augustus did ampliate to Herode his realme, in that he made perviaunce for meytes and drynkes and oþer thynges necessary to themperour goenge vn to the [folio 191b] londe of Egipte. ℞. Wherefore mony men say the firste yere of the monarchye of Octouian to begynne in that yere, in that he reignede allon, whiche sayenge Bede on Daniel semethe to conferme. Marcus Terencius Varro, of xc. yere in age, diede this tyme in Rome. Virgilius Maro, the poette Mantuan, diede at Brundusius, the lti yere of his age, beryede Page  243, vol.4 at the cite callede Neapolis. ℞. This Virgille, instructe in naturalle philosophy, vsede muche nigromancy. Of whom Alexander de Naturis rerum rehersethe mony meruellous thynges, rehersenge in this wise: When that Neapolis was vexede with a dedely pestilence of water leches, Virgilius caste in to a depe pitte a water leche of gold, whiche destroyede mony of þeim. After that, the water leche of golde taken aweye, the waterleches didde replete the cite of Neapolis with a multitude infinite, vn til þat the water leche made by [folio 184b] Virgilius was caste in to the pytte ageyne. Also hit is rehersed þer that Marcellus, the biscop of Neapolis, laborenge for to kepe flesche incorrupte by a longe season, kowthe not fynde that crafte, whom Virgille takenge causede that flesche to remayne incorrupte and fresche and of a goode sauoure by the space of v.c. yere: y knowe not the name of the yerbe. Also Page  245, vol.4 hit is seide that Virgilius hade a gardyn whom he heggede abowte with the aier, makenge to hit also a brygge of the aier, þro whom he wolde goe to oþer place. Also hit is seide that he made that place at Rome wherein the ymages of all places and provinces were sette and putte. Hugo Pisanus affer|methe this to be of the makenge of Virgille, and the Collosee also, of whom hit is expressede afore, libro primo, capitulo Roma. Policronicon, libro primo. Hit is seide Virgil, the poete Mantuan, to haue inquirede Marcellus Neapolitanus, son of the doȝhter of Octouian, whether he hade leuer haue a bridde instructe and made to take other bryddes or elles a flee that scholde destrye oþer flees. This Marcellus askede cown|selle of Octouian, which ȝafe to him cownselle that he scholde chose a flee whiche scholde dryve other flees aweye from the [folio 192a] cite of Neapolis, seyenge the commune vtilite to be preferrede Page  247, vol.4 to the priuate vtilite. Varrus and Cucta, felawes to Virgilius, were commaundede to emende the bokes of Virgille callede Eneydos, on that condicion that thei scholde not adde eny thynge to theyme. Blessede Mary, the moder off Criste, was borne this tyme; the name of her fader was Ioachim, of the tribe of Iuda; and of her moders name, hit is openly declared in mony scriptures, Seynte Anne, the doȝhter of Ysachar of the tribe of Leui. ℞. Hit is to be attendede that Anna and Emeria were ij. sustyrs, after the sayenge of Seynte Ierom. Elizabeth, moder of Seynte Iohn Baptiste, was the doȝhter of Emeria. Seynte Anne was wedede firste to Ioachim, of whom he gate Mary the moder of Criste. After that sche was mariede to Cleophas, by whom sche hade Mary Cleophe, whiche was mariede to Alpheus, of whom came Iames the lesse, whiche is callede Alpheus, Symon Cananeus, Iudas, and Tad|deus, and Ioseph oþerwise callede Barsabas. Neuerthelesse Eusebius in his story ecclesiasticalle, libro 2o, capitulo 2o, rehersethe and seithe that Iacobus Minor or Iames the lesse Page  249, vol.4 was the brother of Criste, son to Ioseph the howsebonde of oure lady Seynte Mary, whiche seyenge is not holden com|munely. Anna, the moder of Mary, was mariede in the thridde tyme to Salome, by whom sche hade Mary Salome, whiche was mariede to Zebedeus, by whom sche hade Iames þe moore and Seynte Iohn Evangeliste. But trewly the firste Mary moder of Criste, was mariede to Ioseph, brother to the fore|seide Cleophas. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Kymbelinus, þe son of Tenuantius, reignede amonge the Briteynes, whiche gate ij. sonnes, Guiderius and Aruiragus. Oracius the poete diede abowte this tyme at Rome, beenge lvijti yere of age, in the xxxvj. yere of Octouian and in the xlti yere of Augustus. Marcus Porcius Caton, felawe of Seneca the philosophre, vexede with the fever quarteyn, did sle hym selfe. Marianus, [folio 192b] libro 2o. Seynte Iohn Baptiste was conceyved in the xli. yere of the reigne of Octouian, þe vijthe monethe, in September, the Page  251, vol.4 xjthe moone, the viij. kalendes of October the vthe fery, whiche was borne after that ij.e. and lxxv. dayes y-paste, in the vjthe fery, and so he was afore Criste in byrthe, in prechenge, in baptizenge, and in dienge; whom hit behovede to be made lesse, and Criste to be encreasedde. For sithe that cclxxvij. daies be deputede to women beenge with childe from the concevenge un to the childenge, whom Criste hade complete in the blessede wombe of his moder, thauȝhe alle women with childe atteyne not to that tyme. For after Seynte Austyn de Civitate Dei, libro quarto, capitulo sexto, Seynte Iohn Baptiste hade ij. daies lesse in the wombe of his moder. Also Seynte Iohn Baptiste was borne with decreasenge of lighte, and Criste with en|creasenge and multiplicacion þeroff. Also Seynte Iohn Baptiste was beryede withowte his hedde, and Criste was beryede with|owte diminucion off eny membre of his precious body.

Explicit Liber Tertius.